Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora -Test Bank

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Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora -Test Bank

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 2   Chemical Principles

 

2.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following statements about the atom  C is FALSE?

  1. A) It has 6 protons in its nucleus.
  2. B) It has 12 neutrons in its nucleus.
  3. C) It has 6 electrons orbiting the nucleus.
  4. D) Its atomic number is 6.
  5. E) Its atomic weight is 12.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global Outcome:  2

 

2) Table 2.1

 

O     C     H

 

Using the information in Table 2.1, calculate the molecular weight of ethanol, C2H5OH.

  1. A) 96
  2. B) 46
  3. C) 34
  4. D) 33
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

3) Antacids neutralize acid by the following reaction. Identify the salt in the following equation:

 

Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2O

 

  1. A) Mg(OH)2
  2. B) HCl
  3. C) MgCl2
  4. D) H2O
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.5

4) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) Salts readily dissolve in water.
  2. B) Water molecules are formed by hydrolysis.
  3. C) Water freezes from the top down.
  4. D) Water is formed as a part of a dehydration synthesis reaction.
  5. E) Water is a polar molecule.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

 

5) Which of the following is the type of bond holding K+ and I- ions in KI?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  A

Section:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

6) Which of the following is the type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  C

Section:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

7) What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in a single H2O molecule?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

8) Identify the following reaction:  Glucose + Fructose → Sucrose + Water

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

9) Identify the following reaction: Lactose + H2O → Glucose + Galactose

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

 

10) Identify the following reaction: HCl + NaHCO3 → NaCl + H2CO3

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  C

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

11) Identify the following reaction: NH4OH ⇌ NH3 + H2O

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  D

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  2

 

12) Which type of molecule contains the alcohol glycerol?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) phospholipids
  3. C) DNA
  4. D) protein

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.9

13) Which type of molecule is composed of (CH2O) units?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) protein

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.8

 

14) Which type of molecule contains -NH2 (amino) groups?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) triglycerides
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) protein

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

15) Which type of molecule NEVER contains a phosphate group?

  1. A) triglycerides
  2. B) phospholipid
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) ATP

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

 

16) Based upon the valence numbers of the elements magnesium (2) and hydrogen (1), predict how many covalent bonds would form between these atoms to achieve the full complement of electrons in their outermost energy shells.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) three
  4. D) four

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  2

17) Table 2.1

 

O     C     H

 

Using the information in Table 2.1, calculate the number of moles in 92 grams of ethanol,

C2H5OH.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  4

 

 

18) Which of the following statements regarding protein structure is FALSE?

  1. A) The primary structure is formed by covalent bonding between amino acid subunits.
  2. B) Secondary structures are formed only from hydrogen bonds.
  3. C) Tertiary structures are formed only from covalent bonds.
  4. D) Quaternary structures involved multiple polypeptides.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

19) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. A) NaOH ⇌ Na++ OH-— base
  2. B) HF ⇌ H++ F-— acid
  3. C) MgSO4⇌ Mg2++ SO42- — salt
  4. D) KH2PO4⇌ K++ H2PO4- — acid
  5. E) H2SO4⇌ 2H++ SO42- — acid

Answer:  D

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Global Outcome:  2

20) Table 2.2

 

NaOH ⇌ Na+ + OH- — base

HF ⇌ H+ + F- – acid

MgSO4 ⇌ Mg2+ + SO42- — salt

KH2PO4 ⇌ K+ + H2PO4- — acid

H2SO4 ⇌ 2H+ + SO42- — salt

 

Which of the following statements about the reactions in Table 2.2 is FALSE?

  1. A) They are exchange reactions.
  2. B) They are ionization reactions.
  3. C) They occur when the reactants are dissolved in water.
  4. D) They are dissociation reactions.
  5. E) They are reversible reactions.

Answer:  A

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

21) What is the type of weak bond between the hydrogen of one molecule and the nitrogen of another

molecule, where the two don’t actively share an electron?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond
  4. D) disulfide bond
  5. E) hydrophobic bond

Answer:  C

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

22) What is the type of strong chemical bond between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a single organic molecule?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  B

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

23) What is the type of bond between ions in salt?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  A

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

24) A scientist wants to perform a test that will indicate whether a nucleic acid sample is composed of RNA or DNA. Testing for the presence of which of the following is most appropriate in this situation?

  1. A) phosphate
  2. B) nitrogen
  3. C) guanine
  4. D) uracil
  5. E) thymine

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.11

Global Outcome:  2

 

25) Structurally, ATP is most like which type of molecule?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) protein
  4. D) nucleic acid

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.12

 

26) What do genes consist of?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleic acids

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.11

Global Outcome:  7

27) Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) protein
  4. D) nucleic acid

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

28) Which are the primary molecules making up plasma membranes in cells?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleic acids

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  7

 

29) The antimicrobial drug imidazole inhibits sterol synthesis. This would most likely interfere with

  1. A) bacterial cell walls.
  2. B) fungal cell walls.
  3. C) eukaryotic plasma membranes.
  4. D) prokaryotic plasma membranes.
  5. E) genes.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  2

 

Figure 2.1

 

 

30) In Figure 2.1, which is an alcohol?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  3

 

31) Which compound in Figure 2.1 is an ester?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  3

 

 

32) Which compound in Figure 2.1 is an organic acid?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  3

33) Most amino acids found in cells demonstrate what type of chirality?

  1. A) L-isomers
  2. B) D-isomers
  3. C) C-isomers
  4. D) B-isomers
  5. E) A-isomers

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

34) Figure 2.3

 

 

What kind of bond is at the arrow in Figure 2.3?

  1. A) disulfide bridge
  2. B) double covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond
  4. D) ionic bond
  5. E) peptide bond

Answer:  E

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  3

35) An E. coli culture that has been growing at 37°C is moved to 25°C. Which of the following changes must be made in its plasma membrane to help it cope with the decrease in temperature?

  1. A) The number of phosphate groups must increase.
  2. B) The viscosity must increase.
  3. C) The number of saturated chains must increase.
  4. D) The number of unsaturated chains must increase.
  5. E) No changes are necessary.

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

 

 

36) Radioisotopes are frequently used to label molecules in a cell. The fate of atoms and molecules in a cell can then be followed. Assume Saccharomyces cerevisiae is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 35S. After a 48-hour incubation, the 35S would most likely be found in the S. cerevisiae’s

  1. A) carbohydrates.
  2. B) nucleic acids.
  3. C) water.
  4. D) lipids.
  5. E) proteins.

Answer:  E

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  2

 

37) Radioisotopes are frequently used to label molecules in a cell. The fate of atoms and molecules in a cell can then be followed. Assume Saccharomyces cerevisiae is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 32P. After a 48-hour incubation, the majority of the 32P would be found in the S. cerevisiae’s

  1. A) plasma membrane.
  2. B) cell wall.
  3. C) water.
  4. D) proteins.
  5. E) carbohydrates.

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  2

38) Starch, dextran, glycogen, and cellulose are polymers of

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) glucose.
  3. C) fatty acids.
  4. D) nucleic acids.
  5. E) acids.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.8

 

 

39) Which of the following is a base?

  1. A) C2H5OCOOH → H++ C2H5OCOO-
  2. B) C2H5OH
  3. C) NaOH → Na++ OH-
  4. D) H2O → H++ OH-
  5. E) H2CO

Answer:  C

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  2

 

40) Two glucose molecules are combined to make a maltose molecule. What is the chemical formula for maltose?

  1. A) C3H6O3
  2. B) C6H12O6
  3. C) C12H24O12
  4. D) C12H22O11
  5. E) C12H23O10

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Global Outcome:  3

 

41) If an amino acid contained a hydrocarbon (a group of multiple carbons and hydrogens linked together) as its side group, in which of the following categories could it be appropriately designated?

  1. A) hydrophilic
  2. B) polar
  3. C) nonpolar
  4. D) basic
  5. E) acidic

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  2

 

2.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Elements only achieve the full complement of electrons in outermost energy cells by donating away or sharing electrons.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

 

2) Covalent bonds are always shared equally.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

3) Individual covalent bonds are stronger than individual ionic bonds.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

4) All chemical reactions are, in theory, reversible.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.3

 

5) The formation of ADP from ATP can be defined as a hydrolytic reaction.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.12

 

6) The density of liquid water is greater than the density of ice.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

 

7) A basic solution is expected to contain more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Global Outcome:  7

 

8) All forms of life function optimally at a pH of 7.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.5

9) There are some forms of life on Earth that can survive without water.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global Outcome:  2

 

10)  Any compound that contains carbon is considered to be strictly organic.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  2

 

2.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Describe how the properties of phospholipids make these molecules well suited for plasma membranes.

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  8

 

2) Figure 2.5

 

 

Use Figure 2.5 to answer the following. Starch, cellulose, dextran, and glycogen are polysaccharides. How are they similar? To what are their different properties due? Why can’t an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch degrade cellulose?

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Global Outcome:  8

 

3) Compare a molecule of a nucleotide to ATP. Could a cell simply insert ATP into DNA without altering it? Explain.

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.12

Global Outcome:  8

 

4) A scientist claims that when a protein is denatured, it can be expected that its secondary structure will more likely be retained when compared to all other levels of protein structure structures. Do you agree? Explain.

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  8

 

5) A bacterium that grows at a temperature of 37°C transports both glucose and NaCl into its cytoplasm.  Which is most easily dissolved in the cytoplasm? Explain how the bonds of these molecules impact disassociation rate.

Section:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  8

 

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)

Chapter 16   Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

 

16.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Innate immunity

  1. A) is slower than adaptive immunity in responding to pathogens.
  2. B) is nonspecific and present at birth.
  3. C) involves a memory component.
  4. D) involves T cells and B cells.
  5. E) provides increased susceptibility to disease.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.1

 

2) All of the following protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection EXCEPT

  1. A) multiple layers of cells.
  2. B) tears.
  3. C) saliva.
  4. D) HCl.
  5. E) the “ciliary escalator.”

Answer:  D

Section:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.3

 

3) The function of the “ciliary escalator” is to

  1. A) propel inhaled dust and microorganisms toward the mouth, away from the lower respiratory tract.
  2. B) remove microorganisms from the gastrointestinal tract.
  3. C) remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.
  4. D) trap microorganisms in mucus in the upper respiratory tract.
  5. E) trap inhaled dust and microorganisms in mucus and propel it away from the lower respiratory tract.

Answer:  E

Section:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

4) Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?

  1. A) eosinophils
  2. B) erythrocytes
  3. C) macrophages
  4. D) basophils
  5. E) neutrophils

Answer:  C

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.6

5) TLRs attach to all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) AMPs.
  2. B) flagellin.
  3. C) LPS.
  4. D) PAMPs.
  5. E) peptidoglycan.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.2

 

6) A differential cell count is used to determine each of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) the total number of white blood cells.
  2. B) the numbers of each type of white blood cell.
  3. C) the number of red blood cells.
  4. D) leukocytosis.
  5. E) leukopenia.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.7

 

7) The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway after the point in the cascade where the activation of ________ takes place.

  1. A) C1
  2. B) C2
  3. C) C3
  4. D) C5
  5. E) C6

Answer:  C

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.17

Global Outcome:  2

 

8) All of the following increase blood vessel permeability EXCEPT

  1. A) kinins.
  2. B) prostaglandins.
  3. C) lysozymes.
  4. D) histamine.
  5. E) leukotrienes.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.13

9) A child falls and suffers a deep cut on her leg. The cut went through her skin and she is bleeding. Which of the following defense mechanisms will participate in eliminating contaminating microbes?

  1. A) mucociliary escalator
  2. B) normal skin flora
  3. C) phagocytosis in the inflammatory response
  4. D) acidic skin secretions
  5. E) lysozyme

Answer:  C

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.14

Global Outcome:  2

 

10) Margination refers to

  1. A) the adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms.
  2. B) the chemotactic response of phagocytes.
  3. C) adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.
  4. D) dilation of blood vessels.
  5. E) the movement of phagocytes through walls of blood vessels.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.14

 

 

11) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) All three types of interferons have the same effect on the body.
  2. B) Alpha interferon promotes phagocytosis.
  3. C) Gamma interferon causes bactericidal activity by macrophages.
  4. D) Alpha interferon acts against specific viruses.
  5. E) Beta interferon attacks invading viruses.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.20

 

12) Which of the following is found normally in serum?

  1. A) complement
  2. B) interferon
  3. C) histamine
  4. D) leukocytosis-promoting factor
  5. E) TLRs

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.16

13) Each of the following is an effect of complement activation EXCEPT

  1. A) interference with viral replication.
  2. B) bacterial cell lysis.
  3. C) opsonization.
  4. D) increased phagocytic activity.
  5. E) increased blood vessel permeability.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.18

 

14) Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?

  1. A) increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
  2. B) increased margination of phagocytes
  3. C) increased diapedesis of phagocytes
  4. D) inflammation
  5. E) cytolysis

Answer:  A

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.10

 

 

15) Normal microbiota provide protection from infection in each of the following ways EXCEPT

  1. A) they produce antibacterial chemicals.
  2. B) they compete with pathogens for nutrients.
  3. C) they make the chemical environment unsuitable for nonresident bacteria.
  4. D) they produce lysozyme.
  5. E) they change the pH of the environment.

Answer:  D

Section:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Global Outcome:  2

 

16) Each of the following provides protection from phagocytic digestion EXCEPT

  1. A) M protein.
  2. B) capsules.
  3. C) formation of phagolysosomes.
  4. D) leukocidins.
  5. E) biofilms.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.3

Learning Outcome:  16.11

17) The antimicrobial effects of AMPs include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
  2. B) lysis of bacterial cells.
  3. C) destruction of nucleic acids.
  4. D) pore formation in bacterial membranes.
  5. E) inhibition of phagocytosis.

Answer:  E

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.22

 

18) The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid

  1. A) returns to the blood.
  2. B) goes into lymph capillaries.
  3. C) is excreted in urine.
  4. D) is lost as perspiration.
  5. E) is transported into macrophages.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.12

 

19) Which of the following statements about fixed macrophages is FALSE?

  1. A) They are found in certain tissues and organs.
  2. B) They develop from neutrophils.
  3. C) They are cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system.
  4. D) They are mature monocytes.
  5. E) They gather at sites of infection.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.6

 

20) Phagocytes utilize all of the following to optimize interaction with (getting to and getting hold of) microorganisms EXCEPT

  1. A) trapping a bacterium against a rough surface.
  2. B) opsonization.
  3. C) chemotaxis.
  4. D) lysozyme.
  5. E) complement.

Answer:  D

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.9

Global Outcome:  2

21) All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT

  1. A) vasodilation.
  2. B) fever.
  3. C) swelling.
  4. D) redness.
  5. E) pain.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.13

 

22) All of the following are effects of histamine EXCEPT

  1. A) destruction of an injurious agent.
  2. B) removal of an injurious agent.
  3. C) isolation of an injurious agent.
  4. D) repair of damaged tissue.
  5. E) production of antibodies.

Answer:  E

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.13

 

23) A chill is a sign that

  1. A) body temperature is falling.
  2. B) body temperature is rising.
  3. C) body temperature is not changing.
  4. D) the metabolic rate is decreasing.
  5. E) blood vessels are dilating.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.15

 

24) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) There are at least thirty complement proteins.
  2. B) All of the complement proteins are constantly active in serum.
  3. C) Factors B, D, and P cause cytolysis.
  4. D) Complement activity is antigen-specific.
  5. E) Complement increases after immunization.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.16

25) Which of the following is mismatched?

  1. A) diapedesis — movement of leukocytes between capillary walls cells out of blood and into tissue
  2. B) chemotaxis — chemical degradation inside a phagolysosome
  3. C) abcess — a cavity created by tissue damage and filled with pus
  4. D) pus — tissue debris and dead phagocytes in a white or yellow fluid
  5. E) scab — dried blood clot over injured tissue

Answer:  B

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.14

 

26) All of the following are part of the mechanism of action of alpha and beta interferons EXCEPT

  1. A) they bind to the surface of uninfected cells.
  2. B) they are effective for long periods.
  3. C) they initiate manufacture of antiviral proteins.
  4. D) they disrupt stages of viral multiplication.
  5. E) they initiate transcription.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.20

 

27) The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by

  1. A) lipid-carbohydrate complexes and C3.
  2. B) C5-C9.
  3. C) antigen-antibody reactions.
  4. D) factors released from phagocytes.
  5. E) factors released from damaged tissues.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.17

 

28) The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by

  1. A) lipid-carbohydrate complexes and C3.
  2. B) C5-C9.
  3. C) antigen-antibody reactions.
  4. D) factors released from phagocytes.
  5. E) factors released from damaged tissues.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.17

29) Activation of C3a results in

  1. A) acute inflammation.
  2. B) increased blood vessel permeability.
  3. C) opsonization.
  4. D) attraction of phagocytes.
  5. E) cell lysis.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.16

 

30) Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to

  1. A) undergo chemotaxis.
  2. B) migrate.
  3. C) produce toxic oxygen products.
  4. D) attach to microorganisms and other foreign material.
  5. E) engulf microorganisms and other foreign material.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.10

Global Outcome:  2

 

31) Innate immunity includes all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) phagocytosis.
  2. B) inflammation.
  3. C) production of antibody.
  4. D) production of interferon.
  5. E) activation of complement.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.1

 

32) After ingesting a pathogen, lysosomal enzymes produce all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) complement.
  2. B) O2-.
  3. C) H2O2.
  4. D) OH.
  5. E) HOCl.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.10

33) Activation of C5-C9 results in

  1. A) activation of C3.
  2. B) fixation of complement.
  3. C) lysis of microbial cells.
  4. D) phagocytosis.
  5. E) inflammation.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.18

 

34) All of the following are true regarding NK cells EXCEPT

  1. A) they are a type of lymphocyte.
  2. B) they are found in tissues of the lymphatic system.
  3. C) they have the ability to kill infected body cells and some tumor cells.
  4. D) they destroy infected body cells by phagocytosis.
  5. E) they release toxic substances that cause cell lysis or apoptosis.

Answer:  D

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.6

 

 

35) Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?

  1. A) basophils
  2. B) eosinophils
  3. C) lymphocytes
  4. D) monocytes
  5. E) neutrophils

Answer:  B

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.6

 

36) Macrophages arise from which of the following?

  1. A) basophils
  2. B) eosinophils
  3. C) lymphocytes
  4. D) monocytes
  5. E) neutrophils

Answer:  D

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.6

37) All of the following pertain to fever EXCEPT that it

  1. A) accelerates microbial growth by increasing iron absorption from the digestive tract.
  2. B) stimulates T lymphocyte activity.
  3. C) is caused by interleukin-1 and TNF-alpha coming into contact with the hypothalamus.
  4. D) intensifies the effect of antiviral interferons.
  5. E) can be initiated by specific types of pathogens.

Answer:  A

Section:  16.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.15

Global Outcome:  2

 

38) All of the following are iron-binding proteins found in humans EXCEPT

  1. A) lactoferrin.
  2. B) transferrin.
  3. C) hemoglobin.
  4. D) siderophorin.
  5. E) ferritin.

Answer:  D

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.21

 

 

39) All of the following occur during inflammation. What is the first step?

  1. A) diapedesis
  2. B) margination
  3. C) phagocyte migration
  4. D) repair
  5. E) vasodilation

Answer:  E

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.13

 

40) The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by

  1. A) mannose on host membranes.
  2. B) mannose on the surface of microbes.
  3. C) lectins of the microbe.
  4. D) gram-negative cell walls.
  5. E) gram-positive cell walls.

Answer:  B

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.17

41) All of the following are components of the inflammatory process EXCEPT

  1. A) dilation of blood vessels.
  2. B) release of histamines and prostaglandins.
  3. C) chemotaxis.
  4. D) diapedesis.
  5. E) antibody synthesis.

Answer:  E

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.12

 

42) Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which of the following would be the MOST severe?

  1. A) deficiency of C3
  2. B) deficiency of C5
  3. C) deficiency of C6
  4. D) deficiency of C7
  5. E) deficiency of C8

Answer:  A

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.17

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

43) Which of the following statements about the classical pathway of complement activation is FALSE?

  1. A) C1 is the first protein activated in the classical pathway.
  2. B) The C1 protein complex is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes.
  3. C) C3 is not involved in the classical pathway.
  4. D) Cleaved fragments of some of the proteins act to increase inflammation.
  5. E) C3b causes opsonization.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  16.17

 

44) Lysozyme and the antibiotic penicillin have similar mechanisms of action in that they both cause damage to the bacterial

  1. A) cell membrane.
  2. B) capsule.
  3. C) cell wall.
  4. D) DNA.
  5. E) ribosomes.

Answer:  C

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  2.2

Learning Outcome:  16.10

Global Outcome:  7

45) Which non-specific defense mechanism is mismatched with its associated body structure or body fluid?

  1. A) lysozyme — tears and saliva
  2. B) mucociliary escalator — intestines
  3. C) very acidic pH — stomach
  4. D) keratin and tightly packed cells — skin
  5. E) cerumen and sebum — ear

Answer:  B

Section:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.3

 

 

16.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The dermis is composed of connective tissue and serves the primary purpose of providing direct protection from the external environment.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  16.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.3

Global Outcome:  7

 

2) Microorganisms that are members of the normal microbiota are also known to cause disease.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Global Outcome:  7

 

3) Maturation of stem cells into mature blood cells occurs in the red bone marrow.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  16.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.6

 

4) The inflammatory response can only be triggered by an infection.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.12

Global Outcome:  2

 

5) Histamine and kinins cause increased blood flow and capillary permeability.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.13

6) Aspirin alleviates pain, inflammation, and fever by inhibiting prostaglandins.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  16.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.13

 

 

7) Complement proteins in their intact and unactivated form act as opsonins by binding to microorganisms and promoting phagocytosis.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.18

 

8) Digestion of microorganisms occurs in phagosomes.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  16.10

Global Outcome:  7

 

9) An example of a TLR would be peptidoglycan found in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  16.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  16.2

 

10) Ingestion of certain lactic acid bacteria (LABs) has been shown to be beneficial for function and health of the intestinal tract.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  16.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  16.5

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

16.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Explain how each of the following avoids being killed by phagocytes.

 

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  3. Streptococcus pyogenes
  4. Shigella dysenteriae

Section:  16.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  2.3

Learning Outcome:  16.11

Global Outcome:  8

2) The complement system is extremely important in the innate defense response. It can be said that this system is a cascade system. Explain this statement.

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.17

Global Outcome:  8

 

3) Describe the nonspecific antimicrobial effects of mucus, lysozyme, and low pH. For each of these substances, list where they are found in the body and how they function in fighting pathogens.

Section:  16.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.4

Global Outcome:  8

 

4) Describe and differentiate between the three pathways of activating complement.

Section:  16.10a

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  16.17

Global Outcome:  8

 

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 28   Applied and Industrial Microbiology

 

28.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) A baker forgets to put yeast in his bread dough.  Which of the following do you expect to happen to the bread as a result?

  1. A) It will take longer to bake.
  2. B) Bacterial contaminants will now be able to grow.
  3. C) The bread will not rise.
  4. D) The bread will look normal but will be tough.
  5. E) The bread will have a sour taste.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

 

2) Spoilage of canned foods stored at high temperatures, accompanied by gas production, is

  1. A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.
  2. B) flat sour spoilage.
  3. C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.
  4. D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.
  5. E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.1

 

3) Spoilage of canned foods due to inadequate processing, NOT accompanied by gas production, is

  1. A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.
  2. B) flat sour spoilage.
  3. C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.
  4. D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.
  5. E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.1

 

4) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. A) Propionibacterium — Swiss cheese
  2. B) Penicillium — blue cheese
  3. C) Lactobacillus — yogurt
  4. D) Acetobacter — vinegar
  5. E) Bacillus — beer

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

5) Which of the following pertains to an improperly canned food product on a store shelf that has a bad odor and putrefaction of the canned material?

  1. A) mesophilic spoilage
  2. B) flat sour spoilage
  3. C) bacterial soft rot
  4. D) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage
  5. E) hydrogen sulfide spoilage

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

 

6) All of the following are fuels produced by microorganisms EXCEPT

  1. A) cellulose.
  2. B) ethanol.
  3. C) hydrogen.
  4. D) methane.
  5. E) oil from algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

7) Microorganisms play an active role in the formation of industrial products. Which of the following is mismatched?

  1. A) Penicillium — treatment of disease
  2. B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae — for fermentation
  3. C) Rhizobium — increases nitrogen in the soil
  4. D) Bacillus thuringiensis — insecticide
  5. E) algae — citric acid

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  28.6

8) Which of the following is an undesirable contaminant in wine-making?

  1. A) Acetobacter
  2. B) lactic acid bacteria
  3. C) Clostridium botulinum endospores
  4. D) Saccharomyces

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

9) Commercial sterilization differs from complete sterilization in that commercial sterilization

  1. A) kills all microorganisms.
  2. B) kills only bacteria.
  3. C) may result in the survival of thermophiles.
  4. D) employs a higher temperature.
  5. E) may result in the survival of fungal spores.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

Figure 28.1

 

 

10) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are your desired product and you want to maintain a continuous culture. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you harvest cells to maximize your yield?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  3

11) In Figure 28.1, assume that a secondary metabolite is your desired product. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to obtain it?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

 

 

12) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are producing penicillin which is collected during the idiophase. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to collect the penicillin?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

 

13) Which of the following reactions is performed by yeast in wine-making?

  1. A) sugar → ethanol
  2. B) ethanol → acetic acid
  3. C) malic acid → lactic acid
  4. D) carbon dioxide → sucrose
  5. E) sugar → CO2+ H2O

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

14) Which of the following reactions makes wine less acidic, and is important for good flavor when grapes with higher acidity are used?

  1. A) sugar → ethanol
  2. B) ethanol → acetic acid
  3. C) malic acid → lactic acid
  4. D) carbon dioxide → sucrose
  5. E) sugar → CO2+ H2O

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

15) Commercial sterilization of processed canned foods uses a 12D treatment which is based upon a theoretical population of 1012 C. botulinum endospores in a can of food. After treatment, there would theoretically be how many endospores left?

  1. A) 120 endospores
  2. B) 10 endospores
  3. C) 100 endospores
  4. D) 12 endospores
  5. E) 1 endospore

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  4

 

16) All of the following are advantages of a bioreactor instead of a flask culture EXCEPT

  1. A) larger culture volumes can be grown.
  2. B) instrumentation for monitoring environmental conditions.
  3. C) uniform aeration and mixing.
  4. D) aseptic sampling.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are advantages of using a bioreactor instead of a flask culture.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.5

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

17) Microbial products can be improved by all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) isolating new strains.
  2. B) mutating existing strains.
  3. C) genetically modifying strains.
  4. D) modifying culture conditions.
  5. E) sterilization.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.1

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

18) Which of the following microorganisms is usually used in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages?

  1. A) Propionobacterium
  2. B) Lactobacillus
  3. C) Rhizopus
  4. D) Saccharomyces
  5. E) Penicillium

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

19) All of the following are true of irradiation methods used for food preservation and sterilization EXCEPT

  1. A) they prolong shelf-life of fruits and vegetables.
  2. B) residual radioactivity is left behind on many foods.
  3. C) ionizing radiation such as X rays or gamma rays is used.
  4. D) they are used for the sterilization of many spices.
  5. E) they greatly reduce the number of pathogens present in meats and poultry.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

 

20) All of the following are industrial products produced by microbes EXCEPT

  1. A) amino acids in food supplements.
  2. B) antibiotics.
  3. C) industrial enzymes.
  4. D) uranium.
  5. E) vitamin B12 and riboflavin.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

21) All of the following are industrial products produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) aspartic acid.
  2. B) citric acid.
  3. C) glutamic acid.
  4. D) riboflavin.
  5. E) saccharin.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

22) All of the following foods are produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) sauerkraut.
  2. B) ketchup.
  3. C) sour cream.
  4. D) yogurt.
  5. E) coffee.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

23) Which of the following microbes produces a natural biopesticide?

  1. A) Penicillium chryssogenum
  2. B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  3. C) Bacillus thuringiensis
  4. D) Lactobacillus buggaricus
  5. E) Thiobacillus ferroxidans

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

24) Biomass is a renewable energy source derived from the organic matter produced by living organisms.  All of the following are sources of biomass EXCEPT

  1. A) oxidation of metals.
  2. B) crops.
  3. C) bacteria.
  4. D) landfill sites.
  5. E) algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

25) All of the following are industrial enzymes made by microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) glucose isomerase.
  2. B) rennin.
  3. C) proteases.
  4. D) amylases.
  5. E) vitamin C.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

26) What process does yeast use to produce ethanol for automobile fuel from corn?

  1. A) anaerobic respiration
  2. B) fermentation
  3. C) the Krebs cycle
  4. D) oxidation
  5. E) photosynthesis

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

27) The following steps are required for making cheese. What is the second step, which helps to provide the characteristic flavors and aromas of the cheese?

  1. A) enzymatic coagulation of milk
  2. B) fermentation of curd
  3. C) inoculation with lactic acid bacteria
  4. D) inoculation with Penicillium
  5. E) separation of curds and whey

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

28) As cheese ages, it gets

  1. A) more acidic.
  2. B) more whey.
  3. C) more protein.
  4. D) saltier.
  5. E) more alcoholic.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  28.3

29) Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is used for the recovery of ________ from ore.

  1. A) sulfur
  2. B) copper
  3. C) iron
  4. D) sulfuric acid
  5. E) gold

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

30) What role do lactic acid bacteria play in cheese production?

  1. A) curd formation
  2. B) production of holes in Swiss cheese
  3. C) ripening the cheese
  4. D) providing characteristic flavor and smell
  5. E) Lactic acid bacteria carry out each of these roles in cheese production.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

31) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. You suspect the bacteria are

  1. A) using the Krebs cycle.
  2. B) fermenting.
  3. C) photosynthesizing.
  4. D) using proteins.
  5. E) dead.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

32) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. What could you add?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) lactose
  3. C) peptides
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) lactic acid

Answer:  D

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

33) Aseptic packaging utilizes which of the following to sterilize laminated paper or plastic prior to filling with food?

  1. A) hot HCl solution
  2. B) gamma radiation
  3. C) hot hydrogen peroxide solution
  4. D) X rays
  5. E) autoclave

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

 

34) All of the following are uses for ionizing or ultraviolet radiation EXCEPT

  1. A) heating cold food.
  2. B) sterilizing spices.
  3. C) inactivation of Trichinella
  4. D) killing of insect eggs and larva.
  5. E) prevention of sprouting.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

35) Canning preserves food

  1. A) through use of aseptic packaging.
  2. B) by exposure to chemicals.
  3. C) by exposure to high heat.
  4. D) by exposure to radiation.
  5. E) by exposure to high pH.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

 

36) Microorganisms themselves are commercial products. Which of the following microbes is available as a product sold in retail stores?

  1. A) Bacillus thuringiensis
  2. B) Lactobacillus
  3. C) Rhizobium
  4. D) Saccharomyces
  5. E) All of these organisms can be found in various commercial products.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

Figure 28.3

 

 

37) Figure 28.3 shows the growth curves of Acetobacter under different conditions. Which culture would produce the highest amount of the primary metabolite acetic acid?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

 

 

38) Which of the growth curves in Figure 28.3 will give the highest yield of a secondary metabolite?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

39) Canning works to preserve foods through

  1. A) creation of an anaerobic environment.
  2. B) creation of an anaerobic environment and exposure to high heat.
  3. C) exposure to high heat.
  4. D) mutation of bacterial DNA.
  5. E) increasing pH.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

 

40) Aseptic packaging (where the packaging itself is rendered sterile) helps to preserve foods through

  1. A) creation of an anaerobic environment in the packaging.
  2. B) creation of an anaerobic environment in the packaging and exposure of the packaging to high heat.
  3. C) exposure of the packaging to high heat.
  4. D) mutation of bacterial DNA by exposure to the packaging material.
  5. E) increasing pH in the food contained in the packaging.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

41) Radiation works to preserve foods through

  1. A) creation of an anaerobic environment.
  2. B) creation of an anaerobic environment and high heat.
  3. C) exposure to high heat.
  4. D) lethal mutation of bacterial DNA.
  5. E) increasing pH.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

42) All of the following are reasons for utilizing algae for biofuel production EXCEPT

  1. A) they do not take up land needed for food production.
  2. B) they produce more energy per acre than corn.
  3. C) their main requirement is abundant light.
  4. D) they can utilize agriculturally poor land.
  5. E) they produce a nondegradable waste product.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

43) What will be produced if wine is aerated and inoculated with bacteria of the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter?

  1. A) ethanol + CO2
  2. B) CO2+ H2O
  3. C) CH4
  4. D) acetic acid
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

44) Bioreactors are widely used for industrial fermentation. Which of the following conditions must be closely monitored for optimal fermentation?

  1. A) temperature
  2. B) oxygen levels
  3. C) pH
  4. D) both temperature and pH
  5. E) temperature, pH, and oxygen levels

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

 

45) Xanthan used in household products is produced by bacteria

  1. A) that were genetically modified.
  2. B) that were irradiated to mutate them.
  3. C) selected for their ability to utilize lactose rather than glucose.
  4. D) that are plant pathogens.
  5. E) selected for their ability to utilize lactose rather than glucose and that are plant pathogens.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

28.2   True/False Questions

 

1) The blue-green clumps observed in Roquefort cheese are a result of mold growth.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  28.3

2) The longer interior-ripened cheeses are permitted to ripen, the milder the taste of the cheese.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

 

 

3) Mesophilic bacteria grow best at temperatures of 60°C.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.1

 

4) High-pressure processing of foods such as deli meats and precooked chicken strips targets pathogens such as Salmonella and Listeria.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

5) Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium are mixed with peat moss to increase nitrogen fixation.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

 

6) The production of vinegar relies on the microbial oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.3

 

7) Industrial canning, as opposed to home canning, is achieved using a pressure cooker which operates in a manner similar to an autoclave.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

 

8) A large industry exists based on the synthesis of amino acids by microorganisms.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

9) If an industrial microbiologist works with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, he is likely to be involved in copper mining.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

 

10) Vitamins A and E are commonly produced by microorganisms.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  5

 

28.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Discuss the production of four different foods that require microbial fermentation in their products. In your discussion, name the specific microorganisms used and describe the fermentation by-product(s) needed for the production of each food item.

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

 

2) Discuss the production of three different non-food/beverage substances that utilize microorganisms in their production. Your discussion should include the specific microorganisms involved and their role in the production of each substance.

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  8

 

3) Explain how ionizing radiation can be used to preserve foods. Discuss its advantage over canning as a method of preservation.

Section:  28.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  8

 

 

4) Vessels used for industrial fermentation reactions are known as bioreactors. Explain the difference between batch production and continuous flow production using a bioreactor.

Section:  28.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  8

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