Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank

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Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett -Test Bank

Chapter 2: Memory and the Brain

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The Olfactory Bulb is the primary organ for processing odors. Information from the olfactory nerves is carried directly to the:
  2. cortex.
  3. nose.
  4. left brain.
  5. right brain.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Olfaction, Memory, and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Musical perception is processed primarily in which hemisphere of the brain?
  2. left
  3. right
  4. center
  5. hind

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory, Music and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is prescribed to treat Alzheimer’s disease?
  2. benzodiazepines
  3. asprin
  4. carbamazepines
  5. cholinergics

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An inability to retrieve memories of events prior to brain damage is called:
  2. amnesia.
  3. retrograde amnesia.
  4. structural amnesia.
  5. function three amnesia.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An inability to form new memories follow brain damage is called:
  2. anterograde amnesia.
  3. retrograde amnesia.
  4. function three amnesia.
  5. sensorial amnesia.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The frontal lobe is in this part of the brain.
  2. shocking
  3. stimulating
  4. most anterior
  5. biticular section

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. With what is the prefrontal cortex most associated?
  2. learning
  3. higher emotions
  4. flight or fight decisions
  5. fixations

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The prefrontal cortex is part of which lobe?
  2. frontal
  3. left
  4. right
  5. center

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. With what is the prefrontal lobe most associated?
  2. hearing
  3. hopes
  4. sight
  5. higher emotion

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Somatosensory perception is a function of this lobe.
  2. sense lobe
  3. frontal
  4. center
  5. parietal

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Parietal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Attention is most associated with this lobe.
  2. frontal

b center

  1. left
  2. parietal

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Parietal

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Visual processing takes place in which lobe?
  2. imaging lobe
  3. parietal
  4. left
  5. occipital

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Occipital

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Basic visual memory takes place in this lobe.
  2. occipital
  3. right
  4. left
  5. parietal

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Occipital Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The temporal lobe is associated with:
  2. language, audition, and memory.
  3. development, vision, and attention.
  4. emotion, metacognition, and memory.
  5. vision, language, and somatosensory attention.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Temporal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The frontal lobe is associated with:
  2. vision, smell, and taste.
  3. higher emotion, decision-making, metacognition, and memory.
  4. audition, language, and memory.
  5. somatosensory and attention.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated with Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which area of the brain serves as a routing center?
  2. amygdala
  3. thalamus
  4. hypothalamus
  5. diencephalon

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which area of the brain is associated with emotions?
  2. amygdala
  3. hypothalamus
  4. thalamus
  5. diencephalon

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Amgdala

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which part of the brain is critical in emotional learning, fear, and memory?
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. frontal lobe
  5. amygdala

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Amygdala

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The diencephalon part of the brain is includes the:
  2. amygdala and thalamus.
  3. thalamus and hypothalamus.
  4. amygdala and hypothalamus.
  5. thalamus and amygdala.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. This area of the brain is associated with memory.
  2. hind brain
  3. left brain
  4. right brain
  5. cortical areas

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated with Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Cerebral is also known as:
  2. neocortex.
  3. left lobe.
  4. right lobe.
  5. fixed cortex.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated with Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and the occipital lobe make up:
  2. cerebral cortex.
  3. diencephalon.
  4. parietal.
  5. prefrontal.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated with Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. These are a set of brain structures located just beneath the crebral cortex. They are important to memory and emotion.
  2. medial temporal system
  3. limbic system
  4. episodic memory system
  5. associated memory system

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subcortical Structures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Damage to this area can cause anterograde amnesia.
  2. campus
  3. hippocampus
  4. anterior campus
  5. cerebral cortex

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subcortial Structures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. This part of the brain produces dopamine. With Parkinson’s disease, this area does not produce enough.
  2. Substantia nigra
  3. hippocampus
  4. free recall
  5. Axon terminal

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurotransmitters

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Terminal Buttons at the end of an axon hold:
  2. dendrites.
  3. neurotransmitter.
  4. synapses.
  5. perceptors.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. This is the gap between one neuron and the dendrite of the next.
  2. cortex receptors
  3. synapses
  4. axon
  5. engram receptor

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuron

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. This is the part of the neuron that sends information to other neurons.
  2. synapse
  3. terminal Button
  4. dendrite
  5. axon

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The practice of helping brain-damaged patients recover and cope with injuries is called:
  2. clinical neuropsychology.
  3. psychiatry.
  4. psychology.
  5. injury parapsychology.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Brain and Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This is the electrochemical process of transmission in an axon.
  2. action potential
  3. neuron transmission
  4. synapse process
  5. cognitive flow

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What part of the neuron receives information from other neurons or directly from sensory receptors?
  2. dendrites
  3. axon
  4. synapse
  5. nigra

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Describe the functional significance of the hippocampus.
  2. cognitive and emotional functioning
  3. learning and memory
  4. memory and emotion
  5. fear and learning

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Amygdala

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. When an individual suspects a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, one of many dimentia/type illnesses, what will be the first deficit detected in this disease?
  2. cognition
  3. emotion
  4. memory
  5. behavior

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Brain and Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of these limbic system structures is most associated with emotion and emotional learning?
  2. hypothermus
  3. hyperthalamus
  4. thalamus
  5. amygdala

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Amygdala

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In a serious accident that results in brain damage, memory deficits acquired through brain damage will result in:
  2. Alzheimer’s.
  3. amnesia.
  4. concussion.
  5. engram aversion.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subcortical Structures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. This part of the brain is an important relay point in human memory circuits.
  2. diencephalon
  3. amygdala
  4. hippocampus
  5. hypercampus

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An inability to form new memories following brain damage is known as:
  2. anterograde amnesia.
  3. amnesia.
  4. Alzheimer’s.
  5. forgetful memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. tdCS directs what type of electricity directly to the scalp in a continuous fashion?
  2. dBs
  3. low current
  4. MRI
  5. PED

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. If a researcher wished to observe the change in cognition relating to brain stimulation, a technique the researcher might use would involve a small magnetic pulse to create a small pulse of electricity. Which stimulation technique would the researcher use?
  2. tdCS
  3. DBS
  4. tDCS
  5. TMs

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. To view the Cerebral Cortex, the Corpus Callosum, and a number of subcortical structures, a researcher might us:
  2. MRI.
  3. tdCS.
  4. dBs.
  5. TMs.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A device implanted directly into the brain to send electrical impulses to specific regions of the brain is called a:
  2. MRI.
  3. TMs.
  4. dBs.
  5. DTI.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. To compare the pattern of movement of molecules within the tissue in order to derive structural images, a researcher would use a special type of MRI known as:
  2. dBs.
  3. DTI.
  4. tdCS.
  5. TMs.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What instrument would a researcher use to get a detailed image of a living human brain without causing any damage to living tissue?
  2. PET
  3. tdCS
  4. TMs
  5. MRI

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Positron Emission Tomography

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What equipment has advanced our understanding of the relation of brain and mind more than any other tool?
  2. TMs
  3. MRI
  4. PET
  5. fMRI

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The hypothetical physical unit of storage of a memory is known as:
  2. memory.
  3. engram.
  4. neuron.
  5. axon.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: knowledge

Answer Location: Old Questions, New Answers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Parietal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Temporal Lobe, and Frontal Lobe are all known as what type of lobes?
  2. Frontal Cortex
  3. Prefrontal Cortex
  4. Cortical
  5. Temporal Cortex

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated with Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Self-regulation of memory is most associated with which lobe of the Cerebral Cortex?
  2. occipital
  3. parietal
  4. frontal
  5. temporal

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In order for a neural signal to be sent, neurotransmitters must move from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another. This reflects the importance of the:
  2. organelles.
  3. synapse.
  4. terminal buttons.
  5. dendrites.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A set of techniques that allow researchers to make detailed maps of the brain and assign functions to particular regions of the brain is known as:
  2. neuroimaging.
  3. intracranial EEG.
  4. electroencephalography.
  5. magnetoencephalography.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When looking for a particular class of stimulus in the brain, a researcher would look for averaged patterns across many trials. To do this, what type of test would be needed?
  2. CAT
  3. PET
  4. EEG
  5. MRI

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Electroencephalography

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the function of the prefrontal lobe as associated with the frontal lobe area?
  2. forgetful mechanism
  3. initiating emotion
  4. initiating flight or flight
  5. initiating memory

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Where does initiating memory take place?
  2. prefrontal cortex
  3. temporal lobe
  4. hippocampus
  5. amagdala

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Memory loss can occur at tremendous costs in this area due to its widespread consequences.
  2. prefrontal Lobe
  3. diencephalon
  4. amagdala
  5. hippocampus

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This area is concerned with massive connections between the Prefrontal Lobe, the hippocampus, and the medial temporal lobe.
  2. diencephalon
  3. amagdala
  4. corpus collosum
  5. skull cap

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A student has stayed up all night working on a project in hopes of finishing it before class begins. Soon the student begins experiencing headaches and is unable to concentrate due to the lack of sleep. What part of the brain is being most affected due to over exposure to the task?
  2. amygdala
  3. hippocampus
  4. Broca’s area
  5. lateral fissure

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Amygdala

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The area of the brain that is located just below the prefrontal cortex, above the lateral fissure, and beside the precentral gyrus is known as the:
  2. Broca’s area.
  3. hippocampus area.
  4. occipital Lobe area.
  5. visual cortex.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Figure 2.6. The Cortical Lobes

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The area located between the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus is called the:
  2. central sulcus.
  3. Broca’s area.
  4. auditory cortex.
  5. prefrontal cortex.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Figure 2.6. The Cortical Lobes

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The most anterior part of the cerebral cortex is called:
  2. prefrontal cortex.
  3. frontal lobe.
  4. auditory cortex.
  5. Wernicke area.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Amygalda means:
  2. almond.
  3. memory.
  4. emotion.
  5. to forget.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Amygalda

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The hippocampus is part of what network of the brain?
  2. bilateral
  3. cortical
  4. limbic
  5. knowledge

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hippocampus

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In Greek, what does hippocampus mean?
  2. hippo
  3. memory
  4. fat cell
  5. seahorse

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hippocampus

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An elderly person has fallen. As a result, the individual has broken bones and a severe bump on the head. When examined, this individual seems to have anterograde amnesia (the ability to form new memories after a brain injury). What part of the brain has likely been damaged?
  2. hippocampus
  3. thalamus
  4. frontal lobe
  5. prefrontal lobe

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Hippocampus

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In regards to question 62, what additional part of the brain might be damaged as well?
  2. medial temporal lobe
  3. prefrontal cortex
  4. frontal cortex
  5. postcentral gyrus

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Temporal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In which lobe is memory and imagery processed?
  2. visual processing
  3. free recognition processing
  4. forced recognition processing
  5. cortex recognition processing

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Occipital Lobe

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When identification is required of a recognized memory target from a set of presented items, which part of the brain is being used?
  2. frontal lobe
  3. parietal lobe
  4. amygdala
  5. occipital lobe

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Occipital Lobe

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A hypothetical, yet physical unit of a stored memory is known as:
  2. engram.
  3. parietal unit.
  4. unit of memory.
  5. knowledge shed.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Old Questions, New Answers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. By what mechanism do drugs, such as caffeine, affect brain functions ?
  2. neurons
  3. dendrites
  4. axon
  5. synapse

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Information from neurons to neurons is accomplished by:
  2. axons.
  3. synapses.
  4. neurotransmitters.
  5. dendrites.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurotransmitters

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In a possible severe drug overdose, considering the synapse, damage to dendrites and terminal buttons of a neuron would cause severe problems. What would this damage affect the transmission of ?
  2. neurotransmitters
  3. synapse transmitters
  4. electrical centers
  5. metacognition vibrations

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following carry electrical impulses from one neuron to another?
  2. neurotransmitters
  3. axons
  4. synapses
  5. dendrites

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An individual has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Which type of drug can be used in an attempt to alleviate memory loss in early stages of this disease?
  2. cholinergics
  3. benzodiazepines
  4. low dose asperine
  5. triliptal

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following can be used to induce amnesia in episodic memory?
  2. benzodiazepines
  3. cholinergics
  4. slight taps
  5. knowledge inducement

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In 1953, a man known only a HM underwent risky experimental surgery to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy. During surgery, parts of what were removed?
  2. eyes
  3. temporal lobes
  4. hippocampus
  5. hypothalmus

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In anterograde amnesia, an inability to form and retain this occurs.
  2. reaction time
  3. cued recall
  4. new memory
  5. forced choice recognition

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following statements about neuroimaging is false?
  2. Neuroimaging allows correlation of brain activity.
  3. Neuroimaging addresses cognitive issues.
  4. All neuroimaging technologies utilize magnets.
  5. Neuroimaging addresses correlation of brain activity with memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of neuroimaging equipment can measure when the amygdala is active when evaluating emotional content?
  2. magnetoencephalography
  3. PET scan
  4. EEG
  5. intracranial EEG

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Magnetoencephalography

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In the case of Phineas Gage, research has been directed at how brain damage affects cognition and behavior. His accident set the stage for:
  2. cognitive and behavioral research.
  3. brain imagery scanning.
  4. neuropsychiatry.
  5. neuropsychology.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychoogy: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The cognitive psychology of memory is increasingly influenced by the neuroscience of memory. Together, these form a hybrid field known as:
  2. Behavioral Neuroscience.
  3. Behavioral Psychology.
  4. Cognitive Neuroscience.
  5. Cognitive Psychology.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The brain is composed of billions of:
  2. dendrites.
  3. electric paths.
  4. lobes.
  5. neurons.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Unlike language, music is processed primarily on which hemisphere of the brain?
  2. left hemisphere
  3. anterior hemisphere
  4. right hemisphere
  5. memory hemisphere

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Memory, Music, and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

True/False

 

  1. Deep brain stimulation does not require an implanted device.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. It is suggested that music may be good at eliciting a strong connection between it and memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory, Music, and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The olfactory bulb is the primary organ in the brain for processing memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Olifactory, Memory, and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Benzodiazepines are usually used because of their effects on anxiety, insomnia, and muscle relaxation.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to tolerate benzodiazepines during sleep-enhanced episodic memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology: Memory Deficits and Amnesia

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is another MRI technique.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologies

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allows scientists to get a detailed image of a living human brain without damaging living tissue. It does involve injecting a small amount of radioactive substance into a person’s blood, which does have potentially negative effects.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Positron Emission Topography

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Intracranial EEGs measure brain activity when electrodes are placed directly on the surface of the brain.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: EEG (Electroencephalography)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) uses an electrical sensor to detect small magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Magnetoencephaloraphy (MEG)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The thalamus is an area of the brain heavily connected to other areas of the brain. It appears to serve as a routing center, however, this routing center must have connected relay points to human memory circuits. The routing centers are known as diencephalons.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The hypothalamus area of the brain is associated with basic emotions. To separate these emotions into emotional learning, fear, and memory, this information is transmitted by the amygdala.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Amygdala

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Engram is the hypothetical physical unit of storage of a memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Old Questions, New Answers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. To a behavioral neuroscientist the brain is a complex assortment of separate areas and regions, each of which has its own unique function.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Memory and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The medial temporal lobe is associated with higher emotions, decision-making, metacognition, and memory. Damage to this area affects the fight or flight emotional response. This response can be associated with the prefrontal cortex.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Frontal Lobe

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Memory can be enhanced, however, to date, no drug has been shown to improve memory efficiency in normal adults. On the other hand, there is no doubt that some drugs prevent the formation of new memories. The only prescription drugs available to improve memory are chloinergics.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Engram is the hypothetical physical unit of ______ of a memory.

Ans: storage

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Old Questions, New Answers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Sudden and devastating injuries to the brain are called ______ brain injuries.

Ans: traumatic

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Brain and Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The electrochemical process of transmission in an axon is known as action ______.

Ans: potential

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The parts of the neuron that receive sensory receptors are called ______.

Ans: dendrites

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Terminal buttons are the ends of axon that hold ______.

Ans: neurotransmitters

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A disease that causes the loss of myelin along axons, resulting in movement deficits is known as multiple sclerosis. Transmission of information in the axons, in contrast, is ______.

Ans: electrochemical

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The brain is divisible into two ______ halves, oriented in the left-right direction.

Ans: symmetrical

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Structures of the Human Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Parts of the thalamus are crucial in the transmission of information from our sensory organs. However, with respect to memory there are massive connections which must occur. This occurrence is known as ______, which is involved in memory as well.

Ans: diencephalon

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diencephalon

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An individual was involved in a traumatic occurrence and was feeling dizzy with severe migraine headaches. The emergency room clinician decided to run ______ to observe changes in cognition and behavior.

Ans: TMS, tDCS, and DBS

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A clinician observes a patient requesting pain alleviation from Parkinson’s disease. The patient is experiencing extreme motor disorders and major depression. The clinician suggests the ______ device that requires implantation for medical reasons.

Ans: DBS

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Brain Stimulation Techniques

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Describe the flow of information through the neuron, including how information is transmitted through the axon, dendrite, and synapse.

Ans: neurotransmitters, electrical impulse, positive and negative charge, and nucleus.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the four main anatomical areas of the cerebral cortex and the function of each.

Ans: Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital, vision, attention, language, memory, emotion, and decision-making.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated With Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. List the six areas of the gross anatomy of the human brain.

Ans: Frontal, Lateral, Temporal, Occipital, Parietal, and Central Sulcus.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Structures of the Human Brain

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Explain the role of the neurotansmitters in neural circuits.

Ans: inhibit and excite.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurotransmitters

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the use of Acetylchlorine by neurons.

Ans: innervate and muscle control.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neurotransmitters

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Name the subcortical structures of the brain and describe the function of two of those areas.

Ans: Thalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Corpus Callosum.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subcortical Structures

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the cortical areas of the brain associated with memory.

Ans: Parietal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Frontal Lobe, and Temporal Lobe.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated With Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is mean by the term engram and what did Lashley hope to achieve by identifying it?

Ans: Hypothetical physical unit of memory storage.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Old Questions, New Answers

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe how benzodiazepines and cholinergics affect memory.

Ans: Memory, anxiety, insomnia, memory loss, and Alzheimer’s.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Chapter 4: Episodic Memory

Test Bank

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The scientist who formalized the distinction between episodic and semantic memory is:
  2. Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  3. Martin Conway.
  4. Endel Tulving.
  5. Elizabeth Loftus.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rickie knows that Angela Merkel is the name of a chancellor of Germany. Rickie is retrieving this information from storage in:
  2. autobiographical memory.
  3. semantic memory.
  4. episodic memory.
  5. pedantic memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Lola tells a story about the time she went in a hot-air balloon with her father when she was nine years old. She is retrieving this story from:
  2. semantic memory.
  3. the philogical loop.
  4. prospective memory.
  5. episodic memory.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Retrieval from episodic memory draws on:
  2. more right prefrontal lobe processes than does semantic memory.
  3. more cerebellar processes than does semantic memory.
  4. more cognitive processes than does semantic memory.
  5. the same neural regions as working memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The highly salient memories people have of their own circumstances during major public events are called:
  2. public event memories.
  3. salutatory memories.
  4. repressed memories.
  5. flashbulb memories.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Episodic memories, compared to semantic memories, are often:
  2. more difficult to maintain over long periods of time.
  3. more likely to be oriented to the past.
  4. more difficult to express in words.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Tulving’s patient KC shows memory deficits for:
  2. episodic memory only.
  3. episodic and semantic memory, but not working memory.
  4. the ability to generate visual images.
  5. episodic memories from early childhood only.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The term that means that brain damage (or an experimental variable) can affect one cognitive system, but leave another one intact is:
  2. dissociation.
  3. amnesia.
  4. hyperagnosia.
  5. hyperamnesia.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This type of learning occurs when it is perceived the memory will be tested.
  2. intentional
  3. incidental
  4. processed
  5. encoded

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Representation, in memory science, means:
  2. how we store information when it is not currently in use.
  3. how we learn new information.
  4. if we will enter the memory into our prospective memory system.
  5. is synonymous with episodic memory, but is an older term.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Activating information already stored in long-term memory is called:
  2. encoding.
  3. representation.
  4. episodic memory.
  5. retrieval.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The cognitive psychologist’s term for learning is:
  2. encoding.
  3. representation.
  4. episodic memory.
  5. retrieval.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Levels of processing are based on the assumption that:
  2. all learning takes place in a semantic vacuum.
  3. episodic memory and semantic memory are similar but not identical.
  4. most learning is incidental, not intentional.
  5. higher levels lead to worse memory performance than lower levels.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Incidental learning means that:
  2. encoding takes place without attention.
  3. people encode information not by actively trying to remember but rather as by-product of perceiving and understanding the world.
  4. people encode information by actively trying to remember but also without regard to content matter.
  5. people encode information in a haphazard manner.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Intentional learning means that:
  2. people encode information not by actively trying to remember but rather as by-product of perceiving and understanding the world.
  3. people actively engage in learning information because they know that their memories may be tested.
  4. people learn by early sensory processing.
  5. ill intention seldom leads to long-term recall.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Elaborative processing means that we:
  2. process for shallow sensory characteristics.
  3. deliberately study, as in preparation for a test.
  4. process for meaning.
  5. encode via prospective means.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In the levels of processing framework, better memory is produced when we:
  2. use deeper level processing.
  3. use sensory processing.
  4. use maintenance rehearsal.
  5. trust our semantic memories.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In the experiment by Craik and Tulving (1975), orienting tasks were used to:
  2. allow all participants to process deeply.
  3. maximize the ability of participants to encode the material.
  4. control whether semantic or episodic memories were being used.
  5. control the level of processing.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Craik and Tulving (1975) found that:
  2. orienting tasks were not useful for memory improvement.
  3. orienting tasks that promoted deeper processing led to better memory.
  4. orienting tasks that promoted sensory processing led to better memory.
  5. memory performance was not affected by the orienting tasks.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Sporer (1991) showed that people were better at recognizing faces if they had first processed them in terms of whether or not the face looked “honest” or not than if they had processed them in terms of whether or not the person had a wide nose. This is consistent with:
  2. encoding specificity.
  3. levels of processing.
  4. retrieval inhibition.
  5. cross-race representation.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What is the term for the observation that linking to-be-learned information to personally relevant information about oneself creates strong encoding?
  2. survival processing
  3. self-reference effect
  4. the mirror effect
  5. encoding reversal

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Self-Reference Effect

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Survival processing means that:
  2. we remember the words we learned when we feel as if our lives are threatened, as in weapon focus.
  3. people more prone to use deeper processing are more likely to survive evolutionarily.
  4. focusing on the relevance of words to surviving in an imaginary grasslands leads to strong memory traces.
  5. the more we study certain words, the more they will “survive” in memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Survival Processing

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. That memory is better when we generate associations ourselves than when we simply read or see them is known as:
  2. the primacy effect.
  3. the generation effect.
  4. the self-reference effect.
  5. the mirror effect.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Generation Effect

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Butler and Roediger (2007) gave some students a lecture summary whereas other “students” received short answer tests with feedback if the participants for half of the answers. A final control group of participants did not get a summary nor did they receive a short answer test. The group that did the best on a later test was:
  2. the control group.
  3. the group given lecture summaries.
  4. all groups performed equivalently.
  5. the group that received short-answer tests.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Generation Effect

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Consider the following list of words: crocodile, salamander, gecko, alligator, turtle, newt, saxophone, tortoise, iguana, and toad. The von Restorff effect means that:
  2. “crocodile” will be remembered well because it is at the beginning of the list.
  3. “iguana” and toad will be remembered well because they are at the end of the list.
  4. “saxophone” will be well remembered because it benefits from distinctiveness.
  5. “gecko” will be well remembered because of its position in the serial position curve.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Distinctiveness

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Organization leads to deeper levels of processing. The kind of organization that leads to the best memory performance is:
  2. self-organization.
  3. mood-congruent organization.
  4. survival organization.
  5. incidental organization

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. One potential application of the von Restorff effect is to:
  2. focus on the distinctive aspect of a stimulus you want to remember.
  3. always use subjective organization.
  4. focus on the first item in a list as it always defines the category.
  5. recognize situations in which levels of processing does not predict performance.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Distinctiveness

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The von Restorff effect works because:
  2. the isolated item always occurs in a critical serial position.
  3. mood congruence can account for why we remember off-color or offensive words.
  4. encoding specificity applies to representation as well as encoding.
  5. distinctiveness implies that we search for the unique meaning for each item.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Distinctiveness

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The distinction between availability and accessibility is:
  2. availability means retrieval from episodic memory, whereas accessibility means retrieval from semantic memory.
  3. availability means everything that is represented in memory, whereas accessibility means that which we can retrieve at the moment.
  4. availability means encoding, whereas accessibility means retrieval.
  5. availability means those memories which require a retrieval cue, whereas accessibility means those memories easily maintained in working memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Retrieval from Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The concept of accessibility implies that:
  2. everything we ever perceive is stored in memory.
  3. retrieval cues are necessary to unlock some memories.
  4. in some cases, retrieval should occur before encoding.
  5. the limbic system is involved in episodic memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Retrieval from Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Encoding specificity means that:
  2. retrieval cues do not apply to semantic memory.
  3. deeper processing leads to stronger memory representations.
  4. retrieval of information from memory will be maximized when the conditions at retrieval match the conditions at encoding.
  5. we remember happy events from our life better when we are currently happy.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In Godden and Baddeley’s (1975) experiment, scuba divers remembered best when:
  2. they were tested on land.
  3. they were tested underwater.
  4. they retrieved in the opposite environment that they learned in.
  5. they retrieved in the same environment that they learned in.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In Godden and Baddeley’s experiment on encoding specificity, the results revealed that:
  2. if a diver studied underwater, he or she remembered more when tested underwater.
  3. if a diver studied underwater, he or she remembered more when tested on land.
  4. if a diver studied underwater, he or she remembered better when tested under the influence of alcohol.
  5. if a diver studied underwater, he or she remembered better when tested with nicotine.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Eich et al. (1975) examined the influence of marijuana on people’s memory. He found that:
  2. marijuana is always a memory enhancer.
  3. participants preferred learning when not using marijuana.
  4. marijuana hurts memory performance even in working memory tests.
  5. state-dependent learning applies to drugs, such as marijuana.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Eich et al. (1975) found that:
  2. if a person studies when under the influence of a drug, he or she does best when tested under the influence of the same drug.
  3. certain drugs can improve memory.
  4. marijuana hurt memory performance, but nicotine improved it.
  5. participants retrieved best when they were in the opposite mood as they were when they learned the information.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Mood congruence means:
  2. that moods are best remembered when we study them under levels of processing.
  3. that we remember the moods we are in later, when it is congruent to do so.
  4. that you are more likely to remember events if you are in the same mood as when you learned them.
  5. that you are more likely to remember events that are positive when you are in a positive mood and more likely to remember events that are negative when you are in a negative mood.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Inhibition refers to:
  2. a mechanism that promotes decay from working memory.
  3. conscious refusal to acknowledge painful memories.
  4. encoding specificity applied to repressed memories.
  5. a mechanism that actively interferes with and reduces the likelihood of recall of particular information.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Inhibition in Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Retrieval-induced inhibition means that:
  2. the retrieval of some items interferes with the retrieval of related items later.
  3. the retrieval of some items interferes with the retrieval of the same items later.
  4. the retrieval of category names interferes with the retrieval of category exemplars.
  5. the retrieval of category names interferes with the retrieval of studied exemplars.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Inhibition in Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In Anderson et al.’s (1994) experiment on retrieval-induced inhibition, participants:
  2. RP+ (retrieval practiced category; studied items) items are recalled worse than NRP (not studied) items.
  3. RP- (retrieval practiced category; unstudied items) items are recalled better than NRP (not studied) items.
  4. RP- (retrieval practiced category; unstudied items) items are recalled worse than NRP (not studied) items.
  5. RP+ (retrieval practiced category; studied items) items are recalled worse than RP- (retrieval practiced category; unstudied items) items.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Inhibition in Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Akiko studies half of the countries of Europe, but not the other half. When tested on her knowledge of European countries, Akiko is likely to show:
  2. mood congruence; she will remember the countries that she studied when she was in a good mood.
  3. levels of processing; she will remember the countries that she studied using perceptual priming.
  4. maintenance rehearsal; she will remember those countries that she is keeping in working memory.
  5. part-set cueing; she will remember those countries she studied well, but will retrieve the remaining half worse than if she had not studied.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Part-Set Cueing

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In directed forgetting, participants are asked to forget certain items. This results in:
  2. ironically, enhanced memory for those items.
  3. participants cannot inhibit the to-be-forgotten items, resulting in greater recall of those items.
  4. participants do not follow the directions and forget all of the items.
  5. participants inhibit the to-be-forgotten items, resulting in less recall of those items.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Directed Forgetting

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Part-set cueing occurs:
  2. if a person studies only half the items in the list. The unstudied items are less likely to be recall compared to a control group that did not study any of the items.
  3. if a person studies only half the items in the list. The unstudied items are more likely to be recall compared to a control group that did not study any of the items.
  4. if a person studies only half the items in the list. The unstudied items no more or less likely to be recall compared to a control group that did not study any of the items.
  5. when the person is directed to forget all of the items.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Part-Set Cueing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Scullin and Bugg (2012) examined prospective memory. They found one error that occurred in prospective memory was:
  2. repeating a task that had already been performed.
  3. not directing their forgetting to prospective memory.
  4. indicating that their memory was semantic not episodic.
  5. not checking the clock when they were supposed to.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Prospective Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Encoding specificity is the idea of:
  2. encoding specificity.
  3. state-dependent memory.
  4. mood congruence.
  5. transfer-appropriate processing.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. To interfere with and reduce the likelihood of recall of particular information is termed:
  2. retrieval.
  3. congruence.
  4. inhibition.
  5. remembering.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Inhibition in Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Future memory for things needing accomplished is called:
  2. directed memory.
  3. predetermined memory.
  4. perspective memory.
  5. prospective memory.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prospective Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. On the retrieval side, memory is dependent on:
  2. directed cues.
  3. retrieval cues.
  4. perspective cues.
  5. memonic cues.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Prospective memory appears to be directed by mechanisms in the:
  2. frontal lobes.
  3. memory cortex.
  4. medula.
  5. optic nerves.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: medium

 

 

True/False

  1. It is possible for one damaged cognitive system to be independent from another.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Cognition

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Retrieval from episodic memory draws on more cerebellar processes than semantic memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The von Restorff effect works because the isolated item always occurs in a critical serial position.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Distinctiveness

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Retrieval-induced inhibition shows that the retrieval of some items interferes with the retrieval of related items later.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Inhibition in Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Items in directed forgetting will direct the recall of participants and will result in inhibiting the to-be-forgotten items. This will in turn result in less recall of those items in directed forgetting.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Directed Forgetting

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Episodic memories, compared to semantic memories, are more related to the past.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Retrieval will activate information already stored in long-term memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Levels of processing assume that most learning is incidental, not intentional.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The self-reference effect proves that memory is better when we generate associations ourselves than when we simply read or see them.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Self-Reference Effect

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Episodic memories, compared to semantic memories, are often more difficult to maintain over time.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Part-set cueing occurs if a person studies only half the items in the list. The unstudied items are less likely to be recall compared to a control group that did not study any of the items.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Part-Set Cueing

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Moods are best remembered when we study them under levels of mood congruence.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Largent Temperata has been shown to be critical in prospective memory tasks.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Prospective Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Salutatory memories are highly salient memories people have of their own circumstances during major public events.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Memory Processes: Encoding, Representation, and Retrieval (Part I)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Encoding specificity means that deeper processing leads to stronger memory representations.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Encoding Specificity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Neurocognitive system retrieving information concerning the world is ______ memory.

Ans: semantic

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Neurocognitive system retrieving information of personal experiences is ______

Ans: episodic

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Highly confident personal memories of surprising events are termed ______ memories.

Ans: flashbulb

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is the term for brain damage that affects one cognitive system but leaves another one intact.

Ans: Dissociation

Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ amnesia is usually restrictive to episodic memory when a congenital deficit is present.

Ans: Developmental

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ is the kind of organization that leads to the best memory performance.

Ans: Self-organization

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Organization

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Retrieval from episodic memory draws on more ______ lobe processes than does semantic memory.

Ans: right frontal

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Future memory for things needing accomplished is called ______ memory.

Ans: prospective

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Prospective

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Levels of processing assume that most learning is ______, not intentional.

Ans: incidental

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Brain damage that can affect one cognitive system but leave another one intact is termed ______.

Ans: dissociation

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychological evidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Explain episodic memory and give one example of this system.

Ans: Neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves memories of our personal individual experiences.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the relationship between episodic memory and semantic memory.

Ans: Episodic concerns the individual while semantic concerns the knowledge of the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain semantic memory and give one example of this system.

Ans: Neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves memories of our knowledge of the world.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain memory dissociation as it relates to brain damage.

Ans: Memory deficit affecting one cognitive system but leaving the other alone.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Neuropsychological Evidence

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the difference between elaborative rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal.

Ans: Elaborative means processing memory while maintenance involves repeating information over and over.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Levels of Processing

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the self-reference effect as it relates to information.

Ans: Linking to-be-learned information to personally relevant information about oneself creating strong encoding.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Self-Reference Effect

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the importance of Endel Tulving’s work on memory.

Ans: Devised a test to determine knowing and remembering judgments.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Episodic Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the generation effect and give one example.

Ans: Memory is better remembered when we generate associations with ourselves than when we simply read them. Example: Paired examination.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Generation Effect

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the von Restorff effect.

Ans: Advantage in memory that distinctive items have over less distinctive items.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Distinctiveness

Difficulty: Hard

 

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