Memmler’s Structure and Function of the Human Body, 10th ed by Taylor – Cohen-Test Bank

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Memmler’s Structure and Function of the Human Body, 10th ed by Taylor – Cohen-Test Bank

1. The element that is combined with oxygen in water is _______________.
2. The atomic number is based on the number of ____________.
3. A negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom is called a(n)
________________.
4. An uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom is a(n) ________________.
5. A unit formed by the union of two or more atoms is a(n) ______________.
6. A mixture in which the components separate unless shaken is a(n) ________________.
7. A substance in which another substance is dissolved is called a(n) ________________.
8. The universal solvent is ____________.
9. A charged atom or group of atoms is called a(n) ____________.
10. A bond formed by the sharing of electrons between elements is called a(n)
________________ bond.
11. A negatively charged ion is a(n) ________________.
12. Compounds that release ions in solution are called ____________.
13. An acid is a substance that donates a(n) ______________ ion to another substance.
14. The _________of a solution is based on its concentration of the element hydrogen.
15. A substance with a pH of 8.5 is ________________.
16. A substance with pH 4.0 is ______________ acidic than a substance with pH 6.0.
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17. A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same
element is a(n) ____________.
18. The element that is the basis of organic chemistry is ____________.
19. All proteins, but not sugars, contain the element ____________.
20. A protein that catalyzes reactions is called a(n) ____________.
21. The prefix poly– means _______________.
22. An element found in table salt is
A) iron
B) chlorine
C) carbon
D) hydrogen
23. The element that makes up the greatest percentage by weight in the body is
A) potassium
B) oxygen
C) sodium
D) nitrogen
24. An element needed to build bones is
A) iron
B) calcium
C) chlorine
D) nitrogen
25. A subunit of an element is a(n)
A) mixture
B) molecule
C) atom
D) compound
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26. The positively charged particles in the atom nucleus are called
A) neutrons
B) electrons
C) protons
D) isotopes
27. The atomic number of phosphorus is 15. How many protons does phosphorus have?
A) 10
B) 12
C) 15
D) More information is required to answer this question.
28. The atomic number of sodium is 11. The sodium ion has a single positive charge (Na+).
How many electrons does the sodium ion have?
A) 10
B) 11
C) 12
D) More information is required to answer this question.
29. A common isotope of sodium is called sodium-24, based on its atomic weight. The
atomic weight can be calculated by adding the number of protons and the number of
neutrons. The atomic number of sodium is 11. How many neutrons does sodium-24
have?
A) 9
B) 11
C) 13
D) More information is required to answer this question.
30. Cobalt has 27 electrons. What is its atomic number?
A) 13
B) 27
C) 54
D) More information is required to answer this question.
31. A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded is a(n)
A) mixture
B) molecule
C) atom
D) compound
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32. A substance composed of two or more different elements participating in a chemical
bond is a(n)
A) compound
B) atom
C) mixture
D) solution
33. A substance that dissolves in another substance is a(n)
A) solution
B) solute
C) solvent
D) mixture
34. Which of the following is a mixture?
A) sugar water
B) table salt
C) hydrochloric acid
D) sodium hydroxide
35. A non-separating suspension can be described as
A) colloidal
B) inorganic
C) nuclear
D) covalent
36. A mixture in which the components remain evenly distributed is a(n)
A) solution
B) suspension
C) compound
D) molecule
37. A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons is described as a(n)
A) ionic bond
B) covalent bond
C) mixture
D) coordinate bond
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38. A graphic tracing of the electric current generated by the heart is called a(n)
A) electroencephalogram
B) electrocardiogram
C) radiotracing
D) thallium stress test
39. A basic substance could have a pH of
A) 0
B) 6
C) 7
D) 12
40. Which of the following is an organic compound?
A) salt
B) water
C) glycerol
D) zinc
41. The chemical category that includes fats and cholesterol is
A) proteins
B) lipids
C) carbohydrates
D) solutions
42. Proteins are complex molecules composed of
A) calcium
B) amino acids
C) glucose
D) water
43. The simplest form of carbohydrate is
A) disaccharides
B) monosaccharides
C) polysaccharides
D) unisaccharides
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44. All enzymes are
A) proteins
B) lipids
C) carbohydrates
D) None of the answers are correct.
45. A hydrophobic substance
A) mixes easily with water
B) repels water
C) is a colloid
D) contains hydrogen bonds
46. A substance that has a name ending in –ase is most likely a(n)
A) protein
B) lipid
C) carbohydrate
D) mixture
47. List, and briefly describe, two uses of radioisotopes.
48. List the three characteristics of organic compounds.
49. List and briefly describe the three types of carbohydrates and give an example of each.
50. Mr. L has difficulties digesting milk products due to a deficiency in the enzyme lactase.
His doctor has provided him with a solution of lactase to consume every time he eats a
dairy product. Mr. L decides he wants some hot chocolate. He boils his lactase with his
milk in order to save time. His hot chocolate causes him severe stomachaches, so he calls
his doctor to complain. Why did his lactase fail to work?
51. Using your knowledge of word parts, what would be a logical definition for the term
monosaccharidase?
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Answer Key
1. hydrogen
2. protons
3. electron
4. neutron
5. molecule
6. suspension
7. solvent
8. water
9. ion
10. covalent
11. anion
12. electrolytes
13. hydrogen
14. pH
15. basic or alkaline
16. more
17. isotope
18. carbon
19. nitrogen
20. enzyme
21. many
22. B
23. B
24. B
25. C
26. C
27. C
28. A
29. C
30. B
31. A
32. A
33. B
34. A
35. A
36. A
37. B
38. B
39. D
40. C
41. B
42. B
43. B
44. A
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45. B
46. A
47. Radioisotopes are used for cancer (radiation) treatment. The radiation harms tumor cells
to a greater extent than normal cells. Radioisotopes are also used for diagnosis. X-rays
use radioisotopes. Also, radioisotopes can be taken into the body and used to diagnose
tissue abnormalities.
48. Organic compounds (1) contain carbon, (2) form large, complex molecules, and (3) are
found in living things.
49. Monosaccharides are simple sugars consisting of a single sugar residue. An example is
glucose. Disaccharides consist of two simple sugars. An example is maltose.
Polysaccharides consist of many simple sugars linked together. Examples are starch and
glycogen.
50. Enzymes are proteins. They are often inactivated by extreme heat. When Mr. L boiled his
lactase solution, he inactivated the enzyme.
51. Mono means one, sacchar/o means sugar, and –ase signifies an enzyme. A
monosaccharidase would thus be an enzyme that acts on simple sugars
(monosaccharides).
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1. The muscle that regulates the size of the pupil is the ____________.
2. The jellylike material that fills the eyeball is called the ___________.
3. The transparent portion of the sclera that covers the anterior of the eye is the
___________.
4. The fluid that fills the space anterior to the lens is the _____________.
5. The tunic of the eye that contains photoreceptors is the ______________.
6. The membrane that lines the eyelid is the ______________.
7. The bending of light rays as they pass through the eye is called _____________.
8. The cranial nerve that carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain is the
____________.
9. Visual impulses are transmitted from the retina to the cortex of the ___________ lobe.
10. The ear ossicle that is in contact with the oval window is the ________________.
11. The three small bones of the middle ear are collectively called the ________________.
12. The external part of the ear is called the _______________.
13. The middle ear cavity and pharynx are connected by a channel called the _________.
14. The coiled portion of the inner ear that contains the organ of hearing is the
_______________.
15. Receptors in muscles, tendons, and joints that help judge the position of the body are
called _______________.
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16. Naturally occurring painkillers that can be released in response to massage and
acupressure are called __________.
17. A receptor may gradually stop responding to a continued mild stimulus. This process is
called ___________.
18. The suffix –esthesia means _______________.
19. Which of the following is a special sense?
A) pressure
B) taste
C) touch
D) proprioception
20. Which of the following is a general sense?
A) proprioception
B) equilibrium
C) vision
D) hearing
21. Olfactory epithelium is involved in the sense of
A) taste
B) smell
C) balance
D) pain
22. Which area of the tongue is particularly sensitive to sweet tastes?
A) the anterior sides
B) the posterior part
C) the tip
D) the lateral portion
23. The middle, pigmented layer of the eye is the
A) sclera
B) conjunctiva
C) retina
D) choroid
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24. The blind spot is also called the
A) macula lutea
B) fovea centralis
C) optic disk
D) cornea
25. The point of sharpest vision is called the
A) rods
B) fovea centralis
C) optic disk
D) cornea
26. Tears are produced in the
A) lacrimal gland
B) salivary gland
C) aqueous humor
D) conjunctiva
27. Which of the following structures does NOT play a major role in light refraction?
A) aqueous humor
B) lens
C) iris
D) cornea
28. The receptors for vision are the
A) cilia and maculae
B) rods and cones
C) foveae and maculae
D) ossicles and hair cells
29. Rhodopsin is the pigment found in the
A) cones
B) vestibule
C) rods
D) choroid
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30. The extrinsic eye muscle that circles the bottom part of the eyeball is the
A) superior rectus
B) inferior rectus
C) inferior oblique
D) superior oblique
31. Which of the following is an intrinsic eye muscle?
A) iris
B) lateral rectus
C) superior rectus
D) suspensory ligament
32. The nerve that governs most of the extrinsic eye muscles is the
A) abducens nerve
B) oculomotor nerve
C) trochlear nerve
D) optic nerve
33. Your sister just poked you in the eye. The pain resulting from her unprovoked action will
be transmitted along which cranial nerve?
A) optic nerve
B) ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve
C) vestibulocochlear nerve
D) oculomotor nerve
34. The scientific name for the eardrum is the
A) oval window
B) round window
C) tympanic membrane
D) tectonic membrane
35. The ossicle of the ear that is in contact with the tympanic membrane is the
A) malleus
B) incus
C) meatus
D) stapes
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36. Ceruminous glands secrete
A) wax
B) tears
C) sweat
D) blood
37. The receptor for hearing is the
A) retina
B) macula
C) organ of Corti
D) olfactory epithelium
38. Cranial nerve VIII is named the
A) vestibulocochlear nerve
B) optic nerve
C) trigeminal nerve
D) trochlear nerve
39. The receptors for static equilibrium are located in the
A) vestibule
B) otoliths
C) cristae
D) semicircular canals
40. Your professor has asked you if you want to write a 50-page essay. You shake your head
“no.” This motion will be sensed by the
A) vestibule
B) maculae
C) cristae
D) cochlear duct
41. The receptors that detect the position of the head in relation to gravity are the
A) proprioceptors
B) maculae
C) cristae
D) semicircular canals
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42. The semicircular canals detect
A) changes in arm position
B) spinning movements
C) changes in muscle tension
D) movements in a straight line
43. You are descending in an elevator but are otherwise motionless. Which sensory receptors
will be activated?
A) cristae
B) maculae
C) otoliths
D) rods
44. If you hold your arm motionless in the air, which receptors are most important in
informing you of your hand position?
A) proprioceptors
B) pressure receptors
C) tactile corpuscles
D) free nerve endings
45. Your biceps is contracted. Which receptors inform you about the amount of muscle
tension?
A) proprioceptors
B) free nerve endings
C) tactile corpuscles
D) chemoreceptors
46. The receptors for pain are
A) tactile corpuscles
B) proprioceptors
C) chemoreceptors
D) free nerve endings
47. An analgesic is used to treat
A) dizziness
B) deafness
C) cataracts
D) pain
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48. JA was on holidays at the lake. He jumped in the water and shrieked, “It’s freezing!” Five
minutes later he was splashing around happily, no longer conscious of the cold water.
This reflects the process of
A) accommodation
B) sensory adaptation
C) narcotics
D) analgesia
49. How does the sensory system help to maintain homeostasis? Provide an example.
50. List four structures that protect the eye, and briefly describe the contribution of each.
51. List four structures that refract light in the eye. Which structure can change the amount
of refraction?
52. What sort of photoreceptor would be more abundant in a bat: rods or cones? Explain
your reasoning.
53. List one function of the extrinsic eye muscles and two functions of the intrinsic eye
muscles.
54. Explain how we know both the pitch and the loudness of a particular sound.
55. Mr. M has just arrived at your hot-tub party. He jumps in the hot tub and immediately
starts complaining about the heat. Five minutes later, he asks you if you turned down the
heat. You tell him no and explain why his perception of temperature has changed. What
did you tell him? Name the receptors involved in perceiving hot temperatures.
56. Based on your knowledge of word parts, what is the definition of an otoscope?
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Answer Key
1. iris
2. vitreous body
3. cornea
4. aqueous humor
5. retina
6. conjunctiva
7. refraction
8. optic nerve
9. occipital
10. stapes
11. ossicles
12. pinna or auricle
13. eustachian tube
14. cochlea
15. proprioceptors
16. endorphins
17. sensory adaptation
18. sensation
19. B
20. A
21. B
22. C
23. D
24. C
25. B
26. A
27. C
28. B
29. C
30. C
31. A
32. B
33. B
34. C
35. A
36. A
37. C
38. A
39. A
40. C
41. B
42. B
43. B
44. A
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45. A
46. D
47. D
48. B
49. The sensory system detects changes in the internal and external environments. In some
cases, these changes could disrupt homeostasis. For instance, temperature receptors in
the skin detect a change in room temperature. The brain receives this information and
initiates changes to maintain a constant body temperature.
50. The skull bones form the eye orbit, which protects the posterior part of the eyeball. The
eyelids protect the eye’s anterior part. The eyelashes and eyebrows keep foreign matter
out of the eye. The conjunctiva lines the eyelids and part of the sclera. The lacrimal
glands produce tears, which lubricate the eye and guard against infection.
51. cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous body. The lens can change shape to alter the
amount of refraction.
52. Rods would be more abundant because they function in dim light.
53. The extrinsic eye muscles move the eye. The intrinsic eye muscles adjust the size of the
pupil, which determines the amount of light entering the eye, and alter the shape of the
lens, which is involved in the process of accommodation.
54. The pitch of a sound determines the region of the organ of Corti that is activated (higherpitched
sounds activate cells near the base of the cochlea). The intensity (loudness) of a
sound determines how many hair cells will be activated.
55. Heat is detected by certain free nerve endings. These receptors adapt rapidly to
continuous stimuli so that the sensation becomes less acute. This phenomenon is called
sensory adaptation.
56. An instrument for the examination (–scope) of the ear (ot/o–).
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1. The testes are found within a sac called the _____________.
2. During embryonic development, each testis normally passes out of the abdominal cavity
through the ____________.
3. The testes are suspended within the scrotum by the ________.
4. Following meiosis, the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell is ___________.
5. The reproductive organ in which a fetus develops is the ______________.
6. The ejaculatory duct is formed by the union between the duct from the seminal vesicle
and the _________.
7. The muscular layer of the uterus is called the ____________.
8. The ____________ gland surrounds the urethra and contracts to aid ejaculation.
9. The tube that carries the ovum to the uterus is the _______________.
10. The lip-like folds of tissue in the vulva are called the ____________.
11. The recessed area at the top of the vagina around the cervix is the ______________.
12. The lower narrow region of the uterus is the ____________.
13. Simple sugars are added to semen by the ___________.
14. Semen passes from the ejaculatory duct into the ___________.
15. The part of spermatozoa that produces movement is the ____________.
16. The enzyme-containing cap on the head of spermatozoa is the ____________.
Page 1
17. The steroid produced in significant quantities during the luteal and follicular phases is
______________.
18. Early development of the follicle is controlled by the pituitary hormone called
______________.
19. The sex steroid called _____________ induces the development of male secondary sex
characteristics.
20. Luteinizing hormone stimulates the activity of the _________ cells in the male.
21. Most menopausal symptoms reflect a deficiency in the ovarian hormone _____________.
22. The normal age-related cessation of menstruation that occurs in women is called
_______________.
23. The use of artificial methods to prevent birth is called ____________.
24. The emergency contraceptive pill consists of several doses of the hormone ________.
25. The progesterone blocker that can be used to terminate an early pregnancy is
_________.
26. Based on your knowledge of word parts, metropathy is a disease of the
______________.
27. A word part meaning extreme end is _________________.
28. The interstitial cells of the testis produce
A) luteinizing hormone
B) mucus
C) a thin alkaline fluid
D) testosterone
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29. The ligaments holding the ovary in place include the
A) broad ligament
B) inguinal ligament
C) patellar ligament
D) aponeurosis
30. The glans penis is formed by the
A) corpus cavernosum
B) corpus spongiosum
C) seminal vesicles
D) spermatic cord
31. The prepuce is NOT present in individuals who have undergone
A) hysterectomy
B) circumcision
C) vasectomy
D) tubal ligation
32. The fold of membrane that is sometimes found near the vaginal opening is the
A) prepuce
B) labia
C) clitoris
D) hymen
33. The coiled tube on the testis that stores spermatozoa is the
A) vas deferens
B) epididymis
C) seminal vesicle
D) seminiferous tubule
34. Which of the following gland(s) is found in women?
A) greater vestibular glands
B) prostate gland
C) bulbourethral gland
D) seminal vesicle
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35. The labia and clitoris are part of the
A) obstetric perineum
B) vulva
C) vestibule
D) uterus
36. Which of the following structures contributes the most liquid to the semen?
A) seminiferous tubules
B) epididymis
C) vas deferens
D) seminal vesicles
37. Which of the following statements is NOT true of semen?
A) It neutralizes the pH of the vagina.
B) It contains sugars.
C) It is acidic.
D) It contains secretions from the seminal vesicles.
38. The head of the spermatozoon contains large amounts of
A) DNA
B) mitochondria
C) cytoplasm
D) All of the answers are correct.
39. An acrosome would be found in a
A) follicle
B) spermatozoon
C) corpus luteum
D) ovum
40. Menses results from
A) a decline in estrogen and progesterone
B) an increase in estrogen and progesterone
C) an increase in luteinizing hormone
D) an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone
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41. The uterine proliferative phase occurs during
A) the follicular phase
B) the secretory phase
C) ovulation
D) menstruation
42. Progesterone levels are highest during
A) the follicular phase
B) the proliferative phase
C) ovulation
D) the secretory phase
43. Testosterone causes
A) a surge in LH secretion
B) the development of spermatozoa
C) breast development
D) endometrial thickening
44. High levels of progesterone result in
A) decreased levels of luteinizing hormone
B) ovulation
C) follicular development
D) menstruation
45. Increased activity of the interstitial cells results in
A) decreased estrogen secretion
B) increased follicle-stimulating hormone secretion
C) increased progesterone secretion
D) decreased luteinizing hormone secretion
46. Menopause occurs when
A) the follicle differentiates into the corpus luteum
B) the aging ovary no longer produces mature follicles
C) the endometrial lining is shed
D) spermatozoa production ceases
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47. Which of the following birth control methods affects gametogenesis?
A) vasectomy
B) birth control patch
C) intrauterine device
D) All of the answers are correct.
48. Describe the function of semen, and name the glands that contribute secretions to semen.
49. Compare and contrast the role of LH in the regulation of the male and female gonad.
50. Briefly describe three distinct methods used by female contraceptives to prevent birth.
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Answer Key
1. scrotum
2. inguinal canal
3. spermatic cord
4. 23
5. uterus
6. vas or ductus deferens
7. myometrium
8. prostate
9. oviduct or uterine tube or fallopian tube
10. labia
11. fornix
12. cervix
13. seminal vesicles
14. urethra
15. flagellum
16. acrosome
17. estrogen
18. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
19. testosterone
20. interstitial cells
21. estrogen
22. menopause
23. contraception
24. progesterone
25. mifepristone
26. uterus
27. acro–
28. D
29. A
30. B
31. B
32. D
33. B
34. A
35. B
36. D
37. C
38. A
39. B
40. A
41. A
42. D
43. B
44. A
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45. D
46. B
47. B
48. Semen nourishes and transports sperm cells. It also neutralizes and lubricates the female
reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. Three types of glands add their secretions to
spermatozoa from the testes to form semen. These glands are the seminal vesicles,
prostate, and bulbourethral (Cowper) glands.
49. LH controls hormone production in both males in females. In males, LH stimulates
testosterone secretion from interstitial cells. In females, LH controls progesterone release
from the corpus luteum. LH also directly regulates elements of gametogenesis in females,
since LH stimulates the release of the gamete from the ovary (ovulation), and maintains
the corpus luteum. LH plays an indirect role in male gametogenesis, since LH-induced
testosterone is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa.
50. 1. Birth control pills, injections, or patches prevent ovulation. 2. Intrauterine devices and
emergency contraceptives prevent fertilization and/or implantation. 3. Barrier methods
(female condom, tubal ligation) prevent contact between the spermatozoa and the ovum.
4. Spermicides kill spermatozoa.
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