Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

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Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

Test Bank for Wood 5e

Chapter 2: Biology and Behavior

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. EEG stands for _____
  2. a) Electrical Encoded Graph.
  3. b) encoded
  4. c) electroencephalogram.
  5. d) electro energy

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. Which of the following imaging techniques would be best for studying the activity of one single neuron?
  2. a) CT scan
  3. b) PET scan
  4. c) microelectrodes
  5. d) magnetoencephalography

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. The _____ can monitor the activity of a single neuron, or _____ activity within it.
  2. a) microelectrode; stimulate
  3. b) EEG; inhibit
  4. c) microwire; stimulate
  5. d) PET scan; stop

Answer: a A microelectrode is a small wire that can monitor electrical activity in or stimulate activity within a single neuron.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39–40

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. A record of brain-wave activity is called a (an) _____
  2. a) PET scan.
  3. b) CAT scan.
  4. c) EMG.
  5. d) EEG.

Answer: d The EEG, electroencephalogram, is a record of brain-wave activity.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39–40

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. When wanting a record of electrical activity in the brain in the form of brain waves, a (an) _____ machine would be used.
  2. a) electroencephalogram
  3. b) microelectrode
  4. c) computerized X-ray
  5. d) electrowave spectral imager

Answer: a The electroencephalogram machine makes a record of electrical activity in the brain.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 39

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. Dr. Solomon wants a record of the electrical activity in her patient’s brain during an epileptic seizure. She would schedule the patient for a _____ appointment.
  2. a) magnetic resonance imaging
  3. b) electroencephalograph
  4. c) positron-emission tomography
  5. d) microelectrode testing

Answer: b The electroencephalograph provides a record of electrical activity in the brain.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. Eight-year-old Daria was having some disturbances in her sleep, so her parents took her to a Children’s Hospital to undergo various tests. She recalls sleeping in the hospital room with a bunch of wires stuck to her scalp. What technique was used in Daria’s sleep study?
  2. a) EEG
  3. b) MEG
  4. c) PET
  5. d) SPECT

Answer: a The EEG, electroencephalograph, involves the placement of wires on the scalp and is used to measure brain wave activity during sleep.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. Dr. Solomon wants to identify the precise neuronal origin of her patient’s epileptic seizures. She will be using a (an) _____ to determine this.
  2. a) iEEG
  3. b) fMRI
  4. c) iPET
  5. d) EEG

Answer: a The iEEG, intracranial electroencephalogram, enables neurologists to pinpoint the precise neuronal origin of seizures.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: The EEG and the Microelectrode

 

  1. _____ is a brain-scanning technique that uses a rotating, computerized X-ray tube to produce cross-sectional images of the structures of the brain.
  2. a) Positron-emission tomography
  3. b) Computerized axial tomography
  4. c) Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  5. d) Magnetic resonance imaging

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. Which of the following uses X-rays to detect various abnormalities of the brain including injury sites, tumors, and evidence of recent strokes?
  2. a) intracranial EEG
  3. b) magnetic resonance imaging
  4. c) computerized axial tomography
  5. d) electroencephalogram

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. The _____ is a diagnostic scanning technique that produces high-resolution images of the structures of the brain.
  2. a) MRI
  3. b) EEG
  4. c) PET
  5. d) X-ray

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. The _____ maps patterns of blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption in the brain.
  2. a) CT scan, computer axial tomography
  3. b) MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
  4. c) EEG, electroencephalogram
  5. d) PET scan, positron-emission tomography

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. The iEEG, intracranial electroencephalogram would be most appropriate for studying _____
  2. a) brain waves during sleep.
  3. b) abnormalities in brain structure.
  4. c) glucose and oxygen uptake in the brain.
  5. d) the activity of a single neuron.

Answer: d The iEEG allows neurologists to pinpoint the precise neuronal origin of activity.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 39–40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. The CT scan would be a good choice to look for which of the following?
  2. a) a tumor in the brain
  3. b) abnormal brain activity
  4. c) a sleep disorder
  5. d) individual neuron bundles

Answer: b Computerized axial tomography (CT) scans reveal structures in the brain, including tumors.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging would be the best choice to examine _____
  2. a) individual neuron bundles.
  3. b) a tumor in the brain.
  4. c) a sleep disorder.
  5. d) glucose uptake in the brain.

Answer: a Diffusion tensor imaging, DTI, enables researchers to examine individual neuron bundles.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 41

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. Conan brought his mother to the hospital when he noticed she couldn’t move one side of her body and had great difficulty speaking. The physician informed Conan that his mother may have had a stroke. He wanted to confirm this speculation by using an imaging device that utilized X-rays. Which of the following was used on Conan’s mother?
  2. a) MRI
  3. b) CT scan
  4. c) EEG
  5. d) fMRI

Answer: b CT scans use X-rays to reveal cross-sectional images of brain structure that can reveal evidence of recent strokes.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. Lucinda needs to find the location of her patient’s tumor, but she does not want to expose the patient to X-rays. Which of the following imaging technologies would be best suited for this task?
  2. a) a microelectrode
  3. b) a CT scan
  4. c) a MRI
  5. d) an EEG

Answer: c MRIs provide clearer and more detailed images of the brain without exposing people to X-rays.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. RaeAnn is a researcher who studies the effects of drug use in humans. She wants to understand the action of particular drugs on the brain. Which of the following imaging techniques will allow her to engage in this type of research?
  2. a) CT scan
  3. b) MRI
  4. c) PET
  5. d) DTI

Answer: c PET scans can show activity in the brain and reveal the effects of drugs on brain activity.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.2: How do researchers use imaging techniques to study the nervous system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

 

  1. _____ are specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system.
  2. a) Gametes
  3. b) Neurons
  4. c) Dendrites
  5. d) Axons

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 41

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. The body of the cell that carries out the life-sustaining functions of the neuron and contains its nucleus is called the _____
  2. a) soma.
  3. b) dendrite.
  4. c) axon.
  5. d) bud.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 41

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. The function of the neuron’s axon is to _____
  2. a) carry messages to other cells.
  3. b) regulate the neuron’s life processes.
  4. c) receive messages from neighboring neurons.
  5. d) insulate against leakage of electrical impulses.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 41–42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

Item Analysis: % correct 67 a = 67 b = 2 c = 35 6 = 53 r = .41

 

  1. _____ receive messages from other neurons and _____ send messages to other neurons.
  2. a) Axons; dendrites
  3. b) Axons; soma
  4. c) Soma; glial cells
  5. d) Dendrites; axons

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 41–42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

Item Analysis: % correct 67 a = 67 b = 2 c = 35 6 = 53 r = .41

 

  1. The part of a neuron that extends, tail-like, from the soma, and releases neurotransmitters into the synapse is the _____
  2. a) dendrite.
  3. b) glial cell.
  4. c) axon.
  5. d) terminal bud.

Answer: c The axon extends from the cell body. It has a slender, tail-like shape, and releases neurotransmitters from its axon terminal.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. Looking like leafless branches of a tree, the _____ are the primary receivers of signals from other neurons, although the _____ also receives signals directly.
  2. a) axon; dendrites
  3. b) dendrites; soma
  4. c) soma; dendrites
  5. d) dendrites; axon

Answer: b The dendrites, which branch off from the cell body, are the primary receivers of signals from other neurons. The soma, or cell body, also receives signals directly.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 41

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. If the dendrites of a neuron were not able to perform their function, _____
  2. a) the myelin would shrink.
  3. b) no signals would be transmitted from the neuron.
  4. c) no signals would be received from the neuron.
  5. d) some neural signals would still be received by the neuron.

Answer: d Because the soma, or cell body, also receives some signals directly, some neural signals would still be received by this neuron.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 41–42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. If the axon of a neuron were not able to perform its function, _____
  2. a) the neuron would receive no signals.
  3. b) the neuron would send no signals.
  4. c) the neuron would not reproduce.
  5. d) the neuron signals would become erratic.

Answer: b It is only by the release of neurotransmitters from the axon’s terminal that signals are transmitted by neurons.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 41–42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. Examining the end of an axon, we would see that _____
  2. a) it has many branches, each of which ends in an axon terminal.
  3. b) it has only one terminal.
  4. c) it touches a dendrite or soma of another neuron.
  5. d) it terminates in a myelin sheath.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 42

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. Nodes of _____ are gaps in the _____ that coat some axons.
  2. a) myelin; glia
  3. b) Ranvier; myelin
  4. c) membrane; sheath
  5. d) axons; synaptic fluid

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. Tony suffers from a disease in which myelin is progressively lost. Tony’s axons will increasingly lack _____
  2. a) neurotransmitters.
  3. b) signals.
  4. c) insulation.
  5. d) fluid.

Answer: c Myelin is the white, waxy, coating on axons that acts as an insulator.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. The tiny gap between an axon’s terminals and the dendrites or soma of another neuron is called the _____
  2. a) node of Ranvier.
  3. b) myelin gap.
  4. c) synaptic cleft.
  5. d) neural space.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 42–43

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

 

  1. A presynaptic neuron is the one that is _____ a signal to another neuron.
  2. a) receiving
  3. b) sending
  4. c) coding
  5. d) inhibiting

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. When a neuron is at rest, it carries a _____ electrical potential (charge).
  2. a) slightly positive
  3. b) slightly negative
  4. c) neutral
  5. d) massively negative

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. The sudden reversal of a neuron’s resting potential is called a(n) _____ potential and initiates the _____ of a neuron.
  2. a) firing; action
  3. b) signaling; firing
  4. c) action; firing
  5. d) positive; discharge

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. Immediately after firing, a neuron cannot fire for 1 to 2 milliseconds. This is called the _____ period.
  2. a) discharged
  3. b) resting
  4. c) refractory
  5. d) potential

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. A neuron has received a signal, causing ion channels to open in the cell membrane, letting positively charged ions flow in. This has caused the membrane potential to change suddenly from –70 to +50 millivolts. This will cause a (an) _____ to occur.
  2. a) resting state
  3. b) action potential
  4. c) negative charge
  5. d) positive charge

Answer: b The sudden reversal of the resting potential of –70 millivolts to a positive value of +50 millivolts that occurs when ion channels open—allowing positively charged ions to flow in through the cell membrane—creates an action potential.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. When a neuron carries the electrical potential of _____ millivolts, it is in the state called _____
  2. a) –70; resting potential.
  3. b) +50; refractory period.
  4. c) –50; resting potential.
  5. d) –30; refractory period.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 43

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. The strength of the brain’s response to a weak or strong stimulus is a result of _____
  2. a) how many and how fast neurons fire.
  3. b) the all or none rule.
  4. c) how many millivolts the neuron has.
  5. d) whether action potential occurs.

Answer: a The all or none rule states that neurons either fire or don’t fire. This determines whether a response takes place or does not take place. On the other hand, the strength of that response is determined by the number of neurons that fire and/or how fast they fire.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. The most important factor in speeding action potential on its way is the fatty, white coating wrapped around most axons. This is called the _____
  2. a) node of Ranvier.
  3. b) myelin sheath.
  4. c) synaptic fluid.
  5. d) sclerotic coating.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. Multiple sclerosis results in loss of coordination, jerky movement, muscular weakness, and speech disturbance through the deterioration of _____
  2. a) axons.
  3. b) neurons.
  4. c) myelin.
  5. d) neural membranes.

Answer: c Multiple sclerosis is a disease involving deterioration of the myelin sheaths of neurons, which results in the symptoms described.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. The myelin sheath and nodes of Ranvier are important because they _____
  2. a) protect the neuron.
  3. b) speed neural impulses.
  4. c) create action potential.
  5. d) prevent refractory periods.

Answer: b The myelin sheath, and the gaps in it, called nodes of Ranvier, are important because they speed the impulse traveling down the axon so it is up to 100 times faster than in axons without myelin sheaths.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurous transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

 

  1. Which of the following are tiny sacs in the axon terminal that hold chemicals that are released into the synapse?
  2. a) synaptic vesicles
  3. b) synaptic nodes
  4. c) terminal buttons
  5. d) synaptic gaps

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Item Analysis: % correct 65 a = 65 b = 22 c = 10 d = 3 r = .36

 

  1. A chemical found in the sacs within an axon terminal which, when released, has an effect on a nearby neuron is called a _____
  2. a) glial cell.
  3. b) neurotransmitter.
  4. c) precursor cell.
  5. d) synapse.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Item Analysis: % correct 74 a = 4 b = 74 c = 4 d = 18 r = .34

 

  1. When a(n) _____ arrives at the axon terminal, it causes the release of neurotransmitters.
  2. a) precursor
  3. b) receptor
  4. c) action potential
  5. d) node of Ranvier

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Neurotransmitters have distinct molecular shapes; so do the _____ they bind to.
  2. a) myelin sheaths
  3. b) presynaptic neurons
  4. c) vesicles
  5. d) receptors

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 44

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Excitatory neurotransmitters influence the receiving neuron to _____, while inhibitory neurotransmitters influence the receiving neuron to _____
  2. a) fire; not fire.
  3. b) not fire; fire.
  4. c) move; not move.
  5. d) not move; move.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Reuptake refers to the process by which neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft are _____
  2. a) sent back into receptors again.
  3. b) moved back into their axon terminal.
  4. c) broken apart.
  5. d) absorbed by the receiving neuron.

Answer: b When a neurotransmitter molecule is returned to the axon terminal, the process is called reuptake.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Running to class, _____ is causing muscle fibers in your leg to contract so you can move, and it will stimulate the neurons you need for learning new information.
  2. a) serotonin
  3. b) dopamine
  4. c) endorphin
  5. d) acetylcholine

Answer: d Acetylcholine causes skeletal muscle fiber to contract so you can move. It is also involved in stimulating the neurons involved in learning new information.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 46

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. You just accomplished a goal and rewarded yourself with a delicious treat. The pleasant feelings that result from these behaviors are made possible by the release of _____
  2. a) acetylcholine.
  3. b) GABA.
  4. c) dopamine.
  5. d) epinephrine.

Answer: c Dopamine is associated with reinforcement and pleasure.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 46

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. You just took a tumble and your arm really hurts. You are wishing your brain would release a lot of _____ to help relieve the pain.
  2. a) acetylcholine
  3. b) dopamine
  4. c) serotonin
  5. d) endorphins

Answer: d Endorphins provide relief from pain.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 46

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Researchers have identified about _____ substances that are made in our body and brain that act as neurotransmitters.
  2. a) 10
  3. b) 1,000
  4. c) 100
  5. d) 20

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Each neuron may have synapses with _____ other neurons.
  2. a) two or three
  3. b) thousands of
  4. c) up to ten
  5. d) no more than 100

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Whether a neuron fires or not depends on _____
  2. a) whether it is an excitatory neuron.
  3. b) the sum of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters it receives.
  4. c) what type of neurotransmitter the neuron makes.
  5. d) whether the neuron is myelinated or not.

Answer: b The same neuron may receive signals that are inhibitory and signals that are excitatory. Whether it will fire or not fire depends on whether there are more inhibitory, or more excitatory signals.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Neurotransmitters

 

  1. All of the nerves outside your spinal cord and brain make up the _____
  2. a) central nervous system.
  3. b) sympathetic nervous system.
  4. c) sensory nervous system.
  5. d) peripheral nervous system.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 47

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Sensory and motor nerves are part of the _____ nervous system.
  2. a) somatic
  3. b) autonomic
  4. c) sympathetic
  5. d) parasympathetic

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 47

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. You have a great deal of conscious control over the nerves of the _____ nervous system, but not over the nerves of the _____ nervous system.
  2. a) somatic; autonomic.
  3. b) autonomic; somatic.
  4. c) peripheral; autonomic.
  5. d) central nervous system; peripheral nervous system.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 47

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the _____ and the _____
  2. a) somatic; peripheral.
  3. b) sympathetic; parasympathetic.
  4. c) central; peripheral.
  5. d) brain; spinal cord.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Jerry is having difficulty with the motor nerves in his leg. His problem is in the _____ nervous system.
  2. a) autonomic
  3. b) somatic
  4. c) central
  5. d) muscle

Answer: b The somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscles.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 47

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Justin is walking down the street and a car backfires. He drops to the ground, sure it is a drive-by shooting. Justin’s _____ nervous system just kicked into high gear.
  2. a) somatic
  3. b) parasympathetic
  4. c) sympathetic
  5. d) peripheral

Answer: c The sympathetic nervous system activates in response to stress, threat, and emergency.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Malcolm is studying alone in his room when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heart rate and respiration speed up. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house. When he looks downstairs, he sees that his cat just knocked over a plant. He begins to relax and his heart rate and breathing slow down. Which part of his nervous system is working to return him to a normal state?
  2. a) spinal cord
  3. b) somatic nervous system
  4. c) parasympathetic nervous system
  5. d) central nervous system

Answer: c The parasympathetic nervous system works to return the body to its normal state once an emergency is over or threat is past.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Mekala’s sympathetic nervous system has been activated. Which of the following is true?
  2. a) Her digestion sped up.
  3. b) Her pupils dilated.
  4. c) Her heart rate slowed down.
  5. d) The blood flow to her internal organs increased.

Answer: b The sympathetic nervous system prepares us for fight or flight by slowing digestion, increasing heart rate, increasing blood flow to skeletal muscles, and dilating our pupils.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Michael notices that every time he gets what he calls an “adrenalin rush,” his heart rate and pulse quicken and he feels a surge of energy. He also notices that lately it takes his body longer than normal to return to feeling calm and normal. What might explain Michael’s delay in coming down from his “adrenalin rush”?
  2. a) His sympathetic nervous system might be too slow.
  3. b) Michael’s parasympathetic nervous system may not be activating as quickly as usual.
  4. c) Michael’s somatic nervous system might be interfering.
  5. d) Michael’s parasympathetic nervous system may be overly active.

Answer: b The parasympathetic nervous system calms us down after sympathetic nervous system activation. Michael’s is taking a bit longer to activate.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. Tasha’s sympathetic nervous system is not working. Which of the following would be a likely result?
  2. a) Tasha is experiencing an excess of flight or fight response.
  3. b) Tasha’s digestion will be constantly slowed down.
  4. c) Tasha’s heart will not speed up when she is in an emergency situation.
  5. d) Tasha will develop health problems from chronic stress.

Answer: c The sympathetic nervous system causes the heart rate to increase as part of our emergency response. Without a functioning sympathetic nervous system, Tasha’s heart would not speed up, even when she perceives a threat or emergency.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

 

  1. The central nervous system consists of the _____
  2. a) parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
  3. b) brain and spinal cord.
  4. c) muscles and glands.
  5. d) sense organs and sensory neurons.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 47

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Item Analysis:

% correct 77 a = 17 b = 77 c = 0 d = 6 r = .24

% correct 82 a = 16 b = 82 c = 1 d = 2 r = .32

 

  1. The long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain and is responsible for fast, life-saving reflexes is called the _____
  2. a) spinal cord.
  3. b) brain.
  4. c) reflex arc.
  5. d) interneuron.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 49

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Item Analysis: % correct 89 a = 89 b = 0 c = 2 d = 9 r = .31

 

  1. Rolandito touched a hot radiator and instantly pulled his hand away. The neurons responsible for this protective reflex are the _____
  2. a) brain, spinal cord, and interneurons.
  3. b) sensory, interneurons, and motor neurons.
  4. c) somatic, autonomic, and parasympathetic neurons.
  5. d) automatic, reflexive, and sympathetic neurons.

Answer: b This type of reflex involves only sensory neurons that sense the heat, and interneurons in the spinal cord that send the message to motor neurons that retract the hand.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 49

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Why do many reflexes, such as pulling your hand away from a hot iron, happen so quickly?
  2. a) They involve the neurotransmitter GABA rather than dopamine.
  3. b) The message involved does not have to go all the way to the brain.
  4. c) The speed of processing is faster in the frontal lobes than in the occipital lobes.
  5. d) The path that reflexes follow to the brain is direct and does not involve any neurotransmitters.

Answer: b Such reflexive movement is accomplished by communication from a sensory neuron to an interneuron in the spinal cord and back to a motor neuron. It does not travel to the brain.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 49

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Item Analysis: % correct 49 a = 17 b = 49 c = 14 d = 21 r = .51

 

  1. Heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and other functions vital to maintain life are controlled by the _____
  2. a) hindbrain.
  3. b) cerebellum.
  4. c) midbrain.
  5. d) limbic system.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 49

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Tanae was drowsy, but when she heard her child call out, she felt immediately wide awake and alert. A part of her brain that plays a crucial role in her arousal level and attention is the _____
  2. a) medulla.
  3. b) pons.
  4. c) cerebellum.
  5. d) reticular formation.

Answer: d The reticular formation plays a crucial role in arousal and attention.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 49

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Hunter was in a car accident and sustained damage to his cerebellum from a whiplash injury. Which problem would he be most likely to experience after the accident?
  2. a) trouble speaking
  3. b) being in a coma
  4. c) breathing and heart problems
  5. d) problems coordinating his movements

Answer: d The cerebellum coordinates muscle movement, allowing us to make smooth, skilled movements.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 49–50

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Without the _____ in your midbrain, you could not ride a bike without giving each movement conscious thought.
  2. a) substantia nigra
  3. b) thalamus
  4. c) limbic system
  5. d) pons

Answer: a The substantia nigra, located in the midbrain, controls our unconscious motor actions—those motor patterns that are habitual and we can do without thinking.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 51

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following brain structures is involved in regulating hunger, thirst, temperature, and sexual behavior?
  2. a) pons
  3. b) thalamus
  4. c) amygdala
  5. d) hypothalamus

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 51

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. The _____ is heavily involved in the learning of fear responses.
  2. a) hypothalamus
  3. b) amygdala
  4. c) thalamus
  5. d) pons

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 51

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. Tram’s hippocampus was damaged by encephalitis. Which of the following would be true?
  2. a) Tram would not be able to remember anything.
  3. b) Tram would become angry and aggressive.
  4. c) Tram would have difficulty forming new memories.
  5. d) Tram would have difficulty with her vision.

Answer: c The hippocampus plays a central role in memory formation. Memories already formed before the hippocampus was damaged would stay intact.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 51–52

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. The _____ is the part of the brain where cognitive and voluntary motor functions are controlled.
  2. a) hindbrain
  3. b) midbrain
  4. c) limbic system
  5. d) forebrain

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 51

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

 

  1. The right and left halves of the cerebrum are called the _____
  2. a) cerebral hemispheres.
  3. b) corpus callosi.
  4. c) cerebral halves.
  5. d) cerebral lobes.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 52

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The right and left halves of Shawna’s cerebrum can no longer communicate with each other because her _____ was destroyed.
  2. a) thalamus
  3. b) cortex
  4. c) corpus callosum
  5. d) corpus cerebrum

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 52

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The area of the brain primarily responsible for higher mental processes such as thinking and language is the cerebral _____
  2. a) callosum.
  3. b) cortex.
  4. c) cerebellum.
  5. d) white matter.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Gray matter gets its color from _____ whereas white matter gets its color from _____
  2. a) cell bodies; dendrites.
  3. b) myelinated axons; dendrites.
  4. c) cell bodies; myelinated axons.
  5. d) synaptic clefts; neurotransmitters.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The cerebral cortex contains three types of areas. These are the _____, _____, and _____ areas.
  2. a) sensory, motor, association
  3. b) cerebrum, cerebellum, callosum
  4. c) emotion, thinking, language
  5. d) organ, skin, muscle

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Memories, thought, perception and language are housed in the _____ area of the cerebrum.
  2. a) sensory
  3. b) limbic
  4. c) association
  5. d) dopaminergic

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The cerebral cortex of humans is so large it should not fit in our skull. The only reason it does is because of its _____
  2. a) shrinkage during gestation.
  3. b) convolutions.
  4. c) extension into the spinal cord.
  5. d) absence of fluid.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Research suggests that the amount of _____ is associated with performance on intelligence tests.
  2. a) white matter
  3. b) brain volume
  4. c) glia
  5. d) gray matter

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The first functional division of the cerebral cortex is _____
  2. a) front, top, side and back.
  3. b) into lobes.
  4. c) left and right sides.
  5. d) cerebrum and limbic areas.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. The second functional division of the cerebral cortex involves _____
  2. a) frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
  3. b) sensory, motor and association areas.
  4. c) hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain.
  5. d) hypothalamus, pons, limbic system.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

 

  1. Lateralization refers to which of the following?
  2. a) the idea that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body
  3. b) the notion that each hemisphere of the brain specializes in particular functions
  4. c) the procedure in which the corpus callosum is severed
  5. d) the inability to produce speech

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding right and left hemisphere functioning?
  2. a) Scientific research supports the claim that “right-brained” people are more creative.
  3. b) Scientific research supports the claim that “left-brained” people are more logical.
  4. c) Each hemisphere does have some specialized functions but they work together.
  5. d) Scientific research suggests that there is no specialized function in either hemisphere.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53–54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Research has shown us that handedness is determined by _____
  2. a) genes.
  3. b) learning.
  4. c) conditioning.
  5. d) genes and learning.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. The trait of hand preference illustrates that _____
  2. a) genes are our destiny.
  3. b) learning outweighs genes.
  4. c) nature always wins.
  5. d) nature and nurture work together.

Answer: d The capacity of individuals to adapt to loss of a dominant hand shows the adaptability of the brain. Although nature does play an important role in handedness, it interacts in complex ways with nurture.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. The left hemisphere controls movement on the _____ side of the body and handles most _____ functions.
  2. a) left; motor
  3. b) right; language
  4. c) right; auditory
  5. d) left; visual-spatial

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. The left hemisphere has regions devoted to _____
  2. a) processing emotional cues.
  3. b) visual-spatial processing.
  4. c) math and logic.
  5. d) creative uses of thought and language.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. People with severe, uncontrollable epilepsy, who have frequent grand mal seizures, have been helped by an operation that _____
  2. a) severs the communication between hemispheres.
  3. b) removes excitatory neurons.
  4. c) severs the substantia nigra and basal ganglia.
  5. d) removes most of the right hemisphere.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 56

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. If we briefly flashed the image of an orange to the right field of vision of an individual after split-brain surgery, they will most likely say they see _____
  2. a) nothing.
  3. b) an orange.
  4. c) something but be unable to name it.
  5. d) only something round.

Answer: b The image shown in the right field of vision will be sent to the left (verbal) hemisphere where it will readily be identified as an orange.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Lyta sustained damage to her left hemisphere. Which of these areas is she most likely to have difficulty with as a result of left hemisphere damage?
  2. a) language
  3. b) control of the left side of her body
  4. c) interpreting facial expressions
  5. d) perceiving visual-spatial relationships

Answer: a The left hemisphere handles most language functions.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54–55

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Which of the following represents an example of how damage to right hemisphere language areas might affect your language functions?
  2. a) You might not understand the causal link between “I fell down” and “My knee hurts.”
  3. b) You might not be able to speak.
  4. c) You might not understand any language.
  5. d) You might not be able to read out loud.

Answer: a The right hemisphere processes causal links between statements such as these.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 54–55

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Much of what we know about left and right hemisphere specializations comes from the study of people who had split-brain surgery. This surgery _____
  2. a) splits the lobes of the brain apart.
  3. b) severs the corpus callosum between hemispheres.
  4. c) severs the nerves from the spinal cord to the right hemisphere.
  5. d) severs the substantia nigra between hemispheres.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 52

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. Roger Sperry won a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1981 for work which revealed, among other things, that the _____
  2. a) left hemisphere can’t recognize objects.
  3. b) right hemisphere can’t recognize objects.
  4. c) left hemisphere can recognize, but not name, objects.
  5. d) right hemisphere can recognize, but not name, objects.

Answer: d Sperry’s study of split-brain patients demonstrated that an object shown only to the left eye—thus transmitted only to the right hemisphere—can be recognized. However, because the image did not go to the left hemisphere, the object can’t be named, and the patient will verbally deny seeing anything.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 55–56

Textbook LO 2.9: What are the specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Cerebral Hemispheres

 

  1. The largest of the brain’s lobes, the _____ lobe, is where multiple cognitive functions are performed.
  2. a) temporal
  3. b) prefrontal
  4. c) frontal
  5. d) parietal

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Known for “executive processing”, the _____ is part of the frontal lobe that coordinates many cognitive functions into a unified experience.
  2. a) hippocampus
  3. b) occipital cortex
  4. c) prefrontal cortex
  5. d) processing cortex

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Phineas Gage is a famous example of someone who sustained damage to their prefrontal cortex and lost the ability to _____
  2. a) think.
  3. b) speak.
  4. c) control impulses.
  5. d) coordinate movement.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. As the case of Phineas Gage illustrated, the prefrontal cortex contributes to _____ functioning in addition to cognitive functioning.
  2. a) personality
  3. b) motor
  4. c) visual
  5. d) auditory

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Moving toward the back of the head, the last area of the frontal lobe contains the _____
  2. a) visual cortex
  3. b) sensory cortex
  4. c) motor cortex
  5. d) parietal lobe

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Wilder Penfield, a neurosurgeon, developed a map of the _____ cortex by stimulating different areas in conscious patients undergoing neurosurgery.
  2. a) visual
  3. b) sensory
  4. c) motor
  5. d) parietal

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Broca’s area is involved in _____
  2. a) understanding words.
  3. b) choosing the correct words to use.
  4. c) the muscle movements required for speech.
  5. d) decision making.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Aphasia is a general term for loss or impairment of the ability to _____
  2. a) coordinate movement.
  3. b) use or understand language.
  4. c) recognize objects.
  5. d) control impulses.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Directly behind the frontal lobe is the _____ lobe, where sensory information registers in the _____ cortex.
  2. a) postfrontal; sensory
  3. b) preoccipital; visual
  4. c) temporal; auditory
  5. d) parietal; somatosensory

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. At the very back of the cerebrum, the _____ lobe contains the primary _____ cortex.
  2. a) occipital; visual
  3. b) parietal; sensory
  4. c) auditory; temporal
  5. d) limbic; emotional

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Slightly above the ears, the _____ lobes contain the primary _____ cortex, which receives sound input from our ears.
  2. a) auditory; temporal
  3. b) temporal; auditory
  4. c) hearing; sound
  5. d) parietal; sensory

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 60

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Speech sounds register first in the primary _____ cortex; they are then sent to _____ area where they are unscrambled into meaningful patterns of words.
  2. a) temporal; Broca’s
  3. b) parietal; sensory
  4. c) auditory; Wernicke’s
  5. d) sensory; prefrontal

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 60

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Visual processing is to the _____ lobes as auditory processing is to the _____ lobes.
  2. a) occipital; temporal
  3. b) parietal; occipital
  4. c) temporal; frontal
  5. d) temporal; parietal

Answer: a Visual processing is done by the primary visual cortex located in the occipital lobe, whereas auditory processing is done by the primary auditory cortex located in the temporal lobe.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 59–60

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Marta was in an automobile accident and suffered an injury to her brain, resulting in paralysis of her left arm. What part of Marta’s brain was injured?
  2. a) auditory association area
  3. b) motor cortex
  4. c) association areas
  5. d) somatosensory cortex

Answer: c The motor cortex is responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 57–58

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Item Analysis: % correct 82 a = 0 b = 82 c = 5 d = 11 r = .36

 

  1. Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill’s son visited, he found his father was unable to form words without great difficulty. If Bill’s difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage?
  2. a) Broca’s area
  3. b) Gall’s area
  4. c) Wernicke’s area
  5. d) Korsakoff’s area

Answer: a Broca’s area is devoted to the muscle movements required to form speech.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 57–59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Item Analysis: % correct 75 a = 75 b = 2 c = 22 d = 2 r = .35

 

  1. Ever since he suffered a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack’s wife has continued to tell the doctor that Zack’s personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and carefree, but he is now more critical and yells at the children for little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the _____ of his cortex.
  2. a) occipital lobe
  3. b) parietal lobe
  4. c) prefrontal area
  5. d) postfrontal area

Answer: c The prefrontal cortex, located in the frontal lobe, contributes to personality functioning and can affect the ability to control impulses, modulate emotions, and anticipate consequences of behavior.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

 

  1. Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage?
  2. a) frontal lobe
  3. b) temporal lobe
  4. c) occipital lobe
  5. d) parietal lobe

Answer: d The parietal lobes are involved in the reception and processing of touch stimuli.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Item Analysis:

% correct 65 a = 20 b = 11 c = 4 d = 65 r = .30

% correct 62 a = 18 b = 16 c = 5 d = 62 r = .32

 

  1. Into our twenties, the brain develops in _____ of growth and _____
  2. a) a steady pattern; learning.
  3. b) an AB model; synaptogenesis.
  4. c) pruning; lateralization.
  5. d) spurts; pruning.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Synapses develop as a result of the growth of both _____ and _____
  2. a) myelination; mitochondria.
  3. b) cell membranes; ion channels.
  4. c) dendrites; axons.
  5. d) vesicles; plasticity.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Our brain has an amazing ability to adapt to changed inputs and to brain damage. We call this ability _____
  2. a) plasticity.
  3. b) lateralization.
  4. c) pruning.
  5. d) myelination.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Pruning is _____
  2. a) a process that eliminates unnecessary and redundant synapses.
  3. b) a medical procedure used to remove brain tumors.
  4. c) the death of brain cells due to disease or damage.
  5. d) the shortening of dendrites to make them more efficient.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. In adults over 70, the brain has _____
  2. a) increased in weight.
  3. b) decreased in weight.
  4. c) lost all plasticity.
  5. d) fewer neurotransmitter types.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Deterioration of the health of the heart and blood vessels poses an increased risk to the brain of damage from _____
  2. a) death.
  3. b) synaptogenesis.
  4. c) too much pruning.
  5. d) stroke.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Nora has had hearing defects since she was a child. She is now 43 and a new procedure to regenerate hair cells in the auditory canal has helped her to have those hearing defects corrected. What most likely occurred in Nora’s brain as a result?
  2. a) Not much; she was too old to have much brain plasticity.
  3. b) Areas of her brain involved in sound perception changed noticeably.
  4. c) Auditory signals were rerouted to the better functioning visual cortex.
  5. d) Broca’s area had trouble interpreting all the new sounds.

Answer: b Researchers have found that plasticity is still present in late-middle-aged adults. In this scenario, changes do occur in all the areas of the brain involved in sound perception.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Maddy, age six, gets frustrated because she can’t judge distance and direction as well as her ten-year-old sister, so she always loses at beanbag toss. Maddy’s less accurate spatial perception is most likely due to which of the following?
  2. a) synaptogenesis
  3. b) slower processing speed
  4. c) lack of lateralization
  5. d) damage to her parietal lobe

Answer: c Children younger than age eight exhibit much poorer spatial skills than do older children because some functions, such as spatial perception, have not been lateralized.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Which of the following helps adults think faster than young children?
  2. a) myelination
  3. b) an increase in dopamine
  4. c) a decrease in GABA
  5. d) plasticity

Answer: a Myelination continues into our twenties. Of the answer choices, only myelination may account for differences between adult and child processing speed.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Though very rare, 3-year-old Zora suffered a stroke. After participating in two years of rehabilitation, Zora recovered nearly all of her lost functioning. What might account for this high degree of recovery?
  2. a) a split-brain surgery
  3. b) plasticity and age
  4. c) pruning
  5. d) brain medication

Answer: b Plasticity, the ability of the brain to adapt to changes such as brain damage, is greatest in young children.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

 

  1. Typically the brains of men have a _____ proportion of _____ than do the brains of women.
  2. a) lower; white matter
  3. b) higher; gray matter
  4. c) higher; white matter
  5. d) higher; glial cells

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.12: How do the brains of men and womsn differ?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: Gender Differences in the Brain

 

  1. Compared to a typical female brain, a typical male brain will have a _____ proportion of white matter in _____
  2. a) higher; their left hemisphere.
  3. b) similar; both hemispheres.
  4. c) lower; their left hemisphere.
  5. d) lower; their right hemisphere.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.12: How do the brains of men and womsn differ?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: Gender Differences in the Brain

 

  1. In women’s brains, the proportions of white and gray matter are _____ in both hemispheres.
  2. a) different
  3. b) greater than men’s
  4. c) less than men’s
  5. d) the same

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.12: How do the brains of men and womsn differ?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: Gender Differences in the Brain

 

  1. Compared to a typical male brain, a typical female brain has more gray matter in the area that processes _____
  2. a) visual-spatial relationships.
  3. b) emotional perception.
  4. c) speed of thought.
  5. d) self-image.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.12: How do the brains of men and womsn differ?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: Gender Differences in the Brain

 

  1. Before we know what differences between typical male and typical female brains mean, we need research that looks for links between these brain differences and _____
  2. a) gender.
  3. b) intelligence.
  4. c) behavior.
  5. d) speed of processing.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.12: How do the brains of men and womsn differ?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: Gender Differences in the Brain

  1. The endocrine system consists of various _____ that create and release _____
  2. a) glands; hormones.
  3. b) neurons; neurotransmitters.
  4. c) glial cells; hormones.
  5. d) glands; acetylcholine.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 63

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. The pituitary gland produces _____
  2. a) melatonin.
  3. b) PTH.
  4. c) growth hormone.
  5. d) sex hormones.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 64

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. The _____, often referred to as the master gland because it activates other glands, is located _____
  2. a) pituitary gland; just above the kidneys.
  3. b) pineal gland; in the lower neck.
  4. c) pituitary gland; near the hypothalamus.
  5. d) pineal gland; just above the kidneys.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 64

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and wakefulness, is produced by the _____ gland.
  2. a) pineal
  3. b) pituitary
  4. c) parathyroid
  5. d) thymus

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 64

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Our metabolism, the rate at which food is converted to energy, is controlled by a hormone released by the _____
  2. a) parathyroid.
  3. b) adrenal glands.
  4. c) pancreas.
  5. d) thyroid.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. In order to have the right balance of calcium and magnesium in our bloodstream, we need a functional _____ gland.
  2. a) thyroid
  3. b) parathyroid
  4. c) adrenal
  5. d) thymus

Answer: b The parathyroid glands produce PTH, parathyroid hormone, which regulates the levels of calcium and magnesium in our bloodstream.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Despite having a massive infection, Lindsey’s white blood cell count remained low. This could be due to a malfunction of her _____
  2. a) thymus.
  3. b) parathyroid.
  4. c) thyroid.
  5. d) thalamus.

Answer: a The thymus signals the body to produce more white blood cells when threatened by microorganisms that can cause disease.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Andrew has Type I diabetes. He wishes his _____ would produce the right amount of _____ so he would not have to have daily injections.
  2. a) adrenal glands; epinephrine
  3. b) pancreas; corticoids
  4. c) pancreas; insulin
  5. d) pituitary; glycogen

Answer: c The pancreas regulates the body’s blood sugar levels by releasing insulin and glucagon into the blood stream. In diabetes, too little insulin is produced.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. _____, produced by the _____ gland(s), plays a role in activating the _____ nervous system.
  2. a) Testosterone; gonads; central
  3. b) Epinephrine; adrenal; sympathetic
  4. c) Epinephrine; adrenal; parasympathetic
  5. d) Progesterone; pituitary; sympathetic

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Activated by the _____, gonads release _____
  2. a) thymus; estrogen.
  3. b) pineal gland; testosterone.
  4. c) pituitary; corticoids.
  5. d) pituitary; sex hormones.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Choden was just nearly hit by a car. His adrenal gland just dumped _____ into his bloodstream.
  2. a) glucogon
  3. b) thymosin
  4. c) corticoids
  5. d) emergogen

Answer: c A group of adrenal hormones called corticoids are involved in the fight-or-flight syndrome that is activated in such situations.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. Samuel still felt enraged hours after he was cut off on the highway, and he wanted to hit somebody. This may be because his _____ glands are still signaling his brain, maintaining this response to the earlier threat.
  2. a) thymus
  3. b) sex
  4. c) pineal
  5. d) adrenal

Answer: d Animal research suggests that corticoids, produced by the adrenal glands, may signal the brain to maintain fight-or-flight status long after the original threat has passed.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: The Endocrine System

 

  1. _____ are segments of DNA located on _____
  2. a) Genes; chromosomes.
  3. b) Chromosomes; genes.
  4. c) Autosomes; genes.
  5. d) Genotypes; chromosomes.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Except for sperm and egg cells, the nuclei of normal body cells contain _____ chromosomes.
  2. a) 23
  3. b) 46
  4. c) 21
  5. d) 69

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. The Human Genome Project’s goal is to identify the _____ of all genes and their locations on the _____
  2. a) mutations; nuclei.
  3. b) make-up; genotype.
  4. c) source; chromosomes.
  5. d) function; chromosomes.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Matched pairs of chromosomes, both carrying genetic information for particular traits, are called _____
  2. a) dominant-recessive.
  3. b) sex chromosomes.
  4. c) autosomes.
  5. d) polygenic.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 65

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Arlo carries a gene for tallness, but he is fully-grown and only 5 feet tall. Tallness is his _____, shortness is his _____
  2. a) phenotype; genotype.
  3. b) polygenic inheritance; genotype.
  4. c) genotype; phenotype.
  5. d) sex-linked gene; expressed gene.

Answer: c The genotype is the genetic make-up; the phenotype is the actual trait.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

  1. Kalsang has a gene for a bone disease, but he does not have the disease. Which of the following could be a reason this may have happened?
  2. a) The gene is sex-linked.
  3. b) The gene is dominant.
  4. c) The gene is recessive.
  5. d) The gene is fragile.

Answer: c When a gene is recessive, its expression is prevented by the dominant gene in the pair.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Some traits are influenced by many genes. This is called _____
  2. a) multifactorial inheritance.
  3. b) dominant-recessive pairing.
  4. c) phenotypal clustering.
  5. d) polygenic inheritance.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Sex-linked inheritance means which of the following?
  2. a) The gene is on an X or a Y chromosome.
  3. b) The gene is dormant until after puberty.
  4. c) The gene is only inherited by females.
  5. d) The gene is only active in males.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

  1. Patti is passing on a mutated gene on her X chromosome. Why is her son more likely to express the mutation in his phenotype than her daughter is?
  2. a) Males are more likely to inherit the bad copy of a gene whenever there is one.
  3. b) Males do not have a second X chromosome that might have a good copy of the gene.
  4. c) Estrogen will silence a mutated gene once her daughter experiences puberty.
  5. d) Her daughter’s Y chromosome will probably have a good copy of that gene to offset the bad one.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

  1. Twin studies and studies of adopted children allow behavioral geneticists to research the _____
  2. a) polygenic nature of inheritance.
  3. b) relative contributions of genes and environment.
  4. c) ways genes always win over environment.
  5. d) ways environment always wins over genes.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 67–68

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

 

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

 

  1. The branch-like structures that take in information are the _____, whereas the long, tail-like structures that transmit information down the length of the neuron are _____.

Answer: dendrites; axons

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 41–42

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Structure of the Neuron

Textbook LO 2.3: What does each part of the neuron do?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. It is not the strength of the neural message that determines how strongly we experience something, but rather the _____ and the _____.

Answer: speed/rate; number/how many impulses or action potentials

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 43

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurons transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Neurotransmitters have the ability to bind with receptors located on _____ and _____.

Answer: dendrites; cell bodies or somas

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 44

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. _____ is the neurotransmitter known for affecting movement and causing muscle contractions in humans.

Answer: Acetylcholine

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 46

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. The neurotransmitter _____ is suspected to play a role in attention-deficit disorder.

Answer: dopamine

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 46

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Imagine you are playing in a championship basketball game. You have just taken a fall while trying to get a rebound and your ankle begins to hurt. Moments later, you notice the pain in your ankle seems to have subsided. You attribute this pain relief to a release of _____, which is a type of neurotransmitter that relieves pain.

Answer: endorphins

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 46

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Neurotransmitters

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves not in _____.

Answer: bone or the skull or backbone/spine

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 47

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The _____ nervous system mobilizes the body’s resources in an emergency.

Answer: sympathetic

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 48

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. All sensory information from the peripheral nervous system reaches the brain through the _____.

Answer: spinal cord

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The _____ handles unconscious functions so critical to life that damage to it is life threatening.

Answer: hindbrain; brain stem; medulla

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. After a brain injury, Joelle had difficulty maintaining her posture and coordinating smooth movements. She most likely sustained injury to her _____.

Answer: cerebellum

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 49

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The _____ regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, emotional behaviors and sleep/wake cycles

Answer: hypothalamus

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 51

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. Two deficits typically observed in individuals with damage to the hippocampus are _____ and _____.

Answer: difficulty forming new memories; navigation or spatial skills or learning our way around

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 51–52

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The cerebrum is devised primarily of the following brain components: _____, _____, and _____.

Answer: cerebral cortex; corpus callosum; cerebral hemispheres (OR right hemisphere; left hemisphere; corpus callosum)

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 52

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. The outermost layer of the brain, called the _____, is mostly responsible for higher mental functions such as language, memory, and thinking.

Answer: cerebral cortex

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 52

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. The human cerebral cortex appears to have many folds or wrinkles called _____; the purpose of these wrinkles is _____.

Answer: convolutions; to allow the large cerebral cortex to fit within the skull

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 53

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Components of the Cerebrum

Textbook LO 2.8: What are the components of the cerebrum?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. The _____ allows for voluntary body movement and is located within the _____ lobe.

Answer: motor cortex; frontal

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 57

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. Danielle knows exactly what she wants to say, but is having great difficulty saying it. The few times she has spoken since her car accident, friends and family have reported that her speech is very slow, labored, and poorly articulated due to her brain injury. Danielle likely suffers from _____.

Answer: Broca’s aphasia or damage to Broca’s area

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. Jordan can reach into his backpack and find his set of keys without looking. His ability to identify this stimulus solely by touch is afforded to him by his _____ lobe.

Answer: parietal

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 59

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

 

  1. The brain’s ability to adapt and/or reorganize as a result of an injury is called _____.

Answer: plasticity

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 61

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

 

  1. A _____ results when an artery is blocked and the blood supply to a particular area of the brain is cut off.

Answer: stroke

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 62

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

 

  1. While driving, you notice that the car in front of you has come to a screeching halt. You, in turn, slam on the breaks. During this time, your sympathetic nervous system is activated due to your _____ glands’ production of the neurotransmitters _____ and _____.

Answer: adrenal; epinephrine; norepinephrine

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 65

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Endocrine System

Textbook LO 2.13: What are the functions of the glands of the endocrine system?, APA LO 1.1a

 

  1. Except for the _____ and _____, the nuclei of normal human body cells contain _____ pair(s) of chromosomes.

Answer: egg cell; sperm cell; 23

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

 

  1. When a trait is influenced by both genes AND the environment, it is said to have a _____ pattern of inheritance.

Answer: multifactorial

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 66

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

 

  1. Behavioral geneticists study twins and adopted people in order to help us understand the interaction of _____.

Answer: genes and environment or nature and nurture

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 67–68

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Explain at least three of the following techniques used to study the brain: EEG, CT scan, MRI, PET scan, fMRI. What is the significance of these brain-imaging techniques?

 

Answer:

 

  • Electrodes placed on the scalp allow for the measurement of brain waves. Beta waves suggest mental and/or physical activity. Alpha waves suggest relaxation. Delta waves suggest sleep. Computerizing these waves allows for the study of various disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, etc.
  • CT scan: Rotating X-rays produce cross-sectional images of the various brain structures. This allows for the detecting of tumors, brain injuries, etc.
  • MRI: This scanning technique offers detailed images of the brain. It allows for the discovery of various brain abnormalities without exposing people to harmful X-rays.
  • PET scan: This imaging technique shows brain activity in various locations. It can offer information such as how much oxygen is being used, how much glucose is being consumed, and how various substances affect the brain. This tool affords scientists the ability/potential to unlock some of the brain’s mysteries.
  • fMRI: This imaging technique allows for the study of both the structure AND activity of the brain. It offers more precise information as compared to the PET scan.

 

Brain-scanning techniques have helped us learn much about brain anatomy, structures, and activity. They have allowed scientists to not only study the abnormal, but also what is normal or expected. Once scientists know what should be happening in the brain, they will be better able to detect when things are going awry. Overall, these techniques have played a large role, and will continue to do so, in the development of treatments.

 

Page Ref: 39–41

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Explain in detail how information is sent from one neuron to the next.

 

Answer: The information, once received from the dendrite or cell body, travels down the length of the neuron via the axon. The axon then splits into the axon terminals, which house the synaptic vesicles. The vesicles merge with the membrane and then release neurotransmitters into the synapse, or the junction between the two neurons. Some of the neurotransmitters will fit into the receptor sites on the dendrites or cell bodies of a nearby neuron. If they do, that particular neurotransmitter binds with that receptor site. Once binding occurs, the information carried by the neurotransmitter is sent to the next neuron. When neurotransmitters do not find receptor sites, they are often broken down, reabsorbed, and recycled for the next time around. They may also have not had a chance to bind if reuptake occurred.

 

Page Ref: 42–44

Textbook LO 2.4: Hoe do neurons transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Aiden was hit by a drunk driver and sustained a severe injury to his left frontal lobe. What should Aiden and his family expect now? What difference, if any, might Aiden’s age make on the situation?

 

Answer: If Aiden is an adult, his impairments may be numerous. Because research suggests that the frontal lobe houses the motor cortex, we can speculate that voluntary muscle movement on his right side will be affected. He may lose the ability to move, or he may have much impairment in moving the right side of his body. Second, research tells us that Broca’s area is in the left frontal lobe, so Aiden will either have difficulty producing speech or not be able to produce speech at all. (This is called Broca’s aphasia.) Finally, the frontal lobe houses the frontal association areas. Many abilities come from this region of the brain, such as impulse control, thinking, planning, motivation, and emotional responses. Thus, it is likely that Aiden will have impairments in those areas. For example, Aiden could become more impulsive and not think of the consequences of his behaviors. He may not think ahead due to his problems with planning. His thinking abilities may be greatly impaired. He may demonstrate a lack of motivation. Maybe most important is that Aiden will likely not be the same person he was before the accident. His family may see drastic changes in emotional behavior or personality.

 

If Aiden happens to be a very young child, the picture may not be as grim. Very young children have a higher degree of brain plasticity in which parts of their brain can take over for injured sites. In that case, Aiden will likely have some impairment, but not to the degree an adult would.

 

Page Ref: 57–59

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Discuss the difference between phenotype and genotype and why the phenotype may be different from the genotype in an individual.

 

Answer: The genotype is the actual genetic make-up, the genes on an individual’s chromosomes. The phenotype comprises the actual traits the person has. Genotype remains stable, but environmental factors can influence whether a gene is active or expressed.

 

There may be a dominant-recessive pattern. In a dominant-recessive pairing, the dominant gene will stop the recessive gene from being expressed in the phenotype. Multifactorial inheritance (or the influence of the environment) may mean genetic potential is not reached. Someone with genes for tallness, for example, may experience malnutrition so they don’t achieve their potential height.

 

Page Ref: 66

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Describe the two different types of twins and explain their significance to the field of psychology.

 

Answer: Identical twins occur when one egg is fertilized by one sperm. After fertilization, the egg splits into two, thereby creating two eggs with the same genetic material. Fraternal twins happen when two eggs are released at the same time and the eggs are fertilized by different sperm.

 

Fraternal twins are no more genetically similar than any sibling pairs from the same biological mom and dad.

 

Behavioral geneticists are those in the field of psychology who dedicate their careers to studying the effects of heredity and environment on behavior. Twin studies help behavioral geneticists unravel environmental versus genetic influences on traits and characteristics. This is especially true in the case of monozygotic twins reared together and apart. Because they share 100% of the same DNA, researchers can begin to figure out which traits are inherited or learned from the environment.

 

Page Ref: 67–68

Textbook LO 2.14: How does heredity affect physical and psychological traits?, APA LO 1.1a

Topic: Genes and Behavioral Genetics

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

  1. Discuss on what basis you would decide between doing an MRI or an fMRI imaging study on a patient.

Answer: An MRI would be useful only for determining changes in structure. The fMRI would be necessary to show both structures and activity.

Page Ref: 40

Textbook LO 2.1: What does the electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal about the brain?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: Imaging Techniques

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Can neurons fire at a constant rate all of the time? Why or why not?

Answer: No. Immediately after a neuron fires, it enters the refractory period. This is a short break or a resting time that lasts about 1 to 2 milliseconds.

Page Ref: 43–44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurons transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b:

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. In terms of neural firing, how can we tell the difference between a strong stimulus (such as a stray dog running toward you) and a weak stimulus (such as seeing a butterfly)?

Answer: The strong stimulus will cause more neurons to fire at the same time, whereas the weak stimulus will cause only a few neurons to fire at the same time. In addition, a strong stimulus will cause those neurons to fire at a very fast rate (several hundred times per second), whereas the weak stimulus will cause the neurons to fire at a much slower rate.

Page Ref: 43–44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurons transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. How do neurons receive information once the neurotransmitters are in the synapse?

Answer: Though dendrites are the primary receivers of signals carried by neurotransmitters, the membranes of cell bodies also have this ability. Both dendrites and cell bodies have receptor sites that allow the neurotransmitter to fit in (or bind) to the appropriate receptor sites. This binding allows the neuron to receive, or take in, the message/information that is being transmitted.

Page Ref: 43–44

Textbook LO 2.4: How do neurons transmit messages through the nervous system?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Explain how neurotransmitter levels are maintained.

Answer: The cell body continues to manufacture them; they may be broken down into component parts and recycled to be used again; the process of reuptake places them back in the axon terminal, ready for immediate use again.

Page Ref: 45

Textbook LO 2.5: How do neurotransmitters work?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Communication between Neurons

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. What might result if an individual’s sympathetic nervous system is overactive?

Answer: An overactive sympathetic nervous system would likely result in an extended stay in the “fight-or-flight” mode. It may also result in repeated fight-or-flight responses. The body would experience increased heart rate, increased pulse rate, increased respiratory rate, decreased digestion, and so on. This could lead to chronic anxiety or perhaps even cardiac problems.

Page Ref: 48

Textbook LO 2.6: What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Peripheral Nervous System

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What will likely result from an injury to the limbic system?

Answer: The limbic system includes both the amygdala and the hippocampus. As a whole, the limbic system is involved in expression of emotions, memory, and motivation. Thus, injury to this site will likely involve impairments in emotional expression, memory, and motivation.

Page Ref: 51

Textbook LO 2.7: What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Central Nervous System

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Discuss the changes that might take place with damage to the prefrontal lobes.

Answer: Multiple functions may be impaired or lost, including cognition and executive processing.

Judgment may be impaired. It may become difficult to inhibit one’s impulses, manage emotions, or anticipate the consequences of what you do. Instead of cognitive tasks seeming like a unified whole, they may seem fragmentary and disconnected. There may be personality changes and behavior changes. This question may also be answered with examples of such changes.

Page Ref: 57

Textbook LO 2.10: Which functions are associated with each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?, APA LO 5.2a

Topic: The Four Cerebral Lobes

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. In terms of brain development, what might account for the differences in processing speed and level of thinking between children and adults?

Answer: The brain continues to develop through young adulthood. The frontal lobes do not become fully myelinated until about age 12. The frontal lobes also undergo growth spurts (due to synaptogenesis) well into adulthood. With more brain matter, more synapses, and full myelination, level of thinking and processing speed (in addition to many other skills) substantially increase from childhood to adulthood.

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What is the significance of brain plasticity?

Answer: Plasticity is the brain’s ability to reorganize in light of any change in the brain. This plasticity allows for a range of events to occur, from learning a new skill all the way to relearning how to speak after a stroke. Plasticity allows the brain to adapt to changes in input or damage.

Page Ref: 61

Textbook LO 2.11: How does the brain change across the lifespan?, APA LO 4.1d

Topic: The Ever-Changing Brain

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

 

Test Bank for Wood 5e

Chapter 4: Consciousness

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts?
  2. a) thinking
  3. b) cognition
  4. c) conscience
  5. d) consciousness

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 116

Textbook LO 4.1: How do psychologists view consciousness?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: What Is Consciousness?

Item Analysis:

% correct 70 a = 4 b = 21 c = 5 d = 70 r = .20

% correct 78 a = 7 b = 0 c = 15 d = 78 r = .19

 

  1. Because of modern brain-imaging techniques, today’s psychologists think of consciousness largely in terms of _____
  2. a) altered states.
  3. b) neurobiology.
  4. c) subjective experience.
  5. d) behaviorism.

Answer: b Brain imaging has allowed us to accumulate a large body of evidence leading to better understanding of the neurological basis of consciousness.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 116

Textbook LO 4.1: How do psychologists view consciousness?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Views of Consciousness

 

  1. American psychologists did not study consciousness for many decades because of the influence of _____
  2. a) behaviorism.
  3. b) psychoanalysis.
  4. c) humanistic psychology.
  5. d) dualism.

Answer: a Behaviorists urged the abandonment of the study of consciousness, believing it could not be studied scientifically because it was not observable or measureable.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 116

Textbook LO 4.1: How do psychologists view consciousness?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Views of Consciousness

 

  1. Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of _____
  2. a) self-awareness.
  3. b) self-absorption.
  4. c) waking consciousness.
  5. d) altered states of consciousness.

Answer: d All of these states are altered states of consciousness as they change our awareness, thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions of the external environment.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 117

Textbook LO 4.1: How do psychologists view consciousness?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Views of Consciousness

Item Analysis: % correct 92 a = 4 b = 0 c = 4 d = 92 r = .37

 

  1. What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?
  2. a) daydreaming
  3. b) meditative absorption
  4. c) stream of consciousness
  5. d) altered state of consciousness

Answer: d The use of drugs or hypnosis “alters” our consciousness.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 117

Textbook LO 4.1: How do psychologists view consciousness?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Changing Views of Consciousness

Item Analysis: % correct 91 a = 2 b = 5 c = 2 d = 91 r = .37

 

  1. Observing many cultures might lead us to think that a desire to alter our state of consciousness is _____
  2. a) universal.
  3. b) a mental illness.
  4. c) fairly rare.
  5. d) a modern problem.

Answer: a So many ways of altering consciousness are practiced by so many cultures that some experts think producing altered states is a universal human need.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 117

Textbook LO 4.2: What is the connection between altered states of consciousness and culture?, APA LO 5.2e

Topic: Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. The use of methods, including drugs, that alter the state of consciousness are _____
  2. a) condemned by all religions as evil.
  3. b) used in some religious rituals.
  4. c) seen as immoral in all religious traditions.
  5. d) viewed as an illness in all religious traditions.

Answer: b An example would be the use of peyote as part of the practices of the Native American Church.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 117

Textbook LO 4.2: What is the connection between altered states of consciousness and culture?, APA LO 5.2e

Topic: Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

 

  1. Within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors is known as _____
  2. a) circadian rhythm.
  3. b) hypothalamic phases.
  4. c) metabolism.
  5. d) transduction.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 117

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. What is the most significant environmental cue that influences the circadian rhythm?
  2. a) the temperature
  3. b) food
  4. c) light
  5. d) sleep

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 118

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. The _____, also called the biological clock, consists of a pair of tiny structures in the brain’s hypothalamus that control the timing of the circadian rhythms.
  2. a) amygdala
  3. b) suprachiasmatic nucleus
  4. c) pineal gland
  5. d) hypothalamic nucleus

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 118

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. When referring to the circadian rhythm, which of the following reflects the correct order of processing?
  2. a) retina, optic nerve, suprachiasmatic nucleus
  3. b) retina, pineal gland, hypothalamus
  4. c) optic nerve, retina, suprachiasmatic nucleus
  5. d) pineal gland, retina, optic nerve

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 118

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. How many physiological and psychological functions are affected by the circadian rhythms?
  2. a) two; sleep and wakefulness
  3. b) three; sleep, wakefulness, and temperature
  4. c) virtually every one that has been studied
  5. d) four; sleep, wakefulness, temperature, and digestion

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 118

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. During daylight hours, we are less likely to feel sleepy because the _____ gland does not produce _____
  2. a) adrenal; adrenaline.
  3. b) hypothalamic; cortisol.
  4. c) SCN; acetylcholine.
  5. d) pineal; melatonin.

Answer: d The pineal gland normally does not produce melatonin during daylight hours. Melatonin helps induce sleep.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 118

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Most people’s _____ level peaks before noon, making this the time they are likely to be most _____
  2. a) serotonin; mellow.
  3. b) dopamine; happy.
  4. c) melatonin; sleepy.
  5. d) cortisol; alert.

Answer: d The majority of individuals have their highest levels of alertness in the morning before noon when their cortisol level is at its highest.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 118–119

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Bao finds that she feels least alert during the day around 3 p.m., and she does her best work before noon every day. This is most likely because her circadian rhythm causes her cortisol to be _____ in the morning before noon and _____ in the afternoon around 3 p.m.
  2. a) higher; lower
  3. b) lower; higher
  4. c) absent; peaking
  5. d) balanced; unbalanced

Answer: a We feel more alert when our cortisol levels are higher.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Jackie is an airline pilot who frequently flies across time zones. She tries to compensate for this disturbance in her circadian rhythm by adjusting her light exposure with artificial lighting. This will work best if she does which of the following?
  2. a) gets bright light in the early morning and avoids it during the evening
  3. b) makes sure light exposure is equal throughout the day
  4. c) avoids bright light in the morning and gets it in the afternoon
  5. d) it doesn’t matter, this does not work

Answer: a By mimicking a normal light cycle with morning light, while avoiding evening light that is bright, Jackie may help restore her circadian rhythm.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. If you managed a manufacturing plant that ran three rotating shifts, what could you do to help your employees remain in a more normal biological rhythm?
  2. a) provide plenty of caffeinated drinks
  3. b) keep noise down on the evening and night shifts
  4. c) rotate shifts no more often than every 3 weeks
  5. d) provide super bright lighting for the night shift

Answer: c Rotating shifts no more often than every 3 weeks has been shown to lessen the disruption of circadian rhythms.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Your _____ night is when your biological clock is telling you to go to sleep.
  2. a) circadian
  3. b) objective
  4. c) biological
  5. d) subjective

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. If you work during the time your biological clock is telling you to go to sleep, your _____ will go up, and your _____ will go down.
  2. a) pulse; blood pressure
  3. b) accident rate; productivity
  4. c) metabolism; weight
  5. d) serotonin; dopamine

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Studies have shown that exposing people to _____ during their last 4 hours of sleep can help shift workers who experience a sleep-phase delay.
  2. a) low light levels
  3. b) cooler temperatures
  4. c) warmer temperatures
  5. d) bright light

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

 

  1. Through what means did researchers discover the characteristics of two major types of sleep?
  2. a) the polysomnogram
  3. b) the microelectrode
  4. c) behavioral observations
  5. d) the fMRI

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Which theory of sleep suggests that we sleep to rest our bodies and minds and rejuvenate ourselves for the next day?
  2. a) the place theory
  3. b) the circadian theory
  4. c) the evolutionary theory
  5. d) the restorative theory

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Why We Sleep

 

  1. According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body.
  2. a) restorative theory
  3. b) adaptive theory
  4. c) psychoanalytic theory
  5. d) dream theory

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Why We Sleep

Item Analysis: % correct 100 a = 100 b = 0 c = 0 d = 0 r = .00

 

  1. Which theory of sleep is based on the premise that sleep evolved to keep humans out of harm’s way?
  2. a) restorative
  3. b) melatonin
  4. c) circadian
  5. d) ecobehavioral

Answer: c The circadian, or evolutionary, theory of sleep proposes that keeping us out of harm’s way during the dark of night gave sleep an adaptive value.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Why We Sleep

 

  1. Alexander Borbley combined two main theories of sleep and explained that the urge to sleep is partly a function of how long we have been awake and which of the following?
  2. a) how much we slept the last night
  3. b) the time of day
  4. c) the weather
  5. d) whether we are an owl or a lark

Answer: b Borbley synthesized the circadian and restorative theories of sleep. The influence of how long we have been awake reflects the restorative theory. The time of day reflects the circadian influence.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Why We Sleep

 

  1. How many stages of the sleep cycle are there?
  2. a) 2
  3. b) 4
  4. c) 7
  5. d) 5

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Each stage of the sleep cycle lasts about how long?
  2. a) an hour
  3. b) 30 minutes
  4. c) 15 minutes
  5. d) 90 minutes

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. When _____ waves outnumber _____ waves, we enter the first stage of sleep.
  2. a) theta; delta
  3. b) beta; alpha
  4. c) REM; NREM
  5. d) alpha; beta

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. _____ waves are associated with deep relaxation.
  2. a) Alpha
  3. b) Beta
  4. c) Spindle
  5. d) REM

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Slow wave sleep begins in stage _____, when an EEG shows about 20% of the brain waves are _____ waves.
  2. a) two; alpha
  3. b) four; theta
  4. c) three; delta
  5. d) one; transition

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. The stage of deepest sleep shows 50% of brain waves are _____ waves.
  2. a) alpha
  3. b) delta
  4. c) theta
  5. d) beta

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Falling asleep occurs in Stage _____ with irregular brain waves and occasional _____ waves.
  2. a) 2; beta
  3. b) 4; alpha
  4. c) 2; alpha
  5. d) 1; alpha

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Mekala is in REM sleep. Which of the following describes that type of sleep?
  2. a) Her eyes are moving under her eyelids and her brain is highly active.
  3. b) Her arms, legs, and trunk are jerking and moving.
  4. c) She is totally still, nothing is moving.
  5. d) She is talking in her sleep.

Answer: a During REM sleep, the large muscles of the body are paralyzed while the brain becomes highly active and eye movements take place under closed eyelids.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Janice was taking part in an experiment in the sleep lab. She was given a verbal task to learn under two conditions. In condition one, she was deprived of NREM sleep the following sleep period. In condition two, she was deprived of only REM sleep. Under which condition was she likely to do better on the verbal task the next day, and why?
  2. a) Condition one, because we spend more time in NREM than REM sleep.
  3. b) Condition one, because memory is consolidated during NREM sleep.
  4. c) Condition two, because memory is consolidated during REM sleep.
  5. d) Condition two, because we spend more time in REM than NREM sleep.

Answer: a Research has demonstrated that performance on motor and verbal tasks improves after a sleep period even when deprived of NREM sleep. However, if deprived of REM sleep, performance does not improve.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Jax was deprived of REM sleep during an experiment in the sleep lab last night. We could reasonably expect that tonight he will _____
  2. a) have trouble falling asleep.
  3. b) have more Stage 4 sleep.
  4. c) spend more time dreaming.
  5. d) have more delta wave sleep.

Answer: c When deprived of REM sleep, people make up for it by spending more time in REM in the following sleep periods.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Last night I dreamed I saw an alien spacecraft gleaming in a field of flowers in the fog. It was a vivid, colorful dream. I was in _____ sleep.
  2. a) NREM
  3. b) slow-wave
  4. c) delta wave
  5. d) REM

Answer: d Dreaming takes place primarily in REM sleep.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

 

  1. Of the following, who has the longest average sleep time?
  2. a) teenagers
  3. b) children aged 6 to puberty
  4. c) newborns
  5. d) people over age 65

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. Who has the highest percentage of REM and slow-wave sleep?
  2. a) teenagers
  3. b) young adults
  4. c) the elderly
  5. d) infants

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. Who is likely to live the longest? An adult who sleeps _____
  2. a) 4 hours per night.
  3. b) 9 hours per night.
  4. c) 7 hours per night.
  5. d) 5 hours a night.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. According to a large survey in North America, Europe and Japan, up to two-thirds of _____ experience insomnia and wake up off and on through the night on a regular basis.
  2. a) teens
  3. b) young adults
  4. c) older adults
  5. d) children

Answer: c Older adults experience significant changes in sleep patterns, including disrupted or fragmented sleep through the night and insomnia.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. Margaret sleeps erratically but when all that time is added up, she sleeps about 14 hours a day. Based on the research on sleep across the lifespan, Margaret is likely to be _____
  2. a) elderly.
  3. b) an adolescent.
  4. c) in her 30s.
  5. d) an infant.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. If they are free from scheduling pressures, teens tend to sleep _____
  2. a) less than 4 hours a night.
  3. b) longer than elementary-aged children.
  4. c) mostly during daytime hours.
  5. d) in short naps of about 40 minutes each.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. The total number of hours a person sleeps tends to _____ dramatically across the life span.
  2. a) decrease
  3. b) increase
  4. c) shift toward more morning sleep
  5. d) increase in REM

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. The stage of life in which changes in sleep patterns are most often experienced as decreasing the quality of life is _____
  2. a) adolescence.
  3. b) young adulthood.
  4. c) older adulthood.
  5. d) middle adulthood.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 122

Textbook LO 4.7: How does age influence sleep patterns?, APA LO 5.1d

Topic: Variations in Sleep

 

  1. According to research on sleep deprivation, a small amount of sleep loss ____
  2. a) decreases cognitive ability.
  3. b) is not a problem at all.
  4. c) is a problem only for women, not men.
  5. d) does not affect people older than age 12.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. Researchers deprived one group of sleep for 35 hours and then gave them a verbal learning task. They compared brain activity between the sleep and no-sleep groups during the learning task. Which of the following was true of the no-sleep group compared to those that slept normally?
  2. a) The no-sleep group had lower overall activity in their brain.
  3. b) The no-sleep group had higher overall activity in their brain.
  4. c) In the no-sleep group, the language perception areas of the temporal lobes were more active.
  5. d) In the no-sleep group, the language perception areas of the temporal lobes were inactive.

Answer: d The sleep deprived group showed almost no activation of their language perception area and performed worse on the learning task, demonstrating cognitive impairment from sleep deprivation.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. Dr. Khan has been on call at St. Joseph’s emergency room for the past thirty-six hours. What area in Dr. Khan’s brain will likely have increased activity levels to try to compensate for his sleep-deprived state?
  2. a) parietal lobe
  3. b) temporal lobe
  4. c) occipital lobe
  5. d) caudate nucleus

Answer: a

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. The difference in brain activation patterns between people who were deprived of sleep and people who slept normally show us that _____
  2. a) learning is significantly impaired by sleep deprivation.
  3. b) most people aren’t significantly affected by sleep deprivation.
  4. c) because the brain works harder when sleep deprived, we may perform better.
  5. d) because the prefrontal cortex shuts down, we can’t learn very well.

Answer: a Although areas of the brain may try to compensate, learning is impaired to a significant degree by sleep deprivation.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. The _____ increase(s) activation when we are sleep-deprived, and can reduce impairment in learning to a small degree.
  2. a) frontal cortex
  3. b) parietal lobe
  4. c) geniculate nucleus
  5. d) occipital lobe

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. Paige is a conscientious student. Even on the weekend, she never stays up past 2 a.m. to socialize. She works weekends from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. and does not nap. On Monday, she has four classes. On Monday night, she goes to bed early, and the rest of the week she gets 7 to 8 hours of sleep. Which of the following is most likely?
  2. a) There is no difference in her ability to learn on Monday compared to the rest of the week.
  3. b) Her learning ability is impaired on Monday by sleep deprivation.
  4. c) Her learning ability will peak on Monday after her refreshing weekend.
  5. d) Her learning ability is improved Monday by having some recreation on weekend nights.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

 

  1. _____ is the correct term for the group of sleep disturbances in which behaviors and physiological states that normally occur only in the waking state, take place during sleep.
  2. a) Nightmares
  3. b) Parasomnias
  4. c) Sonambulences
  5. d) Dyssomnias

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. About _____ of people report sleep problems.
  2. a) half
  3. b) one-third
  4. c) one-tenth
  5. d) three-fourths

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. _____ is the correct term for the group of sleep disorders that involve the timing, quantity, quality of sleep.
  2. a) Parasomnias
  3. b) Apneas
  4. c) Insomnias
  5. d) Dyssomnias

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. _____ is the scientific term for the sleep disorder in which a person talks in his/her sleep.
  2. a) Sleep apnea
  3. b) Somnambulism
  4. c) Narcolepsy
  5. d) Somniloquy

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. A(n) _____ is characterized by a sleeper who, while in Stage 4 sleep, springs up in his/her bed screaming, appears in a state of panic, then falls back to sleep within a few minutes having no memory of the event the next day.
  2. a) nightmare
  3. b) episode of sleep apnea
  4. c) case of insomnia
  5. d) sleep terror

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. A(n) _____ is characterized by an individual who, typically while in REM sleep, experiences frightening dream content that he/she remembers vividly upon waking.
  2. a) nightmare
  3. b) episode of sleep apnea
  4. c) case of insomnia
  5. d) sleep terror

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Which of the following sleep disorders is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep that usually last 10 to 20 minutes?
  2. a) parasomnia
  3. b) insomnia
  4. c) somnambulism
  5. d) narcolepsy

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Kate is a well-respected, 15-year employee at a small office. Because her co-workers have known her for so long, they know that if she falls asleep in the middle of a meeting, they should just leave her alone until she wakes up a few minutes later. It is clear that her coworkers are aware that Kate suffers from _____
  2. a) sleep terrors.
  3. b) somniloquy.
  4. c) REM rebound.
  5. d) narcolepsy.

Answer: d Narcolepsy is the sleep disorder that results in sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep at any time of the day.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Which of the following correctly names the sleep disorder in which a person stops breathing numerous times throughout the night?
  2. a) narcolepsy
  3. b) mid-phase insomnia
  4. c) sleep apnea
  5. d) somnambulism

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. _____ is diagnosed when an individual has difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, has poor quality sleep, and/or wakes too early.
  2. a) Narcolepsy
  3. b) Restless leg syndrome
  4. c) Insomnia
  5. d) Sleep apnea

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 125

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Jeff and Franco are both involved in a sleep study. Jeff wakes up screaming early in the night. The researchers notice that although his eyes are open, he doesn’t seem to be totally awake. Additionally, recordings show Jeff’s heart rate is very fast. Franco wakes up much later in the sleep period because he was frightened by the content of his dream. He was able to report to the researcher a vivid account of the dream upon waking. Jeff likely experienced a _____, whereas Franco experienced a _____
  2. a) sleep terror; somnambulism.
  3. b) sleep terror; nightmare.
  4. c) nightmare; somniloquy.
  5. d) nightmare; sleep terror.

Answer: b The description of Jeff’s experience exemplifies a sleep terror, whereas Franco, because he can remember it and is awakened by it, is having a nightmare.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Skyla Smith is going camping with her mom and dad. She asks if her friend Jessica can come along. Jessica’s parents agree, but inform the Smiths that Jessica has somnambulism. This means that _____
  2. a) Jessica talks in her sleep.
  3. b) Jessica experiences periods of time when she stops breathing while sleeping.
  4. c) Jessica may fall asleep out of the blue with no apparent reason.
  5. d) Jessica walks in her sleep.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. Pete cannot figure out why he is tired all of the time, because he sleeps for about 8 hours a night. His wife wants him to go see a doctor because of his terrible snoring and the gasping she hears throughout the night. Pete likely has which of the following sleep disorders?
  2. a) sleep apnea
  3. b) narcolepsy
  4. c) insomnia
  5. d) somniloquy

Answer: a The snoring, gasping, and feeling tired even after 8 hours of sleep suggests sleep apnea.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

 

  1. While having a vivid REM dream, forebrain activity resembles that of _____
  2. a) great creativity.
  3. b) a delusional disorder.
  4. c) a genius.
  5. d) normal, waking activity.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. The bizarre, illogical events of dreams can be explained in part because the prefrontal cortex is _____ during REM dreams.
  2. a) suppressed
  3. b) overactive
  4. c) fluctuating
  5. d) paralyzed

Answer: a The prefrontal cortex is associated with rational thought. The fact that it is suppressed (less active) during REM dreaming would be consistent with the irrational nature of many REM dreams.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. Brain activity is taking place _____ during REM dreams.
  2. a) only in memory areas
  3. b) in visual, emotional and other areas
  4. c) only in association areas
  5. d) mostly in the prefrontal cortex

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. Certain neurotransmitters that exert inhibiting influences on impulsive thoughts and acts during the day are less plentiful during REM dreaming. They are _____ and _____
  2. a) dopamine; acetylcholine.
  3. b) endocannabinoid; endorphine.
  4. c) adrenaline; cortisol
  5. d) serotonin; norephinephrine

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

  1. The uninhibited, _____-stimulated activity of dreaming has been compared to a psychotic mental state.
  2. a) serotonin
  3. b) under
  4. c) dopamine
  5. d) cortisol

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. Janae was having a bad dream in which she was watching the dream while a tiger was about to jump on her. She turned the tiger into a beautiful striped butterfly and it floated down to rest softly on her finger. Janae was having a _____ dream.
  2. a) NREM
  3. b) narrative
  4. c) lucid
  5. d) night terror

Answer: c In lucid dreaming, the dreamer has developed the ability to maintain a level of awareness and control over their dream content.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. Jeff has been having unpleasant, recurring dreams and is feeling a bit depressed. His friend, a good therapist, suggested he try to _____ in order to stop them in a healthy way.
  2. a) stay awake for several days
  3. b) take heavy duty sleeping pills for a month
  4. c) admit himself to a psych ward
  5. d) work on lucid dreaming

Answer: d Lucid dreaming has been recommended as a method of controlling unwanted, recurring, dreams and as an intervention for depression. While not always successful, it is a harmless method to try.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

 

  1. What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe?
  2. a) poetic and realistic
  3. b) literal and symbolic
  4. c) latent and manifest
  5. d) delusional and hallucinatory

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. Interpretation of the _____ content of a dream is expected to reveal the _____ content.
  2. a) latent; manifest
  3. b) manifest; latent
  4. c) manifest; sublimated
  5. d) metaphorical; denotative

Answer: b Freud believed that the manifest, or known, content of our dreams reflected their latent, or hidden, content.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

Item Analysis: % correct 61 a = 28 b = 61 c = 5 d = 5 r = .21

 

  1. According to Freud, the important, underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the _____
  2. a) deep content.
  3. b) latent content.
  4. c) manifest content.
  5. d) subliminal content.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

Item Analysis: % correct 78 a = 0 b = 78 c = 22 d = 0 r = .42

 

  1. A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the _____ content.
  2. a) deep
  3. b) latent
  4. c) manifest
  5. d) subliminal

Answer: b Latent content is the hidden content represented by symbols.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

Item Analysis: % a = 0 b = 75 c = 20 d = 5 r = .34

 

  1. Freud believed that dreams functioned to satisfy unconscious _____ and _____ desires.
  2. a) narcissism; selfish
  3. b) homicidal; suicidal
  4. c) sexual; aggressive
  5. d) childlike; naive

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. Modern psychologists, for the most part, _____ Freudian interpretation of dreams.
  2. a) agree with
  3. b) have moved away from
  4. c) do therapy through
  5. d) research

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. The _____ theory proposes that dreams are thinking while asleep and represent a broad range of the dreamer’s _____
  2. a) activation-synthesis; random neural firing.
  3. b) evolutionary; threats.
  4. c) cognitive; concerns.
  5. d) cognitive; repressed wishes.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. The idea that dreams consist of random firing of brain cells during REM, but are significant in terms of the meaning we give them, represents which theory?
  2. a) Freudian
  3. b) cognitive
  4. c) activation-synthesis
  5. d) evolutionary

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. From an evolutionary perspective, dreams should serve a protective function. The fact that we often dream about _____ supports that view.
  2. a) sex
  3. b) eating
  4. c) social success
  5. d) handling threats

Answer: d Dreams do often involve threatening situations in which we could conceivably find ourselves. Such dreams would be protective because they allow us to rehearse strategies for managing those threats.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 127

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

 

  1. Brain imaging studies support the conclusion that meditation _____
  2. a) is a form of sleep.
  3. b) induces an altered state of consciousness.
  4. c) is a quick fix for health problems.
  5. d) is not helpful to health.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 128

Textbook LO 4.12: What are the benefits of meditation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Meditation

 

  1. Which of the following is group of techniques that involve focusing attention and reducing distraction to achieve a state of altered consciousness and enhance well-being?
  2. a) psychotherapy
  3. b) dissociation
  4. c) meditation
  5. d) acupuncture

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 128

Textbook LO 4.12: What are the benefits of meditation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Meditation

 

  1. Which of the following is required in order to benefit from meditation?
  2. a) a spiritual belief
  3. b) self-discipline
  4. c) a licensed therapist
  5. d) a decade of practice

Answer: b Meditation techniques are practiced with and without a spiritual belief, can be self-taught, and require self-discipline and practice in order to benefit.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 128

Textbook LO 4.12: What are the benefits of meditation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Meditation

 

  1. Some researchers suggest that people become hypnotized because they want to and they have an expectation that it will work. These researchers are supporting the _____
  2. a) theory of dissociated control.
  3. b) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis.
  4. c) mere expectation theory of hypnosis.
  5. d) neodissociation theory of hypnosis.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 129

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. The _____ suggests that the behavior of a hypnotized person is a function of that person’s expectations about how subjects behave under hypnosis.
  2. a) neodissociation theory of hypnosis
  3. b) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
  4. c) Freudian interpretation
  5. d) theory of dissociated control

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 129

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. The _____ proposes that hypnosis induces a split between two aspects of the control of consciousness, the planning function and the monitoring function.
  2. a) neodissociation theory of hypnosis
  3. b) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
  4. c) Freudian interpretation
  5. d) theory of dissociated control

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. Using the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis, which of the following explains how Judy was able to be successfully hypnotized?
  2. a) Judy had an unconscious desire to undergo hypnosis.
  3. b) Judy’s executive function control was weakened.
  4. c) Judy experienced a split between her planning and monitoring functions.
  5. d) Judy had a high level of expectation for the hypnosis to work.

Answer: d The sociocognitive theory of hypnosis focuses on expectations and openness.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 129

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. Using the neodissociation theory of hypnosis, which of the following explains how Shawn was able to be successfully hypnotized?
  2. a) Shawn had an unconscious desire to undergo hypnosis.
  3. b) Shawn’s executive function control was weakened.
  4. c) Shawn experienced a split in his planning and monitoring functions.
  5. d) Shawn had a high level of expectation for the hypnosis to work.

Answer: a The neodissociation theory proposes that hypnosis induces a split between two aspects of the control of consciousness—the planning and the monitoring functions.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. The theory of hypnosis that suggests that one aspect of the control of consciousness becomes a “hidden observer” is the _____ theory.
  2. a) dissociated control
  3. b) sociocognitive
  4. c) neodissociation
  5. d) neo-Freudian

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. When researchers agree with the explanation that hypnosis works for some people because their executive functioning weakens enough to allow a true altered state of consciousness, they are in favor of the _____
  2. a) theory of dissociated control.
  3. b) Freudian theory of hypnosis.
  4. c) neodissociation theory of hypnosis.
  5. d) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. The _____ purports that hypnosis weakens the control that the executive function exerts over other subsystems of consciousness.
  2. a) neodissociation theory of hypnosis
  3. b) sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
  4. c) Freudian interpretation
  5. d) theory of dissociated control

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. Using the theory of dissociated control, which of the following explains how Fran was able to be successfully hypnotized?
  2. a) Fran had an unconscious desire to undergo hypnosis.
  3. b) Fran’s executive function control was weakened.
  4. c) Fran experienced a split in his planning and monitoring functions of his consciousness.
  5. d) Fran had a high level of expectation for the hypnosis to work.

Answer: b The dissociated control model proposes that hypnosis weakens the control of the executive function over other parts of consciousness.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. Which of the following is true about hypnosis?
  2. a) It is a matter of willful faking.
  3. b) Hypnosis can enable people to relive the past.
  4. c) Skin conductance indicates that 89% are truly hypnotized.
  5. d) Hypnosis can enable otherwise impossible feats of strength.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 129

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

 

  1. A substance taken into the body that alters mood, perception, or thought is called _____
  2. a) a psychotherapeutic.
  3. b) a pseudoneurotransmitter.
  4. c) a psychoactive.
  5. d) a controlled substance.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Drugs affect our brain through interaction with the _____ system.
  2. a) neurotransmitter
  3. b) frontal lobes
  4. c) thinking
  5. d) cerebrospinal fluid

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. A feeling of physical pleasure is brought about by an increase in the availability of _____ in the _____
  2. a) serotonin; limbic system.
  3. b) dopamine; nucleus accumbens.
  4. c) GABA; nodes of Ranvier.
  5. d) acetylcholine; prefrontal lobes.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Which of these drugs mimic the effects of the brain’s own endorphins?
  2. a) heroin
  3. b) alcohol
  4. c) marijuana
  5. d) amphetamine

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Depressants act on the _____ neurotransmitters to produce a _____ effect.
  2. a) endorphin; revved up
  3. b) glutamate; high energy
  4. c) GABA; sedating
  5. d) dopamine; sedating

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. What class of drugs triggers the sympathetic nervous system?
  2. a) endorphins
  3. b) opiates
  4. c) depressants
  5. d) stimulants

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
  2. a) heroin
  3. b) cocaine
  4. c) alcohol
  5. d) marijuana

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

Item Analysis:

% correct 97 a = 0 b = 97 c = 2 d = 2 r = .21

% correct 97 a = 0 b = 97 c = 3 d = 0 r = .23

 

  1. Darwood became addicted to _____ and now his production of endorphins has been suppressed.
  2. a) alcohol
  3. b) marijuana
  4. c) amphetamine
  5. d) opiates

Answer: d Opiates mimic the effects of endorphins. Too much use of opiates can suppress the brain’s production of its own endorphins.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Too much _____ from a combination of alcohol and depressants can result in _____
  2. a) GABA; death.
  3. b) dopamine; hyperactivity.
  4. c) acetylcholine; loss of memory.
  5. d) serotonin; a bad mood.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Death sometimes results from one dose of _____ due to extreme stress on the heart.
  2. a) alcohol
  3. b) an opiate
  4. c) heroin
  5. d) a stimulant

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. _____ mimics the effect of _____, which is involved in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
  2. a) Cocaine; epinephrine
  3. b) Heroin; adenosine
  4. c) Valium; GABA
  5. d) Alcohol; dopamine

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

 

  1. Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of _____
  2. a) endorphins.
  3. b) alcohol.
  4. c) cigarettes.
  5. d) LSD.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

Item Analysis:

% correct 95 a = 95 b = 3 c = 0 d = 3 r = .18

% correct 90 a = 90 b = 2 c = 5 d = 3 r = .21

  1. Which of the following fits the usual definition of a substance abuse problem?
  2. a) Physical withdrawal symptoms occur when use is stopped.
  3. b) Use is continued after several episodes in which it caused a problem(s).
  4. c) Tolerance is developed.
  5. d) There is craving to use every day.

Answer: b To be considered a substance abuse problem requires only that after use has negatively affected someone several times, they continue to use.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 131

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Which of the following factors must be present to identify use as addiction?
  2. a) daily use
  3. b) tolerance
  4. c) problems
  5. d) use for over one month

Answer: b Of the factors listed, only drug tolerance is a factor that must be present.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. _____ is the body’s and brain’s natural way of protecting itself against harmful substances.
  2. a) Tolerance
  3. b) Dependence
  4. c) Intolerance
  5. d) Withdrawal

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Withdrawal symptoms are usually _____ the effects the drug produces.
  2. a) the same as
  3. b) stronger than
  4. c) shorter than
  5. d) the opposite of

Answer: d Withdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the drug’s effects.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. When _____ occurs, a larger dose of the drug must be taken to achieve the same effect or high.
  2. a) intoxication
  3. b) withdrawal
  4. c) tolerance
  5. d) abuse

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. _____ drug _____ results from the body’s and brain’s natural ability to protect itself against harmful substances.
  2. a) Psychological; tolerance
  3. b) Physical; dependence
  4. c) Emotional; addiction
  5. d) Physical; withdrawal

Answer: b Tolerance is the brain’s effort to limit the action of the harmful drug by not responding to the drug’s presence as strongly. The result is physical drug dependence.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Which of the following correctly identifies factors in the risk for progressing from alcohol use to alcohol abuse or addiction?
  2. a) impulsivity, low response to alcohol
  3. b) impulsivity, high response to alcohol
  4. c) genes alone
  5. d) environment alone

Answer: a People who have a low response to alcohol have to drink more to become intoxicated and are more likely to become addicted. Impulsivity contributes to poor decision making regarding drug use.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Which of the following indicates substance abuse?
  2. a) The person becomes addicted to that substance.
  3. b) The person grows tolerant of the effects of the substance.
  4. c) The person experiences withdrawal when the substance is gone.
  5. d) Use of the substance interferes with the person’s work and/or relationships.

Answer: d Continuing use of a drug that is causing problems in the individual’s life is the main indicator of substance abuse.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. _____ refers to the unpleasant physical or psychological symptoms an individual may experience after stopping the use of a substance.
  2. a) Withdrawal
  3. b) Substance abuse
  4. c) Tolerance
  5. d) Dependence

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Which of the following individuals would be considered to have a substance abuse problem?
  2. a) Dottie, who frequently has a fight with her partner when she drinks
  3. b) Sam, who has a few drinks while watching Monday Night Football
  4. c) Janna, who drinks two martinis when she has business luncheons
  5. d) Rob, who goes out with coworkers and enjoys a beer or two every week night

Answer: a Dottie’s substance use is interfering with her social functioning.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Holly quit smoking years ago, but sometimes she really misses the routine of going out for smoke breaks and starting the morning with coffee and a cigarette. At those times, Holly is struggling with _____
  2. a) tolerance.
  3. b) psychological dependence.
  4. c) physical dependence.
  5. d) withdrawal.

Answer: b Holly is missing how the habits associated with smoking made her feel, not how the nicotine made her feel.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing _____
  2. a) drug tolerance.
  3. b) drug detoxification.
  4. c) withdrawal.
  5. d) overdrawal.

Answer: a The phenomenon of needing more and more of a drug as time goes on is called drug tolerance.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

Item Analysis: % correct 95 a = 95 b = 3 c = 3 d = 0 r = .18

 

  1. The desire to avoid the unpleasant symptoms of _____ supports continued addiction.
  2. a) intoxication
  3. b) tolerance
  4. c) abuse
  5. d) withdrawal

Answer: d Stopping use of a drug one is addicted to results in withdrawal symptoms that can range from unpleasant to severely painful and life-threatening.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Angela has been off cocaine for 6 months. She goes for a salon appointment in the part of town where she used to meet her dealer and suddenly has a strong craving to use again. This is due to the important role _____ plays in addiction.
  2. a) learning
  3. b) access
  4. c) stress
  5. d) emotion

Answer: a Because she learned to associate the places she obtained or used cocaine with the drug’s effects, the neighborhood presented her with drug-taking cues.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

 

  1. Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called _____
  2. a) stimulants.
  3. b) depressants.
  4. c) narcotics.
  5. d) psychogenics.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

Item Analysis:

% correct 96 a = 96 b = 2 c = 2 d = 0 r = .42

% correct 96 a = 96 b = 0 c = 3 d = 3 r = .52

 

  1. The class of drugs called amphetamines are known as _____
  2. a) depressants.
  3. b) intoxicants.
  4. c) stimulants.
  5. d) entactogens.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Stimulants have which of the following effects?
  2. a) increased alertness and blood pressure
  3. b) increased cerebral blood flow
  4. c) increased sleepiness and sleep
  5. d) increased appetite and decreased pulse

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Your roommate Eli just disclosed to you that he took an excessive amount of a drug. You immediately take him to the hospital. He is experiencing high blood pressure, is jittery, and a scan of his brain indicates there are problems with the blood flow to his brain. You tell him to try to get some sleep, but he says he can’t. Which of the following drugs did Eli likely consume?
  2. a) a depressant
  3. b) a stimulant
  4. c) a hallucinogen
  5. d) a narcotic

Answer: a Stimulants decrease blood flow to the brain, cause restlessness and prevent sleep.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Which of the following are stimulants?
  2. a) nicotine
  3. b) marijuana
  4. c) alcohol
  5. d) heroin

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. La’nae really wants to quit smoking tobacco. Which of the following would be good advice, according to research?
  2. a) Get hypnosis for stopping smoking.
  3. b) Try over-the-counter nicotine patches.
  4. c) Use small doses of speed just until she is out of withdrawal.
  5. d) Medicate the withdrawal with alcohol.

Answer: b Research indicates hypnosis is not effective for quitting smoking, but over-the-counter nicotine patches help about 1 in 5 smokers quit.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms _____
  2. a) do not exist.
  3. b) include changes in blood flow and activity in the brain.
  4. c) are very minor.
  5. d) can kill you.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Taking 100 or more milligrams of _____ can cause psychotic, aggressive, manic or paranoid behavior.
  2. a) caffeine
  3. b) nicotine
  4. c) ecstasy
  5. d) amphetamine

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Methamphetamine is _____ and can be _____
  2. a) cheap; safe in small doses.
  3. b) highly addictive; fatal.
  4. c) a depressant; therapeutic.
  5. d) a “smart” drug; useful for taking exams.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 133

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Cocaine stimulates the neurotransmitter _____ in the _____ pathways and continued use can destroy the user’s ability to _____
  2. a) dopamine; reward; feel pleasure.
  3. b) endorphin; pleasure; feel pain.
  4. c) acetylcholine; stimulant; dream.
  5. d) serotonin; mood pathways; control moods.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

 

  1. Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
  2. a) cocaine
  3. b) alcohol
  4. c) heroin
  5. d) marijuana

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

Item Analysis:

% correct 97 a = 0 b = 97 c = 2 d = 2 r = .21

% correct 97 a = 0 b = 97 c = 3 d = 0 r = .23

 

  1. The category of drugs called _____ decrease activity in the central nervous system.
  2. a) hallucinogens
  3. b) entactogens
  4. c) stimulants
  5. d) depressants

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. There are two classes of drugs in the category that decreases central nervous system activity. They are _____ and _____
  2. a) marijuana; ecstasy.
  3. b) sleeping pills; endocannibinoids.
  4. c) legal; illegal.
  5. d) sedative-hypnotics; narcotics.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. _____ is an example of a stimulant, whereas _____ is an example of a narcotic.
  2. a) Caffeine; marijuana
  3. b) Crack; crystal meth
  4. c) Oxycontin; cocaine
  5. d) Crank; morphine

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. Vince was rushed to the hospital because he consumed heroin and could not walk or talk. His mother also found some barbiturates near him and knew he swallowed some of those, too. Once he is examined by the medical staff, what will the physician likely tell Vince’s mother to expect?
  2. a) Vince will likely experience hallucinations and delusions.
  3. b) Vince may need surgery to repair the hole in his nasal septum.
  4. c) Vince will regain consciousness, but will have to be restrained due to severe paranoia.
  5. d) The physician will explain that Vince is likely to die.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. Drugs such as Xanax and Valium are classified as _____
  2. a) narcotics.
  3. b) barbiturates.
  4. c) amphetamines.
  5. d) minor tranquilizers.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

  1. Narcotics are _____
  2. a) opium-based drugs that produce a pain-relieving and calming effect.
  3. b) any type of illegal drug sold on the street.
  4. c) drugs that can increase alertness.
  5. d) drugs to which an individual cannot become easily addicted.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. Vicodin, codeine, and oxycontin are examples of _____
  2. a) benzodiazepines.
  3. b) hypnotics.
  4. c) narcotics.
  5. d) barbiturates.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. Gina found her roommate very drowsy, confused and uncoordinated. She saw an empty glass that smelled of alcohol and a container of phenobarbital on the table. Gina should _____
  2. a) let her roommate sleep it off.
  3. b) make her roommate get up and walk around.
  4. c) give her roommate coffee.
  5. d) get her roommate emergency medical help.

Answer: d The combination of alcohol and barbiturates can be fatal.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. Sherri was worried that her son might be using drugs. She had observed him come home in a bad mood and come out of his room in a short time seeming euphoric. A while later, he was drowsy, sat around, and couldn’t even concentrate on his favorite television show. The next day he stayed home from school with nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. Sherri should be concerned because from these observations it appears her son might have taken _____
  2. a) ecstasy.
  3. b) LSD.
  4. c) heroin.
  5. d) barbiturates.

Answer: c Heroin produces a sudden euphoria followed by drowsiness, inactivity and impaired concentration. Within 6 to 24 hours, withdrawal symptoms can begin. They include nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps and increasing pain.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

 

  1. The class of drugs called _____ alter perception, mood, and can cause sensations that have no basis in external reality.
  2. a) hallucinogens
  3. b) entactogens
  4. c) stimulants
  5. d) depressants

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Which of the following are in the category of drugs that alter perception of time and space, alter mood, and can produce feelings of unreality and hallucinations?
  2. a) heroin
  3. b) methamphetamine
  4. c) marijuana
  5. d) zoloft

Answer: c Although not usually thought of as being in this category, marijuana can produce all of these effects.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Josh started smoking pot on a regular basis when he was 13 and continued to do so into his late twenties. Now he is 40. Which of the following is most likely according to research?
  2. a) After ten years clean, there is no sign he ever used pot.
  3. b) He is unable to feel normal pleasures.
  4. c) He has episodes of mania and depression.
  5. d) He is 40 years old, but his brain has aged more rapidly.

Answer: d Use of marijuana that begins in adolescence results in the cerebral cortices aging more rapidly than normal.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Jodi denied that being high on pot had anything to do with her decision to go home with a guy she’d just met and have unprotected sex. Her older sister did not believe her because she knew that marijuana _____
  2. a) can damage the hippocampus.
  3. b) can reduce prefrontal cortex response to danger alerts.
  4. c) can inhibit sexual responses.
  5. d) can shut down the amygdala.

Answer: b Marijuana can reduce the capacity of the prefrontal cortex to respond to danger alerts from the amygdala and correlates with risky behavior among teens and young adults. It is this aspect of the effects of marijuana that relates to Jodi’s behavior.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Especially when started in adolescence, marijuana use can permanently stunt the development of neurons in the _____, impairing _____ permanently.
  2. a) parietal; perception
  3. b) motor cortex; reaction time
  4. c) hippocampus; memory
  5. d) cerebellum; coordination

Answer: c Marijuana appears to permanently stunt development of hippocampal neurons in the brains of young users. The effect may lead to permanent memory impairment.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. LSD, also known as _____, produces hallucinatory experiences that can last for up to _____ hours.
  2. a) MDMA; two
  3. b) crack; one
  4. c) ecstasy; twenty-four
  5. d) acid; twelve

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 136

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Drugs that are formulated to mimic the effects of hallucinogens while supposedly avoiding negative side effects are known as _____
  2. a) lab drugs.
  3. b) manufactured drugs.
  4. c) designer drugs
  5. d) club drugs

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. MDMA, more commonly known as _____, works primarily by affecting the availability of the neurotransmitter _____.
  2. a) ecstasy; serotonin
  3. b) crack; dopamine
  4. c) a date rape drug; GABA
  5. d) speed; acetylcholine

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 136

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Withdrawal symptoms of anxiety, hyperactivity, insomnia, and poor appetite are related to which drug?
  2. a) LSD
  3. b) ecstasy
  4. c) marijuana
  5. d) speed

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 135

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

  1. Withdrawal symptoms of depression, fatigue, and negative mood (sad, scared, annoyed) are typical of which drug?
  2. a) LSD
  3. b) ecstasy
  4. c) marijuana
  5. d) speed

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 136

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Users of _____ report feelings of understanding and acceptance of others along with a pleasant state of consciousness.
  2. a) LSD
  3. b) ecstasy
  4. c) marijuana
  5. d) speed

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 136

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

  1. Hallucinogen Persistent Perceptual Disorder can result from use of _____
  2. a) LSD.
  3. b) ecstasy.
  4. c) marijuana.
  5. d) speed.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 136

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Hallucinogens

 

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

 

  1. In the Native American Church in the United States, _____ is the controversial substance used during some of their rituals.

Answer: peyote

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 117

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

Textbook LO 4.2: What is the connection between altered states of consciousness and culture?, APA LO 5.2e

 

  1. The _____, housed by the hypothalamus, is the brain’s biological clock that controls the circadian rhythm.

Answer: suprachiasmatic nucleus

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 118

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

 

  1. Based on the amount of light in the environment, the _____ gland is instructed to secrete or withhold the hormone _____, which plays an important role in sleep.

Answer: pineal; melatonin

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 118

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

 

  1. In terms of the circadian rhythm, the amount of light in the environment is “read” by the _____ of each eye, which then sends that message via the _____ to the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Answer: retina; optic nerve

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 118

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

 

  1. Aiden, a pilot, was disturbed to learn that chronic jet lag can result in permanent deficits in _____.

Answer: memory

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 119

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Disruption in Circadian Rhythms

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

 

  1. During the 1950s, sleep researchers were able to study factors such as brain waves and muscle tension that were apparent during the sleep period. This information was recorded on individual _____, which were then analyzed.

Answer: polysomnograms

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Sleep

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Glenn supports the notion that we sleep to reenergize ourselves for the next day. Based on this information, it is clear that Glenn is referring to the _____ theory of sleep.

Answer: restorative

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 120

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Why We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. The _____ theory of sleep (sometimes called the _____ theory) proposes that sleep is necessary to keep humans out of harm’s way during the night.

Answer: circadian; evolutionary OR adaptive

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 120

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Why We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.5: How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Based on EEG evidence, the brain is _____ active during REM sleep.

Answer: highly (or very)

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 121

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: How We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. _____ is the neurotransmitter released during REM sleep that is responsible for increasing blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.

Answer: Epinephrine

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 121

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: How We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. _____ waves are most apparent during Stage 4 sleep, whereas sleep spindles surface during _____.

Answer: Delta; stage 2

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 121

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: How We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Kendra’s EEG recordings showed that she spent more time in REM sleep the night after she stayed awake for 24 straight hours. Kendra experienced _____.

Answer: REM rebound

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 121

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: How We Sleep

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. In his sleep research, Drummond and others (2000) found that the _____ lobes were very active on the rested group but very inactive in the sleep-deprived group. Moreover, they found the _____ lobes of the sleep-deprived group to be highly active, perhaps to overcompensate for their sleep deprived condition.

Answer: temporal; parietal

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 123

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

 

  1. _____ refer to the category of sleep disturbances such as walking or talking that take place during sleep, whereas _____ are a group of sleep disturbances categorized by difficulties in the timing, quantity, or quality of sleep.

Answer: Parasomnias; dyssomnias

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 123–124

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Sleep Disorders

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. If left untreated, severe sleep apnea can disturb physiological functioning and result in _____ and _____.

Answer: high blood pressure; high cholesterol; heart problems; cognitive deficits; mild brain damage; death

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 124

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Sleep Disorders

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. In terms of sleep research, NREM dreams are typically less memorable than _____ dreams.

Answer: REM

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 126

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

 

  1. In terms of neurotransmitters, we tend to have less _____ and _____ when we are dreaming, but more _____.

Answer: serotonin; norepinephrine; dopamine

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 126

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

 

  1. The _____ of dreaming suggests that dreams are nothing more than your brain’s attempt at making sense of the random firing of brain cells.

Answer: activation-synthesis hypothesis

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 127

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Interpreting Dreams

Textbook LO 4.11: How do the various theories explain dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

 

  1. Examples of the benefits of meditation are _____, _____, and _____, all of which are supported by research.

Answer: lower blood pressure; lower cholesterol; better able to control emotions; increased relaxation; enhanced well-being; increased cardiovascular health

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 128

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Meditation

Textbook LO 4.12: What are the benefits of meditation?, APA LO 5.3b

 

  1. The neurological basis for physical pleasure is an increase of the neurotransmitter _____ acting on the nucleus accumbens (which is part of the _____) to induce a pleasurable effect.

Answer: dopamine; limbic system

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 131

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: How Drugs Affect the Brain

Textbook LO 4.14: How do drugs affect the brain’s neurotransmitter system?, APA LO 3.2e

 

  1. Two of the main indicators of physiological drug dependence are _____ and _____.

Answer: tolerance; withdrawal

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 132

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

 

  1. Based on the research by Manzardo and colleagues (2002), animals become addicted to and prefer this drug even when offered all the drugs to which they have become addicted. This drug is _____.

Answer: cocaine

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 134

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Stimulants

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

 

  1. _____, the active ingredient in marijuana, seems to have many receptors located in the _____ of the brain, thereby affecting memory.

Answer: THC (tetrahydrocannabinol); hippocampus

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 135

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Hallucinogens

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

 

  1. _____, brief recurrences of previous trips, can occur suddenly and without warning in those who used LSD.

Answer: Flashbacks

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 136

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Hallucinogens

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

 

  1. The designer drug _____ is known to impair cognitive functions such as memory and attention. Moreover, it is believed to have devastating effects on the neurotransmitter _____, which regulates mood, appetite, sleep, and impulse control.

Answer: ecstasy (or MDMA); serotonin

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 136

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Hallucinogens

Textbook LO 4.18: How do hallucinogens affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Describe the biological process underlying the circadian rhythm. Be sure to add how the amount of light in our environment plays a role.

 

Answer: Bright light in our environment enters our eyes and reaches our retina. The photoreceptors within the retina send that information down the optic nerves to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is housed in the hypothalamus within our brain. The hypothalamus (from Chapter 2) controls the endocrine system. The pineal gland, which is part of the endocrine system, either secretes a hormone called melatonin, or does not, depending on how much light is in the environment. In low or no light, melatonin is secreted, which will cause a person to get sleepy. In brighter light, no melatonin will be secreted, which will help the person maintain wakefulness. Thus, we feel sleepy when it is dark and typically more awake in a well-lit environment.

 

Page Ref: 118–119

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Define hypnosis and name two situations in which it has been successfully used. Additionally, use the three major theories of hypnosis to help explain this phenomenon.

 

Answer: Hypnosis is a procedure through which one person uses suggestion to induce changes in the thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, or behavior of another person, the subject. Hypnosis has been used successfully in the fields of dentistry, medicine, and psychotherapy. It has been particularly useful in helping individuals control pain.

 

Because not everyone can successfully experience hypnosis, some researchers have done research to try to figure out why. Three different theories have emerged. The first is the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis. Using pain control as an example, this theory suggests that the individual wants and expects the hypnosis to work to help control the pain, so it does. That it “works” is reflected in the person’s behavior and physiological changes.

 

The neodissociation theory of hypnosis suggests that the hypnosis encourages a split in the person’s consciousness; more specifically, between the planning and monitoring aspects of the consciousness. Thus, the hypnotist makes suggestions to control the pain and the planning aspect carries them out. The monitoring function is separated from conscious awareness becoming a hidden observer without interfering in the hypnotic effects.

 

The theory of dissociated control states hypnosis weakens the control of executive function over other subsystems of consciousness. This permits the hypnotist’s suggestions to influence those systems directly. The hypnotized person’s responses are not thought to be controlled by normal cognitive functions.

 

Page Ref: 129–130

Textbook LO 4.13: How and why does hypnosis influence the body and mind?, APA LO 1.1d

Topic: Hypnosis

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Discuss the general effects of stimulants. Illustrate with at least two specific examples of drugs in this category and their effects.

 

Answer: Stimulants increase activity in the central nervous system. They help users stay awake and feel more alert. They increase blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate and reduce cerebral blood flow. They can cause nervousness, restlessness, shaking and interfere with sleep. All stimulants have addictive potential.

 

Caffeine and nicotine are common stimulants. Caffeine increases alertness. It is possible to experience withdrawal symptoms from caffeine. These can include nervousness, headaches, irritability and decreased alertness or drowsiness. Nicotine is highly addictive.

 

Another category of stimulants, amphetamines, increase arousal and alertness, give a rush of energy, decrease appetite, and relieve fatigue. Too high a dose can result in mania, paranoia, or psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Cocaine, derived from coca leaves, can be taken in several forms: sniffed, smoked or injected. Cocaine stimulates dopamine in the reward pathways, causing a rush of pleasure. Continued use can damage the reward system so that pleasure can’t be experienced normally. Cocaine in high doses can cause heart problems and stroke. It is highly addictive.

 

Page Ref: 133–134

Textbook LO 4.16: How so stimulants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Stimulants

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Discuss the general effects of depressants. Illustrate with at least two specific examples of drugs in this category and their effects.

 

Depressants are a broad category of drugs that slow down central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) activity by acting on GABA receptors. Some drugs in this category also affect the endorphin and dopamine systems; these can relieve pain and/or create a rush of pleasure. They create a calming, sedating effect, slow down bodily functions, and reduce sensitivity to outside stimulation. Taken together, different depressants have addictive effects and are potentially deadly. This category includes alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers, and narcotics. All have addictive potential.

 

Alcohol slows down reaction time, impairs depth and motion perception, causes slurred speech and poor coordination, impairs memory formation and judgment. By acting on the GABA system, alcohol reduces activity in the prefrontal cortex, decreasing behavioral control.

 

Barbiturates slow down CNS activity and cause users to become drowsy and confused. Barbiturates create deficits in coordination, reflexes, thinking and judgment. Depending on the dose, they can act as anesthetics, sedatives, or sleeping pills. Minor tranquilizers, benzodiazepines such as Xanax, Valium, and Librium are used to treat several medical and psychological disorders. They can interfere with memory and other cognitive functions. Narcotics are drugs derived from the opium poppy. They produce pain-relieving and calming effects and can create a rush of euphoria. Opium, as paregoric, is still used to treat severe diarrhea because it paralyzes intestinal muscles. Morphine is prescribed for pain relief. Codeine is used for pain relief and cough suppression, Oxycontin and Vicodin are used to treat pain. Heroin is an illegal narcotic that gives users a rush of euphoria followed by drowsiness, impaired concentration, and later, withdrawal symptoms. All narcotics have high addictive potential.

 

Page Ref: 134–135

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Discuss the difference between substance use, abuse and dependence.

 

Answer: Substance use refers to the consumption of substances for the purpose of altering perception, mood, or state of consciousness.

 

Substance abuse is the continued use of consciousness-altering substances even after they have begun to cause problems in functioning and life.

 

Substance dependence or addiction refers to developing tolerance to the substance as the body’s and brain’s way of trying to protect itself from too much of a harmful substance. When tolerance develops, a higher dose of the substance is needed to maintain the same effects. Dependence also involves craving, learned drug-taking cues, and withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped.

 

Page Ref: 132–133

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

  1. How would an injury to the hypothalamus affect the circadian rhythm?

Answer: The main structure involved in controlling the timing of our circadian rhythms, or our biological clock in general, is the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The hypothalamus houses the suprachiasmatic nucleus. If the hypothalamus were injured, the SCN would be at risk for not functioning properly, or even at all. This would absolutely result in disturbances in our natural circadian rhythm. Sleeping problems, alertness, and so on, would be of concern.

Page Ref: 118–119

Textbook LO 4.3: How do circadian rhythms affect psysiological and psychological functions?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: The Influence of Circadian Rhythms

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What are some techniques used to treat jet lag, and why is it so important to address the effects of chronic jet lag?

Answer: Jet lag can be treated with melatonin supplements and exposure to bright light in the morning hours and avoidance of bright light in the evening. Because chronic jet lag can produce memory deficits that may be permanent, it is important to treat it.

Page Ref: 119

Textbook LO 4.4: How do disruptions in circadian rhythms affect the body and mind?, APA LO 5.2b

Topic: Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why was the development of the EEG so significant as it pertains to sleep research?

Answer: It was the technology that was able to demonstrate the different brain waves that we experience when we sleep. Through EEG studies, we learned a great deal of information about the sleep stages, REM and NREM sleep, REM rebound, and other related issues.

Page Ref: 120–121

Textbook LO 4.6: What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: How We Sleep

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Based on the research presented in your textbook, why is pulling an “all-nighter” the night before a big exam such a poor choice?

Answer: When you pull an “all-nighter,” you are depriving yourself of sleep. Perhaps more importantly, you are depriving yourself of REM sleep. Research on sleep suggests that REM sleep is imperative to learning and the consolidation of memories after learning something new. Aside from impeding the learning and memory processes, sleep deprivation caused by pulling an “all-nighter” also causes poor attention, difficulty concentrating, and an irritable mood. Thus, when you get to the exam after studying all night, you are tired (and may even nod off), cranky, have poor attention, cannot really concentrate, and cannot effectively retrieve the information you learned the night before because it never really got in to begin with.

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.8: What are the effects of sleep deprivation?, APA LO 5.3b

Topic: Sleep Deprivation

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why is it that someone with somnambulism can walk around without falling?

Answer: Somnambulism involves a partial awakening of stage 4 sleep. Thus, the person is awake enough to maneuver his/her environment, but not awake enough to be completely conscious.

Page Ref: 123

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Sleep Disorders

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why do some individuals claim that people only dream in the REM stage of sleep?

Answer: Research clearly shows that people dream in both REM and NREM sleep. However, dreams appear to be more plentiful and much more vivid during REM sleep. Therefore, while research shows that dreams can and do occur in both REM and NREM sleep, it is likely that people remember their dreams during REM sleep.

Page Ref: 126

Textbook LO 4.10: What have researchers learned about dreams?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Content of Our Dreams

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why might psychological dependence upon a drug be more difficult to overcome than the physiological dependence?

Answer: Physical drug dependence often includes tolerance and withdrawal. When someone is physically dependent on a drug, he/she can go through detoxification/rehabilitation to get the drug out of his/her system. Once that arduous task is complete, the drug no longer has the same effect. Psychological dependence, on the other hand, is an irresistible urge or desire for the drug. The drug has created brain changes that result in craving. Psychological dependence also brings with it a strong learned component. Environmental cues can trigger an overwhelming need for the drug. These psychological aspects of dependence do not go away once the detox and withdrawal cycles are completed.

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Kerrie and Pam are college roommates. When they go to the bar, Pam notices that although she and Kerrie are about the same weight and height, Kerrie needs to drink a lot more alcohol than her before she feels the effects of the alcohol. Why should Pam be worried about Kerrie?

Answer: Kerrie could be manifesting tolerance. That is, she needs more alcohol to get the high. Additionally, it is clear that Kerrie needs a larger “dose” before she feels the effects of the alcohol. Thus, based on research, Kerrie is at high risk for and much more likely to become an alcoholic.

Page Ref: 132

Textbook LO 4.15: How do physical and psychological drug dependence differ?, APA LO 2.3d

Topic: Substance Abuse and Addiction

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why would a sedative be a poor choice for treating the condition of sleep apnea?

Answer: Sleep apnea, a potentially life-threatening sleep disorder, occurs when individuals stop breathing momentarily throughout the night. Because sedatives are classified as depressants (which slow functioning of the central nervous system), they would only compound or exacerbate this condition.

Page Ref: 124, 134

Textbook LO 4.9: What are the various sleep disorders?, APA LO 5.1a; LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Sleep Disorders; Depressants

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. Why is alcohol appropriately classified as a depressant even though some people report that drinking alcohol makes them more social and energetic?

Answer: Based on its effect on the brain, alcohol is indeed a depressant. Depressants slow down the central nervous system. People often feel more social, dance at parties or clubs, and perhaps even muster up the courage to strike up a conversation with someone they find attractive because their inhibitions are also slowed/lowered. When inhibitions are lowered, people find the “courage” to engage in more social behavior.

Page Ref: 134

Textbook LO 4.17: How do depressants affect behavior?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Depressants

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

 

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