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Marketing of High Technology Products and Innovations 3rd Edition by Jakki J. Mohr -Test Bank
Chapter 4: Market Orientation and Cross-Functional (Marketing-R&D) Interaction, Mohr, Sengupta, Slater (3/e, 2010)
- In a market oriented firm,
- there is no consistently dominant function.
- marketing typically plays the lead role.
- radical innovation is the norm.
- engineering and R&D are typically in the back seat.
- being at the forefront of technology is vital.
Answer: A Page: 104 moderate
- Critical activities in market oriented firms include all of the following except
- gathering market intelligence.
- disseminating intelligence throughout the firm.
- coordinated decision making.
- bottoms-up decision making.
- all are critical activities.
Answer: D Page: 104 moderate
- A market orientation is important for firms competing in high-tech industries for all of the following reasons except:
- Market oriented behaviors are generally more important in highly dynamic markets.
- The behaviors implicit in a market orientation are a fertile source of ideas for innovation.
- Market oriented behaviors facilitate the commercialization of innovations.
- Pinpoints areas for cost reduction efforts.
- All of the above are important reasons for firms competing in high-tech industries to adopt a market orientation.
Answer: D Page: 105 easy
- Market- oriented firms generategather a wide array of intelligence about all except
- current and future customer needs.
- competitors’ capabilities and strategies.
- emerging technologies both inside and outside of the industry.
- cost-reduction practices.
- all are the focus of market intelligence generation efforts.
Answer: D Page: 106 easy
- Proactive market-oriented firms tend to
- focus on customers expressed needs or existing competitive threats.
- experience “marketing myopia.”
- develop and introduce incremental innovations.
- suffer from “the innovator’s dilemma.”
- focus on customers latent and future need
Answer: E Page: 107 easy.
- Responding to customers’ expressed needs is most likely to lead to
- sustainable competitive advantage.
- incremental innovations.
- discovery of new market segments.
- radical innovations.
- increased employee retention.
Answer: B Page: 107 easy
- Market driving firms may
- seek to redefine the structure of the market.
- introduce an innovative value proposition that enables the firm to reduce, or even avoid, competition.
- be quite risk tolerant.
- try to develop anticipatory intelligence.
- All of the above.
Answer: E Page: 110 easy
- Which of the following approaches is useful for gathering anticipatory intelligence?
- Working closely with lead users.
- Standard market research approaches.
- Purchasing market research reports.
- Conducting surveys of customer satisfaction.
- Both a and b above.
Answer: A Page: 110 moderate
4-9 A boundaryless organization is most often associated with
- market driving.
- a proactive market orientation.
- a responsive market orientation.
- intelligence integration.
- intelligence dissemination.
Answer: E Page: 110 moderate.
4-10. Responsiveness to market intelligence involves all of the following except
- selection of target markets.
- development of products/services that address customer needs.
- positioning products in a way that produces both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.
- commitment to execution.
- providing feedback to customers.
Answer: E Page: 112 moderate
4-11 The type of knowledge that is most difficult for competitors to imitate is
- market knowledge.
- technical knowledge.
- explicit knowledge.
- tacit knowledge.
- often stored in databases.
Answer: D Page: 112 moderate.
4-12 Coordinated action is
- facilitated when one function, usually engineering, plays a dominant role in the organization.
- rarely hampered by organizational politics.
- key to successful execution of decisions.
- impeded by constructive conflict between different functions.
- both c and d above
Answer: C Page: 112 difficult
4-13 The scanning focus priority for Fast Followers (Analyzers) is on
- customer intelligence.
- competitor intelligence.
- technological intelligence.
- a and b above
- all of the above.
Answer: D Page: 116 moderate.
4-14 The organizational factor that research indicates has the greatest impact on creating a market orientation is
- a market-based reward system.
- top management advocacy.
- decentralized decision making.
- interfunctional coordination.
- informal communication processes.
Answer: A Page: 117 moderate
4-15. Firms that focus too narrowly on their established customers may be constrained in the strategies and technologies they choose to pursue. When this happens, they are said to suffer from:
- marketing myopia.
- core rigidities.
- tyranny of the served market.
- a competency trap.
- market misery.
Answer: C Page: 107 easy
- Team-based reward systems
- are most effective when all team members are rewarded equally.
- are most effective when team members are rewarded based on their position in the organization.
- should tie rewards to the completion of specific activities.
- should motivate organizational members to work cooperatively toward common goals.
- are de-motivators.
Answer: D Page: 120 moderate.
4-17. At Kodak, a marketing executive observed a lack of collaboration between marketing and R&D departments. An analysis of this communication gap would include:
- evaluation of spatial dynamics.
- evaluation of corporate culture.
- evaluation of communication frequency between departments.
- evaluation of formal and informal processes by which the departments communicate.
- all of the above
Answer: E Pages: 121-124 easy
4-18. Cooperation between marketing and R&D is most important in
- turbulent markets.
- stable markets.
- the early stage of a product development project.
- the early growth stage of the product life cycle.
- the maturity stage of the product life cycle.
Answer: C Page: 121 challenging
4-19. Greater R&D–marketing integration in technical activities is required for
- breakthrough innovations.
- incremental innovations.
- technology-oriented firms.
- market-oriented firms.
- all of the above
Answer: A Page: 121 moderate
4-20. Corporate culture in high tech firms
- is often an impediment to marketing-R&D collaboration.
- often favors engineering relative to marketing.
- is often shaped by executives who come from engineering.
- often manifests itself in engineering taking on many tasks traditionally thought of as marketing tasks.
- all of the above
Answer: E Page: 123 easy
4-21. The strategy of merging the interests of R&D and marketing is
Answer: B Page: 125 moderate
4-22. To gain credibility with engineers, marketers should
- ask a lot of questions.
- push marketing research results.
- clearly explain the value and process of marketing.
- develop more than a superficial understanding of products and technologies.
- all of the above
Answer: D Page: 125 moderate
4-23. Which of the following is not an effective strategy for increasing communication quality?
- Maximizing the frequency of interaction between marketing and R&D
- Use of formal channels of communication
- Developing clear organizational expectations about the exchange of information between functions
- Developing organizational goals that are superordinate to the goals of individual functions
- all are effective strategies
Answer: A Page: 125 challenging
4-24. Conflict between marketing and R&D
- should always be minimized.
- will lead to counterproductive relationships.
- is a sign of lack of respect.
- may reduce “groupthink”.
- is inevitable.
Answer: D Page: 126 moderate
Chapter 6: Marketing Research in High-Tech Markets
Mohr, Sengupta, Slater (3/e, 2010)
6-1 Which of the following is most useful for developing information that might lead to breakthrough products?
- survey research
- focus groups
- conjoint studies
- customer visit programs
- concept tests
Answer: D Page: 191 moderate
6-2 Which of the following is most useful for developing information that might lead to incremental innovations?
- customer visit programs
- empathic design
- focus groups
- lead user research
- guided intuition
Answer: C Page: 191 easy
6-3 Which of the following is not a particularly useful process for idea generation?
- focus groups
- depth interviews
Answer: A Page: 191 easy
6-4 Conjoint analysis
- is particularly useful for developing breakthrough products.
- enables the analyst to assess how potential customers make trade-offs among different product attributes.
- is not useful when there are more than three attributes under consideration.
- should not be used for making pricing decisions.
- both a & b
Answer: B Page: 192-193 moderate
6-5 A well-designed customer visit program offers the following benefits except
- interactive conversation.
- inclusion of multiple decision makers.
- firsthand knowledge.
- cross-functional understanding.
- statistical conclusion validity.
Answer: E Page: 194 moderate
6-6 The most successful customer visit programs
- are freeform in nature.
- focus on a specific customer type.
- are conducted by market researchers.
- are really “disguised” sales calls
- take every opportunity to ask questions.
Answer: E Pages: 195 moderate
6-7 ______________ is a research technique that focuses on understanding user needs through observation rather than from users’ direct articulation of their needs.
- Lead user research
- Conjoint analysis
- Empathic design
- Beta testing
- None of the above
Answer: C Page: 196 easy
6-8 ______________ should perform observational studies.
- Cross disciplinary teams
- Product development engineers
- Marketing researchers
- Product managers
Answer: A Page: 198 moderate
6-9 Empathic design is a research technique based on the idea that:
- intuition is not an effective guide for decision making.
- standard research tools provide the most useful information.
- customers should be able to quantify their needs.
- users may not be able to articulate their needs clearly.
- customers can envision the way new technology might be used.
Answer: D Page: 198 easy
6-10 Which of the following is not identified as an insight from empathic design?
- work-arounds, or ways that users have developed to cope with imperfect situations
- ways in which users have customized the product to their own needs
- unique usage situations for the product
- identification of what the high-tech company is technologically capable of delivering
- circumstances that prompt people to use a product or service
Answer: D Page: 197-199 easy
6-11 All are part of the five-step process to conduct empathic design except:
- quantifying the data.
- developing prototypes of possible solutions.
- reflection and analysis.
- brainstorming for solutions.
Answer: B Page: 198 easy
6-12 ______________ are customers that may face needs months or years before the bulk of the marketplace and, as such, are positioned to benefit significantly by obtaining solutions to those needs now.
- Early adopters
- Beta testers
- Lead users
Answer: D Page: 199 easy
6-13 All are steps in the four-step process to incorporate lead user into market research except:
- conducting pragmatic visits to lead users.
- identifying and questioning lead users.
- identifying important market/technical trends.
- developing the breakthroughs.
- projecting the lead user data onto the larger market
Answer: A Page: 143-144 easy
6-14 The following are steps in the Quality Function Deployment process except
- collect the voice of the customer.
- collect customer perceptions of competitive products.
- transform customer insights into specific design requirements.
- conduct a conjoint study to determine the importance of different attributes.
- all of the above are steps in the QFD process.
Answer: D Page: 203 moderate
6-15 The Kano concept:
- is a planning approach that links customer requirements, competitive data, and design parameters.
- uses the voice of the customer to ensure a tight correlation between customer needs and product design specifications.
- is a graphical representation between types of product attributes and levels of customer satisfaction (dissatisfaction).
- reduces design time by 40% and design costs by 60%.
- identifies the types of attributes that must be present in order to ensure the product is functional.
Answer: C Pages: 203-204 moderate
6-16 The attribute of laptop computers to be fairly immune to bumps and roughness in handling is an example of:
- one-dimensional quality.
- must-be quality.
- attractive quality.
- customer-defined quality.
Answer: B Pages: 204 moderate
6-17 The difference between prototypes and beta versions is that beta versions are
- tested in the lab.
- tested in the field.
- conceptual models.
- not as useful for identifying problems.
- ready for commercial release.
Answer: B Pages: 205-206 moderate
6-18 Customer-driven innovation differs drastically from concept testing in that it:
- taps the collective wisdom of a community for product development and innovation.
- it better uses the resources of the firm.
- it concentrates the research on a specific customer group.
- it creates a “control” for all R&D done in the lab
- it segregates the research process in order to better analyze customer input.
Answer A Page: 206 Moderate
6-19 Which of the following factor(s) explain the interest in customer-driven innovation:
- Technology tools to facilitate it.
- The economics of product development costs and high failure rates.
- Customers’ expectations about their role in the business strategy.
- All of the above are factors that explain the interest in customer-driven innovation.
- None of the above are factors that explain the interest in customer-driven innovation.
Answer: D Pages: 206-207 Easy
6-20 Biomimicry is of interest to high-tech firms because:
- it will be pivotal in addressing ecological stress on the planet.
- it is well on the way to inventing the first affordable, high volume alternative fuel source.
- it provides biological insight to new product innovations that solve a vast array of problems.
- it is a cutting-edge science focused primarily on biotech innovations.
- it is the leading source of comparative information on the interconnectedness of science and technology.
Answer: C p. 211-212 Moderate
6-21 Which of the examples below describe biomimicry?
- The solutions provided by biomimicry are generally free of hazards to the environment.
- Biomimicry calls on expertise from multiple disciplines to work together to solve problems.
- Biomimicry often generates disruptive technologies.
- Biomimicry offers sustainable solutions, because it mimics the earth’s solution to a given problem.
- All of the above examples describe biomimicry.
Answer E p. 211-212 Easy
6-22 Which of the following is FALSE with respect to the seven-step biomimicry process? The seven-step process:
- mimics nature, which every industry can potentially learn from.
- focuses on feedback loops that identifies new challenges after one set of issues has been addressed.
- after identifying the problem and looking at it from a variety of angles, finds “experts” in nature (organisms) that solve a particular problem.
- identifies outliers which provide novel insights to the problem at hand.
- tends to be most useful for those industries that are more “biological” in orientation, rather than industries that rely on chemicals or industrial goods.
Answer E p. 214-215 Moderate
6-23 All of the following are examples of using customer co-creation in product design except:
- Apache, Linux, Firefox.
- Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
- Staples (office supplies retailer).
- VW’s payment to past customers to join a forum for product upgrades.
- Sun Microsystems’ Java Center.
Answer D p. 207 Moderate
6-24 User-driven innovation is often resisted by companies for many reasons. Which one of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
- Companies believe customers lack the skill base that the product requires.
- Companies believe customers lack sophisticated knowledge.
- Companies believe it gives customers too much power.
- Engineers view customer innovators as rivals who undermine or challenge their creativity.
- Customers come up with great ideas that the company may not have thought of.
Answer E p. 208 Moderate
6-25 The Grupthink vignette from the text uses customer co-creation in what way?
- Grupthink emails surveys to competitors to gauge their level of co-creation.
- Grupthink functions as a feedback community for their own business as well as others.
- Twice annually, Grupthink holds virtual focus groups to discuss applications for their innovation.
- Grupthink uses social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter to obtain feedback.
- Grupthink sells capabilities to hold virtual meetings where customers are interviewed in regards to their experience with certain products.
Answer B p. 209-211
6-26 Biomimicry exemplifies high technology and corporate social responsibility by engaging in which of the business practices listed below?
- Biomimicry allows their staff one day per month of volunteer time at other eco- friendly organizations.
- Biomimicry encourages their partners to donate a percentage of their sales from biologically inspired products to habitat preservation of the organism from which the innovation was derived.
- Biomimicry buys sensitive habitat, turns it into conservation land and conducts biomimicry research on it.
- Biomimicry partners with organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund to conduct research on the planet’s most highly endangered species.
- All of the above are ways in which Biomimicry combines high technology with CSR.
Answer B p. 212 Moderate
6-27 In Step 2 of the Biomimicry Design Spiral, scientists “biologize” the problem by asking what question?
- How does nature achieve this function in the environment?
- How does nature NOT perform this function?
- What are the climate and nutrient conditions where this function is performed?
- Is there a social aspect for the organization in nature?
- All of the above help biomimicry “biologize” the problem.
Answer E p. 214 Easy
6-28 Which of the following best describes how biomimicry derives solutions from nature?
- Solutions can mimic nature’s forms, processes and ecosystems.
- Solutions are best derived from one category of organism at a time, as overlapping categories inhibit a company’s ability to mimic.
- Solutions are derived only from living organisms.
- Solutions are extracted through a careful “hands-off” approach.
- Solutions are derived separately from the relationships in nature by studying the biology of a single organism at a one point in time.
Answer A p. 214-215 Moderate
6-29 Forecasting for high-tech products is difficult for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
- No market research exists for disruptive technologies.
- Oftentimes, no historical data exists.
- Companies and inventors often have commitment biases about technologies.
- There are no forecasting methods that are well-suited for the complications in high-tech markets.
- None of the above
Answer D p. 217-218 Moderate
6-30 The __________________ forecasting technique is used before preliminary sales figures are available and for products for which there exists no closely related competition.
- Delphi Method
- Analogous data
- Bass Model
- Bell Curve Method
- Early Adopter Meter
Answer C p. 219 Moderate
6-31 The Bass Model assumes that new product adopters are influenced by which two types of communications?
- mass media and interpersonal communications
- blogs and wikis
- scholarly journals and reviews
- competitor reaction and commercials
- popular technology magazines and websites
Answer A p. 219 Moderate