Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank




Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank







  1. An executive whose sense of worth comes primarily from satisfying unconscious needs for control, mastery, and professional success is called _____.
    1. an “empty suit”
    2. an “expansive manager” (Recall, Moderate)
    3. a “market manager”
    4. a “country club manager”


  1. A quality that expansive executives set high on their list of leadership skills is _____.
    1. self-awareness
    2. limited ambition
    3. reasonableness in how hard they work
    4. high standards (Recall, Moderate)


  1. In their managerial behavior, expansive executives tend to _____.
    1. be beneficial for their organizations
    2. obtain their sense of self worth primarily from their unconscious needs for control, mastery, and professional success (Recall, Easy)
    3. take appropriate risks
    4. delegate effectively


  1. All of the following are barriers to self-awareness except
    1. workflow interruptions
    2. stress
    3. self-reflection (Recall, Moderate)
    4. balancing work and family concerns


  1. Tom Peters, in his “The Brand Called You” article, stresses that a manager needs to _____.
    1. identify with an organization’s brands
    2. develop new products for the firm
    3. think of him/herself as a one-person enterprise (Recall, Easy)
    4. fit in with the corporation’s culture


  1. According to recent research by Jennifer Crocker and others, whether or not one has self-esteem is less important than how one pursues feelings of self-worth. Which of the following strategies for increasing self-esteem is most likely to be effective?
    1. increasing your grades so that your reputation is improved at school
    2. improving your appearance
    3. increasing your income so you can have a higher-quality lifestyle
    4. doing something because it is important to your personal values (Applied, Moderate)



  1. The internalized set of perceptions that each of us has about ourselves is called the _____.
    1. self-concept (Recall, Easy)
    2. managerial mindset
    3. ideal manager
    4. personality


  1. A culture that emphasizes independence from others is called _____.
    1. collectivist
    2. socialist
    3. individualistic (Recall, Easy)
    4. comprehensive


  1. A culture that emphasizes interdependence with others is called _____.
    1. collectivist (Recall, Easy)
    2. capitalist
    3. individualistic
    4. competitive


  1. In independent cultures, feelings of self-worth come from _____.
    1. being able to express oneself (Recall, Moderate)
    2. fitting in with the group
    3. creating harmony within the family
    4. attending the needs of others


  1. The statement “The nail that sticks out gets pounded down” is most likely to come out of _____.
    1. an individualistic culture
    2. the “private self”
    3. an independent society
    4. a collectivist culture (Applied, Moderate)


  1. The tendency to see one’s strengths as unique talents and one’s weaknesses as common limitations shared by others or as caused by external factors is called _____.
    1. personal motivation bias
    2. uniqueness bias (Recall, Difficult)
    3. self-critical bias
    4. self-improvement bias


  1. Recent research suggests that _____.
  2. people from independent cultures are more likely to believe that talking out loud is related to thinking (Recall, Moderate)
  3. people from interdependent cultures are more likely to believe that talking out loud is related to thinking
  4. people who talk out loud while they are thinking tend to score lower on emotional intelligence assessments
  5. people who don’t talk out loud while they are thinking tend to perform more poorly on standardized tests



  1. The tendency to see oneself as better than the average person on important positive characteristics is called _____.
  2. self-enhancement bias (Recall, Difficult)
  1. attraction bias
  1. self-critical bias
  2. self-improvement bias


  1. The advantage of having a cultural view of the self-concept is _____.
  2. we become more skeptical of “one size fits all” theories about management
  3. we better understand who we are and how we got to be that way
  4. we understand others better and can respond to them on their own terms
  5. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Your CEO believes strongly that you are the brightest employee in your organization. As a result, you find yourself doing things that you never thought possible – in other words, your performance matches the CEO’s expectations for you. This is an example of _____.
  2. an unfair advantage
  1. discrimination
  1. the Johnson effect
  2. a self-fulfilling prophecy (Applied, Moderate)


  1. Group memberships influence self-concept by all of the following except _____.
  2. loyalty to the group
  1. internal group pressure to conform
  2. external pressures to conform by others outside one’s group memberships
  3. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Gabriel is a new pledge at a fraternity on campus. As he bonds with his fraternity brothers by participating in community service activities (and partying together), he is likely to _____.
  2. come to believe that his fraternity is unique
  1. become emotionally attached to his fraternity brothers
  2. acquire the values held by his fraternity brothers
  3. all of the above (Applied, Difficult)


  1. Which of the following is not a part of thinking that is influenced by our self-concept?
  2. attention
  3. memory
  4. interpretations
  5. all of the above are influenced by our self-concept (Recall, Easy)


  1. Regardless of culture, all individuals share five fundamental needs. These needs include all of the following except _____.
  2. the need to belong
  3. the need for personal choice (Recall, Moderate)
  4. the need to feel competent
  5. the need for control



  1. A consistent and predictable environment enables us to_______.
  2. learn from our experiences
  3. identify deviations from the norm
  4. understand cause-and-effect relationships
  5. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. The term “secure base” was developed by John Bowlby to refer to unconditional emotional attachments to others that enable us to go out in the world knowing that we will be welcomed back home again. Bowlby found that having a secure base helps to fulfill our need for _____.
  2. short-term success
  3. belonging (Recall, Moderate)
  4. long-term success
  5. none of the above


  1. The need to make sense of ourselves, the world, and our place in it is _____.
  2. need for meaning (Recall, Easy)
  3. need for control
  4. need for consistency
  5. need for competence


  1. Researchers at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan found that parents who keep an orderly home are more likely to have children that _____.
  2. are less conscientious
  3. earn less money as adults
  4. stay in school longer (Recall, Easy)
  5. rebel against rules and structure


  1. According to Kenneth Gergen, exposure to increased social stimulation through television, radio, and the Internet _____.
  2. increases the likelihood that we will question the values of our community
  3. personal feelings overload and confusion as well as excitement and opportunity
  4. increases the number of groups with which we identify
  5. all of the above (Recall, Difficult)


  1. “Social saturation” results from _______.
  1. advances in transportation technology
  2. advances in communication technology
  3. advances in information technology
  4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. Sherry Turkle uses the following term to characterize online tinkering with the computer environment.
  1. monitoring
  2. picotada
  3. bricolage (Recall, Easy)
  4. none of the above



  1. Online games such as “The Sims,” which enable people to create characters, actions, and events, may _____.
  2. encourage children to anticipate the consequences of decisions
  3. enhance children’s problem-solving capacities
  4. evaluate the outcomes of their choices
  5. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. After analyzing over 50 studies about the impact of television, computers, the Internet, and video games on learning, researcher Patricia Greenfield found _______.
  1. surgeons who excelled in particular video game skills made fewer errors and performed faster
  2. the increase in the use of these technologies appears to have improved visual skills and the ability to multitask
  3. skills associated with critical thinking decreased
  4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. The tendency to compare ourselves with others has been called _____.
  2. a self-fulfilling prophecy
  1. a collectivist culture
  1. the “looking glass self (Recall, Moderate)
  2. the need for belonging


  1. Social psychologists Lockwood and Kunda have found that comparing oneself to a superstar may _____.
  2. cause us to feel discouraged
  3. encourage us to accomplish great things
  4. highlight our own failures and shortcomings
  5. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. Bricoleurs tend to solve novel problems by_____.
    1. following rules carefully
    2. combining taken-for-granted resources in novel ways (Recall, Easy)
    3. focusing on the “one-best-way” to solve the problem
    4. none of the above


  1. Managers of meaning _____.
  1. accept that the world consists of facts, concrete realities, and real events
  2. realize that human beings interpret facts, concrete realities, and events through the filters of their cultures, organization, and self-concepts
  3. take seriously the critical role they play in helping others interpret facts and events
  4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)



  1. Scholar Aida Hurtado says the advantages of having multiple selves include_____.
  1. reaping the unique knowledge gained by memberships in multiple groups
  2. the freedom gained by being able to “rise above the restrictions defined by these memberships”
  3. the value of being able to bring both an insider’s and outsider’s perspective to one’s multiple groups
  4. all of the above (Recall, Difficult)


  1. The “law of requisite variety” means that _____.
    1. organisms must identify standard policies and procedures
    2. organisms must abide by a universal set of laws to survive
    3. organisms must be at least as complex as their environment to survive (Recall, Difficult)
    4. organisms must create a separate environment to survive


  1. According to Karl Weick, bricoleurs _____.
    1. remain creative under pressure (Recall, Moderate)
    2. search for, then use, one best way
    3. create chaos out of simplicity
    4. all of the above


  1. Storytelling is important to the modern manager because _____.
    1. it enables the manager to create meaning for employees (Recall, Moderate)
    2. it allows the manager to prevent legal problems from happening
    3. it is the best way to teach “autoimaging” employees how to perform their technical duties
    4. it promotes feelings of ambiguity in stable times


  1. Which of the following terms refers to the desire or need to manage one’s identity in ways that enable a person to live in two or more social worlds or identity groups simultaneously?
    1. “double consciousness”
    2. “biculturalism”
    3. “multiple selves”
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. The idea that people may try on new or practice trial selves is captured by the term _____.
    1. inconsistent personae
    2. polarization
    3. provisional selves (Recall, Moderate)
    4. multi-self arrangement


  1. Researchers have found that people with high self-complexity _____.
    1. may have more resources to draw upon, especially for complex situations
    2. may be better able to turn off the demands of one role while focusing on another
    3. may balance pain in one role with pleasure in another
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)



  1. The willingness and ability to be attentive to social and interpersonal cues and to adapt one’s behavior to these cues is called _____.
    1. self-monitoring (Recall, Easy)
    2. self-improvement
    3. self-fulfilling prophecy
    4. none of the above


  1. The question, “What does this situation want me to be and how can I be that person?” is most likely to be asked by a person high in _____.
    1. self-monitoring (Applied, Moderate)
    2. uniqueness bias
    3. perceptual acuity
    4. none of the above


  1. Low self-monitors are more likely to _____.
    1. seek out prestigious work
    2. move often
    3. ask “how can I be me in this situation?” (Recall, Difficult)
    4. rationalize their failures






  1. “Empty suits” are managers who have a lot of style, dress well, and emphasize self-promotion over self understanding.
  1. True (Recall, Easy)
  2. False


  1. “Expansive executives” refers to people who invest in expanding their self-knowledge.
  1. True
  2. False (Recall, Easy)


  1. In a collectivist culture, the “public self” tends to be more developed and complex than the “private self.
  1. True (Recall, Moderate)
  2. False


  1. In independent cultures, feelings of self-worth come from being able to express oneself and confirm that one has positive characteristics.
  1. True (Recall, Moderate)
  2. False


  1. In independent cultures, fundamental values include belonging, reciprocity, group cohesion, and occupying one’s proper place.
  1. True
  2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Universal basic human needs include meaning, belonging, competence, control, and consistency.
  1. True (Recall, Easy)
  2. False


  1. According to research done at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, children who grow up in orderly homes tend to rebel against authority.
  1. True
  2. False (Recall, Easy)


  1. “The self-fulfilling prophecy” refers to a phenomenon in which a person’s sense of competence tends to rise or fall based on other people’s expectations.
  1. True (Recall, Easy)
  2. False


  1. According to researcher Sherry Turkle, bricoleurs tend to prefer learning by reading rule books.
  1. True
  2. False (Applied, Moderate)


  1. Managers of meaning help organizational members make sense of their experience.
  1. True (Recall, Moderate)
  2. False


  1. “Provisional selves” refers to a disorder that results from having too many different roles to manage.
  1. True
  2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Managers who are high in self-monitoring are more likely to ask themselves “How can I be me in this situation?”
  1. True
  2. False (Recall, Moderate)





  1. Explain the concept of “The Brand Called You.” Discuss the pros and cons of this idea.

Popular management author and consultant Tom Peters, in his classic and controversial Fast Company article called “The Brand Called You,” boldly advises managers and professionals to know themselves, understand their customers, develop unique and marketable competencies that help them stand out from the crowd, reinvent themselves if necessary, and then package and sell their personal brand. “To be in business today,” says Peters, “your most important job is to be head marketer for the brand called You . . . You’re every bit as much a brand as Nike, Coke, Pepsi, or the Body Shop.”


You should not assume that people will simply notice your hard work and contributions without some assistance from you. Frankly, if you have something of value to offer, you don’t want to be the best kept secret in your organization or profession. As a professional, it is your responsibility to help others place you where you can make your best contributions, and proactively letting others know where you can best add value is one way that you can do that.  And if you want to be noticed, be sure you notice others and show a genuine interest in others’ goals. Tom Peters suggests that you build your brand around the following questions:


  • What do I do that I’m most proud of?
  • What do I do that adds remarkable, measurable, distinguished, distinctive value?
  • What do my colleagues and customers say is my greatest and clearest strength . . . [and] most noteworthy personal characteristic?
  • What have I done lately—this week—that added value to the organization (and that was noticed by others)?
  • In what ways is what I do difficult to imitate?


Peters also recommends that you become “a broad-gauged visionary” who understands the bigger issues, challenges, and opportunities that face your organization; anticipate problems before they become crises; become an expert in an area that is not easy to copy and that adds real value to the organization; be a dependable and supportive colleague and team member; think of your job as a compilation of distinct projects, each of which adds measurable value to the organization; consistently deliver high-quality work on time; and complete projects within or under budget. In short, your brand must have substance.


Note that the Internet has made it possible to build your brand online as well.  Increasingly, recruiters and college admissions personnel are going online to conduct background checks on potential employees and students.  They search Google, Yahoo, Facebook, LinkedIn, Friendster, and other online sites to look for additional information about job candidates, including “red flags (e.g., in appropriate language or photos) that may suggest poor judgment, a lack of professionalism, or a lack of fit with the values of the organization.  This “shadow resume” – the information that recruiters and admissions personnel find online, can quickly over-ride whatever you say on your resume and at your interview.  The lesson here:  Google yourself to see what others may see about you online and then build your online brand to be consistent with the image you want to project.


  • Pros: Seeing oneself as a unique, marketable, and portable product may be a reasonable survival strategy in an era in which the psychological contract between individuals and organizations no longer promises the security of lifetime employment.
  • Cons: Seeing oneself as a product to be bought and sold may come with a price. It can leave one feeling alienated from one’s self, estranged from others, and of questionable loyalty to one’s current organization. In cultures that are based on an ideology of collectivism and loyalty to one’s group and organization, promoting oneself can be a lonely, difficult, and ultimately unrewarding enterprise.



  1. Define the self-concept. Explain how it is constructed.


The self-concept is an internalized set of perceptions that each of us has about ourselves that are relatively stable over time, consistent across situations, resistant to change, and of central importance to us. Our self-concept is made up of our beliefs about our personalities, values, interests, skills, strengths, weaknesses, what makes us similar to others, and what makes us unique. Our self-concept influences our everyday thoughts and actions, including how we see the world, what we perceive to be threats and opportunities, how we make decisions, how we cope with stress, how we define success, and how we behave toward others. Our self-concept influences our fundamental beliefs about who we are, who we should be, who we can be, who we can never be, and who we are afraid of becoming.


Our self-concept is, in large part, socially constructed throughout our lives in our families, schools, workplaces, communities, and other social institutions. These institutions socialize us into ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that enable us function in ways that are considered to be natural, appropriate, and effective within our cultural contexts.



  1. Describe the five basic universal needs that human beings share across cultures.


  • Meaning We all need to make sense of ourselves, the world, and our place in it. We all strive to answer the questions “Who am I?”, “What is true and real?”, “What are my values?”, “What is worth doing?”, and “What are my goals?” The need to find meaning in our life is particularly important during difficult times of disruption, change, and loss.
  • Belonging We all need to be appreciated not only for what we do but for who we are. As social beings, we want to create and maintain “lasting, positive, and significant interpersonal relationships” that are characterized by mutual caring, emotional connection, and frequent interaction.
  • Competence We all need to feel competent at something that we value. This need to believe that we are capable of successfully performing the tasks that are important to achieving our goals and influencing our environments is called the “self-efficacy” motive.  Our work and achievements are important to us because they help us define our identity, build our self-confidence, and develop a skill-set that matters to ourselves and others.
  • Control We all need to believe that we have some control over our lives. Research suggests that having a sense of control over our work gives us a sense of ownership of our work, inspires us to be more problem-focused and proactive in solving work problems, and enhances our work satisfaction and our health
  • Consistency We all need to believe that the world is coherent, orderly, and bounded and that tomorrow will be somewhat similar to today. A consistent and predictable environment helps us have an impact on our environment by enabling us to learn from our experiences, understand cause-and-effect relationships, identify deviations from the norm, anticipate situations, process information efficiently, make decisions quickly, develop shared understandings, and build connections with others that enhance coordination.


When our basic needs for meaning, belonging, competence, control, and consistency are fulfilled, we believe that what we do matters and that we can proactively influence our environments.  We have the confidence that helps us achieve the competence that enables us to do what we do well, and we are able to build trust in ourselves and others that enables us to work both independently and collectively as appropriately to achieve important goals in life and work.  Managers who understand these fundamental human needs will be better able to create relationships and work environments that support these needs. By doing so, they will be more likely to create a workplace that brings out the best in themselves, others, and the organization.





  1. Explain how diversity, globalization, and new technologies are changing the ways we think about ourselves, others, and relationships.


Diversity, globalization, and technology are affecting us in several ways.  First, they challenge our feelings of “competence, belonging, and consistency,” meaning that they make us less certain that we will be able to be effective, to fit in, and/or to figure out ways to behave that we can rely on.  They make it more difficult to make sense of our lives, the world we live in, and where we fit in.


Second, they change the ways our self-concept is formed.  The major influence that family, group memberships, and cultures have on us is changing because those factors are themselves changing.  Families are very different today than yesterday’s traditional model; groups with which we may identify are more varied and numerous; and we live in a world of mixed cultures, where more than one culture may have a significant impact on us.


Third, there is significant public debate over what is “ideal.”  People argue more publicly about what is right and wrong, standards of excellence, and how and how much to “fit in.”


As a result, our self-concept has been exposed to many more perspectives on who we should be than in the past, and there is less consensus about what the “right” way to be is.  We have both more opportunity to choose who we want to be, as well as more challenge in figuring out what our own answers are.




  1. What is a “bricoleur” and why is it important to think like a bricoleur today?


A bricoleur is a person who solves problems by putting together old ideas and things in new ways, often by trial and error; who keeps trying to solve problems, even in the midst of failure.  Bricoleurs do not follow systematic step-by-step procedures to solve problems.  The author makes the point that in   The author makes the point that managers need to learn to be bricoleurs because an organism, if it is to survive, must be at least as complex as its environment.  In today’s complex and changing environment, managers must “become comfortable tinkering with themselves and their environment and improvise new ways of thinking and behaving on the spot.”  This means changing the ways things “have always been done,” questioning traditions and boundaries, breaking traditional boundaries, and putting together resources in new ways.  Under pressure, managers who are bricoleurs find a way to pull order out of chaos and keep a positive attitude in the face of temporary setbacks.


Sherry Turkle explains that bricoleurs “tend to try one thing, step back, reconsider, and try another. For planners, mistakes are steps in the wrong direction; bricoleurs navigate through midcourse corrections.  Karl Weick echoes this view, saying that bricoleurs “remain creative under pressure, precisely because they routinely act in chaotic conditions and pull order out of them. Thus, when situations unravel, this is simply normal natural trouble for bricoleurs, and they proceed with whatever materials are at hand. Knowing these materials intimately, they then are able, usually in the company of other similar skilled people, to form the materials or insights into novel combinations.”


  1. Describe self-monitoring, as well as the difference between high and low self-monitors.


Self-monitoring refers to a person’s willingness and ability to be attentive to social and interpersonal situational cues and to adapt one’s behavior to these cues.  High self-monitors are highly sensitive to social and interpersonal cues in their environment and are willing and able to modify their behavior in response. Low self-monitors are less sensitive to social and interpersonal cues and less willing and able to adapt their behaviors in response.  In a social situation, high self-monitors ask the following: ‘Who does this situation want me to be and how can I be that person?’ By contrast, low self-monitors ask, ‘Who am I and how can I be me in this situation?’


Neither high nor low self-monitoring is inherently better or worse than the other—it depends on the situation and what you want to accomplish.  Furthermore, remember that each of us has characteristics that are associated with both high and low self-monitoring, although we tend to use one style more often than the other.


Researchers have concluded that high self-monitors are more likely to engage in impression management; seek out status and prestigious work; rely more on their social networks to make career decisions, experience higher levels of job involvement; have lower commitment to their organizations; rationalize their actions and manage impressions when their projects fail; change employers and geographic locations; get rated more highly in managerial performance evaluations; achieve more promotions, emerge as leaders of work groups; take on boundary spanning roles in organizations; have more central positions in organizational networks and more instrumental relationships; be less committed to current relationships, and more  open to the possibility of forming new relationships in different settings.


Low self-monitors tend to be more predictable in their behavior; more committed to current employers, organizations, friends, and geographic locations; more likely to invest emotionally in particular relationships so that they can be themselves”, be more comfortable with ambiguity, perhaps because high self-monitors may look more to others for clues about what to do, whereas low-self monitors may use their own values and beliefs to make decisions; seek out jobs that are compatible with their interests rather than jobs that are prestigious; and have greater self-knowledge about their career preferences so that  they may not feel the need to gather a lot of information about various career options. CHAPTER 4






  1. Why do we communicate?
    1. to get information across
    2. to influence others
    3. to bring people together
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. Managers communicate to _____.
    1. obtain timely information
    2. build relationships
    3. develop support for their ideas
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. Active listening requires _____.
    1. intelligence
    2. empathy (Recall, Easy)
    3. creativity
    4. locus of control


  1. The process of listening to understand another person’s point of view without evaluating or judging the other person or his/her views is called _____.
    1. primary communicative response
    2. secondary communicative response
    3. active listening (Recall, Easy)
    4. cross-cultural communication


  1. The rules for active listening include all but one of the following. Which one?
    1. listen with intensity
    2. listen with empathy
    3. take responsibility for completeness
    4. state your own perspective first (Recall, Moderate)


  1. To listen with empathy, a manager should _____.
    1. express his/her own feelings when they arise
    2. relate what he/she hears to his/her own experience
    3. pay attention only to the content of what the other person is saying
    4. suspend his/her thoughts, such as counterarguments while the person is speaking (Applied, Difficult)


  1. According to Swiss psychiatrist Paul Tournier, one of the most important needs human beings have is _____.
    1. the need to have pleasant conversations
    2. the need to be listened to (Recall, Moderate)
    3. the need for intra-communicative alignment
    4. the need to extra-communicative alignment


  1. Active listening _____.
    1. decreases our defensiveness
    2. increases our understanding
    3. increases the information we have
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. Miki is a new manager. She wants to create a feedback friendly environment in her office.  She should do all of the following except:
    1. set clear, measurable performance standards
    2. set a tone of openness
    3. give feedback no more than twice each year (Recall, Easy)
    4. catch people doing something right


  1. Daisuke wants to establish an environment in which his employees feel free to seek out feedback. To do so, he should do all of the following except
    1. eliminate goals and performance standards (Applied, Moderate)
    2. give ongoing feedback
    3. find opportunities to give positive feedback
    4. set a tone of openness


  1. Which of the following actions will help create a feedback-friendly environment?
    1. Have ambiguous, flexible performance standards.
    2. Give feedback only during annual or semiannual performance reviews so that people know when to expect feedback.
    3. Find opportunities to give positive feedback. (Recall, Moderate)
    4. Make it clear to employees that their feedback to management is not desired.


  1. An example of effective feedback is _____
    1. “The customer service department’s turnover has increased since you took over the managerial job. What do you think you’re doing wrong?”
    2. “As the figures here show, six months ago the customer service department was among those with the lowest turnover in our division. Over the last six months, the customer service department has developed the highest turnover in the division and is above the industry norm as well.  What do you think is going on?” (Applied, Easy)
    3. “Why don’t your employees respect you?”
    4. “I noticed that your department turnover has increased, customer satisfaction has decreased, you’re over budget, and you’re always late for meetings. I think it’s time you went to a leadership training course. Which one do you want to attend?”



  1. When giving feedback, when is it not a good time to give it?
    1. Immediately after the event the feedback is about
    2. After the direct report has asked for it
    3. When the direct report is upset and hence emotionally open to the feedback (Recall, Easy)
    4. When the subordinate is ready to hear it


  1. When giving feedback, the manager should avoid doing all but one of the following. Which one?
    1. Focus on the direct report’s personality
    2. Be general rather than specific
    3. Be evaluative
    4. Check that the receiver has understood the feedback as intended (Applied, Moderate)


  1. Which of the following is the best way to end a feedback session?
    1. “I am available to help you. What can I do to help you succeed?” (Applied, Easy)
    2. “I’m sorry to have to cut this meeting short, but I have to pick up my suits at the cleaners.”
    3. “If you repeat this performance you will be fired.”
    4. “Why did I ever hire you?”


  1. Who can give useful feedback?
    1. bosses
    2. peers
    3. direct reports
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. When receiving negative feedback, an employee should do all of the following except
    1. thank the person who is giving the feedback
    2. not be defensive about the feedback that is received
    3. ask the person giving the feedback to clarify what they mean if you need more information to be sure you understand their feedback clearly
    4. take the opportunity to list complaints about the organizational leadership (Recall, Easy)


  1. When asking for feedback, you should _____.
    1. request general feedback
    2. defend your behavior when the feedback is negative
    3. ask questions to make sure you understand the feedback (Recall, Difficult)
    4. all of the above


  1. The most commonly used form of multi-rater feedback is _____.
    1. groupthink
    2. teamtalk feedback
    3. multi-media messaging
    4. 360° feedback (Recall, Easy)


  1. Research on 360° feedback shows that _____.
    1. the best performers rate themselves highest
    2. the best performers rate themselves more similarly to their other raters (Recall, Moderate)
    3. the best performers don’t need feedback
    4. the best performers resist formal feedback


  1. _____ involves using stories to explain an organization’s vision, so that employees can make sense of it.
    1. Relationship building
    2. Meaning making (Recall, Moderate)
    3. Direction giving
    4. Uncertainty reducing


  1. Research has found that feedback recipients who receive higher feedback ratings in their 360 feedback tend to _________.
    1. receive more favorable annual reviews from their bosses
    2. are rated as having higher overall performance
    3. inspire higher employee satisfaction and customer loyalty
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Maria just received her 360 feedback, and has spent a few hours looking over the areas in which she received high ratings and the areas in which she received low ratings. She is more likely to improve her behaviors based on this feedback if she _________.
    1. feels positive about the feedback process
    2. is high in feedback-orientation
    3. has a sense of personal control
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Graham was just promoted to a managerial position. In order to build a reputation as someone who can be trusted with bad news, he should do all of the following except
    1. surround himself with independent minds
    2. surround himself with gatekeepers (Applied, Moderate)
    3. be discreet when people provide him with sensitive information
    4. yell “heads are gonna roll” when he hears bad news


  1. What is a common reason that direct reports are reluctant to give their bosses bad news?
    1. They are trying to protect the boss.
    2. They hope the problem will correct itself.
    3. They think they can solve the problems themselves.
    4. All of the above are common reasons that direct reports are reluctant to give their bosses bad news. (Recall, Easy)



  1. If I am in a culture that is described as one in which the primary purpose of communication is to build relationships, I am likely to be in _____.
    1. a neutral context culture
    2. a low context culture
    3. a high context culture (Recall, Moderate)
    4. a high cultural context


  1. High context communication involves _____.
    1. messages that are carried in large part through nonverbal signals and situational cues (such as status) (Applied, Moderate)
    2. depersonalized conflicts
    3. relationships that start and end quickly
    4. direct communication


  1. Low context communication involves _____.
    1. messages that are carried primarily through words rather than nonverbal signals and situational cues (Applied, Moderate)
    2. personalized conflicts
    3. relationships that build slowly and are built on trust
    4. indirect communication


  1. Which of the following is the least gender-inclusive statement?
    1. “Let’s get the best person for the job.”
    2. “Employees should check their e-mail daily.”
    3. “Let’s get some salesmen in this company who really know the product.” (Applied, Moderate)
    4. “Let’s invite the men and women from the mailroom to lunch today.”


  1. It is especially important for leaders to create meaning that inspires effective action _____.
    1. in times of transition
    2. when employees first enter an organization
    3. during crises
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Speeches of charismatic leaders contained more references to _____.
    1. collective history (Recall, Moderate)
    2. the leader’s value
    3. the differences between leaders and followers
    4. all of the above.


  1. The “curse of knowledge” refers to ______.
    1. a tendency to use complex language when explaining a topic in one’s area of expertise to people outside one’s area of expertise (Recall, Moderate)
    2. a tendency to use simple language to explain complex topics
    3. not having an education that emphasizes critical thinking
    4. having an education that emphasizes critical thinking



  1. Stories work because _____.
    1. they touch us at an emotional level
    2. they help us to simplify a complex world
    3. they help us to see through the eyes of others
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. The most powerful stories share all of the following characteristics except
    1. they are complex (Recall, Moderate)
    2. they are inclusive
    3. they are concrete
    4. they affect people emotionally


  1. If you want to tell a powerful story, you _____.
    1. need to move listeners at an emotional level (Applied, Easy)
    2. can discount the feelings of listeners
    3. need to include lots of details
    4. should let people guess what the main point is


  1. Thiru’s story about his excellent experience with the customer service department in one company just went viral. Which of the following statements would not explain why his story went viral?
    1. The story appealed to people’s emotions.
    2. People who listened to the story believed it was helpful to them.
    3. Both a and b (Recall, Moderate)
    4. None of the above


  1. To avoid being overly influenced by a good story that may not have the facts to support it, you should do all of the following except
    1. make judgments about whether a person is creative and dependable within a few seconds of meeting that person (recall, moderate)
    2. ask for data to support the idea
    3. ask if the person can show completed projects that illustrate a track record in following through with ideas
    4. ask the person what kinds of failures and hurdles they have faced in the past and what they learned from the experiences


  1. Physician Peter Pronovost conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of checklists for reducing infections and mortality in hospitals due to infections when intravenous lines were inserted into patients. He found that _____.
    1. infections increased because checklists are too simplistic for improving patient care
    2. using checklists didn’t make any difference in patient survival rates
    3. hospitals that used these checklists reduced patient deaths and saved the hospitals money (Recall, Moderate)
    4. none of the above


  1. Checklists can enhance performance because _____.
    1. mistakes are almost inevitable in today’s complex world
    2. they help us remember important (yet often not excited) things we need to do
    3. they help us ensure consistency and help us avoid blind spots that we may otherwise overlook
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Anjali has many responsibilities at home and at work. She often switches between using e-mail, instant messaging, and text messaging – often doing so while she’s on a conference call with her colleagues.  Researchers refer to this practice of having multiple conversations simultaneously through different communication technologies as ________.
    1. Technical-communicating
    2. multicommunicating (Applied, Moderate)
    3. exhaustive-communicating
    4. none of the above


  1. When sending emails across cultures, we should _____.
    1. err on the side of formality (Recall, Easy)
    2. err on the side of informality to create intimacy quickly
    3. write lengthy e-mails to ensure understanding
    4. none of the above


  1. To use e-mail professionally, we should _____.
    1. assume all e-mail is as public as a postcard (Recall, Easy)
    2. when unsure, choose to be more informal
    3. use acronyms so that emails remain brief
    4. assume emoticons mean the same thing across cultures


  1. In managing e-mail, organizations should _____.
    1. be clear about what e-mail should and should not be used for
    2. let employees know if the organization may be inspecting e-mails
    3. make employees aware of the laws related to privacy and electronic communications
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)


  1. When managing voicemail, it is important to do all of the following except
    1. check messages when you are out of the office
    2. listen to your own greeting and to hear how others hear it
    3. use voice mail to avoid human interaction (Recall, Easy)
    4. return calls promptly






  1. Active listening refers to listening to understand another’s point of view quickly and efficiently.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. To create a feedback-friendly work environment you should set clear, measurable performance standards.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False


  1. Feedback is most effective when it’s specific rather than general.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False


  1. Feedback is most effective when it is evaluative rather than descriptive.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. According to Ashford and Northcraft, you should sometimes avoid asking for feedback, at least for a while, when you are trying a new or risky task that requires persistence.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False


  1. When receiving feedback, it’s useful for you to summarize what you believe the speaker said to make sure that you understand.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False


  1. According to the Society of Human Resource Managers, 360° feedback is almost always used for line employees and first level supervisors.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Research shows that a manager’s communication style is related to employee stress levels.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False


  1. According to the textbook, managerial communication that motivates falls into three categories: direction-giving and uncertainty-reducing, relationship-building, and meaning-making.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False


  1. High-context communication refers to communication styles in which the conflicts are experienced as personal and face-saving is important.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False


  1. Low-context communication refers to communication styles in which the primary purpose is to build relationships.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)


  1. “Every employee should update his benefit selections before the end of the year,” is an example of gender inclusive language.
    1. True
    2. False (Applied, Easy)


  1. We signal and perpetuate our assumptions about status and power through our ways of communicating in our families, communities, and workplaces.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False


  1. Research suggests that when advertisers use male nouns and pronouns in employment advertisements, women are less likely to apply for stereotypically male jobs (e.g., “The director of engineering should have 10 years of work experience behind him.”)
    1. True (Applied, Easy)
    2. False


  1. According to research about international charismatic leaders, people who refer to short-term goals in their speeches are more likely to be inspirational than people who refer to long-term goals.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. People who use abstract, concept-based rhetoric are more likely to be inspirational than people who evoke pictures, sounds, and other senses.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. According to the research cited in this textbook, people are notoriously poor at remembering facts and statistics.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False


  1. The “curse of knowledge” refers to the tendency for people to translate complex language from their field of expertise into simpler language that people from outside their field of expertise can easily understand.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)


  1. Multicommunicating refers to communicating during hours beyond typical work hours.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)


  1. E-mail tends to be most effective for discussing sensitive topics.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)


  1. When e-mailing people from another culture who you don’t know well, it is wise to use a little humor to speed up relationship-building.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)







  1. Describe at least four techniques for active listening.


      Listen with intensity. Give the person speaking your full attention. This means:

  • Don’t get distracted. Turn off the phone, ignore the computer screen, and don’t look at your watch.
  • Don’t assume that the issue is uninteresting or unimportant.
  • Don’t listen only for what you want to hear.
  • Don’t think ahead to what you plan to say next.
  • Don’t interrupt, talk too much, or finish people’s sentences for them.
  • Don’t engage in fake listening techniques such as nodding your head, saying “I see,” or smiling even though you aren’t really paying attention.
  • Don’t let the person’s status, appearance, or speaking style distract you from hearing the message.


      Listen with empathy. Try to understand the message from the speaker’s point of view. Empathy does not mean agreeing with the other person, but it does mean respecting the person’s perspective and feelings.

  • Suspend thoughts (such as counterarguments, stereotypes, and preconceptions) and feelings (such as defensiveness) that can distract you from hearing the speaker’s perspective.
  • Don’t relate everything you hear to your own experience, such as “That reminds me of the time. . . .”
  • Listen for feeling as well as content.
  • Pay attention to body language that can provide clues to the speaker’s concerns and emotional state.


      Demonstrate acceptance. Show that you are listening with an open mind.

  • Avoid killer phrases such as “You’ve got to be kidding,” “That will never work,” and “Yes, but. . . .” These responses belittle and discount what the other person thinks and feels.
  • Avoid judgmental body language. Condescending grins and rolling one’s eyes can have the same affect as killer phrases.
  • Use encouraging language and body language.


Take responsibility for completeness. Encourage the speaker to give complete information.

  • Ask open-ended questions, such as “What do you think the critical issues are?” “Why do you think so?” “What do other people think about this?” and “What other choices do you have?” “How do you think this will affect your future choices?” “Do you have any more concerns?”
  • Confirm your understanding by paraphrasing what you heard, summarizing the main points, and asking if what you summarized was the message that the speaker intended. Doing so ensures that you understood the message, gives the speaker an opportunity to clarify his or her ideas, and let’s the speaker know that you are sincerely interested in understanding the key issues.


Be yourself. Be natural and don’t come across as a compulsive, artificial, or overly trained active listener. Remember that active listening is based more on a sincere attitude of openness, respect, and learning than on a set of rigid techniques.




  1. You have just been introduced to a manager from another country. Describe at least four strategies you can use to be sure that you are communicating effectively with this person.


  1. Speak clearly, using common words and short sentences.
  2. Avoid jargon, slang, buzzwords, and abbreviations.
  3. Avoid sarcasm and humor.
  4. Don’t judge by the way people speak.
  5. Prepare ahead—do your homework.
  6. Learn what communication styles, including body language, people prefer.
  7. Learn some words of the language.
  8. Learn appropriate greetings.
  9. If unsure, err on the side of formality.
  10. Be aware of social rituals. Know how people do business.
  11. When in doubt, follow others’ lead.




  1. Explain how language reflects and perpetuates status and power differences in organizations, including gender differences.


We signal and perpetuate our assumptions about status and power through our ways of communicating in our families, communities, and workplaces.  In organizations, we can see these assumptions in action by noting who speaks more often, who gets credit for ideas, who interrupts and who gets interrupted, who gets heard and who gets ignored, and which ways of speaking are assumed to signal confidence and competence and which are not.


Researchers have found that using male nouns and pronouns to refer to both men and women may reinforce cultural stereotypes that promote inequality. For example, they have shown that the way advertisements are phrased (using male pronouns or not) affect whether women are likely to respond to the advertisements.  It also can be confusing, as more people of both genders enter professions that were (or are still) dominated by one gender.


The effect of language on status and power differences has been recognized in recent years, and the business press and the academic community have been moving toward nonsexist language.




  1. Describe at least 6 techniques for telling a story that engages people and motivates them to take action.


A good story:

  1. Has relevance; it matters to the people whom it is supposed to influence.
  2. Is inclusive; it encourages the people whom it is supposed to influence to feel it is “their” story.
  3. It is concrete, temporal, and action oriented. There is a “plot”—a protagonist, who faces a hurdle or enemy, a sequence of events that evolve over time, a climax and resolution, and a moral or lesson.
  4. It is emotional.
  5. It is friendly.
  6. It is shared by many.
  7. It makes people feel unique.


To tell a good story:

  1. Know why you’re telling the story.
  2. Know how you want your listeners to feel.
  3. Know your audience.
  4. Set the context.
  5. Be dramatic.
  6. Don’t give too many details.
  7. Don’t overexplain.
  8. Don’t preach.
















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