Management of Occupational Health and Safety 6th Edition by Lori Francis Bernadette – Test Bank

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Management of Occupational Health and Safety 6th Edition by Lori Francis Bernadette – Test Bank

Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-1
Chapter 4—Hazard Recognition, Assessment, and Control
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What is the prerequisite step before engaging in risk assessment?
a.
choosing a qualitative approach
b.
the identification of hazards
c.
choosing a quantitative approach
d.
conducting the risk assessment
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 87
BLM: Remember
2. Which of the following is an engineering control?
a.
recognizing the source of the hazard (i.e., the potential energy source)
b.
segregating the hazard in time and space
c.
protecting workers from exposure through personal protective equipment
d.
contacting the Ministry of Labour after an incident
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 101
BLM: Remember
3. Many of the colloquial (everyday) names for repetitive strain injuries listed in the textbook refer to what part of the body?
a.
wrist
b.
back
c.
shoulder
d.
elbow
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 93
BLM: Higher order
4. What is an example of a repetitive strain injury?
a.
sprain
b.
tinnitus
c.
Raynaud’s syndrome
d.
dermatitis
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 93
BLM: Remember
5. Which of the following most closely reflects the definition of a hazard, as given in the textbook?
4-2 COPYRIGHT © 2014 by Nelson Education Ltd.
a.
any condition or changing set of circumstances that has the potential to cause an injury
b.
the probability of harm actually occurring
c.
the first unsafe act or undesired event that can start the accident sequence
d.
any work activities that can cause injury or harm
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 82
BLM: Remember
6. Which of the following is one of the four specific conditions that have been linked to repetitive strain injuries?
a.
force application to hinge joints
b.
overexertion
c.
high dBA ratings
d.
pinch points
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 94
BLM: Remember
7. Careless stacking of boxes, such that the boxes later fall on a coworker ,would be classified as what type of hazard?
a.
human factor—commission
b.
human factor—omission
c.
human factor—poor judgement
d.
human factor—substandard practice
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 84
BLM: Higher order
8. What is an example of an unsafe act?
a.
improper illumination
b.
poor design
c.
inadequate hand washing
d.
defective equipment
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 83–84
BLM: Higher order
9. What is an example of an unsafe condition?
a.
use of defective equipment
b.
poor indoor air quality
c.
failure to wear personal protective equipment
d.
alcohol and drug abuse
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-3
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 84
BLM: Higher order
10. Who is most likely to carry out safety sampling?
a.
in-house safety personnel
b.
the third party safety professional
c.
the Ministry of Labour
d.
the WSIB/WCB
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 86
BLM: Remember
11. What numerical measure is typically used to communicate risk, regardless of how it is assessed?
a.
cost
b.
frequency
c.
severity
d.
probability
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 88–89
BLM: Higher order
12. What is another term for a direct unsafe act?
a.
substandard practice
b.
act of omission
c.
poor judgement
d.
human factor
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 84
BLM: Remember
13. The consequences of a hazard are assessed through what measure?
a.
probability
b.
likelihood
c.
severity
d.
frequency
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 88–89
BLM: Remember
4-4 COPYRIGHT © 2014 by Nelson Education Ltd.
14. Where does personal protective equipment (PPE) rank in terms of the recommended approach to hazard control?
a.
the first line of defence
b.
the second line of defence
c.
the third line of defence
d.
the fourth line of defence
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 108–109
BLM: Higher order
15. CIUB injuries would fall within what larger category of injuries?
a.
injuries resulting from overuse
b.
overt traumatic injuries
c.
overexertion injuries
d.
awkward working position injuries
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 90
BLM: Higher order
16. Which of the following is the best example of an engineering control?
a.
task lighting
b.
noise-cancelling headphones
c.
forklift training
d.
safety campaign for new engineers
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 99–100
BLM: Higher order
17. What is an example of a process modification that would be supported by the Hawthorne studies?
a.
machine guarding
b.
illumination
c.
heat stress testing
d.
job rotation
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 100
BLM: Higher order
18. In the context of occupational health and safety, what groups of individuals are most likely to receive kickbacks?
a.
workers
b.
supervisors
c.
managers
d.
ministry inspectors
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-5
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 102
BLM: Higher order
19. Shutting off power to protect emergency responders is an action taken as part of what stage of hazard control?
a.
precontact control
b.
contact control
c.
postcontract control
d.
administrative control
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 96
BLM: Higher order
20. What is an example of a lockout?
a.
turning off a stove, and placing a sign on it that says “Do not use”
b.
placing a restricted-access sign on a piece of equipment
c.
turning off equipment and securing the fuse box so no one has access to it
d.
isolating the electrical controls on one piece of equipment
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 106–107
BLM: Higher order
NARRBEGIN: Scenario 4-1
Read the scenario and answer questions 21–25
The performing arts (theatre, dance, music) do not always come to mind when hazardous workplaces are being discussed. However, performers at Canada’s famed Shaw and Stratford festivals encounter many hazards and OH&S incidents can occur. Imagine a theatre with suspended overhead lights, trapdoors in the stage, on-stage sets that look real but are built of flimsy materials, narrow hallways and stairs, and actors engaged in fight scenes using realistic weapons. The same process of hazard recognition, risk assessment, and control must take place.
NARREND
21. What type of hazard would be represented by an unevenly repaired patch on a stage that could cause an actor to slip and fall when engaged in a fight scene?
a.
equipment hazard
b.
environment hazard
c.
materials hazard
d.
process hazard
ANS: b
NAR: Scenario 4-1
PTS: 1
4-6 COPYRIGHT © 2014 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 84
BLM: Higher order
22. What analytic technique is available to show why the defective repair occurred and contributed to the incident?
a.
safety sampling
b.
audit program
c.
positive tree
d.
fault tree
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 4-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 87
BLM: Higher order
23. Under what legislation could the theatre be liable for failing to maintain the stage in a better condition?
a.
Canada Labour Code
b.
Occupational Health and Safety Act
c.
Workers’ Compensation Act
d.
CSA Standard Z432-94
ANS: a
NAR: Scenario 4-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 105
BLM: Higher order
25. What is the lower back stress experienced by a member of the theatre crew given the following information related to their task of moving a table on and off the stage between scenes. The table weighs 25 pounds; the centre of the table is held 45 cm away from the body; and the distance from the front of the body to the rotation point of the spine is 20 cm.
a!
36 kg/cm
b!
90 cm/kg
c!
1105 cm/kg
d!
1625 kg/cm
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 4-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 93
BLM: Higher order
TRUE/FALSE
1. A hazard is any activity that may occur on a day-to-day basis as a direct or indirect result of some human or human-related undertaking.
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-7
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 82–83
2. Nico fell asleep for a minute while driving his company vehicle and narrowly missed hitting a car in the next lane. This would be classified as an OH&S incident.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 83
3. As part of hazard identification, Ray was asked to describe how much time he spent on various tasks and to rank the importance of each of these tasks. This information was necessary for safety sampling.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 86
4. As Plant Safety Officer, Celine’s job is to identify human factors in workplace incidents so that blame can be laid on those who engaged in unsafe acts and/or created unsafe conditions.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 84
5. Kim Sung is a member of the Joint Health and Safety Committee at her workplace and she has been asked to work with an outside safety expert to identify hazards from poor housekeeping throughout the hospital. A walk-through survey would be an effective way for them to collect this data.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 86
6. In order to accurately describe the risks involved in using various types of lasers by surgeons at the clinic, Oleg must consider both likelihood and severity of both overt traumatic and overexertion injuries.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 88–89
7. The risk levels set by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) are expressed in terms of the percentage chance a worker has of encountering that event in their lifetime.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
4-8 COPYRIGHT © 2014 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 88
8. Rina should ignore her coworkers in the woodworking area when they tell her that she should use compressed air to clean up her work area at the end of the day.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 90
9. Jeremy works in a large shipping area of a courier company. If a parcel flies off the conveyor belt and hits him in the shoulder, this would be an example of how lack of a machine guard allows kinetic energy to create unnecessary risk.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 90
10. At the winery, part of Alain’s job involves being lowered through a narrow opening into a giant tank to clean them out in between batches. The first step in the plan should be to vent the container and test the air quality to ensure all vapours have been removed.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 108
SHORT ANSWER
1. Differentiate between engineering controls and administrative controls, giving an example of how each could be applied in a situation where workers have to work outside in the summer (e.g. road crew or roofing crew).
ANS:
Engineering controls involve the modification of work processes, equipment, and material in order to reduce exposure to hazards. Examples would include changing schedules to avoid peak temperatures taking frequent breaks, providing water at the job site, and adding canopies to heavy equipment to protect operators from the sun. Engineering controls do not include personal protective equipment such as sunscreen and sunglasses.
Administrative control is the use of management involvement, employee training, employee rotation, environmental sampling, and medical surveillance to protect individuals. Examples would include monitoring workers for signs of heat stroke or dehydration, training employees to recognize signs of heat exhaustion and dehydration in themselves and coworkers, and rotating workers from heavier jobs to lighter jobs.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 97–102 (engineering controls), 98–108 (administrative controls)
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-9
2. Define and give examples of two of the four types of overt traumatic injuries discussed in the textbook. What are some prevention strategies that an HRM can implement to prevent overt traumatic injuries?
ANS:
Overt traumatic injuries result from individuals coming in contact with objects and equipment (an energy source). Four types of overt traumatic injuries are being struck by a moving object (material or equipment); being caught in, under, or between (CIUB) machines; falls; and burn/abrasion injuries from contact with a source of energy. Overt traumatic injury prevention focuses on recognizing the source of the hazard, eliminating the hazard, and protecting workers from exposure to the energy source (e.g. through precontact engineering controls, precontact administrative controls, and personal protective equipment).
PTS: 1
REF: p. 90& 95 (precontact control), 97–102 (engineering controls), 97–108 (administrative controls)
3. Give two different examples of overexertion injuries that an exterior window cleaner working on a multi-story office building might experience. Explain the basic causes of overexertion injuries and discuss the impact of pre-existing conditions on overexertion injuries.
ANS:
Injuries that window cleaners might experience from their work are back strain from working in awkward positions and stretching beyond their normal reach, as well as repetitive strain injuries from using the same motion and holding their wrist and elbow in an awkward position. Pre-existing conditions such as arthritis and circulation disorders would make these injuries worse or could trigger the overexertion injury much sooner.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 91–95
4. Describe and differentiate between the two types of analytical trees used in hazard analysis, explaining which one is more common, but why the other might facilitate precontact control.
ANS:
Analytical trees are the most common form of hazard analysis of which there are two types: a positive tree (shows graphically how a job should be done) and a fault tree (provides an illustration of things that can go wrong). The fault tree is the more frequently used tree but a positive tree could be used to ensure that workers are properly trained and that visual reminders of proper procedures are posted at the task site. Workers may understand the risk but be slightly off in their risk perception, underestimating the risk, especially for infrequent or unusual types of occurrences. Knowing the proper methods and having constant reminders can prevent hazards from reaching workers in the first place, which is the definition of precontact control.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 87
5. List the four levels of probability and the three levels of consequences provided by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Apply the following hazards facing chefs working in a restaurant kitchen, identifying the injury, likelihood, and typical severity: hot oven, sharp knives, pots with boiling contents, and hard floors.
4-10 COPYRIGHT © 2014 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ANS:
The five levels of probability (likelihood) are very likely (at least once every six months), likely (once every five years), unlikely (once during working lifetime), and very unlikely (less than 1% chance during working lifetime). The three levels of consequences are slightly harmful (nuisance) moderate harm (somewhat debilitating), and extremely harmful (death or severely limiting injury).
Burn from coming into contact with hot oven—very likely; consequences are moderately harmful
Cut from sharp knife—very likely; consequences are slightly to moderately harmful, however some cuts can cause amputation (e.g. end of finger) and untended cuts can lead to more serious conditions (e.g. flesh-eating disease)
Scald from being splashed by pot of boiling water/oil—very likely to likely depending on type of food being prepared; consequences could be anywhere from slightly harmful to extremely harmful, possibly death if entire pot is pulled/dumped over body.
Back pain from standing on hard floors—very likely due to long hours, unless rubber cushioning mats are provided; consequences range from slightly harmful to moderate harm (over time)
PTS: 1
REF: p. 88–89
PROBLEM
1. Jarrett has just taken a transfer from being a retail store manager to a development opportunity as the manager of the retail chain’s local distribution centre (warehouse); the new position will help to prepare him for a long-term career in the company. Discuss the pros and cons of three different ways that he can quickly familiarize himself with the hazards facing workers in his new work environment in order to meet his legal responsibilities?
ANS:
Talk to People at the Warehouse—quick but may be taken the wrong way
Supervisors and workers can, and have a legal responsibility, to notify the manager of any workplace hazards so Jarrett can simply ask about typical hazardous situations whether they have caused injuries or illnesses in the past or if they are an “accident waiting to happen.”
Joint Health and Safety Committees are also responsible for identifying and dealing with hazards, so Jarrett can talk to management and worker members of those committees and ensure he attends upcoming meetings.
Read Company Documents—somewhat time-consuming but detailed
He can consult reports from any past inspections conducted by provincial/territorial/federal inspectors that are not related to an incident investigation but are as a result of the government agency trying to improve safety in a particular area (e.g. confined spaces, back strain, or RSI)
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 6e 4-11
Incident investigations require full records and reports, so this is another source of carefully documented information and Jarrett can check whether recommendations in those reports have been put into place.
Accident, injury, and claims records, along with first aid records from the workplace and the industry, provide information on what type of injuries and occupational diseases are associated with the jobs or tasks being assessed. Minutes of past JHSC meetings and any safety audits will also provide further information on these incidents.
Consult External Sources—quick but generic
Information on hazards inherent to warehouse settings can be found on government and industry websites, such as www.CCOHS.org, as well as in government and industry publications.
Collect New Data—slowest
Walk-through survey—Jarrett can do a walk-through survey himself and/or call in and work with a safety professional as they walk through a worksite and note hazards.
Safety sampling is a systematic survey procedure undertaken by safety personnel who record their observations of unsafe practices on a sampling document, usually done by a third party to ensure objectivity.
Task and job inventory could be used if jobs have not been well-documented in the past or if jobs have changed due to the introduction of new technologies.
Analysis of the Plant, Tasks, and Jobs
HRMs should always consider whether a specific hazard they have identified or have been alerted to requires immediate attention to prevent possible injury. This immediate action could involve stopping work in the area or ensuring the hazard is controlled without delay.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 83–86& 110

 

Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-1
Chapter 6—Chemical and Biological Agents
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What size is the typical airborne particle found in fumes and smoke?
a!
1000 microns
b!
100 microns
c!
10 microns
d!
less than 1 micron
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: 146
BLM: Remember
2. By which four routes can chemicals enter the body?
a.
respiration, inhalation, skin absorption, and skin penetration
b.
ingestion, skin penetration, inhalation, and lungs
c.
respiration, skin absorption, skin penetration, and ingestion
d.
lungs, nose, skin absorption, and ingestion
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 148
BLM: Remember
3. Which of the following is most likely to create a synergistic effect with airborne chemicals in a manufacturing plant?
a.
the other chemicals used in the plant
b.
inadequate safety training
c.
inconsistent use of respirators
d.
the plant being located in a valley
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
BLM: Higher order
4. Besides record keeping, what control measure ensures that baseline tests will be available when needed?
a.
medical surveillance
b.
engineering controls
c.
work practices
d.
good housekeeping
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 160
BLM: Higher order
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
5. Employees with diabetes and other conditions often need to inject themselves at work to keep their condition under control. What is an administrative control that the human resource management department can implement to protect everyone from needlestick injuries?
a.
install “sharps” disposal bins in restrooms
b.
provide education and training to all employees
c.
ask these employees to inject themselves in an off-site location
d.
change work schedules, so they can inject at home before and after work
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 161
BLM: Higher order
6. What is the recommended remedy for occupational asthma (e.g. crab asthma experienced by the snow crab workers in Newfoundland)?
a.
transferring to a different job in the same plant
b.
changing to employment in another industry
c.
taking asthma medication via a bronchial inhalator “puffer”
d.
taking antihistamine medication (e.g. Benadryl, Claritin)
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 148
BLM: Higher order
7. Rob’s doctor has told him that his alveoli are seriously damaged. In what shape are his cilia likely to be?
a.
undamaged
b.
slightly damaged
c.
severely damaged
d.
completely destroyed
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 150
BLM: Higher order
8. What characteristic of a solvent is related to its speed of evaporation?
a.
surface tension
b.
flammability
c.
volatility
d.
vaporization
ANS: c
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153
BLM: Remember
9. What type of biological agents, which if inhaled, can cause occupational diseases in farmworkers?
a.
bacterial
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-3
b.
viruses
c.
chlamydiae
d.
fungal
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 159
BLM: Remember
10. In the lab, HIV (I and II) requires the same level of control as what other biohazard?
a.
rabies
b.
hepatitis
c.
legionella
d.
tick-borne encephalitis
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 158
BLM: Higher order
11. What is the difference between a fume and a vapour?
a.
vapours are lighter in colour
b.
fumes come from the evaporation of solids
c.
vapours come from the evaporation of liquids
d.
the material in a fume condenses with air contact
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
BLM: Higher order
12. The carbon monoxide detector suddenly goes off in the car dealership’s administration offices due to leaking fumes from the automotive service area. What type of toxicity should the dealership manager be concerned about for his office workers?
a.
acute toxicity
b.
local toxicity
c.
chronic toxicity
d.
systemic toxicity
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
BLM: Higher order
13. What toxic substance is most likely to produce dermatitis?
a.
sensitizer
b.
mutagen
c.
teratogen
d.
contact irritant
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153& 154
BLM: Higher order
14. Through what physiological system would poison ivy have an effect on gardeners and agricultural workers?
a.
nervous system
b.
immune system
c.
respiratory system
d.
metabolic system
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 154
BLM: Higher order
15. If Julia has developed a work-related occupational disease involving the central nervous system, what organic compound is mostly likely to be the cause?
a.
glycols
b.
esters
c.
ketones
d.
hydrocarbons
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 157
BLM:
16. Evan is the OH&S manager for a research lab that has Biosafety Level 1 (BSL 1) organisms. What does he need to do to protect himself from these type of organisms?
a.
wash his hands before he eats lunch at work
b.
put in a separate lunchroom/restroom for lab workers
c.
make sure his office is on a different ventilation system
d.
make sure the lab has a negative pressure environment
ANS: a
PTS: 1
REF: p. 158
BLM: Higher order
17. Sanjay is looking forward to his new job as a Conservation Officer working at Point Pelee National Park. What disease is he at higher risk for when working at Point Pelee and how can he protect himself?
a.
rabies; report wild animals acting strangely
b.
tick-borne encephalitis; wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts
c.
Lyme disease; use insect repellant containing DEET
d.
brucellosis; make sure cuts on hands/arms are covered
ANS: c
PTS: 1
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-5
REF: p. 144
BLM: Higher order
18. The Globally Harmonized System is a system that would establish consistency around in world in terms of what?
a.
the purchase and control of biological agents
b.
specifying the toxicity levels of chemical agents
c.
dealing with epidemics due to biological agents
d.
classification and labelling of chemical products
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 47
BLM: Higher order
19. Bruce Hsieh has a job servicing office printers and copiers in downtown Vancouver. According to recent research, what occupational disease may he be at higher risk of acquiring than his brother who is a zookeeper?
a.
chlamydiae
b.
salmonella
c.
streptococcus
d.
MCS
ANS: d
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145& 150
BLM: Higher order
20. Rafael has worked in a metal processing facility for six months and believes he has suffered toxic exposure to chromic acid. What symptom would help his doctor assess this claim?
a.
irritated eyes
b.
changes to his skin
c.
difficulty breathing
d.
loss of feeling in fingertips
ANS: b
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
BLM: Higher order
NARRBEGIN: Scenario 6-1
Read the following scenario and answer questions 21–25.
Custodial staff (also known as janitors or cleaners) are the unsung heroes of the workplace. Going about their work while many of us are in bed, they deal with a whole host of situations that bring them into contact with a wide range of chemical and biological agents. They are exposed to residues left in the air and on surfaces from manufacturing processes, from service operations, and from human excretions (sweat, body oils, from sneezing, and so on). While employees of the firms that they service receive training about specific chemical and biological hazards, the custodial staff is often unaware of some of the hazards that they may encounter.
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NARREND
21. Custodial staff may be at more risk of acquiring an illness/injury from acute, rather than ambient, exposure to a chemical or biological agent. How would the cleaning manager know if it was an acute exposure?
a.
The cleaner had not worked at that location before.
b.
The cleaner could not continue working that day.
c.
The cleaner had to go to the hospital right away.
d.
The cleaner could not return to work for a week.
ANS: a
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144
BLM: Higher order
22. The owner of the cleaning company tries to protect his workers by getting as much information as he can about chemical hazards when meeting with new clients and renewing contracts with existing clients. In general, for what percentage of chemicals will he be provided with toxicity data?
a!
10%
b!
20%
c!
40%
d!
80%
ANS: b
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
BLM: Higher order
23. Custodial staff are exposed to aerosols through the cleaning products they use and as a by-product of mechanical and human activity at each workplace where they clean.What is the part of the respiratory system that is spiral shaped and could be protected from aerosols by wearing a face mask?
a.
cilia
b.
alveoli
c.
turbinates
d.
macrophages
ANS: c
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 150
BLM: Remember
24. What characteristic of chlorinated solvents could ultimately result in liver problems from cleaners?
a.
acidity
b.
alkalinity
c.
fat-solubility
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-7
d.
low surface tension
ANS: c
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153
BLM: Higher order
25. What two food-related biohazards could cause custodial staff to fall victim to food poisoning if they do not have a way to properly store the food they brought from home for their meal break at 3 a.m.?
a.
ricksettia and brucellosis
b.
brucellosis and salmonellosis
c.
staphylococcus and ricksettia
d.
salmonellosis and staphylococcus
ANS: d
NAR: Scenario 6-1
PTS: 1
REF: p. 159
BLM: Higher order
TRUE/FALSE
1. No toxicity data is available for about 80% of the chemicals that are used commercially.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
2. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is also known as twenty-first century disease.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 145
3. Toxicity is the main determinant of assessing the potential degree of seriousness of a chemical hazard.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 147
4. Most of the negative effects of chemical exposure are derived from airborne respiratory contaminants known as aerosols.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 148
5. Organic solvents fall into two classes—acids and bases.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 155
6. The main route of entry for biological agents is through ingestion or penetration.
ANS: F
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
7. People most at risk of exposure to biohazards are employed in unique or specialized jobs, such as medicine, research, and farming.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 156
8. Requiring workers to work overtime on a regular basis could produce a synergistic effect.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 146
9. Exposure to toxic gases can produce acute and systemic toxicity.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
10. Hearing loss can be caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.
ANS: T
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152
SHORT ANSWER
1. Differentiate between chemical and biological agents. Identify a biological or chemical agent present in your workplace or in a workplace with which you are familiar (either by knowing someone who works there or by being a customer/patient). Explain the route of entry, type(s) of toxicity involved, and the health effects that this specific agent can have on the human body. Describe the controls that should be put in place to control this hazard.
ANS:
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-9
Chemical agents are hazards created by any one or any combination of a very large number of chemicals and/or their physical reactions. Biological agents or biohazards are natural organisms or products of organisms that present a risk to humans.
The chemical and biological hazards that students may have observed/know about should reflect terminology from one of the following sources: Types of Contaminants (OH&S Notebook 6.1, p. 146); Classification of Toxic Substances (OH&S Notebook, 6.4, p. 154–155); Organic Solvents (Table 6.1, p. 157); or Biological Agents (Table 6.2, p. 159) and Classification of Biological Agents (OH & Notebook, 6.5, p. 158).
Students should clearly identify route(s) of entry (inhalation (respiration), ingestion, penetration, or skin absorption, p. 149–151) and provide a clear description of the toxicity (acute versus chron-ic, local versus systemic, p. 152), in addition to the actual health effects (injury or illness).
Descriptions of controls should mention more than one approach (see Fig. 6.2, p. 160) for an over-view of engineering, work practices, PPE, personal hygiene practices, good housekeeping, medical surveillance, and record-keeping controls.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144–160
2. List the seven types of chemical contaminants found in workplaces. Describe an example of one chemical hazard that office workers may be exposed to and one example of a chemical hazard that manufacturing workers may be exposed to. Describe a workplace human resource practice or policy that could address each of these health and safety issues.
ANS:
1.
Dust
2.
Fumes
3.
Smoke
4.
Mist
5.
Vapour
6.
Gas
7.
Liquid
There is a growing concern about the quality of air in the workplace from environmental illnesses, leading to the adoption of controversial scent-free practices (refer to OH&S Today 6.3—Good Scents?) and legally required second-hand tobacco smoke policies. In manufacturing settings, most human exposure to chemicals comes from breathing aerosol byproducts related to the use of organic and inorganic solvents.
Office equipment such as photocopiers, computers, fax machines, laser printers, and ink/bubble jet printers may have ozone and hydrocarbon emissions. These must be labelled on MSDSs.
Refer to: Types of Contaminants OH&S Notebook 6.1, p. 146; Classification of Toxic Substances (OH & S Notebook, 6.4, p. 154–155); and Organic Solvents (Table 6.1, p. 157).
Descriptions of controls should mention more than one approach (see Fig. 6.2, p. 160) for an over-view of engineering, work practices, PPE, personal hygiene practices, good housekeeping, medical surveillance, and record-keeping controls.
PTS: 1
6-2 COPYRIGHT © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd.
REF: p. 146–160
3. Recalling the 12 toxic substances, what three would be the most likely to result in adverse health effects for firefighters.
ANS:
Refer to the OH&S Notebook 6.4—Classification of Toxic Substances.
Irritants
Neurotoxins
Asphyxiants
Sensitizers
Anesthetics and Narcotics
Lung Toxicants
Systemic Poisons
Mutagens
Liver Toxicants
Teratogens
Kidney Toxicants
Carcinogens
Students should mention carcinogens (See OH&S Today, 6.1, p. 145). Other probable substances include irritants, asphyxiants, lung toxicants, and possibly sensitizers.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 153–154
4. List the eight general characteristics and properties that make solvents effective. Pick two of the eight and explain how that characteristic/property would make a solvent hazardous.
ANS:
1.
Low surface tension—allows for more effective skin absorption
2.
High vapour pressure—increases inhalation hazard, especially at higher temperatures
3.
Low boiling point—increases the rate of evaporation or generation of vapours
4.
Low heat of vaporization—increases rate of transformation into a gas/vapour
5.
High volatility—increases speed of evaporation and increases health and fire risk
6.
Ability to dissolve fats—dissolves skin’s surface oils making it more susceptible to infection or skin trauma
7.
Flammability (flashpoint, lower explosion limit, upper explosion limit, auto-ignition tempera-ture)—substance (gas, liquid, solid) will ignite (take fire)
8.
Vaporization—amount (volume) of vapour that will form from a small amount of liquid
PTS: 1
REF: p. 152–155
PROBLEM
1. Chris’s restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia has just received a substandard evaluation from the Ministry of Agriculture’s restaurant inspector. The report cited the following problems: dirty con-ditions in the kitchen, leaking refrigeration units, unclean restrooms, cross-contamination (e.g. cut-ting raw meat and vegetables without cleaning or replacing the cutting board/knife), and inade-quate ventilation in the kitchen. There have been a number of cases of food poisoning in the past six months (staff and customers). The restaurant’s negative rating has been posted on an online website available to current and potential customers, so Chris wants to get the problems fixed as soon as possible and have the notice removed. For each problem, identify the form and type of
Test Bank to accompany Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 5e 6-11
chemical and/or biological hazard involved. Discuss what controls Chris should put in place so that next time around the restaurant will receive a much more positive rating from the inspectors, making special note of new hazards that might arise while he is fixing the problems.
ANS:
Dirty kitchen—bacteria in solid form (e.g. salmonella, streptococcus, E. coli, infectious heptatitis) and airborne solid form fungal agents (spores—aspergillis and pencillium)
Leaking refrigeration units—organic solvent in vapour form (aliphatic hydrocarbon)
Unclean restrooms—bacteria is solid form or suspended in liquid (e.g. E. coli) and solid form virus (e.g. infectious heptatitis A)
Cross-contamination—solid form bacteria and fungal agents (e.g. anthrax, brucellosis, dermato-phytosis) if meat is infected
Inadequate ventilation—solid form fungal agents and as well as smoke and vapours from cooking which may contain metal particles from the pots being used
Engineering controls include—buying new units or getting the refrigeration and ventilation sys-tems fixed and tested by a professional as well as buying a large supply of dedicated cutting boards for each type of food (colour-coded).
Administrative controls include education and training about food hazards (cross-contamination, hand washing) and good housekeeping, starting with a complete and in-depth cleaning of all sur-faces in the restaurant.
Personal protective equipment—gloves (change regularly)
New hazards that could arise while they are cleaning the restaurant and fixing/replacing the units are disturbance of mould (on walls or in dust), further leakage from the units, and irritation or as-phyxia from solvents used in cleaning. He should provide disposable protective clothing, gloves and respirators to everyone involved in the cleaning or hire a professional cleaning crew. Fixing and replacing the refrigeration and ventilation units should be left to the professionals.
PTS: 1
REF: p. 144–162.

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