Life Span Development 15th Edition by John Santrock – Test Bank

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Life Span Development 15th Edition by John Santrock – Test Bank

 

 

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Sample Questions

 

 

Chapter 03

Prenatal Development and Birth

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

_____ occurs when a single sperm cell from the male unites with an ovum (egg) in the female’s fallopian tube in a process called fertilization.

Ovulation

Meiosis

Conception

Mitosis

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Typical prenatal development lasts between:

38 to 40 weeks.

24 to 30 weeks.

28 to 33 weeks.

20 to 28 weeks.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Which of the following identifies the order of the three periods of prenatal development in the correct sequence?

Fertile; embryonic; postterm

Preterm; germinal; postterm

Gestational; germinal; postnatal

Germinal; embryonic; fetal

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Rachel is in the first period of prenatal development. This scenario indicates the _____ of prenatal development.

fetal period

embryonic period

implantation period

germinal period

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

The germinal period of development takes place in the _____ after conception.

first two weeks

first two months

first three months

first seven weeks

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

An egg is fertilized in the _____ period of prenatal development.

fetal

embryonic

implantation

germinal

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Voletta is at the stage of pregnancy where the zygote has attached itself to the uterine wall. This scenario indicates the _____ stage of prenatal development.

embryonic

postpartum

germinal

fetal

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

_____ refers to the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

Implantation

Conception

Fertilization

Involution

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

The _____ consists of an inner mass of cells that eventually develops into an embryo.

trophoblast

blastocyst

endoblast

cytocyst

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

The blastocyst is composed of an inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period and that will finally develop into the _____.

embryo

placenta

umbilical cord

gamete

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

The _____ is the outer layer of cells of the blastocyst that later provides nutrition and support for the embryo.

ectoderm

perineum

cytocyst

trophoblast

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Implantation, the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall, takes place about _____ days after conception.

6 to 8

8 to 10

11 to 15

14 to 16

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Which of the following is a feature of the embryonic period of prenatal development?

The creation of the fertilized egg.

Formation of the blastocyst.

The attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

Formation of support systems for cells.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Carla is three-and-a-half weeks pregnant. This indicates that her child is in which of the following stages of prenatal development?

Embryonic

Fetal

Placental

Germinal

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine wall begins the _____ period of prenatal development.

germinal

embryonic

fetal

zygotic

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Cell differentiation intensifies and organs appear in the _____ period of prenatal development.

embryonic

zygotic

fetal

germinal

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Five weeks after conception, the developing organism is called a(n) _____.

blastocyst

zygote

fetus

embryo

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ consists of three layers of cells: the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm.

blastocyst

fetus

embryo

trophoblast

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The inner layer of cells of the embryo is referred to as the:

mesoderm.

epidermis.

endometrium.

endoderm.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The embryo’s _____ develops into the digestive and respiratory systems.

ectoderm

endoderm

trophoblast

mesoderm

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The outermost layer of the embryo is called the _____.

mesoderm

cytoderm

endoderm

ectoderm

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The middle layer of the embryo is called the _____.

mesoderm

cytoderm

endoderm

ectoderm

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ is a layer of the embryo, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system.

endoderm

ectoderm

mesoderm

epidermis

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ is a layer of the embryo, which will become the nervous system and brain, sensory receptors, and skin parts.

mesoderm

ectoderm

trophoblast

endoderm

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The life-support systems for the embryo include the:

umbilical cord, placenta, and amnion.

circulatory, nervous, and digestive systems.

digestive system, umbilical cord, and amnion.

nervous system, digestive system, and umbilical cord.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ consists of a group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine, but do not connect.

amnion

placenta

embryo

umbilical cord

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The structure that contains two arteries and one vein, and connects the developing embryo to the mother’s body, is called the _____.

amnion

placenta

embryo

umbilical cord

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ prevents large molecules like red blood cells and harmful substances, such as most bacteria and maternal wastes, from entering the fetus.

umbilical cord

placental wall

amniotic sheath

ectoderm

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ is like a bag or envelope, and contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats.

placenta

umbilical cord

amnion

cervix

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The _____ provides an environment that is temperature and humidity controlled, as well as shockproof.

placental wall

pericardial fluid

umbilical cord

amniotic fluid

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Which of the following is a small molecule that would be able to pass through the placental wall?

Red blood cells

Carbon dioxide

Hormones

Maternal wastes

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Which of the following substances is a large molecule that would NOT be able to pass through the placental wall?

Salt

Water

Hormones

Carbon dioxide

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

The process of organ development during the first two months of prenatal development is known as _____.

organogenesis

spermatogenesis

urogenesis

oogenesis

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

During the fourth week of prenatal development, the urogenital system becomes apparent, and _____ emerge.

fingernails and toenails

hair and eyelashes

arm and leg buds

eyes and eyelids

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

 

Tara has just entered the fetal period. Therefore, it has been _____ months since conception.

two

three

four

five

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Fetal period

 

By the end of the fourth month of pregnancy, the fetus measures approximately _____ inches.

3

6

8

12

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Fetal period

 

The fetus that Calista is carrying has reached the age of viability, meaning that it has a chance of surviving outside of the womb. Therefore, it can be inferred that Calista is _____ weeks pregnant.

4 to 8

16 to 18

24 to 25

10 to 12

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Fetal period

 

Sidney is expecting her first child. She has recently begun to feel the fetus kicking. Sidney’s current stage of pregnancy would fall under which of the following periods of prenatal development?

Embryonic period

Fetal period

Germinal period

Implantation period

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Fetal period

 

During pregnancy, which of the following organs or systems are the first to develop?

Visual system

Spinal cord

Urogenital system

Liver

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Trimesters

 

Petra is in the fourth month of her pregnancy. Her unborn child is now referred to as a _____.

gamete

zygote

fetus

embryo

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Trimesters

 

Uma has just given birth. Assuming that the baby is perfectly average, and was born in the U.S., he is most likely to weigh _____ pounds, and would be approximately _____ inches long.

7½ pounds; 20 inches

6½ pounds; 18 inches

5½ pounds; 15 inches

8½ pounds; 22 inches

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Trimesters

 

By the time babies are born, they have approximately _____ neurons.

10 million

200 million

1 billion

100 billion

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

_____ and _____ are the two birth defects that occur when the neural tube fails to close 24 days after conception.

Down syndrome; Tay-Sachs disease

Trisomy 13; Trisomy 18

Spina bifida; anencephaly

ADHD; autism

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

A strategy that can help to prevent neural tube defects is for women to take:

food rich in vitamin C.

adequate amounts of the vitamin B folic acid.

medication for diabetes.

food that is not contaminated with mercury.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

At the peak of neurogenesis, it is estimated that as many as _____ neurons are being generated every minute.

500

3,000

10,000

200,000

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

Sarah is a 20-year-old college student who is paralyzed from the waist down. She can walk with difficulty using crutches, but prefers her wheelchair. Sarah tells you that her condition is due to a birth defect that occurs when the neural tube fails to close during gestation. Which of the following birth defects does Sarah most likely have?

Anencephaly

Neuronal migration

Multiple sclerosis

Spina bifida

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

Neuronal migration occurs approximately _____ weeks after conception.

1 to 8

3 to 12

4 to 15

6 to 24

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

“Teratogen” comes from the Greek word “tera”, which means “_____”.

deformed

monster

earth

evil

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

 

A teratogen is any agent that can cause:

organogenesis.

birth defects.

fetal movement.

maternal back pain.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

 

Which of the following statements is true about the impact of teratogens?

Very few fetuses are exposed to teratogens, so it is easy to determine which teratogen causes which defect.

Fetuses are safe from the effects of teratogens during the first trimester.

Teratogens cause anatomical defects only after organogenesis is complete.

Exposure to teratogens does more damage when it occurs at some points in development than at others.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

 

During which period of development is the unborn baby most at risk of developing a structural defect due to the effects of a teratogen?

At conception

During the germinal period

During the embryonic period

During the fetal period

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

 

_____ act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

Antiemetics

Biofeedback therapies

Antihypertensives

Psychoactive drugs

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs

 

Which of the following is recommended for pregnant women by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration?

Pregnant women should consume no caffeine or consume it only sparingly.

Pregnant women can consume as much caffeine as they want in chocolate but not in coffee.

Pregnant women can safely drink three cups of coffee each day after the third month of pregnancy.

Pregnant women should avoid caffeine in soda or tea, but can consume caffeine safely through coffee.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Caffeine

 

Which of the following is the U.S. Surgeon General’s recommendation regarding alcohol intake during pregnancy?

It is wise to consume alcohol in moderation at the time of conception.

One or two servings of beer or wine a few days a week can have positive effects on the fetus.

No alcohol should be consumed during pregnancy.

One or two servings of hard liquor a few days a week can have positive effects on the fetus.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Alcohol

 

Which of the following is a consequence of maternal smoking during pregnancy?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

High birth weight

Autism

Schizophrenia

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Nicotine

 

Alicia is pregnant and is a heavy smoker. Which of the following risks does her baby face?

Facial and limb deformities

Sudden infant death syndrome

Cleft palate

Tremors and increased general irritability

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Nicotine

 

According to recent research, which of the following risks is linked to environmental tobacco smoke?

Reduced head circumference

Withdrawal symptoms

Lower quality reflexes at 1 month of age

Low birth weight

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Nicotine

 

Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT:

less effective self-regulation.

lower quality of reflexes at 1 month of age.

increased head circumference and lower excitability.

impaired motor development at 2 years of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Cocaine

 

Which of the following statements about cocaine use during pregnancy is true?

Cocaine quickly crosses the placenta to reach the fetus.

Cocaine is broken down in the mother’s bloodstream before it can reach the fetus.

Cocaine molecules are too large to pass through the placenta.

Cocaine exposure during prenatal development has no negative effects on the fetus.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Cocaine

 

Which of the following is true about the effects of cocaine use by pregnant women?

Cocaine exposure during prenatal development is associated with increased birth weight.

Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to higher arousal.

Cocaine exposure during prenatal development is associated with reduced length and head circumference.

Children born to cocaine users exhibit higher quality of reflexes at 1 month of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Cocaine

 

Which of the following statements is FALSE about the effect of substance abuse by pregnant mothers?

Infants whose mothers are addicted to heroin show several behavioral difficulties at birth, including withdrawal symptoms.

Prenatal marijuana exposure is related to higher intelligence in children.

Use of methamphetamine during pregnancy increases risk of low birth weight in offspring.

Maternal smoking is linked to diminished ovarian functioning in female offspring.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Marijuana

 

Which of the following statements is true about the effects of marijuana exposure on one’s offspring?

Research has concluded that marijuana use by pregnant women is associated with memory deficits in their offspring.

Research has indicated that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant have a higher risk of having a child who develops depression by age 10.

Research has shown that mothers who use marijuana while pregnant risk their offspring using marijuana by age 14.

Research has concluded that controlled doses of marijuana are associated with increased memory in the developing offspring.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Marijuana

 

It is well documented that infants whose mothers are addicted to _____ show several behavioral difficulties at birth, which include withdrawal symptoms such as tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, and impaired motor control.

methamphetamine

nicotine

marijuana

heroin

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Heroin

 

The most common treatment for heroin addiction, methadone, is associated with:

very low birth weight in newborns.

very severe withdrawal symptoms in newborns.

lower intelligence in children.

lower quality of reflexes at 1 month of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Heroin

 

Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:

the fetus will need a blood transfusion immediately after birth.

the fetus’ immune system will attack the mother’s blood during the fetal stage.

Jasmine has type A blood, whereas her fetus has type B blood.

Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Incompatible blood types

 

Giovanna was found to be Rh incompatible with her first child. To prevent her body from producing antibodies that will attack any future Rh-incompatible fetuses, her doctor gave her:

Rohypnol.

RhoGAM.

hemoglobin.

RhSYS.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Incompatible blood types

 

Which of the following is FALSE about the complications of Rh incompatibility?

If the fetus’ blood is Rh-positive and the mother’s is Rh-negative, the mother’s immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.

Babies affected by Rh incompatibility can be given blood transfusions before or right after birth.

With each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of complications for an Rh-positive baby of an Rh-negative mother is reduced.

The risks associated with Rh incompatibility are miscarriage, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Incompatible blood types

 

Rubella, also known as _____, is a maternal disease that can cause prenatal defects.

German measles

genital herpes

syphilis

AIDS

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

Zia is pregnant and has a disease that, if untreated, may result in eye & skin lesions in her baby. This disease was also infamously studied in the Tuskegee experiment, perhaps one of the most unethical studies in the U.S. Which of the following diseases is Zia most likely to have?

Genital warts

Syphilis

Rubella

Hepatitis C

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal age

 

During delivery, which of the following diseases is transmitted to a newborn through the birth canal?

Diabetes

West Nile Virus

Rubella

Genital herpes

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

Sylvia is almost nine months pregnant, and is very close to her delivery date. The doctors have found that she has an active case of genital herpes. Which of the following is the best course of action to prevent Sylvia’s baby from contracting the disease?

Performing a cesarean section

Terminating the pregnancy

Delivering the baby through the birth canal

Giving the baby blood transfusions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

When a mother has active genital herpes, about _____ of children who are delivered through the infected birth canal become brain damaged.

one-third

one-fourth

one-half

one-tenth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

Which of the following maternal diseases is likely to be transmitted to the infant through breast-feeding?

Rubella

Syphilis

Genital herpes

AIDS

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

AIDS cannot be transmitted from the mother to the infant by which of the following means?

During sperm/egg adhesion in the fertilization process

During gestation across the placenta

During delivery through contact with maternal blood or fluids

After birth through breast feeding

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

Which of the following maternal diseases carries the risk of delivering very large infants, weighing 10 pounds or more?

Genital herpes

AIDS

Gestational diabetes

Syphilis

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

 

Marlena, who just found out she is pregnant, has very poor eating habits. Her total calorie intake is very low. She eats little protein and unbalanced amounts of vitamins and minerals. If she continues her present eating habits, which of the following is most likely to occur?

The baby will not be affected.

The baby will develop Down syndrome.

The baby is more likely to be malformed.

The baby is more likely to have severe withdrawal symptoms.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal Diet and Nutrition

 

Priscilla just found out she is pregnant, and her doctor prescribed her a B-complex vitamin that promotes normal prenatal development and reduces the risk of preterm deliveries. Which of the following is the vitamin prescribed by Priscilla’s doctor?

Thiamine

Riboflavin

Pantothenic acid

Folic acid

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal Diet and Nutrition

 

The lack of _____ in maternal nutrition has been associated with neural tube defects in offspring.

vitamin C

folic acid

ferrous sulfate

vitamin E

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal Diet and Nutrition

 

What is the recommended daily dosage of folic acid for pregnant women, as issued the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services?

100 milligrams

200 micrograms

200 milligrams

400 micrograms

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal Diet and Nutrition

 

Tammy is pregnant with her first child. She tells you that she loves swordfish and has it for dinner two or three times a week. Based on current research, what advice should you give Tammy about her diet?

Swordfish is a great source of protein and she should continue to consume it.

Swordfish is not as good for her as king mackerel; she should try to eat more mackerel.

Swordfish is not recommended for pregnant women because it can contain high levels of mercury.

Swordfish is a good part of her diet, but Tammy should also eat other large fish that contain omega-3 fatty acids.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal Diet and Nutrition

 

Identify the age group of women who are least likely to obtain prenatal care.

Late twenties

Early thirties

Adolescence

Early forties

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal age

 

Before the delivery of her baby, Karen experiences several traumatic life changes. She separates from her husband, discovers that her mother is seriously ill, and begins a more stressful job. Will Karen’s baby be significantly affected by all the stress in Karen’s life?

Yes, the baby will develop good coping skills.

No, fetuses are not significantly affected by the mother’s emotional stress.

No, any effects on the fetus will be temporary and will not produce lasting problems.

Yes, the baby will be at risk for ADHD and language delays.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Emotional states and stress

 

Which maternal age group has increased risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and fetal death?

Eighteen years or younger

Between 18 and 25 years

Between 19 and 30 years

Thirty-five years and older

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal age

 

Julianne lost her baby early in her pregnancy. Which of the following paternal factors could have possibly led to this outcome?

Her partner was overweight.

Her partner was a heavy smoker, even during her pregnancy.

Her partner is deficient in vitamin C.

Her partner was undergoing severe emotional stress during her pregnancy.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Paternal factors

 

Centering Pregnancy is an innovative prenatal care program provides complete prenatal care:

in individual homes.

in rural clinical settings.

in group settings.

to low-income women only.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal care

 

_____ replaces traditional 15-minute physician visits with 90-minute peer group support settings and self-examination led by a physician or certified nurse-midwife.

Centering Pregnancy

The use of doulas

The use of professional midwives

Nurse Family Partnership

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal care

 

According to a recent study, which of the following observations was made about women who participated in Centering Pregnancy care?

More women felt secure without the aid of midwives.

Many women reported feeling more stressed after a session.

Women had higher breast-feeding rates.

Low-income women benefited less from the program.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal care

 

Identify the prenatal care program that consists of approximately 50 home visits from the prenatal period through two years of age.

The Nurse Family Partnership

Centering Pregnancy

Maxx Family Life

Prenatal Care Assistance Program

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal care

 

The birth process occurs in _____ stages.

three

two

four

five

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

The _____ stage is the longest stage of the birth process.

fourth

second

first

third

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

By the end of the _____, contractions dilate the cervix to an opening of about 10 centimeters (4 inches), so that the baby can move from the uterus to the birth canal.

second trimester

second birth stage

third trimester

first birth stage

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

The second stage of childbirth begins with the _____ and ends with the _____.

emergence of the child’s head; delivery of the placenta

opening of the cervix; delivery of the child out of the mother

emergence of the child’s head; delivery of the child out of the mother

opening of the cervix; delivery of the placenta

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the third stage of the birth process?

The placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled.

It is the longest stage in the birth process.

It involves complete delivery of the child.

The third stage usually begins when the baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

Naveen is entering the third stage of childbirth, also known as the _____ stage.

postpartum

umbilical procedure

afterbirth

detachment

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

_____ is the shortest of the three birth stages.

Involution

Afterbirth

Implantation

Waterbirth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

Which of the following is true of the stages of childbirth?

The first stage terminates when the baby completely emerges from the mother’s body.

Uterine contractions start in the final stage of the birth process.

The first stage is the longest of the three birth stages.

The first stage of birth is longer for a woman who is having her second or third child.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Stages of birth

 

Gisela is having her first baby and has received a drug that will numb the entire lower area of her body during labor. Gisela has been given a(n) _____.

epidural block

oxytocin

analgesic

hormone

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Medication

 

French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze developed a method similar to natural childbirth that is known as _____.

induced childbirth

prepared childbirth

simulated delivery

organic delivery

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Natural and prepared childbirth

 

Which of the following is a conclusion drawn by the current proponents of prepared childbirth methods?

Midwifery is the most important support required during pregnancy and childbirth.

When information and support are provided, women know how to give birth.

Medication should be totally avoided during pregnancy.

Natural childbirth methods are superior to aided methods or cesarean sections.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Natural and prepared childbirth

 

_____ position refers to the baby’s position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina.

Fetal

Breech

Asynclitic

Standard

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Cesarean delivery

 

Which of the following techniques is used to overcome the threat of problems related to the breech position during delivery?

Massage therapy

Music therapy

Acupuncture

Cesarean section

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Cesarean delivery

 

Which of the following is a threat to the infant caused by the breech position?

Bone malformation

Down syndrome

Respiratory problems

Spina bifida

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Cesarean delivery

 

Brenda’s baby was born just minutes ago, and the doctor is checking the baby’s heart rate, respiratory effort, body color, reflex irritability, and muscle tone. Brenda’s baby is being tested with the:

Apgar Scale.

preterm outcome test.

Rogers-Randall Assessment.

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

Pilar is using non-medical techniques for pain management during labor; she has someone insert fine needles into specific locations of her body. She is most likely using _____.

acupressure

acupuncture

aromatherapy

allostasis

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Other nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain

 

What is the rationale for the practice of a waterbirth?

Water pressure reduces the strain of contractions.

It creates an environment similar to that inside the amniotic sac.

Getting into water speeds up the labor process.

Water makes the contractions more intense.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Other nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain

 

A total score of _____ on the Apgar Scale indicates that the newborn’s condition is good.

4

1 to 3

7 to 10

5

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

The Apgar Scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would indicate:

that the newborn’s condition is good.

that there may be some developmental difficulties.

an emergency because the baby’s survival is in doubt.

that the evaluator has not made a proper reading.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

In assessing the health of newborns, the _____ identifies high-risk infants who need resuscitation.

Rogers-Randall Assessment

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

Wechsler Infant Intelligence Scale

Apgar Scale

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

Which of the following is evaluated by the Apgar Scale?

Newborn’s kidney function

Newborn’s birth weight

Newborn’s height

Newborn’s heart rate

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

Which of the following is the Apgar Scale especially good at determining?

The severity of limb deformities of the newborn

Identifying the newborn’s susceptibility to common postnatal complications

The newborn’s ability to respond to stress of delivery

The newborn’s lactose tolerance

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

A pediatrician is testing baby Rosaria. The doctor assesses Rosaria’s neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects. Rosaria’s pediatrician is using the:

Apgar Scale.

Infant IQ test.

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

WISC.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale is typically performed within _____ after birth.

two to five hours

24 to 36 hours

two to five days

one to two weeks

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

What does a very low score on the Brazelton National Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) indicate?

Neurological problems

Heart problems

High pressure

Low respiratory capacity

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

  1. Berry Brazelton, along with Barry Lester and Edward Tronick, developed the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) specifically to assess:

a normal, healthy infant.

the “at-risk” infant.

the newborn’s ability to cope with the new environment.

adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

Dakota was born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighed 4 pounds. Dakota would be considered:

a preterm baby.

a premature baby.

to have a low birth weight.

normal and average for babies born today.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Low birth weight and preterm infants

 

Malorie was born during her mother’s 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a(n) _____ baby.

preterm

premature

average

normal

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Low birth weight and preterm infants

 

Juan-Carlos was born full term, but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:

preterm.

premature.

normal.

small for date.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Low birth weight and preterm infants

 

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the different conditions that pose threats for newborns?

Small for date infants weigh less than 5½ pounds at birth.

Low birth weight babies weigh between 6 to 7 pounds.

Small for date infants have below normal weight when the length of the pregnancy is considered.

Low birth weight babies weigh less than 90 percent of all babies of the same gestational age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Low birth weight and preterm infants

 

Sidra has a baby that was born at 27 weeks. Her baby is considered a(n):

very preterm infant.

moderately preterm infant.

mildly preterm infant.

extremely preterm infant.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Consequences of low birth weight

 

Children born low in birth weight are more likely than their normal birth weight counterparts to develop all of the following, EXCEPT:

muscular dystrophy.

a learning disability.

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

breathing problems such as asthma.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Consequences of low birth weight

 

Approximately _____ percent of all low birth weight children are enrolled in special education programs.

12

22

50

70

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Consequences of low birth weight

 

What does the result of a recent Norwegian study about preterm infants indicate?

The earlier preterm infants are born, the more likely they will drop out of school.

The earlier preterm infants are born, the more susceptible they are to congenital diseases.

The earlier preterm infants are born, the lesser are the chances of survival beyond two years.

The earlier preterm infants are born, the higher the severity of brain damage.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Consequences of low birth weight

 

Two increasingly used interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are _____ and _____.

bottle feeding; music therapy

massage therapy; kangaroo care

breast feeding; antenatal steroids

bottle feeding; kangaroo care

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Nurturing low birth weight and preterm infants

 

When the _____ is delivered, estrogen and progesterone levels drop steeply and remain low until the ovaries start producing hormones again.

baby

placenta

embryo

blastocyst

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.3: Explain the changes that take place in the postpartum period.
Topic: Postpartum period

 

Mariah has given birth to a baby girl. Even one month after delivery, she is experiencing very strong feelings of sadness and anxiety. She is so morose that she is having trouble coping with daily tasks. Mariah is most likely suffering from:

posttraumatic stress disorder.

postpartum blues.

paranoid schizophrenia.

postpartum depression.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.3: Explain the changes that take place in the postpartum period.
Topic: Postpartum depression

 

Michael and Jessica are having their first child, and have told their physician they would like a rooming-in arrangement. This means that:

Michael can stay overnight in Jessica’s room.

Jessica’s hospital room will be more like a nursery.

Jessica’s baby will stay in her room.

Jessica will stay in the hospital for the first two months after pregnancy.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.3: Explain the changes that take place in the postpartum period.
Topic: Bonding

 

Short Answer Questions
 

Identify the period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. During this time, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.

 

 

Embryonic period

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

Identify the inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo.

 

 

Blastocyst

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Germinal period

 

Identify the life-support systems of the embryo, where a group of disk-shaped tissues and small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine.

 

 

Placenta

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period

Identify the process that takes place at approximately 6 to 24 weeks after conception, involves cells moving from their point of origin to their appropriate locations and creating the different levels, structures, and regions of the brain.

 

 

Neuronal migration

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Prenatal brain development

 

Sergio’s wife is pregnant, but he smokes all the time inside the house. Cigarette smoke has been known to cause birth defects and negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes in unborn babies. Sergio is exposing his child to which type of agent?

 

 

Teratogen

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

Justus and Rochelle are taking prenatal classes that involve a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor, and a detailed anatomy and physiology course. On which obstetrician’s work is this method based?

 

 

Ferdinand Lamaze

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Natural and prepared childbirth

 

Veronica is one week from her due date when her doctor tells her that the baby hasn’t turned yet, meaning he is in the _____.

 

 

breech position

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Cesarean delivery

Identify the test that is given to the neonate within 24 to 36 hours after birth. It is designed to assess a newborn’s neurological development and reflexes.

 

 

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Assessing the newborn

 

Tadi lives in a community where women generally keep both preterm and postterm babies close for skin to skin contact. This is called _____ in the U.S.

 

 

kangaroo care

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Low birth weight and preterm infants

Identify the formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond, between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth.

 

 

Bonding

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 3.3: Explain the changes that take place in the postpartum period.
Topic: Bonding

 

Describe the three main periods of prenatal development, and the major steps for developing into a person for each stage.

 

 

Typical prenatal development can be divided into three periods: germinal, embryonic, and fetal. The first period is called the germinal period. During this time, the zygote is created, cell division takes place, and the zygote attaches to the uterine wall. The second period is called the embryonic period. During this time, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear. The embryo is composed of the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. Life-support systems form. These include the placenta, the umbilical cord, and the amnion. Organogenesis (the process of organ formation) takes place. The third period is called the fetal period. During this time, dramatic growth and development occur. The mother can feel leg movements. The sex of the baby can be determined.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Embryonic period
Topic: Fetal period
Topic: Germinal period

Define a teratogen and illustrate your answer with an example. List at least six teratogens one should avoid during pregnancy.

 

 

A teratogen is any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect, or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Teratogens include drugs, incompatible blood types, environmental pollutants, infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, maternal stress, and advanced maternal and paternal age.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Teratogen

 

Describe the effect of alcohol on pregnancy. What is FAS? What are some of the problems children with FAS face?

 

 

Heavy drinking by pregnant women can be devastating to their offspring. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy. The abnormalities include facial deformities and defective limbs, face, and heart. Most children with FASD have learning problems, and many are below average in intelligence—including some that are mentally retarded.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Alcohol

Teji’s doctor is testing her Rh factor to determine compatibility. Based on the test results, the mother and fetus are incompatible. Give a brief description of Rh incompatibility and discuss the dangers associated with it.

 

 

Incompatibility between the mother’s and father’s blood type poses a risk to prenatal development. If a pregnant woman is Rh-negative and her partner is Rh-positive, the fetus may be Rh-positive. If the fetus’ blood is Rh-positive and the mother’s is Rh-negative, the mother’s immune system may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus. This can result in any number of problems, including miscarriage or stillbirth, anemia, jaundice, heart defects, brain damage, or death soon after birth.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Incompatible blood types

 

What is AIDS? Describe the modes and effects of transmission from the mother to the child.

 

 

AIDS is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body’s immune system. A mother can infect her offspring with HIV/AIDS in three ways: (1) during gestation across the placenta, (2) during delivery through contact with maternal blood or fluids, and (3) postpartum (after birth) through breast feeding. The transmission of AIDS through breast feeding is especially a problem in many developing countries. Babies born to HIV-infected mothers can be (1) infected and symptomatic (show HIV symptoms), (2) infected but asymptomatic (not show HIV symptoms), or (3) not infected at all. An infant who is infected and asymptomatic may still develop HIV symptoms up until 15 months of age.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.1: Describe prenatal development, including environmental influences.
Topic: Maternal diseases

Xiomara is considering hiring a doula to help with childbirth. What is a doula and how is they different from midwives?

 

 

Doula is a Greek word that means “a woman who helps”. A doula is a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth. Doulas remain with the parents throughout labor, assessing and responding to the mother’s needs. In the United States, most doulas work as independent providers hired by the expectant parents. Doulas typically function as part of a “birthing team”, serving as an adjunct to the midwife or the hospital’s obstetric staff.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Doula

 

Name three different types of drugs that are used during labor. Illustrate your answer with examples.

 

 

Three basic kinds of drugs that are used during labor are analgesia, anesthesia, and oxytocin/pitocin. Analgesics are used to relieve pain. Tranquilizers, barbiturates, and narcotics can all be used to relieve pain. Anesthesia is used in late first-stage labor and the expulsion of the baby to block sensation in an area of the body, or to block consciousness. An epidural block is a regional anesthetic commonly used in childbirth.

Oxytocin is a synthetic hormone that is used to stimulate contractions; pitocin is the most widely used oxytocin.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Medication

Naia’s doctor has told her that because her baby has not turned, he would like to perform a cesarean delivery. What can Naia expect to happen?

 

 

A cesarean delivery is a surgical procedure in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision made in her abdomen. Normally, the baby’s head comes through the vagina first. But if the baby is in a breech position, the baby’s buttocks are the first part to emerge from the vagina. In one of every 25 deliveries, the baby’s head is still in the uterus when the rest of the body is out. Breech births can cause respiratory problems. As a result, if the baby is in a breech position, a cesarean delivery is usually performed.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Cesarean delivery

 

Bronwyn is interested in using non-medical techniques to assist her in dealing with pain during childbirth. Based on the text and class discussion, what are the two best options available to her and why?

 

 

Some new nonmedicated techniques used to reduce stress and pain during childbirth are waterbirth, massage, acupuncture, hypnosis, and music therapy.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 3.2: Describe the birth process.
Topic: Other nonmedicated techniques to reduce pain

Briefly describe postpartum depression. What are some of the symptoms that distinguish it from a more typical case of baby blues? Based on the text and class, what would you consider the two effective treatment methods for postpartum depression?

 

 

After giving birth, some women have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks in the postpartum period. This emotional state is termed as postpartum depression. Several antidepressant drugs are effective in treating postpartum depression and appear to be safe for breast feeding women. Psychotherapy, especially cognitive therapy, is effective in easing postpartum depression for many women. Also, engaging in regular exercise may help in treating postpartum depression.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 3.3: Explain the changes that take place in the postpartum period.
Topic: Postpartum depression

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