Leadership Research Findings Practice and Skills 8th Edition by Andrew J. DuBrin – Test Bank

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Leadership Research Findings Practice and Skills 8th Edition by Andrew J. DuBrin – Test Bank

Chapter_02_Traits_Motives_And_Characteristics_Of_Leaders

 

 

True / False

 

1. The trait approach to leadership is based on the idea that effective leaders are made of the “right stuff.”

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   According to the trait approach to leadership, “Leaders do not have to be great men or women by being intellectual geniuses or omniscient prophets to succeed. But they do need to have the ‘right stuff’ and this stuff is not equally present in all people.” See “The Strengths and Limitations of The Trait Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Strengths and Limitations of The Trait Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

2. According to one authority cited in the leadership text, humility adds value to leadership.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Great leadership is manifested or articulated by people who know how to understate it. There is leadership value in humility, the leadership that comes from putting people in the limelight, not yourself. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

3. Telling the truth consistently is considered an important trust builder for leaders.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Telling the truth consistently is considered an important trust builder for leaders. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

4. A synthesis of research studies suggests that when workers trust their supervisor, work satisfaction tends to be higher.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A synthesis of research studies suggests that when workers trust their supervisor, work satisfaction tends to be higher. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

5. An assertive leader finds the right balance between being pushy and being passive.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An assertive person is reasonably tactful rather than being aggressive and obnoxious. A leader with good sensitivity, or emotional intelligence, knows when assertiveness crosses the line into aggressiveness, such as insulting subordinates or making unreasonable demands. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

6. A key part of being an authentic leader is to be passionate about your purpose.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A key part of being an authentic leader is to be passionate about your purpose. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

7. An effective form of humor by the leader is to poke fun at the problems and limitations of group members.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Aggressive humor can be used to victimize, belittle, and cause others some type of disparagement—and will lead to negative outcomes such as stress and counter-hostility among group members. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

8. Leaders are likely to acquire more power if they use humor to build themselves up.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leaders are likely to acquire more power if they use humor to build themselves up. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

9. A recommended way of building passion into a business is for the leader to tell a story about its creation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   One of the ways for an entrepreneur to inject passion into a business is to tell a creation-of-the-enterprise story. The story should inspire people to understand how your product or cause will make the world a better place. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

10. According to the theory of emotional intelligence, a person with a high degree of self-management would be well organized and helpful in making plans for others.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   According to the theory of emotional intelligence, self-management refers to the ability to control one’s emotions and act with honesty and integrity in a consistent and adaptable manner. The right degree of self-management helps prevent a person from throwing temper tantrums when activities do not go as planned. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

11. A resonant leader is one who scores low on emotional intelligence.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The leader who scores high in emotional intelligence is described as resonant. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

12. Part of relationship management in emotional intelligence is building bonds with other people.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Relationship management includes the interpersonal skills of being able to communicate clearly and convincingly, disarm conflicts, and build strong personal bonds. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

13. The trait of flexibility is especially important for leadership because it facilitates a leader’s ability to adapt to various leadership situations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The trait of flexibility is especially important for leadership because it facilitates a leader’s ability to adapt to various leadership situations. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

14. A leader with a strong internal locus of control readily looks toward environmental forces as the cause of his or her successes and failures.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Locus of control refers to whether a person feels personally responsible for events happening to him or her, helping the leader deliver a take-charge attitude. Hence, a leader with a strong internal locus of control feels personally responsible for events happening to him or her as the cause of his or her successes and failures. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

15. Group members tend to prefer a leader with an internal locus of control rather than an external one.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Group members tend to prefer a leader with an internal locus of control rather than an external one. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

16. Leaders with a socialized power motive use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or vision.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leaders with a socialized power motive use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or vision. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

17. A strong achievement drive is an important contributor to innovative thinking in the workplace.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A strong achievement drive is an important contributor to innovative thinking in the workplace. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

18. Knowledge of the business has become less important as a leadership characteristic because so many competent staff specialists are found in organizations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Knowledge of the business has become less important as a leadership characteristic because so many competent staff specialists are found in organizations. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

19. Research about emotional intelligence suggests that leadership is much more controlled by heredity than by environment.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Research about emotional intelligence reinforces the idea that leadership is a combination of inherited and learned factors. See “The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

Multiple Choice

 

20. Leaders who have the “right stuff” have:

  a. the necessary traits and characteristics to lead effectively.
  b. made the right connections to become leaders.
  c. intellectual characteristics associated with effective leadership.
  d. inborn charismatic behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Leaders who have the “right stuff” have the necessary traits and characteristics to lead effectively. Observations by managers and human resource specialists, as well as dozens of research studies, indicate that leaders have certain personality traits. These characteristics contribute to leadership effectiveness in many situations. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

21. Self-confidence is an important leadership characteristic found:

  a. primarily among executives.
  b. primarily among supervisors.
  c. in almost every leadership setting.
  d. in male leaders more than in female leaders.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Self-confidence is not only a personality trait. It also refers to a behaviour and an interpersonal skill that a person exhibits in a number of situations. Hence, it is required in almost every leadership setting. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

22. A key part of a leader having humility is to:

  a. insult the group performance, including that of your own.
  b. put group members in the limelight, rather than oneself.
  c. make forecasts about the group not making standards.
  d. ask the group to lead itself so he or she can do analytical work.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   According to Stephen G. Harrison, “Great leadership is manifested or articulated by people who know how to understate it. There is leadership value in humility, the leadership that comes from putting people in the limelight, not yourself.” See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

23. Finance manager Sharon has the reputation of “walking the talk,” so she most likely scores high on the trait of:

  a. humility.
  b. trustworthiness.
  c. extraversion.
  d. sense of humor.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   An effective leader or manager is supposed to walk the talk, thereby showing a consistency between deeds (walking) and words (talk). In this context, trust is defined as a person’s confidence in another individual’s intentions and motives and in the sincerity of that individual’s word. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

24. Which one of the following actions on the part of a leader would most likely contribute to a reputation of trustworthiness?

  a. Being highly diplomatic so as not to offend anyone
  b. Doing what she or he thinks is right in spite of the political consequences
  c. Behaving in a manner differently than he or she expects others to behave
  d. Making his or her behavior inconsistent with his or her intentions

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Maintaining a high level of integrity and building a reputation for doing what you think is morally right in spite of the political consequences are good trust builders. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

25. An authentic leader would most likely:

  a. imitate the behavior of the company CEO.
  b. engage in excessive organizational politics.
  c. expect more of workers than himself or herself.
  d. practice his or her values consistently.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Authentic leaders demonstrate a passion for their purpose, practice their values consistently, and lead with their hearts as well as their heads. They establish long-term meaningful relationships and have the self-discipline to get results. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

26. An important part of being assertive is to:

  a. not tolerate differences of opinion.
  b. express feelings and opinions forthrightly.
  c. behave aggressively toward people when necessary.
  d. be obnoxious when necessary.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Assertiveness refers to being forthright in expressing demands, opinions, feelings, and attitudes. Being assertive helps leaders perform many tasks and achieve goals. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

27. Kent is an enthusiastic leader, so his enthusiasm is likely to:

  a. be perceived as an annoyance by group members.
  b. help him build relationships with the group.
  c. be perceived as somewhat of a phony by group members.
  d. make it difficult for him to advance further.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   In almost all leadership situations, it is desirable for the leader to be enthusiastic. Group members tend to respond positively to enthusiasm, partly because enthusiasm may be perceived as a reward for constructive behavior. Enthusiasm is also a desirable leadership trait because it helps build good relationships with team members. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

28. The most effective type of humor for an organizational leader to use is directed at:

  a. the competition.
  b. group members.
  c. other departments.
  d. himself or herself.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Laughter and humor serve such functions in the workplace as relieving tension and boredom and defusing hostility. Executives and other managers who use self-deprecating humor appear more approachable and likeable to subordinates. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

29. Passion for the work on the part of a leader often expresses itself as a(n):

  a. obsession for achieving company goals.
  b. distrust of employees who are calm and relaxed.
  c. obsession for surfing the Internet during working hours.
  d. tendency to engage in ruthless cost cutting.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A dominant characteristic of effective leaders is their passion for their work and to some extent for the people who help them accomplish the work. The passion goes beyond enthusiasm and often expresses itself as an obsession for achieving company goals. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

30. A person with high emotional intelligence is likely to:

  a. become overly enthusiastic during a meeting.
  b. build strong personal bonds with people.
  c. be particularly well suited for performing analytical work.
  d. avoid stressful situations involving people.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Relationship management, one of the four factors in emotional intelligence, includes the interpersonal skills of being able to communicate clearly and convincingly, disarm conflicts, and build strong personal bonds. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

31. Research about emotional intelligence and leadership concludes that:

  a. emotional intelligence alone leads to career success.
  b. emotional intelligence combined with ambition accounts for 90 percent of career success.
  c. general intelligence and technical skills are the most important for top-level leaders.
  d. a leader’s mood and associated behaviors affect bottom-line performance.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Research on emotional intelligence and leadership has also focused on the importance of the leader’s mood in influencing performance. Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee believe that the leader’s mood and his or her associated behaviors greatly influence bottom-line performance. One reason is that moods are contagious. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

32. A leader with an internal locus of control:

  a. is often low in self-confidence.
  b. is often interpreted by group members as being weak.
  c. sees environmental factors as causing most events.
  d. takes responsibility for events happening.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Locus of control refers to whether a person feels personally responsible for events happening to him or her, helping the leader deliver a take-charge attitude. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

33. Donald Trump is seen as a leader with a:

  a. high standing on humility.
  b. personalized power motive.
  c. socialized power motive.
  d. low achievement drive.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Leaders with a personalized power motive seek power mostly to further their own interests. They crave the trappings of power, such as status symbols, luxury, and money. Their need for dominance can lead to submissive subordinates who are frequently sycophants and yes-persons. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

34. The achievement motive refers to:

  a. a desire to surpass productivity quotas.
  b. finding joy in accomplishment for its own sake.
  c. putting high energy into achieving work goals.
  d. sustaining a high level of energy for work.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Drive refers to a propensity to put forth high energy into achieving objectives and to persistence in applying that energy. Drive also includes achievement motivation—finding joy in accomplishment for its own sake. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

35. Tenacity is considered to be an important leadership characteristic because:

  a. leaders have such limited power over group members.
  b. it requires tenacity to keep a job during an era of downsizing.
  c. it often takes a long time to implement a new program.
  d. leaders are so often under attack from group members.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Tenacity multiplies in importance for organizational leaders because it takes a long time to implement a new program or to consummate a business deal, such as acquiring another company. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

36. “Knowledge of the business” as a leadership characteristic is closely related to the leadership trait of:

  a. tenacity.
  b. creativity.
  c. cognitive ability.
  d. drive and motivation.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Intellectual ability is closely related to having knowledge of the business or the key task the group is performing. It is closely related to the leadership trait of cognitive ability. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

37. A hands on and deeply engaged leader is most likely to be strong on which one of the following traits or characteristics?

  a. knowledge of the business
  b. emotionally supportiveness
  c. humility
  d. sense of humor

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The importance of knowledge of the business is strongly recognized as an attribute of executive leadership. Knowledge of the business or the group task is particularly important when developing strategy, formulating mission statements, and sizing up the external environment. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

38. Leadership effectiveness tends to be higher when the leader’s intelligence is:

  a. about the same as that of the average group member.
  b. a little higher than that of the average group member.
  c. considerably higher than that of the average group member.
  d. considerably lower than that of the average group member.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A meta-analysis of 151 studies found a positive relationship between intelligence and job performance of leaders in many different settings. The researchers also found support for the old idea that intelligence contributes the most to leadership effectiveness when the leader is not vastly smarter than most group members. Again, group members prefer that their leaders be smarter than the average group member even if the difference is not huge. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

39. Creativity among leaders tends to be distributed:

  a. along a continuum from low to high.
  b. into being creative versus not creative.
  c. between old and young leaders.
  d. between planners versus implementers.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Many effective leaders are creative in the sense that they arrive at imaginative and original solutions to complex problems. Creative ability lies on a continuum, with some leaders being more creative than others. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

40. An important application of farsightedness for executive leaders is to:

  a. study technological developments.
  b. avoid being frustrated by the demands of group members and customers.
  c. predict the direction of environmental forces.
  d. memorize product information.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Conceptual thinking refers to the ability to see the overall perspective, and it makes farsightedness possible. A farsighted leader understands how the external environment influences the organization and how different parts of the organization influence each other. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

41. A systems thinker would be especially good at:

  a. exploiting short-range benefits.
  b. understanding how the external environment influences the organization.
  c. sizing up people.
  d. managing his or her emotions to advantage.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Conceptual thinking refers to the ability to see the overall perspective, and it makes farsightedness possible. A conceptual thinker is also a systems thinker, because he or she understands how the external environment influences the organization and how different parts of the organization influence each other. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

42. Jane is a farsighted leader, so she:

  a. tends to delay taking action.
  b. avoids planning her unit’s activities.
  c. sees the long-range implications of her actions.
  d. focuses on the short-range implications of her actions.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   To develop visions and corporate strategy, a leader needs farsightedness, the ability to understand the long-range implications of actions and policies. The farsighted leader/manager is not oblivious to short-range needs but will devise an intermediate solution. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

43. With respect to heredity and environment, leadership effectiveness appears to be:

  a. mostly due to heredity.
  b. the combined influence of heredity and environment.
  c. mostly due to the environment.
  d. four-fifths heredity and one-fifth environment.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The traits, motives, and characteristics required for leadership effectiveness are caused by a combination of heredity and environment. Leaders are both born and made. See “The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

44. The balance of opinion suggests that the contributors to leadership effectiveness are:

  a. virtually unknown.
  b. about 90 percent nature and 10 percent nurture.
  c. about 90 percent nurture and 10 percent nature.
  d. a combination of nature and nurture.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A person’s genes influence the emotional intelligence necessary for leadership. However, experience is important for emotional intelligence because it increases with age, and a person usually becomes better at managing relationships with practice. See “The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

45. Emotional intelligence tends to:

  a. peak at an early career stage.
  b. be closely associated with technical skill.
  c. improve with experience.
  d. decrease substantially during middle age.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Experience is important for emotional intelligence because it increases with age, and a person usually becomes better at managing relationships with practice. See “The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

46. An important strength of the trait approach to leadership is that it:

  a. can help with leadership selection and development.
  b. specifies how much of a given trait is important for leadership.
  c. specifies which traits are needed for leadership in a given situation.
  d. helps in analyzing the situational demands.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The current emphasis on emotional intelligence, charisma, innovative thinking, and ethical conduct, which are really traits, attitudes, and behaviors, reinforces the importance of the trait approach. Understanding the traits of effective leaders serves as an important guide to leadership selection. See “The Strengths and Limitations of The Trait Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Strengths and Limitations of The Trait Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

47. Mike is the head of a research team at a technology firm. In spite of constant rejection of Mike’s ideas by the senior officials, he consistently pursued his ideas without losing confidence. This shows that Mike is a(n) _____ leader.

  a. ​socially conscious
  b. ​resilient
  c. ​submissive
  d. ​aggressive

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   One of the motivational characteristics of organizational leaders is that they are tenacious. Tenacity multiplies in importance for organizational leaders because it takes a long time to implement a new program or to consummate a business deal. Resilience is part of tenacity because the tenacious person will bounce back from a setback through continuous effort. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

48. ​Torres was recently appointed the marketing head of a cosmetics company. He has a keen interest in the cosmetics industry and has extensively studied the company’s past growth and marketing strategies. This reveals that Torres:

  a. ​is an extraverted leader.
  b. ​exudes a strong sense of warmth and courage.
  c. ​has knowledge of the key task the group is performing.
  d. ​is influenced by personalized power motive.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Intellectual ability is closely related to having knowledge of the business or the key task the group is performing. An effective leader has to be technically competent in some discipline, particularly when leading a group of specialists. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

49. ​Simon, the CEO of a consumer electronics firm, received a huge positive response from the industry experts and consumers for introducing breakthrough technologies in the company’s products. Simon is a _____ leader.

  a. ​humble
  b. ​extraverted
  c. ​born
  d. ​creative

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Many effective leaders are creative in the sense that they arrive at imaginative and original solutions to complex problems. Creative ability lies on a continuum, with some leaders being more creative than others. At one end of the creative continuum are business leaders who think of innovative products and services. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

50. ​Lindsey, a market research analyst, is known for her almost accurate predictions regarding the market trends in the medium to long term. This depicts that Lindsey:

  a. ​has an insightful mind.
  b. ​is a resilient leader.
  c. ​is likely to score low on locus of control.
  d. ​has an impressive creation-of-the-enterprise story.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   An important cognitive trait of leaders is insight, a depth of understanding that requires considerable intuition and common sense. Intuition is often the mental process used to provide the understanding of a problem. Insight helps speed decision making. You can gauge your insight by charting the accuracy of your hunches and predictions about people and business situations. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

51. ​Edwards is the head of the procurement department at FreshDelights, a frozen yoghurt chain. Anticipating a reduction in the demand for frozen yoghurt in the upcoming winter season, Edwards decides to reduce the dairy procurement. Edwards is:

  a. ​a humble leader.
  b. ​a conceptual thinker.
  c. ​driven by personalized power motive.
  d. ​a leader with a pessimistic outlook.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   To develop visions and corporate strategy, a leader needs farsightedness, the ability to understand the long-range implications of actions and policies. Conceptual thinking refers to the ability to see the overall perspective, and it makes farsightedness possible. A conceptual thinker understands how the external environment influences the organization. See “Cognitive Factors and Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Cognitive Factors and Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

52. ​Lewis is a team leader at a multinational corporation. Before assigning tasks to his team members, he asks for their preferences and suggestions, to not only enhance project delivery efficiency, but also increase team members’ satisfaction. Which of the following traits best describes Lewis’ approach?

  a. ​Self-assertive
  b. ​Aggressively courageous
  c. ​Effective self-management
  d. ​Socially aware

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Social awareness includes having empathy for others and intuition about organizational problems. Socially aware leaders go beyond sensing the emotions of others by showing they care. In addition, they accurately size up political forces in the office. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

53. ​Clark is an enthusiastic leader who has the ability to clearly communicate his team plans and goals. He is also known for his ability to resolve disputes quickly, taking into consideration the interests of all the parties involved. Clark is likely to score high on:

  a. ​relationship management.
  b. ​personalized power motive.
  c. ​creativity.
  d. ​tenacity.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Relationship management includes the interpersonal skills of being able to communicate clearly and convincingly, disarm conflicts, and build strong personal bonds. Resonant leaders use relationship management skills to spread their enthusiasm and solve disagreements, often with kindness and humor. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

54. ​Clara is the CEO of an online retail store. Her business saw a 40 per cent increase in profits in the current year owing to her instant adaptation to the current and upcoming trends. This shows that:

  a. ​Clara is driven by personalized power motive.
  b. ​Clara is over confident.
  c. ​Clara lacks in practical intelligence.
  d. ​Clara is a flexible leader.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A leader is someone who facilitates change. It therefore follows that a leader must be flexible enough to cope with such changes as technological advances, downsizings, global outsourcing, a shifting customer base, and a changing work force. Flexibility, or the ability to adjust to different situations, has long been recognized as an important leadership characteristic. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

55. ​Which of the following is true of a leader with socialized power motives?

  a. ​They are more likely to manipulate others through the use of power.
  b. ​They tend to be less emotionally mature than leaders with personalized power motives.
  c. ​They exercise power more for the benefit of the entire organization.
  d. ​They crave the trappings of power, such as status symbols, luxury, and money.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Leaders with a socialized power motive use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or a vision. Leaders with socialized power motives tend to be more emotionally mature than leaders with personalized power motives. They exercise power more for the benefit of the entire organization and are less likely to manipulate others through the use of power. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

56. ​Clarke, the CEO of Abbott Corp., owns several businesses. He enjoys dominating others and prefers subordinates who are submissive and passive. Which of the following power motives explains Clarke’s behavior?

  a. ​Socialized
  b. ​Personalized
  c. ​Achievement
  d. ​Cognitive

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Some leaders with strong personalized power motives typically enjoy dominating others. Their need for dominance can lead to submissive subordinates who are frequently sycophants and yes-persons. See “Leadership Motives.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

57. ​Walker is a supervisor at an exporting unit. He has a cheerful disposition, and encourages and appreciates his team members who suggest ideas or accomplish tasks. Which of the following traits best describes Walker’s behavior?

  a. ​Extraversion
  b. ​Courage
  c. ​Tenacity
  d. ​Personalized power motive

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Extraversion has been recognized for its contribution to leadership effectiveness because it is helpful for leaders to be gregarious, outgoing, and upbeat in most situations. Also, extraverts are more likely to want to assume a leadership role and participate in group activities. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

58. ​Grace, the CEO of an oil and gas exploration company, decides to buy an oil block, even though experts have warned her of security risks and uncertainty with regard to oil presence. Grace completes the oil deal, and exploration in the block confirms oil presence. Which of the following traits best describes Grace’s actions?

  a. ​Resonance
  b. ​Gutsy
  c. ​Humility
  d. ​Extraversion

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Leaders need courage to face the challenges of taking prudent risks and taking initiative in general. Courage comes from the heart. It takes courage for a leader to suggest a new undertaking, because if the undertaking fails, the leader is often seen as having failed. Courageous leadership has also been described as gutsy.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

59. ​William heads the marketing department of an apparel company. He is an enthusiastic leader who puts in extra work hours to increase the productivity of his team. He is so engaged and passionate about his work that he willingly contributes to his team even during his vacation. Which of the following could possibly be a consequence of William’s behaviour?

  a. ​High attrition rates
  b. ​Distrust among team members
  c. ​Work addiction
  d. ​Less transparency

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   A dominant characteristic of effective leaders is their passion for their work and to some extent for the people who help them accomplish the work. The passion goes beyond enthusiasm and often expresses itself as an obsession for achieving company goals. The downside to extreme passion for work is that it can lead to work addiction, thereby interfering with other joys in life. See “Personality Traits of Effective Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

Essay

 

60. ​Derek, who was earlier a manager at a multinational firm, has been recently appointed the head of the marketing department in the same company. Despite several other contenders for the post of marketing head possessing the same technical skills, Derek clearly had an edge over the others in terms of emotional intelligence. Parker, one of the contenders, approaches the regional head to seek his advice on improving his leadership skills. If you were the regional head, what advice would you give to Parker?

ANSWER:  

Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to do such things as understanding one’s feelings, have empathy for others, and regulate one’s emotions to enhance one’s quality of life. This type of intelligence generally has to do with the ability to connect with people and understand their emotions. In addition to being an ability, emotional intelligence is also a trait, or part of the leader’s personality. The leader who scores high in emotional intelligence is described as resonant. Hence, from the scenario given in the question, it can be concluded that Derek is a resonant leader.

In order for Parker to enhance his leadership skills, he needs to improve on the four key factors in emotional intelligence as described here.

1. Self-awareness. The ability to understand your own emotions is the most essential of the four emotional intelligence competencies. Having high self-awareness allows people to know their strengths and limitations and have high self-esteem. Resonant leaders use self-awareness to accurately measure their own moods, and they intuitively understand how their moods affect others.

2. Self-management. This is the ability to control one’s emotions and act with honesty and integrity in a consistent and adaptable manner. The right degree of self-management helps prevent a person from throwing temper tantrums when activities do not go as planned. Resonant leaders do not let their occasional bad moods ruin their day. If they cannot overcome the bad mood, they let work associates know of the problem and how long it might last.

3. Social awareness. This includes having empathy for others and intuition about organizational problems. Socially aware leaders go beyond sensing the emotions of others by showing they care. In addition, they accurately size up political forces in the office.

4. Relationship management. This includes the interpersonal skills of being able to communicate clearly and convincingly, disarm conflicts, and build strong personal bonds. Resonant leaders use relationship management skills to spread their enthusiasm and solve disagreements, often with kindness and humor.

Emotional intelligence contributes to the understanding of leadership because it highlights the importance of leaders making effective use of emotions. Information about emotional intelligence also leads to a better understanding of how leadership emerges, leadership behaviors, and leadership effectiveness.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

61. ​Thomas heads the sales team of a computer software firm. As a leader, his inclination was more toward accumulating wealth and acquiring status through his position. In the second year of his tenure, the sales department generated a substantially lower revenue than in the previous years. If you were the advisor to Thomas, what advice would you give him to improve the company’s prospects?

ANSWER:   At the outset, it appears that Thomas has a strong personalized power motive. Leaders with a personalized power motive seek power mostly to further their own interests. They crave the trappings of power, such as status symbols, luxury, and money. The wealthiest of CEOs purchase luxury condominium apartments in major cities, even when they have another home. Some leaders with strong personalized power motives typically enjoy dominating others. Their need for dominance can lead to submissive subordinates who are frequently sycophants and yes-persons. Another characteristic of leaders with a personalized power motive is that they do not worry about everybody liking them. They recognize that as you acquire power, you also acquire enemies.

In order to improve the prospects of the company, Thomas should develop socialized power motives. Leaders with a socialized power motive use power primarily to achieve organizational goals or a vision. In this context, the term socialized means that the leader uses power primarily to help others. As a result, he or she is likely to provide more effective leadership. Leaders with socialized power motives tend to be more emotionally mature than leaders with personalized power motives. They exercise power more for the benefit of the entire organization and are less likely to manipulate others through the use of power. Leaders with socialized power motives are also less defensive and more willing to accept expert advice. Finally, they have longer-range perspectives.

It is important not to draw a rigid line between leaders with personalized power motives and those with socialized power motives. The distinction between doing good for others and doing good for oneself is often made on the basis of very subjective criteria.

Further, Thomas needs to improve his emotional intelligence quotient to enhance his ability to connect with people and understand their emotions. He should focus on augmenting his strengths in the four components of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

 

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.2, 2.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Personality Traits of Effective Leaders, Leadership Motives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

62. ​Tamara is the CEO of an energy firm. She is known for her natural abilities to manage crisis and guide her team through effectively. Kevin, one of the managers at Tamara’s organization was of the opinion that it was the “heredity” factor that plays a major role in Tamara’s leadership abilities. However, Kevin’s fellow worker, Allen, feels that hereditary factor alone is not sufficient to become a complete leader. If you were Allen, how would you justify his stance?

ANSWER:   The traits, motives, and characteristics required for leadership effectiveness are caused by a combination of heredity and environment. Leaders are both born and made. Personality traits and mental ability traits are based on certain inherited predispositions and aptitudes that require the right opportunity to develop. Cognitive intelligence is a good example. We inherit a basic capacity that sets an outer limit to how much mental horsepower we will have. Yet people need the right opportunity to develop their cognitive intelligence so that they can behave brightly enough to be chosen for a leadership position.

Evelyn Williams, who directs the leadership development program at Stanford University, makes the following metaphor: “I think leadership is a combination of nature and nurture. Just as some musicians have a special talent for playing instruments, some people seem to be born with leadership abilities. But whatever their natural talent, people can certainly learn to be better musicians—and better leaders.” The physical factor of energy also sheds light on the nature-versus- nurture issue. Some people are born with a biological propensity for being more energetic than others. Yet unless that energy is properly channeled, it will not help a person to become an effective leader.

Advances in neuroscience provide additional evidence that there is most likely a genetic and biological component to leadership. David Rock, founder of the NeuroLeadership Institute in Australia, points out that an effective leader is adaptive, such as knowing when to be dogmatic versus collaborative, or when to focus on details versus the big picture. To be adaptive, a person needs an integrated brain. Such integration requires strong connections across all regions of the brain. These connections are mostly genetic although they can be enhanced though mental activities such as creativity training. When the brain is well integrated, the leader can switch between different approaches with ease, such as being tough and unforgiving in one situation and displaying empathy in another. Research about emotional intelligence reinforces the statements made so far about leadership being a combination of inherited and learned factors.

A person’s genes, therefore, influence the emotional intelligence necessary for leadership. However, experience is important for emotional intelligence because it increases with age, and a person usually becomes better at managing relationships with practice.

 

POINTS:   0
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   2.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Influence of Heredity and Environment on Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

 

Chapter_04_Leadership_Behaviors_Attitudes_And_Styles

True / False

 

1. Leadership effectiveness is typically measured by either objective data about results or subjective data about the perceptions of a leader.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leadership effectiveness is typically measured by two key criteria. The first criterion relates to objective data, such as those dealing with sales, production, safety, number of patents produced by the group, cost cutting, or staying within budget.The second criterion focuses on judgments by others about the leader’s effectiveness, such as a plant manager rating a supervisor or the board rating a CEO.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

2. A leader scoring high on the dimension of consideration would typically be authoritarian and impersonal in relationships with subordinates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Leaders who score high on the consideration factor typically are friendly and trustful, earn respect, and have a warm relationship with team members. Leaders with low scores on the consideration factor typically are authoritarian and impersonal in their relationships with group members.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

3. The factors of consideration and initiating structure are derived from a larger group of dimensions used to describe leadership behavior.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leaders were asked to rate themselves on leadership dimensions. Two leadership dimensions accounted for 85 percent of the descriptions of leadership behavior: consideration and initiating structure.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

4. Making connections with people is part of the leadership dimension of initiating structure.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A key example of consideration is making connections with people.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

5. It is noteworthy to recognize that it is easier to develop or modify traits than to develop behaviors.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   It is noteworthy to recognize that it is easy to develop behaviors than to develop or modify traits.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

6. A manager’s expectation of success or failure becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy because the perceptions contribute to success or failure.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A manager’s expectation of success or failure becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy because the perceptions contribute to success or failure.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

7. A recommended strategy for getting the most out of workers is to focus on patching their weaknesses rather than capitalizing on their strengths.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   An axiom of effective leadership and management is to make good use of the strengths of group members rather than concentrating effort on patching up areas for improvement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

8. A problem noted with the leader providing too much hands-on guidance is that it can lead to poor delegation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The leader who provides hands-on guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks; at the same time, group members learn important skills. Too much guidance of this nature, however, can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

9. Being open to worker opinions is part of the initiating structure dimension, and it is also central to autocratic leadership.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Being open to worker opinions is part of the consideration dimension, and it is also central to participative leadership.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

10. Promoting values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations can be classified as task-oriented.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A major part of a top leader’s role is to help promote values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations. This promotion can be classified as relationship-oriented because it deals directly with the emotions and attitudes of people, and indirectly with the task.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

11. Alignment incorporates getting the group working together smoothly.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Alignment incorporates getting the group working together smoothly.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

12. Relationship behaviors for inspiring people include the simple acts of being visible and available.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Because human contact and connections reinforce inspiration, another part of being inspirational is being visible and available.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

13. Giving workers an opportunity to satisfy lower-level needs is an effective way of inspiring them.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   To inspire people, effective leaders motivate them by satisfying higher-level needs, such as needs for achievement, personal growth, a sense of belonging, recognition, self-esteem, and a feeling of control over one’s life.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

14. Participative decision making is one way of giving group members emotional support.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   One of the many work-related ways of encouraging people is to ask for their input about important decisions.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

15. A potential problem with 360-degree feedback is its anonymity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A potential problem with 360-degree feedback is its anonymity.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   360-Degree Feedback for Fine-Tuning a Leadership Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

16. The servant leader seeks to do what is morally right, even if it is not financially rewarding.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The servant leader seeks to do what is morally right, even if it is not financially rewarding.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

17. An advantage of the participative leadership styles is that they substantially reduce the amount of time spent in committee meetings.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Participative leadership does have some problems. It often results in extensive and time-consuming team meetings and committee work.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

18. The teamwork approach is built into the participative leadership style.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The participative style encompasses the teamwork approach. Predominant behaviors of participative leaders include coaching team members, negotiating their demands, and collaborating with others.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

19. When an employee falls short of expectations, women are more likely to buffer criticism by finding something praiseworthy.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   When an employee falls short of expectations, women are more likely to buffer criticism by finding something praiseworthy.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

20. A perform-or-perish culture calls for more of a consensus style of leadership.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A friendly, collaborative culture calls for more of a consensus style of leadership. In contrast, in a perform-or-perish culture, a more directive or autocratic leadership style will be effective.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.07
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

Multiple Choice

 

21. The consideration dimension of leadership behavior includes how well the leader creates an environment of _____.

  a. increased concern for financial controls
  b. carefully controlled work procedures
  c. emotional support, friendliness, and trust
  d. careful concern for organizational productivity

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Consideration is the degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

22. A leader who scored high on initiating structure would _____

  a. emphasize work scheduling and assigning tasks
  b. disregard the feelings of team members
  c. emphasize listening and personal warmth
  d. strive to keep the group informed

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Initiating structure means organizing and defining relationships in the group by engaging in such activities as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations for team members.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

23. In the Pygmalion effect, group members _____

  a. rebel against high expectations
  b. respond only to verbal signals
  c. live up to expectations set for them
  d. become uncomfortable when placed under heavy pressure

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   When performance is measured against high standards, productivity is likely to increase, since people tend to live up to the expectations of their superiors. This is called the Pygmalion effect
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

24. Division manager Cassandra wants to get the most out of her direct reports. A good strategy would be for her to _____.

  a. establish penalties for her direct reports who display weaknesses
  b. teach her direct reports new strengths
  c. focus on patching up the weaknesses of her direct reports
  d. concentrate on the strengths of her direct reports

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   An axiom of effective leadership and management is to make good use of the strengths of group members rather than concentrating effort on patching up areas for improvement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

25. Providing group members with too little hands-on guidance about how to accomplish important work can be a symptom of _____.

  a. micromanagement
  b. macromanagement
  c. poor delegation
  d. management openness

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The leader who provides such guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks; at the same time, group members learn important skills. Too much guidance of this nature, however, can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement (managing too closely). Too little guidance, and macromanagement is the result, in which the manager gives too little or no direction to group members.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

26. If hands-on guidance is carried to the extreme, it can result in _____.

  a. team-management
  b. rapid skill-development of the group member
  c. micromanagement
  d. alignment of people

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   The leader who provides such guidance helps the group accomplish important tasks; at the same time, group members learn important skills. Too much guidance of this nature, however, can be a symptom of poor delegation and micromanagement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

27. Without appropriate ____, the leader can rarely influence the actions of group members.

  a. performance feedback
  b. vision formulation
  c. customer focus
  d. risk taking and a bias for action

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Closely related to guidance is giving frequent feedback on performance. The leader can rarely influence the actions of group members without appropriate performance feedback.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

28. The purpose of a tough question by a leader is to help the person or group _____.

  a. stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something
  b. understand that they deserve to be punished
  c. overcome a loss in self-confidence
  d. realize how much they have to learn

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A tough question is one that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

29. When workers are aligned, they tend to _____

  a. oppose many management policies
  b. work at cross-purposes with each other
  c. follow directions without question
  d. pull together for a higher purpose

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   After being aligned, organizational members can pull together toward a higher purpose. Alignment also incorporates getting the group working together smoothly.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

30. A leader engages in management openness when he _____.

  a. encourages subordinates to voice their opinion
  b. informs subordinates of his career plans
  c. publishes salary data on the intranet
  d. freely criticizes subordinates when they make a mistake

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A major part of relationship-oriented leadership is to engage in management openness, or a set of leader behaviors particularly relevant to subordinates’ motivation to voice their opinion.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

31. An important way of inspiring people is to _____.

  a. satisfy their lower-level needs
  b. satisfy their higher-level needs
  c. implement tight control mechanisms
  d. place self-interest before service

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   To inspire people, effective leaders motivate them by satisfying higher-level needs, such as needs for achievement, personal growth, a sense of belonging, recognition, self-esteem, and a feeling of control over one’s life.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

32. A direct way of being a supportive leader is to _____.

  a. provide considerable structure to group members
  b. give frequent encouragement and praise
  c. engage heavily in goal setting
  d. establish the right values and principles

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A supportive leader gives frequent encouragement and praise and also displays caring and kindness even about nonwork-related matters such as the health of a worker’s ill family member.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

33. A top leader is supposed to help promote values and principles that _____.

  a. encourage employees to compete against one another
  b. line up squarely with company advertising
  c. create a public image of harmony
  d. contribute to the welfare of individuals and the organization

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A major part of a top leader’s role is to help promote values and principles that contribute to the welfare of individuals and organizations.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

34. The major thrust of the servant leader is to _____.

  a. work on the behalf of group members to help them achieve their goals
  b. act humble yet search for individual glory
  c. think first in terms of the stockholder
  d. place self-interest before service

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader’s own goals.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

35. A(n) ____ type of leader is most likely to play the role of the Good Samaritan.

  a. autocratic
  b. servant
  c. consensus
  d. team

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A servant leader looks for opportunities to play the Good Samaritan.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

36. A key part of 360-degree feedback is for leaders to _____.

  a. receive feedback from those who work with and for them.
  b. use a circular form for evaluating others.
  c. receive both positive and negative feedback almost daily.
  d. receive a little feedback almost every workday.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In particular, 360-degree feedback is a formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them, sometimes including customers and suppliers.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.04
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   360-Degree Feedback for Fine-Tuning a Leadership Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

37. Suggestions for making better use of 360-degree surveys include _____.

  a. customizing the assessment dimensions based on the leadership competencies that are associated with success
  b. ensuring that managers perceive the feedback as being geared toward administrative control rather than personal development
  c. identifying the lower-order needs of the workers that are to be fulfilled
  d. encouraging workers to give and receive feedback as per their choice

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Customize the assessment dimensions based on the leadership competencies that are associated with success in your organization.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.04
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   360-Degree Feedback for Fine-Tuning a Leadership Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

38. The generally accepted leadership style in the modern organization is the _____.

  a. micromanagement style
  b. participative style in general
  c. democratic form of participative style
  d. autocratic style

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Sharing decision making with group members and working with them side by side has become the generally accepted leadership approach in the modern organization.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

39. A consultative leader _____.

  a. confers with the group before making a decision
  b. consults reference sources before making a decision
  c. turns over decision-making authority to the group
  d. takes a vote before reaching a decision

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Consultative leaders confer with group members before making a decision. However, they retain the final authority to make decisions.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

40. Participative management is likely to work the best with

  a. employees in a large bureaucracy.
  b. competent and intelligent people.
  c. shy and nonassertive employees.
  d. employees in small, entrepreneurial firms.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The participative style is well suited to managing competent people who are eager to assume responsibility. Such people want to get involved in making decisions and giving feedback to management.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

41. A study with Norwegian workers found that when employees reported to a manager with a laissez-faire leadership style, they _____

  a. experienced role ambiguity
  b. believed the manager did not grant them enough freedom
  c. enjoyed the structure and close guidance
  d. worked quite hard to avoid being disciplined

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A study conducted with 4,500 Norwegian employees found that employees managed by a laissez-faire (the French term for “let do”) leader experienced role ambiguity.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

42. As a leader, department manager Anna is highly concerned about results, and has little concern for people. Her Managerial Grid style is labeled _____.

  a. 1, 9 Accommodating
  b. 9, 1 Controlling
  c. 1, 1 Indifferent
  d. 9, 9 Sound

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A 9,1 Controlling type of leader expects results and takes control by clearly stating a course of action. He or she enforce rules that sustain high results and do not permit deviation.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

43. According to the Leadership Grid system, the most effective leadership style is _____.

  a. balance and compromise
  b. contribute and commit
  c. prescribe and guide
  d. status quo

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The creators of the Grid argue strongly for the value of 9, 9 Sound (contribute and commit). According to their research, the sound management approach pays off. It results in improved performance, low absenteeism and turnover, and high morale. Sound (9, 9) management relies on trust and respect, which combine to bring about good results.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

44. A pronounced characteristic of an entrepreneurial leader is _____.

  a. a reliance on others to take the big risks
  b. a preference for taking huge risks
  c. a cautious attitude toward taking risks
  d. a sensible risk taking approach

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Entrepreneurs are known for their sensible risk taking approach. Because entrepreneurs take sensible risks, many do not perceive themselves as being risk takers—just as many tightrope walkers believe they are not taking risks because they perceive themselves to be in control.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

45. An entrepreneurial leader is most likely to _____.

  a. have high enthusiasm and creativity
  b. have a moderate achievement drive
  c. be calm and deliberate when an opportunity arises
  d. work smoothly within a bureaucracy

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Entrepreneurs are highly enthusiastic, partially because they are so excited about their achievements.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

46. An entrepreneurial leader is least likely to _____.

  a. have a strong achievement drive and sensible risk taking
  b. thrive on hierarchy and routine
  c. act quickly when opportunity arises
  d. have a visionary perspective combined with tenacity

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Entrepreneurs are not ideally suited by temperament to working within the mainstream of a bureaucracy. Many successful entrepreneurs are people who were frustrated by the constraints of a bureaucratic system.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

47. Judy Rosener contended that male leaders, in contrast to female leaders, are more inclined to _____.

  a. manage by rewards
  b. rely on interpersonal skills
  c. practice participative leadership
  d. use a command-and-control style

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Judy Rosener, a specialist in workplace gender issues, concluded that men and women do tend toward opposite styles. Based on self-reports, she found that men tended toward a command-and-control style.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital Story: Engage

 

48. Male leaders are most likely to be _____.

  a. more relationship oriented in their leadership
  b. more concerned with building cordial relations
  c. disseminating information and demonstrating competence
  d. relying heavily on interpersonal skills and tended toward a transformational style

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Men focus more on disseminating information and demonstrating competence. Women are therefore more likely to choose a relationship-oriented leadership style.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

49. Which of the following statements is true about the gender differences in effectiveness between men and women leaders?

  a. Men were rated higher on relationship-oriented leadership skills.
  b. Men were rated lower on orientation toward strategic planning and organizational vision.
  c. Women were rated lower on orientation toward production and obtaining results.
  d. Women were rated higher on relationship-oriented leadership skills.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Men focus more on disseminating information and demonstrating competence. Women are therefore more likely to choose a relationship-oriented leadership style.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

50. Leaders who obtain the best results typically use _____.

  a. several different styles in one week
  b. the style recommended by the board
  c. the style recommended by the group members
  d. whatever style matches the latest management fad

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A study of 3,000 executives revealed that leaders who get the best results do not rely on one style. Instead, they use several different styles in one week, such as being autocratic in some situations and democratic in others.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital Story: Connect

 

51. ​John, the chief marketing officer of Neptune. Inc., is working closely with his team to develop a series of marketing campaigns for the newly launched product of his company. John is considered to be a leader who is high on consideration by his employees. The employees’ impression of John could stem from the fact that John _____.

  a. ​emphasizes on completing the marketing campaigns within the stipulated deadlines
  b. ensures that people in the work group are being utilized to the best of their capacity
  c. ​experiments with his innovative marketing strategies in the work group
  d. ​ensures that the members of his team have a separate floor to themselves in the office

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A questionnaire items measuring the consideration factor includes doing little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the staff.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

52. ​Stephen, chief financial officer of Pluto Inc., is considered to be a very organized and disciplined master by his employees thus scoring high on the dimension of initiating structure. This impression of Stephen could stem from the fact that he _____.

  a. provides some monetary assistance to help an employee educate his children
  b. ​is never biased or favors an employee over the other
  c. arranges to set up a gymnasium for the members of his team
  d. ​emphasizes on completing work on time without any unreasonable delays

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   A self-assessment item to measure initiating structure is to emphasize meeting deadlines.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.01
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Classic Dimensions of Consideration and Initiating Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

53. ​Peter, the team leader of IntraCall Inc, is not satisfied with the performance of his team due to the negative feedback and innumerous complaints received by dissatisfied callers. Which of the following measures can Peter adopt to build the reputation of his team and be considered an effective leader?

  a. ​He should identify and sack erring employees and reshuffle the entire team.
  b. ​He should concentrate on honing the strengths of his employees and putting them to best practice
  c. ​He should concentrate on the weaknesses of his employees and focus on patching up such areas of improvement.
  d. ​He should focus on providing solutions to problems rather than asking tough questions.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   An axiom of effective leadership and management is to make good use of the strengths of group members rather than concentrating effort on patching up areas for improvement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

54. ​Keith, the chief financial officer of MoneyPro Inc., a stock brokerage firm, is unhappy with the performance of his firm in the last quarter. He blames the lackadaisical attitude of his group members for the firm’s poor performance. Which of the following measures should Keith adopt to protect the investors of his firm and increase his effectiveness as a leader?

  a. ​He should concentrate on the weaknesses of his group members and focus on patching up such areas of improvement.
  b. ​He should provide his group members with excessive feedback on good investment options.
  c. ​He should focus on micromanaging his group members in order to reduce any possible chances of inefficiency.
  d. ​He should further raise funds from the market and be willing to invest them in riskier options to ensure maximum yield.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   To bring about constructive change, the leader must take risks and be willing to implement those risky decisions.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.02
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Task-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

55. ​Martha, the chief designer of StyleSmartz, is considered a role model by her design team members for her role as an effective leader. Martha is considered an effective leader by the team due to her tendency to _____.

  a. ​motivate employees by satisfying their basic necessities or low-level needs
  b. ​adopt a zero-tolerance stand on erring and unproductive employees
  c. ​discourage employees from letting their emotions affect their work
  d. ​engage in management openness by encouraging members to voice their opinion

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A major part of relationship-oriented leadership is to engage in management openness, or a set of leader behaviors particularly relevant to subordinates’ motivation to voice their opinion.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

56. ​Which of the following leaders reflect the key aspects of servant leadership?

  a. ​James is driven by the desire to satisfy his needs of acquiring power and prestige.
  b. Roger attempts to impose his solutions to problems faced by his team members.
  c. ​Julia conveys to her group members to keep their emotions at bay at their workplace.
  d. ​Angelina focuses on what is feasible to accomplish despite being very idealistic in nature.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Even though the servant leader is idealistic, he or she recognizes that one individual cannot accomplish everything. Therefore, the leader listens carefully to the array of problems facing group members and then concentrates on a few.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

57. ​Emily, the product development manager of JuzTel, seeks suggestions from her team members for improvising on the company’s existing range of cell phones.  The team members pour in their suggestions and Emily takes the final call on the inputs received by them. In this scenario, Emily is portrayed as a(n) _____.

  a. ​democratic leader
  b. ​autocratic leader
  c. consultative leader
  d. ​consensus leader

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Consultative leaders confer with group members before making a decision. However, they retain the final authority to make decisions.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

58. ​Katie, the marketing head of MeDiASure, a digital marketing agency, entrusts her team with the task of conceptualizing innovative marketing strategies for a client. Katie collects the group’s opinion and lets the team take the final call on the most suitable strategies. In this scenario, Katie is assuming the role of a(n) _____.

  a. ​consensus leader
  b. ​consultative leader
  c. ​autocratic leader
  d. ​democratic leader

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Democratic leaders confer final authority on the group. They function as collectors of group opinion and take a vote before making a decision.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

59. ​Jessica, the chief fashion designer at ApparelDezire, consults her team for designs to be showcased in the upcoming fashion week. Jessica decides on a couple of designs based on the suggestion of group members and the ones she feels the group would agree upon. Jessica’s decisions is attributed to the _____ style of leadership.

  a. ​autocratic
  b. ​consensus
  c. ​democratic
  d. ​consultative

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Consensus leaders strive for consensus. They encourage group discussion about an issue and then make a decision that reflects general agreement and that group members will support.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

60. ​David, the chief security officer of SimplyBuy.com, an e-commerce initiative, takes decisions regarding the enhancement of data security of the company’s clients on his own assuming that other members would comply with it. David’s decision-making strategy is attributed to the _____ style of leadership.

  a. ​autocratic
  b. ​consultative
  c. ​democratic
  d. ​consensus

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In contrast to participative leaders are autocratic leaders, who retain most of the authority. They make decisions confidently, assume that group members will comply, and are not overly concerned with group members’ attitudes toward a decision.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

Essay

 

61. Joseph has been appointed as the Chief Marketing officer of an automobile manufacturer. Joseph feels he was appointed due to his belief that true leadership emerges from a deep desire to help others. What is the primary motivation for Joseph’s belief? What are the ways in which Joseph can fulfill the purpose of his appointment and his desire to serve others?

ANSWER:   A servant leader serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader’s own goals. Serving others, including employees, customers, and community, is the primary motivation for the servant leader.

A servant leader is therefore a moral leader. Servant leadership has been accomplished when group members become wiser, healthier, and more autonomous. The following are key aspects of servant leadership and should be incorporated by Joseph in order to fulfill his desire to serve others:-

Place service before self-interest. A servant leader is more concerned with helping others than with acquiring power, prestige, financial reward, and status. The servant leader seeks to do what is morally right, even if it is not financially rewarding. He or she is conscious of the needs of others and is driven by a desire to satisfy them.

Listen first to express confidence in others. The servant leader makes a deep commitment to listening in order to get to know the concerns,
requirements, and problems of group members. Instead of attempting to impose his or her will on others, the servant leader listens carefully to
understand what course of action will help others accomplish their goals. After understanding others, the best course of action can be chosen.

Inspire trust by being trustworthy. Being trustworthy is a foundation behavior of the servant leader. He or she is scrupulously honest with others, gives up control, and focuses on the well-being of others.

Focus on what is feasible to accomplish. Even though the servant leader is idealistic, he or she recognizes that one individual cannot accomplish everything. Therefore, the leader listens carefully to the array of problems facing group members and then concentrates on a few.

Lend a hand. A servant leader looks for opportunities to play the Good Samaritan.

Provide emotional healing. A servant leader shows sensitivity to the personal concerns of group members, such as a worker being worried about taking care of a disabled parent.

Act as a role model for other organizational members to emphasize service. As a result of the behaviors just described, servant leaders often ignite a cycle of service by acting as a role model servant behavior.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.03
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Relationship-Oriented Attitudes and Behaviors
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

62. ​Erin, the marketing head of a luxury hotel, always considers the inputs of her marketing team in all decisions regarding the new marketing strategies and branding exercises to be carried out. What are the various behaviors that can be adopted by Erin to be considered an effective participative leader? What are the problems that Erin might encounter while adopting a participative style of leadership?

ANSWER:   ​Participative leaders share decision making with group members. The terms shared leadership, collaborative leadership, and team leadership all
refer to the same idea as participative leadership. Participative leadership encompasses so many behaviors that it can be divided into three subtypes: consultative, consensus, and democratic.
Consultative leaders confer with group members before making a decision. However, they retain the final authority to make decisions. Consensus leaders strive for consensus. They encourage group discussion about an issue and then make a decision that reflects general agreement and that group members will support. All workers who will be involved in the consequences of a decision have an opportunity to provide input. A decision is not considered final until it appears that all parties involved will at least support the decision. Democratic leaders confer final authority on the group. They function as collectors of group opinion and take a vote before making a decision.

Participative leadership does have some problems. It often results in extensive and time-consuming team meetings and committee work. Also,
consensus and democratic leaders are sometimes accused of providing too little direction, or being macromanagers. Sometimes, participative leadership is carried to extremes. Team members are consulted about trivial things that management could easily handle independently. Another problem is that many managers still believe that sharing decision making with members reduces their power.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.05
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

63. ​Jack, an investment banker, wishes to quit his company and start one on his own. He dreams of getting his company listed on the Fortune 500 within a year of its incorporation and is willing to undertake all possible risks to make his dream a reality. What are the various traits/characteristics that can be attributed to Jack’s entrepreneurial style of leadership?

ANSWER:   ​Strong achievement drive and sensible risk taking. Entrepreneurs have stronger achievement motives than most leaders Building a business is an excellent vehicle for accomplishment and risk taking.

High degree of enthusiasm and creativity. Entrepreneurs are highly enthusiastic, partially because they are so excited about their achievements.

Typical pattern of being proactive. Leon C. Prieto argues that the proactive personality has potential for providing additional insight into how personality traits are related to entrepreneurship.

Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises. Entrepreneurs are noted for seizing upon opportunity, as part of their proactivity. When a deal is on the horizon, they push themselves and those around them extra hard. Entrepreneurs are always in a hurry.

Visionary perspective combined with tenacity. Entrepreneurs, at their best, are visionaries. As with other types of effective leaders, they see opportunities others fail to observe.

Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy. Entrepreneurs are not ideally suited by temperament to working within the mainstream of a bureaucracy.

Preference for dealing with external customers. One reason that entrepreneurs have difficulty with bureaucracy is that they focus their energies
on products, services, and customers, rather than on employees.

Eye on the future. Entrepreneurs have the pronounced characteristic of thinking about future deals and business opportunities even before a current business is running smoothly.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   04.06
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – Ohio – Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership Styles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital Story: Perform

 

 

 

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