Chapter 2: Algorithm Discovery and Design




  1. An unstructured, “free-flowing” writing style should be used for writing algorithms.



  1. With a natural language, different readers can interpret the same sentence in totally different ways.



  1. Java and C++ are examples of pseudocode languages.



  1. The three basic sequential operations are called addition, multiplication, and exponentiation.



  1. Input and output enable the computing agent to communicate with the outside world.



  1. The if/then/else operation allows you to select exactly one of three alternatives.



  1. One of the most powerful features of a computer is its ability to handle loops.


  1. Having an infinite loop in an algorithm is an error.



  1. Once an algorithm has been developed, it may itself be used in the construction of other algorithms.


  1. Pattern matching can only be applied to graphics and pictures.





  1. Natural language is a set of English language constructs designed to resemble the statements in a programming language but that do not actually run on a computer. _________________________



  1. Pseudocode is a formal language with rigidly standardized syntactic rules and regulations. _________________________



  1. A(n) control algorithm executes its instructions in a straight line from top to bottom and then stops. _________________________



  1. The use of high-level instructions during the design process is an example of abstraction. _________________________



  1. The process of searching for a special pattern of symbols within a larger collection of information is called object matching. _________________________





  1. During the initial phases of design, we should be thinking and writing at a highly ____________________ level.



  1. ____________________ is sometimes called a programming language without any details.



  1. ____________________ operations allow us to alter the normal sequential flow of control in an algorithm.




  1. In a(n) ____________________ loop, it is possible for the loop body to never be executed.



  1. The process of finding a solution to a given problem is called ____________________ discovery.





  1. ____ is an example of a natural language.
a. C c. English
b. Java d. Perl




  1. In the line of code, “Set the value of Area to length*width”, “Area” is a ____.
a. value c. constant
b. variable d. primitive




  1. A(n) ____ is a named storage location that can hold a data value.
a. expression c. computation
b. variable d. constant




  1. ____ operations provide the computing agent with data values from the outside world that it may then use in later instructions.
a. Ingoing c. Input
b. Outgoing d. Output




  1. ____ operations send results from the computing agent to the outside world.
a. Input c. Send
b. Put d. Output




  1. A purely ____ algorithm is sometimes termed a straight-line algorithm.
a. sequential c. iterative
b. conditional d. control




  1. Together, conditional and iterative operations are called ____ operations.
a. sequential c. hierarchical
b. control d. dynamic



  1. ____ statements are the “question-asking” operations of an algorithm.
a. Primitive c. Sequential
b. Iterative d. Conditional





  1. A ____ is the repetition of a block of instructions.
a. cycle c. matrix
b. nucleus d. loop




  1. An algorithm can fall into an infinite loop when ____.
a. the input operations were missing
b. the algorithm uses more than one loop
c. the output operations were missing
d. the continuation condition of the loop never becomes false




  1. In a pretest loop, the continuation condition is tested at the ____ through the loop.
a. beginning of each pass c. end of each pass
b. beginning of only the first pass d. end of only the last pass




  1. The ____ loop is an example of a posttest loop.
a. do/while c. while
b. do d. if/then/else




  1. To create a loop that executes exactly b times, we create a ____.
a. control object c. counter
b. counting method d. variable




  1. “Print the value of product” is an example of a(n) ____ operation.
a. sequential c. input
b. conditional d. output




  1. The technique of looking at all the items in a list, starting at the beginning of the list, one at a time, until we either find what we are looking for or come to the end of the list is called ____ search.
a. sequential c. iterative
b. control d. random




  1. The selection of an algorithm to solve a problem is greatly influenced by the way the input ____ for that problem are organized.
a. words c. solutions
b. data d. pseudocode




  1. A(n) ____ is a collection of useful, prewritten algorithms.
a. primitive c. set
b. binary d. library




  1. In order to implement a “find” functionality in a word processor, one would have to design a ____ algorithm.
a. pattern matching c. sequential
b. natural language d. do-while




  1. Which statement exemplifies abstraction?
a. The president of General Motors views the company in terms of every worker, every supplier, and every car.
b. The president of General Motors views the company in terms of its corporate divisions and high-level policy issues.
c. A good approach to algorithm design and software development is to focus on how we might actually implement a particular operation.
d. A convenient way to view the hardware component called “memory” is to focus on the billions of electronic devices that go into constructing a memory unit.



  1. Viewing an operation at a high level of abstraction and fleshing out the details of its implementation at a later time is known as ____ design.
a. bottom-up c. increasing size
b. top-down d. increasing depth






  1. Briefly describe what pseudocode is and is not.




  1. Under what circumstances would the body of a pretest loop never be executed?




  1. Briefly define the concept of iteration




  1. What is the definition of a library in terms of algorithms?




  1. What is pattern matching?





  1. What is the problem with using natural language to represent algorithms?




  1. What is the problem with using high-level programming languages to represent algorithms?




  1. What is pseudocode and why is it well-suited for representing algorithms?



  1. Explain the importance of the concept of building blocks in the use of algorithms.




  1. Discuss in detail the application of pattern matching to the mapping of the human genome.






Chapter 8: Information Security




  1. Sometimes the word cracker is used to denote those who break into someone else’s computer.



  1. When a user attempts to log on to the machine, the security system reads the user ID and checks that the password matches the password for that user in the password file.



  1. The operating system encrypts the password for a given user by encoding the information, using a process that is difficult to apply but easy to undo.



  1. Knowledge of the hashing algorithm gives you and the system administrator certain knowledge of the original password.


  1. Your best defense against someone guessing your password is to be smart about how you choose and use your password.



  1. In an asymmetric encryption algorithm, also called a public key encryption algorithm, the key for encryption and the key for decryption are quite different, although related.



  1. A block cipher encodes one character at a time.



  1. The main difficulty with a symmetric algorithm is how to securely transmit the secret key.



  1. The success of RSA encryption depends on the fact that it is extremely difficult to find the prime factors for n if n is a small number.



  1. SSL protocols are the only protocols that are supported by all Web browsers.






  1. The term ____________________ comes about because perpetrators cast out bait, in the form of e-mail messages, to thousands of potential victims in the hope that one or two will “bite” and fall for this scam.



  1. ____________________ is the science of “secret writing.”



  1. A text file can be hidden in an image file by changing (if needed) the least significant bit of each byte of the image file to match the ____________________ form of the characters in the text.



  1. In a(n) ____________________ key system, the encryption key for messages to go to a particular receiver is broadcast to everyone, but the decryption key cannot be derived from it and is known only by the receiver.



  1. Any positive ____________________ is either a prime number or a number that can be written in a unique way as a product of prime factors.




  1. In the early days of computing, when big mainframes were the only option, logical security was enforced by securing the rooms housing these machines. _________________________



  1. A(n) Trojan horse embeds itself within another program or file and when that program or file is activated, it copies itself and attacks other files on the system. _________________________



  1. Firewall software guards the access points to your computer, blocking communications to or from sites you don’t permit. _________________________



  1. A(n) asymmetric encryption algorithm requires the use of a secret key known to both the sender and receiver. _________________________



  1. DES is a block cipher and the blocks are 48 bits long. _________________________





  1. ____ means keeping information secure—that is, protected from those who should not have access to it.
a. Network security c. Information assurance
b. Network assurance d. Information security




  1. The first line of defense against illicit use of, or threats to, computer resources and sensitive information is a strong ____ and authorization process.
a. authentication c. access
b. encryption d. interference




  1. ____ verifies who has the right to gain access to the computer, whether it is your local machine or the Web server.
a. Authorization c. Access
b. Authentication d. Encryption




  1. The ____ maintains a file of user IDs and corresponding passwords.
a. switch c. operating system
b. router d. firewall




  1. A(n) ____ takes the password the user originally chooses, chops it up, and stirs it around according to a given formula.
a. hash function c. mash function
b. encryption function d. stash function




  1. To solve the problem of two users having the same password, some operating systems keep a third entry for each user in the password file, namely ____ at which the user created the password.
a. the system c. the system name
b. the approximate time d. the exact time




  1. To try all possible passwords of length k or less would require ____ attempts.
a. nk c. n1 + n2 + . . . + nk
b. kk d. k1 + k2 + . . . + kn



  1. For a given user ID, ____ software will first try all words in its built-in dictionary, encrypting each with the well-known hash function and comparing the result with the password file.
a. password-cracking c. password-whacking
b. password-phreaking d. password-tackling




  1. ____ is the process of using people to get the information you want.
a. Social networking c. Social objecting
b. Social engineering d. Social management





  1. Some laptops now use ____ information such as fingerprint scanning.
a. psychometric c. biometric
b. electromagnetic d. optical




  1. ____ governs what an authenticated user is allowed to do.
a. Authentication c. Access management
b. Encryption d. Authorization




  1. A ____ captures the user’s passwords and credit card numbers (and sends them to someone else), or may even put the computer under someone else’s remote control at some point in the future.
a. keystroke logger c. worm
b. virus d. sniffer




  1. A ____ attack automatically directs browsers on many machines to a single URL at roughly the same time, causing so much network traffic to that site that it is effectively shut down to legitimate users.
a. denial-of-use c. trial-of-use
b. trial-of-service d. denial-of-service




  1. ____ is a practice used to illegally obtain sensitive information such as credit card numbers, account numbers, and passwords.
a. Phishing c. Blasting
b. Pharming d. Fishing




  1. A ____ cipher, also called a shift cipher, involves shifting each character in the message to another character some fixed distance farther along in the alphabet.
a. block c. Caesar
b. Trojan d. Brutus



  1. In a ____ cipher a single letter of plaintext generates a single letter of ciphertext.
a. substitution c. shift
b. next d. modulo




  1. The most common public key encryption algorithm is ____.
a. SHA1 c. DES
b. AES d. RSA




  1. A ____ is an integer greater than 1 that can only be written as the product of itself and 1.
a. prime number c. natural number
b. primary number d. whole number




  1. ____ is a series of protocols developed by Netscape Communications in the mid-1990s.
a. TLS c. TSL
b. SSL d. SST




  1. The exchange of setup information between the client and server, preparatory to exchanging real data, is known as a ____.
a. handshake c. linkage
b. training exchange d. synchronization






  1. How do operating systems solve the problem of a thief stealing a password file and seeing that his password and another password hash to the same value?




  1. Depending on who a given user is, he or she can have various access privileges. What are four examples?




  1. What is the definition of phishing?




  1. How does Triple DES improve the security of DES?




  1. What is the major difference between TSL and SSL?






  1. Explain in detail the definition of the terms hacker and cracker and the evolution of these terms




  1. Provide at least four suggestions for choosing passwords, and three suggestions for using passwords.




  1. Explain what a denial-of-service attack is, including the terms DDOS and zombie army in your response.




  1. Provide at least five examples of ways in which you can protect yourself from online threats.




  1. Explain at length what a Caesar cipher does.







Chapter 16: Computer Graphics and Entertainment: Movies, Games, and Virtual Communities




  1. CBS used the UNIVAC I to predict the outcome of the 1952 presidential election.



  1. In 1952, a UNIVAC I cost $12 million.



  1. Using computers for entertainment had by the late 1970s become an important, not to mention financially lucrative, industry and that growth has continued unabated.



  1. Using information technology to amuse, fascinate, and frighten is still viewed as a waste of time by most people.



  1. The process of “move the model, shoot a frame” was repeated thousands of times when filming King Kong,



  1. Stop-motion special effects were used in many fantasy, adventure, and science-fiction movies of the 1930s through 1960s.



  1. By the mid-1990s, computer hardware could handle the computational demands required to create realistic three-dimensional images.



  1. A movie is an interactive environment.



  1. With a GPU, all imaging responsibilities are offloaded from the GPU to the CPU.



  1. In an MMOG, the system must simply ensure that all users adhere to the rules of the game, not the legality of the operations.





  1. Rotation is the lateral (up, down, right, left, in, out) movement of every point in an object by the same amount and in the same direction. _________________________



  1. A point or axis used to control the motion of an object is called a(n) key point. _________________________



  1. Since a(n) GPU does not have to do general-purpose computing, only image processing, its instruction set can be optimized to perform the specific operations needed by CGI. _________________________



  1. Today the quality of a typical video game image approaches the level achieved by high-quality, feature-film CGI. _________________________



  1. The server software that creates the MMOG world is always running and always available, and it always remembers the current state of every player. _________________________





  1. The first commercially marketed computer was the ____, manufactured by Remington Rand.
a. ENIAC c. IBM System I




  1. On March 31, 1952, Remington Rand delivered its first machine to the ____.
a. U.S. Army c. Atomic Energy Commission
b. U.S. Census Bureau d. General Electric




  1. Conditions in the computing environment changed dramatically in the late ____ due to the development of transistors and integrated circuits.
a. 1950s c. 1970s
b. 1960s d. 1980s



  1. In 1965 Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC) rolled out the PDP-8, the world’s first “____.”
a. mainframe c. minicomputer
b. microcomputer d. picocomputer




  1. Atari released its first product in 1974, an arcade game called ____.
a. Ping c. Pong
b. Tetris d. Frogger




  1. King Kong’s movements in the 1933 film were created using a manual technique called ____.
a. CGI c. skip-motion animation
b. film overlay d. stop-motion animation




  1. In stop-motion animation, a single photograph is called a ____.
a. frame c. unit
b. block d. cell




  1. The sequence of operations that must be completed successfully to produce a realistic three-dimensional image sequence is termed the ____.
a. graphics streamline c. graphics mode
b. graphics pipeline d. graphics perspective




  1. Using a CGI technique called ____, a human animator only needs to produce the first frame,  containing the starting location of the object; the last frame, containing the final location of the object; and the elapsed time.
a. blocking c. keyframing
b. stop-framing d. mid-framing




  1. The branch of computer graphics that studies methods for creating images at a rate matching that of the real world is called ____.
a. just-in-time graphics c. new world graphics
b. real-time graphics d. real-world graphics




  1. A ____ executes instructions in parallel with the CPU, the main processor, and carries out all graphics operations including modeling, motion, rendering, and display.
a. GPU c. PGU
b. NPU d. GIPU




  1. Typically, a ____ has its own dedicated random access memory where it stores its image data and which is separate from primary memory.
a. CPU c. GPU
b. PPU d. MPU




  1. In the technique known as ____, first it is determined which planes can be seen from the user’s point of view, based on location and opaqueness, and then only those objects visible in the next frame are rendered, omitting all operations on hidden surfaces.
a. culling c. slicing
b. clicking d. striping




  1. ____ are fully modeled and fully rendered objects stored in a video library in video memory.
a. Cut-outs c. Block-ins
b. Cut-ins d. Block-outs




  1. ____ games allow a large number of players, often thousands or tens of thousands, to interact, form groups, and compete against one another within a simulated virtual world.




  1. The world in which the MMOG action takes place is created and managed by special computers called ____.
a. game hosts c. game clients
b. game servers d. game servlets




  1. Users log on to the MMOG game server whenever they wish, using ____ software running on their home computer or laptop.
a. client c. servlet
b. server d. hosting




  1. A noncompetitive MMOG is sometimes called a ____.
a. nanoverse c. miniverse
b. metaverse d. microverse




  1. The most widely used and well-known metaverse is ____, a virtual world created by Linden Labs in 2003.
a. World of Warcraft c. Worlds
b. Voodoo Chat d. Second Life




  1. ____ is a rapidly growing area of computer and biological science research in which computers and graphics software are used to produce highly accurate two- and three-dimensional images of the human body.
a. Medical processing c. Virtual medicine
b. Medical imaging d. Visual medicine






  1. In CGI, the abstract concept of motion is defined in terms of ____________________, an algorithmic operation easily programmed on a computer.



  1. ____________________ means taking an object stored as a mathematical model and converting it into a fully formed, visually pleasing three-dimensional image.


  1. One way to achieve speedup in real-time graphics is to avoid the use of ____________________ that, although they produce high-quality images, simply take too much time.



  1. In a(n) ____________________, there are tens of thousands of users simultaneously accessing hundreds or thousands of game servers across multiple communication channels.



  1. Currently there are 21 million residents of ____________________, which would make it the 55th-largest country in the world.





  1. What is the first step in generating a realistic three-dimensional image?



  1. What is rigid motion, and what are the types of rigid motion?




  1. What is the operative principal in producing video game images?




  1. How are graphics operations handled in the absence of a GPU?




  1. What is an MMOG?






  1. Explain the animation technique used in the 1933 film King Kong.




  1. What are three examples of issues addressed during the rendering process?




  1. Discuss movies and video games in terms of their interactive environments.




  1. List at least three of the technical problems that must be solved by the designers of MMOGs.




  1. Explain in detail what medical imaging is and what is empowers physicians to do.








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