Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Edition Hickman-Keen-Larson-Roberts-Test Bank

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Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Edition Hickman-Keen-Larson-Roberts-Test Bank

Chapter 02

The Origin and Chemistry of Life

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Spontaneous generation was first proposed as
    A.a concept to explain the formation of the first living cells on earth.
    B. a concept to explain the evolution of simple chemicals into complex macromolecules.
    C. an explanation for the appearance of maggots and mice from rotting material, fish from leaves that fall into water, etc.
    D. an explanation by Pasteur accounting for the germination of spores in broth.

 

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Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. Pasteur’s work with spontaneous generation showed that
    A. life could not have evolved from non-living chemistry on the early earth.
    B.  mice came from mother mice and maggots from mother flies.
    C.  simple chemicals could become complex organic macromolecules without any living cell involved.
    D.  broth did not ferment spontaneously but required contamination with organisms.

 

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Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?


 

  1. The hypothesis that simple chemicals may have naturally become complex macromolecules by natural physical forces was first proposed by
    A. Stanley Miller.
    B.  Graham CairnsSmith.
    C.  Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane.
    D.  Sidney Fox.

 

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Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. A solution that has a pH of 5 has
    A. a concentration of H+ 20 times higher than water.
    B.  a concentration of H+ 100 times higher than water.
    C.  a concentration of H+ the same as water.
    D.  a concentration of H+ 20 times lower than water.
    E.  a concentration of H+ 100 times lower than water.

 

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Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life

  1. A dissolved substance that has the ability to either remove or add H+ and OH ions to resist pH changes is
    A. a solution.
    B.  pure water.
    C.  a buffer.
    D.  a solvent.

 

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Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life


 

  1. Most organic molecules are associated with living organisms. Which of the following statements is NOT related to the general distinctions between these types of molecules?
    A. Carbon dioxide (CO2) lacks hydrogen atoms found in most organic molecules and therefore is usually not considered to be “organic.”
    B.  Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a small molecule compared to most organic molecules but does have carbon and hydrogen covalently bonded together and therefore is considered to be “organic.”
    C.  Salt (Na+Cl ) is not an organic molecule but is important to the life of many organisms.
    D.  Organic carbon atoms are more diverse than inorganic carbon molecules that form the molecular structure of soot or a diamond from pure carbon.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Perhaps a better description of an organic compound is that an organic compound is any substance
    A. derived from living matter.
    B.  containing carbon.
    C.  found within a cell.
    D.  consumed by animals.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Carbohydrates are categorized into
    A. organic and inorganic carbohydrates.
    B.  saturated and unsaturated carbohydrates.
    C.  monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    D.  primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary carbohydrates.
    E.  monomer and polymer carbohydrates.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following is a “structural” carbohydrate molecule?
    A. Sucrose
    B.  Glycogen
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the carbohydrates given below is a major component of the cuticle of arthropods (e.g., insects, crayfish, etc.)?
    A. Starch
    B.  Chitin
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glycogen

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following carbohydrates is used in animal muscle and liver cells for energy storage?
    A. Starch
    B.  Chitin
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glycogen

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following is the most abundant carbohydrate in the world?
    A. Cellulose
    B.  Glycogen
    C.  Fructose
    D.  Glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Polysaccharide are polymers made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Simple sugars
    B. Amino acids
    C. Nucleotides
    D. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    E. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. The three principal groups of lipids are neutral fats, phospholipids, and
    A. glycogen.
    B.  steroids.
    C.  amino acids.
    D.  fatty acids.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Neutral fats are
    A. stored as glycogen.
    B.  not stored.
    C.  made of fatty acids and glycerol.
    D.  made of chains of fatty acids linked together by water molecules.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Lipids are polymers made of which monomers?
    A.Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    B. Amino acids
    C. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    D. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. A dehydration synthesis reaction is also
    A. a condensation reaction.
    B.  a hydrolysis reaction.
    C.  an isomeric reaction.
    D.  a reaction that does not require enzymes.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the lipid groups below is structurally unlike the others?
    A.Steroids
    B. Neutral fats
    C. Triglycerides
    D. Phospholipids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following lipids forms a bilayer between two fluid regions, such as in the plasma membrane of a cell?
    A.Steroids
    B. Waxes
    C. Phospholipids
    D. Lipoproteins

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a steroid?
    A.Vitamin D
    B. Adrenocortical hormones
    C. Sex hormones
    D. Cholesterol
    E. All of the choices are steroids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Cholesterol belongs to which of the following groups?
    A.Steroids
    B. Neutral fats
    C. Carbohydrates
    D. Phospholipids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. If an animal needs to store high-energy compounds for long-term use with the least amount of extra body weight, which would be the best molecule for storage?
    A.Fructose and glucose in the form of honey
    B. High-calorie fat molecules
    C. Starch
    D. Glycogen with extensive side branches of glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. A protein is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    B. Amino acids
    C. Nucleotides
    D. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A peptide bond is found in which type of biological molecule?
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Simple sugar

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A chain consisting of a number of amino acids is a
    A. quaternary structure.
    B.  dipeptide.
    C.  polypeptide.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. In a protein, the folding of a polypeptide into a three-dimensional structure, usually stabilized by covalent bonds between the side groups of the amino acids, is the
    A. primary structure.
    B.  secondary structure.
    C.  tertiary structure.
    D.  quaternary structure.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The alpha helix is found at which level of protein organization?
    A.Primary structure
    B. Secondary structure
    C. Tertiary structure
    D. Quaternary structure

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The splitting of one compound into two by the addition of water is called
    A. covalent.
    B.  ionic formation.
    C.  hydrolysis.
    D.  condensation.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. You eat eggs for breakfast and return in the evening to dirty dishes with “dried on” yellow streaks. After soaking awhile, the egg yolk protein molecules easily “wash off.” What happened?
    A.Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, hydrolysis reactions then formed bonds in the dried egg yolk, and soaking in water eventually resulted in condensation reactions where water broke these bonds
    B. Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, unorganized condensation reactions formed bonds in the drying egg, and soaking in water resulted in hydrolysis reactions where water broke these bonds
    C. Egg monomers were fused to become one polymer, which was easily dissolved by water back into monomers
    D. Addition of water converted organic molecules into inorganic molecules

 

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Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. At the molecular level, a cell’s ability to vary in its operational tolerance to temperature, etc., is most closely related to
    A. enzyme activity and protein denaturation.
    B.  ATP efficiency.
    C.  replication of nucleic acids.
    D.  extent of saturation of fatty acids.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. DNA and RNA are polymers composed of repeated units called
    A. nucleotides.
    B.  bases.
    C.  sugars.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A nucleic acid is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Amino acids
    B. Nucleotides
    C. Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    D. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Nucleic acids are important because they
    A. act as buffers.
    B.  are the basic units of neutral fats.
    C.  direct the synthesis of proteins.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of these statements is true about DNA?
    A.It is the genetic material of the cell
    B. It forms a protein
    C. It is pure amino acid
    D. It contains no sugar

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Fish sperm is mostly made of male DNA. A chemical test would find high amounts of
    A. nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphate groups.
    B.  phospholipids and steroids.
    C.  amino acids and unsaturated fats.
    D.  triglycerides and ATP.
    E.  globular proteins and stored fats.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Prions are infectious
    A. carbohydrates.
    B.  proteins.
    C.  lipids.
    D.  Prions are not actually infectious.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following forms of energy is NOT one of those thought to have been involved in the production of large organic molecules in the primitive reducing atmosphere?
    A.Radioactivity
    B. Electrical energy
    C. Radiation from the sun
    D. Sound

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. The term “reducing atmosphere” for the early earth means that the atmosphere
    A. was much thinner around the surface of the earth than now.
    B.  contained only two or three kinds of gases.
    C.  contained little or no free oxygen.
    D.  contained little or no free nitrogen.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Who first performed an experiment that proved that amino acids could be produced in the laboratory from a reducing atmosphere and electrical sparks?
    A.Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
    B. Graham CairnsSmith
    C. Thomas Cech
    D. Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. Which of the following is a correct statement about oxidation reduction reactions?
    A.Reduction is the loss of electrons
    B. Reduction is the loss of hydrogen atoms
    C. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms
    D. Reduction and oxidation sometimes occur together, but not always

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Which of the following kinds of molecules is thought to have been absent from the primitive reducing atmosphere?
    A.Water vapor (H2O)
    B. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    C. Oxygen (O2)
    D. Nitrogen (N2)

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. An alternative environment to the “hot dilute soup” and clay hypothesis that offers a possible source of energy and molecules for the origin of life is/are the
    A. frozen Antarctic ice sheets.
    B.  surface of Mars.
    C.  hydrothermal vents in ocean bottoms.
    D.  Earth mantle and core.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. Water has which of the following important characteristics that explain its key role in living systems?
    A.High specific heat capacity
    B. High surface tension
    C. Is an excellent solvent
    D. All of the choices are correct

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life

  1. A molecule of RNA that has enzymatic or catalytic properties is called a _______________.
    A. deoxyribose
    B.  nucleotide
    C.  ribonucleic acid
    D.  ribozyme

 

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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. The fact that nucleic acids are very complicated molecules suggests that
    A. the RNA-first hypothesis is impossible.
    B.  the protein-first hypothesis is therefore the only plausible hypothesis.
    C.  no natural system could ever generate them.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The ancestral protocells
    A. may have contained RNA or DNA as their genetic material.
    B.  may have evolved before the development of a true cell.
    C.  may have had a lipid and protein membrane surrounding them, forming a proteinoid microsphere.
    D.  may have contained a biochemical pathway for energy metabolism.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Biological evolution differs from chemical evolution in that biological evolution would have been possible only after the development of
    A. true cells capable of replication.
    B.  nucleic acids.
    C.  enzymes.
    D.  a metabolic pathway.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Heating dry mixtures of amino acids and then mixing them with water forms small
    A. strands of DNA.
    B.  living cells.
    C.  proteinoid microspheres.
    D.  plasma membranes.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. If the hypothesis that protocells were based on an “RNA world” is correct, what would be necessary to shift to a “DNA world”?
    A.An enzyme or reaction capable of removing one oxygen from ribose in nucleotides
    B. Enzymes for reverse transcription of RNA into DNA
    C. New enzymes to replicate the DNA
    D. New enzymes for transcribing DNA back to RNA
    E. All are necessary to switch to a “DNA world.”

 

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  1. Scientists once assumed that the earliest protocells would have been autotrophs. This concept appears to be
    A. correct, since heterotrophs would depend upon eating autotrophs.
    B.  correct, since glycolysis and fermentation only occur after oxygen is present from photosynthesis.
    C.  incorrect, since the primordial soup likely contained many preformed food molecules suitable for heterotrophic metabolism.
    D.  incorrect, since glycolysis and fermentation require complex enzymes for catalytic reactions.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Prokaryotic cells are represented by fossils that are dated back as far as _____ billion years ago.
    A. 1.5.
    B.  2.8.
    C.  3.8.
    D.  4.8.

 

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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary is
    A.A point that separates reduction environments from oxidation environments
    B. The separation point between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    C. A point of dramatically increased fossilization, although it is likely that many animal groups existed before this time
    D. The shift-over from plants to animal life

 

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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. The first eukaryotic cells probably arose about _____ billion years ago.
    A.1.5
    B. 2.5
    C. 3.5
    D. 4.5

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Which pairing of occurrence and date is correct?
    A.Beginning of Cambrian — 600 million years ago
    B. Origin of life — 3.8 billion years ago
    C. Origin of eukaryotic cells — 1.5 billion years ago
    D. All the choices are correct

 

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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life


 

  1. Our current understanding of the origin of eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria is that they
    A. were copies of a cell nucleus that failed to be separated by cytokinesis.
    B.  are prokaryotes that were taken into a cell and now live there symbiotically.
    C.  are variations of the plasma membrane.
    D.  are new forms of life that arose inside other cells.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. The term ____________ refers broadly to compounds that contain carbon.
    organic

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The most important of the energy-storing carbohydrate monomers is the molecule _______________.
    glucose

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. The molecule ___________ is an important form for storing sugar in animals and is found mainly in the liver and muscle cells of animals.
    glycogen

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A(n) _______________ fatty acid has two or more carbon atoms joined by double bonds.
    unsaturated

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Amino acids are linked together to form proteins by __________ bonds.
    peptide

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The alpha-helix is an example of the _______ structure of a protein.
    secondary

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. When hemoglobin takes up or releases oxygen, it undergoes a change in its _________ structure.
    quaternary

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Submarine hot springs where seawater seeps through cracks in the bottom and comes close to the hot magma are called __________ ___________.
    hydrothermal vents

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Most biological polymerizations are ___________ dehydration reactions in which monomers are linked together by removal of water.
    condensation

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Sidney Fox studied the synthesis of polypeptides into polymers which in water formed small spherical bodies called ____________ _____________.
    proteinoid microspheres

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. A critical answer to the chicken-or-the-egg problem formed by the nucleic-acid-or-enzyme-first dilemma is perhaps solved by the discovery of catalytic RNA called _______________.
    ribozymes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The earliest source of reduced compounds for oxidative metabolism was probably ____________ _____________.
    hydrogen sulfide

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Bacteria contain a single, large molecule of DNA in the ____________ region.
    nucleoid

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. The ______________ theory proposes that pre-eukaryotes are the result of anaerobic bacteria ingesting aerobic bacteria and subsequently a symbiotic relationship was formed.
    endosymbiotic

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

 

Essay Questions

  1. Describe the first evidence for chemical evolution that came from Stanley Miller’s experiment.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. This chapter began with Pasteur disproving spontaneous generation, the theory that life could arise from non-living material. Then Miller and Urey test the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis and suggest that life once did arise from non-living chemicals. Are these experiments contradictory? Explain how the science community recognize both as valid.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. The Miller-Urey experiments demonstrated the formation of larger molecules from simple molecules. Why is there still a need for concentration in order to make formation of a protocell more likely?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Assumptions that the earliest life forms had to make their own food have been replaced with the belief that the earliest microorganisms were definitely primary heterotrophs. How could these earliest cells have lived if they did not make their own food, and why do we feel certain that they were not photosynthetic?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. What evidence do scientists have that the earth’s primeval atmosphere was a reducing atmosphere?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Why can’t we set up an experiment that would again duplicate the conditions that were present at the early origin of protocells?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Describe the chicken-or-the-egg dilemma with enzymes and hereditary molecules, and detail how the “RNA world” proposal offers a solution.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. What are the essential properties of a “protocell”?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. Describe the symbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotes.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. What may have been the “reason” for the “Cambrian explosion”?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. What evidence leads researchers to believe that there was a diversity of animal life before the Cambrian if we cannot find extensive fossils of earlier animals?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Compare and contrast the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Precambrian Life


 

  1. If eukaryotes are more complex than prokaryotes, then why are there prokaryotes living today?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Does the recognition of prokaryotes as two major lineages, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, result in any major changes to the internal taxonomic arrangement of the fungi, protozoan groups, plants and animals?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

Chapter 12

Sponges and Placozoans

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Concerning producing larger organisms without cellular differentiation,
    A. nature has never evolved larger organisms because it would never work.
    B.  nature has evolved larger unicellular organisms but they are rare and have surface-to-volume limitations.
    C.  this has never occurred since the ancestral cell was small.
    D.  the more derived the organism, the more differentiated and the smaller the cell size.
    E.  the more primitive the organism, the smaller the cell size.

Larger size and complexity is accomplished through multicellularity.  A workable surface-to-mass ratio in an increasingly large single cell cannot be maintained.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)


 

  1. Which one of the following statements regarding the origin of metazoans has the most support?
    A. The choanoflagellates share features with the sponges, like having collars of microvilli surrounding a flagellum and being colonial.  These shared features suggest a link to at least one metazoan lineage.
    B.  Metazoans are derived from many separate lineages of unicellular organisms.
    C.  Ancient metazoans, similar to members of the phylum Placozoa, have been ruled out as ancestral metazoans.
    D.  Modern sponges have a genetic makeup that reflects their ancestral status.

The origin of the metazoa is problematic.  Morphological and functional similarities of sponges to choanocytes suggest a possible origin of that metazon lineage, however, the sponge genome is quite complex with more modern features.  Placozoans have genetic features that suggest they may reflect the primitive state.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)

  1. Which one of the following statements regarding metazoan origins is true?
    A. Origin of the metazoa has been clearly elucidated and involves ancestry from a colonial flagellate stock.
    B.  Metazoans are derived twice.  One lineage involves a colonial flagellate stock, and the other lineage involves placozoan-like ancestors.
    C.  Metazoans arose from a multinucleate ciliate where cell boundaries eventually formed around each nucleus.
    D.  Placozoans may be similar to the single ancestral state.  Features like their small nuclear genome and their large mitochondrial genome are features that may be derived from a common ancestor shared with some animal outgroups.

The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of the Placozoa suggest ancestry with animal outgroups.

 

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Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)


 

  1. Which statement about adult sponges is false?
    A. Their bodies are aggregations of one cell type.
    B.  They do not have a mouth.
    C.  Their bodies are usually asymmetrical.
    D.  Their apparently simple structure is deceptive.

Sponge bodies are aggregates of many cell types.  Even though they lack mouths and other features of more complex animals, their apparent simplicity is deceptive.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The sponges date back to
    A. the Devonian period or “age of fishes.”
    B.  the early time of anaerobic prokaryotes.
    C.  the Cambrian period and probably earlier.
    D.  the time of the first prokaryotes but the sponges left no fossil evidence for lack of hard parts.

Ancestral members of the phylum Porifera arose at least by the early Cambrian period and probably into Precambrian times.  Later evolution resulted in diversification into the classes present today.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The order in which a drop of ink would pass by the structures in an ascon sponge is
    A. spongocoel-ostia-osculum.
    B.  osculum-spongocoel-ostia.
    C.  osculum-ostia-spongocoel.
    D.  ostia-spongocoel-osculum.
    E.  ostia-osculum-spongocoel.

The pathway for water moving through the simplest sponge body form is ostia-spongocoel-osculum.  In sycon sponges incurrent and radial canals are present.  In leucon sponges the spongocoel is often absent.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The simplest of canal systems is found in the
    A. asconoids.
    B.  leuconoids.
    C.  syconoids.

The asconoid sponge body form is the simplest of the sponge body forms.  Larger, more complex sponge body forms are syconoid and leuconoid.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The most complex and the most common body form of sponges is found in the
    A. asconoids.
    B.  leuconoids.
    C.  syconoids.

Leuconoid sponges include the largest, most common, and most complex sponges.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Flagellated canals of syconoid sponges form by evagination of the body wall and these sponges often develop through a simple vase-like stage. Which of the following is a logical hypothesis based on this evidence?
    A. Asconoid sponges were derived from syconoid ancestors.
    B.  Leuconoid sponges were derived from syconoid ancestors.
    C.  Syconoid sponges were derived from leuconoid ancestors.
    D.  Syconoid sponges were derived from asconoid ancestors.
    E.  Leuconoid sponges were derived from asconoid ancestors.

Syconoid sponges may have evolved through an asconoid body plan.  All syconoid sponges, however, do not share a common ancestor.  This transition to the syconoid stage may have occurred more than once.

 

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Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The extracellular matrix found in sponges is
    A. spongin.
    B.  collagen.
    C.  pinacoderm.
    D.  mesohyl or mesenchyme.

The gelatinous extracellular matrix, called mesohyle or mesenchyme, contains fibrils, skeletal elements and ameboid cells.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Calcareous or siliceous elements of the sponge body wall provide support.  These elements are called
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spicules.
    E.  spongin.

Spicules are supportive, calcareous structures in the body wall of many sponges.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The outer thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges, are
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spicules.
    E.  spongin.

Pinacocytes line the outer surface of the body wall of sponges. They may ingest food by phagocytosis and many are contractile to help regulate water flow.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The modified cells of sponges that form circular bands and provide just a little constriction to control water flow are
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  choanocytes.
    C.  spicules.
    D.  myocytes.

Myocytes are modified pinacocytes and constrict to regulate water flow.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. A sponge feeds by
    A. using a net and a current that sweeps food particles through it.
    B.  squeezing the spongocoel cavity to suck debris in and out through the osculum.
    C.  beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells.
    D.  beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current from osculum to pores; food is engulfed by amoebocytes in the central cavity of the sponge.

Beating of flagella of collar cells creates water currents that circulate water through the body of a sponge. Water currents bring microscopic food particles into the canal system of a sponge.  Food particles are filtered by collar cells.

 

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Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Cells that move about in the mesohyl, digest particles, and may specialize for other functions are the
    A. archaeocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Sponge cells are specialized for specific functions.  Archaeocytes are found in the mesohyl and phagocytize particles at the pinacoderm.  They also receive food particles from choanocytes and may be specialized for other functions.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spicules are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Archaeocytes may be specialized as sclerocytes, which secrete spicules.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spongin are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Spongocytes are archeocytes specialized for secreting spongin.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete large quantities of collagen are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Lophocytes are archeocytes specialized for secreting collagen.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The structural protein found in all sponges is
    A. elastin.
    B.  collagen.
    C.  gorgonin.
    D.  spiculin.
    E.  None of the choices are correct

Collagen is a connective protein common to all sponges.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Cells responsible for water flow and capture of some particles are the
    A. myocytes.
    B.  archaeocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  pinacocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Choanocytes are responsible for water flow and capture of some food particles.

 

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  1. Which is NOT a trait of sponges?
    A. They are sessile filter feeders
    B.  Their body wall has two incipient “cell layers”
    C.  Their flagellated collar cells move water
    D.  Water enters through the osculum
    E.  Amoeboid cells digest food and make skeletal fibers and gametes

Water exits a sponge through the osculum.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. If a sponge is fragmented and cells are dissociated from one another, the cells will
    A. reproduce sexually.
    B.  die from being separated.
    C.  form spicules in the pattern of the cloth.
    D.  reorganize their structure and function, and clumps of isolated cells will form a new sponge.

Sponges have remarkable powers of regeneration from fragments of an organism and can undergo somatic embryogenesis when cells are dissociated into clumps of cells.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic

  1. Which of the following statements about sponges is NOT correct?
    A. Larvae are ciliated and swim to new locations
    B.  Sponges are classified by spicule type and material
    C.  Sponges comprise a sister group to all other animals
    D.  Sponges share few characteristics with other animals
    E.  Sponge cells can transform from one cell type to another, a trait not seen in other kinds of animals

Sponges share many characteristics with other animals including the following: common adhesion proteins, a common blastula embryonic stage, and common cell signaling proteins.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Which of the following is NOT found in at least some sponges?
    A. Spicules of calcium carbonate
    B.  Spicules of silica
    C.  Spicules of fibrous protein
    D.  Spongin, a fibrous protein

Skeletal elements of sponges include calcareous and siliceous spicules and the protein, spongin.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Which of the following statements about sponges is NOT correct?
    A. Sponges lack nerve fibers
    B.  Sponges lack fully developed muscle fibers
    C.  Ameboid cells capture food particles from the water
    D.  Sponges reproduce asexually by budding or by regeneration from a small piece
    E.  If a sponge is fragmented and cells dissociate, cells undergo somatic embryogenesis and clumps of cells can form a new organism

Choanocytes create water currents, capture food, and pass food on to ameboid cells.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The free-swimming larva of most sponges is a
    A. bud.
    B.  gemmule.
    C.  apopyle.
    D.  parenchymula.
    E.  plasmodium.

Parenchymula larvae are free-swimming larval stages found in the development of most sponges.  Gemmules are internal buds found in freshwater sponges and some marine sponges.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Reproduction in at least some sponges is
    A. asexual by budding.
    B.  asexual by gemmules.
    C.  sexual with both male and female sex cells in one individual.
    D.  asexual by fragmentation.
    E.  All of the choices are correct

Sponges reproduce sexually and asexually.  Specific reproductive mechanisms are group specific and may involve one or more of the methods described in this question.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The unique feature of sponge development in members of the class Calcarea is the amphiblastula which
    A. produces new buds.
    B.  generates gemmules.
    C.  determines the types of spicules produced.
    D.  turns inside out during its development.
    E.  controls the process of regeneration.

The ampiblastula is a developmental stage in members of the class Calcarea.  It is also present in a few members of the class Demospongia.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. In glass sponges, archaeocytes fuse their pseudopodia to form a
    A. bud.
    B.  spongin network.
    C.  micropyle.
    D.  leuconoid framework.
    E.  trabecular reticulum.

Hexactinellid sponges possess a unique syncytial body wall.  All cells fuse into a single, multinucleate syncytum called the trabecular reticulum.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The demosponges
    A. constitute only a small number of species.
    B.  are mostly marine but include the freshwater sponges.
    C.  have the asconoid-type canal system.
    D.  are referred to as calcium or chalk sponges.
    E.  form the most beautiful glass spicule patterns.

Members of the class Demospongia are the most common sponges.  Most are large, leuconoid sponges.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The largest impact that the loss of sponges would have on the environment would be
    A. collapse of most food chains.
    B.  extinctions of other species that are symbionts of sponges.
    C.  alteration of ocean currents.
    D.  alteration of gases in water and the atmosphere.
    E.  loss of filtration.

Large sponges can filter up to 1,500 liters of water each day.  Loss of this filtering would adversely affect water quality in marine habitats.

 

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Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Why are bath sponges so soft?
    A. Silica is washed away and the calcium carbonate remains
    B.  Spongin spicules are washed away and the silky silica remains
    C.  The choanocytes and amoebocytes are softer
    D.  Bath sponge support is provided primarily by spongin proteins
    E.  All of the choices are correct

Spongin is a soft protein present in the body wall of bath sponges. Bath sponges lack calcareous or siliceous spicules.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Molecular data support the hypotheses that metazoans have a single origin or are _________________.
    monophyletic

Sponges are monophyletic.  They arose from a single common ancestor.  All other animals comprise a sister group to the sponges.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Placozoans
    A. are flat, plate-like animals with no symmetry.
    B.  are probably advanced mesozoans.
    C.  have calcareous spicules.
    D.  have three germ layers.

Placozoans lack symmetry and any organs, muscular, and nervous tissues.  Their dorsal and ventral epithelial layers may be ectodermal and endodermal tissue layers, thus some zoologists consider placozoans to be diplobastic.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Placozoans feed by
    A. sharing food produced by symbiotic algae in their diffuse tissues
    B.  Gliding over their food, secreting enzymes, and absorbing products
    C.  Filtering food that moves through them in tiny pores
    D.  Taking food in through a ventral tube, digesting it, and expelling wastes back out the tube
    E.  Taking food in through a central tube, digesting it, and moving wastes out the anus

Placozoans lack organs, including digestive organs.  They secrete digestive enzymes as they glide over their food.  Products of digestion are absorbed by the ventral epithelium.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Out of all metazoans, members of __________________ have the smallest nuclear genome but the largest mitochondrial genome.
    Placozoa

The small nuclear genome and large mitochodrial genome of placozoans are characteristics shared with some animal outgroups.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Placozoa
Topic: Phylum Placozoa

  1. The minute, needle-like structures that act as a skeletal support system in sponges are called _________________.
    spicules

Sponge skeletons are comprised of calcareous or siliceous spicules or spongin.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The tough protein fibers sometimes found in sponge skeletons are of a substance called _____________.
    spongin

Sponge skeletons are comprised of calcareous or siliceous spicules or spongin.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The water outlet in sponges is known as a/an __________________.
    osculum

The osculum is the outlet for water in sponges.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The flagellated cells embedded in the mesohyl of a sponge are called ___________________.
    choanocytes

Choanocytes line the spongocoel and flagellated chambers of sponges.  They propel water through a sponge and filter food from the water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The simplest body plan of sponges is ____________, and the plan characterized by flagellated canals is leuconoids.
    asconoids

Simple vase-like asconoid sponges are the simplest sponges.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Thin, epithelial-type cells covering the outer surface of sponges are the ________________.
    pinacocytes

Pinacocytes make up the pinacoderm, the outer cellular layer of a sponge.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. About 80% of particulate organic carbon in the marine environment is in the form of the smallest particles that sponges can consume, and phagocytosis of these particles is carried out by the ____________.
    choanocytes

Choanocytes create water currents and filter particulate food matter from the water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. All digestion in sponges is intracellular and is carried out by the ____________________.
    archaeocytes

Choanocytes pass filtered food to archeocytes, which digest the food intracellularly.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Internal buds of freshwater sponges that can withstand adverse conditions are ____________________.
    gemmules

Gemmules are found in freshwater and a few marine sponges.  They are internal buds that withstand harsh environmental conditions.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Deep-sea sponges with six-rayed siliceous spicules and a trabecular reticulum belong to the ______________.
    Hexactinellida/Hyalospongiae

Hexactinellids are sponges with six-rayed spicules and a trabecular reticulum.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. About 95% of the sponges belong to the class __________.
    Demospongiae

Members of the class Demospongiae are the most common sponges.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

 

Essay Questions

  1. There are a few marine sponges that are large enough that a small person could crawl inside. Would you have to worry about your tissues being digested?

Answers will vary but should include the explanation that most sponges are filter feeders and digestion is intracellular.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Sponge beds have been heavily “fished” for bath sponges and in other cases pollution or an imbalance in organisms has devastated other sponge beds. What is the likely overall consequence of this in the ocean environment?

Answers will vary but should consider the impact of the loss of sponge filtering on marine environments.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Gradable: manual
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Explain the concept of monophyly as it applies to the animals.   How do the relationships of placozoans and poriferans, as explained in this chapter, contribute to our understanding of the base of the animal tree shown on the inside cover of the book?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: manual


 

  1. Describe the characteristics of the Phylum Porifera.  Which of those characteristics support the contention that the sponges are the basal group of the Animal kingdom?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: manual
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Explain the unique attributes of hexactinellids as compared to other sponges.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. New evidence suggests that the calcarea belong to a clade separate from other sponges. Discuss the evidence upon which this idea is based.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

 

Chapter 24

Fishes

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The cladistic use of the term “fish”
    A. applies to a monophyletic group of aquatic vertebrates.
    B.  includes all swimming animals from the amphioxus lancelet up to but not including the true amphibians.
    C.  would also include the common ancestor with land vertebrates (including us) and a strict cladist would then include us in “fish.”
    D.  only includes aquatic vertebrates with gills.
    E.  reflects any vertebrate that is adapted to water.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes

  1. The most primitive of the early fishes were the
    A. Agnathans.
    B.  Gnathostomes.
    C.  Acanthodians.
    D.  Lobe-finned fishes.
    E.  Ray-finned fishes.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes


 

  1. The “Age of Fishes” was in the ___________ period.
    A.Permian
    B. Cambrian
    C. Carboniferous
    D. Devonian
    E. Silurian

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes

  1. The Teleostomi fishes consist of what three major groups
    A. Acanthodii, actinopterygii, and sarcopterygii
    B.  Chondricthyes, agnatha, and myxini
    C.  Myxini, placoderms, and holocephali
    D.  Agnatha, craniata, and osteichthyes
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes

  1. The cartilaginous fishes do NOT include
    A. skates.
    B.  rays.
    C.  sharks.
    D.  eels.
    E.  All of the choices are cartilaginous fishes

 

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Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Cartilaginous fishes
    A. lost the heavy dermal armor of their ancestors.
    B.  had ancestors with bone but moved to an all cartilage skeleton.
    C.  flourished in the Devonian and Carboniferous but nearly went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic.
    D.  lack a swim bladder.
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

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Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. Hagfishes
    A. are entirely fresh water animals.
    B.  are parasitic.
    C.  have a complex but well-researched reproductive cycle.
    D.  generate enormous quantities of slime if disturbed.
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

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Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes

  1. Unlike other vertebrates, the body fluids of hagfishes are
    A. Strongly hypoosmotic to seawater.
    B.  Strongly hyperosmotic to seawater.
    C.  In osmotic equilibrium with seawater.
    D.  Very concentrated, with over 80% blood solids.
    E.  Under high internal pressure near the surface.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes


 

  1. The hagfish has a keen sense of
    A. depth and water pressure in order to control its swim bladder.
    B.  smell and touch in order to locate dead and dying fish.
    C.  sight in order to locate dying fish and annelids, molluscs, and crustaceans.
    D.  hearing in order to locate prey in dark depths.
    E.  All of the choices are well-developed in hagfish

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes

  1. In North America, knowledge of the biology of lampreys
    A.has led to the understanding that all native lampreys are parasitic.
    B. led to the limited control of lampreys by larvicides and release of sterile males.
    C. led to understanding that prey fish always die after lamprey has gorged and abandoned the prey
    D. All of the choices are correct

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes


 

 

Check All That Apply Questions

  1. Shark characteristics include
    __X__  having internal fertilization.
    __X__  having isosmotic blood (compared to that of marine water) due to high concentrations of urea and trimethylamine oxide.
    __X__  having teeth of modified placoid scales.
    __X__  being able to detect bioelectric fields.
    _____  Having a swim bladded to control buoyancy

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The lateral-line of a shark is used for
    A. Detecting and locating objects and moving animals in the water.
    B.  Excretion of urea and water.
    C.  Detecting odors.
    D.  Secreting mucus as a swimming lubricant.
    E.  Detecting the heat of prey animals.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Sharks have __________ scales.
    A. placoid
    B.  ctenoid
    C.  cycloid
    D.  ganoid
    E.  polyploid

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. Shark reproduction and development involves
    A. clearing a bottom area in order that the female can lay eggs and the male can deposit sperm over them.
    B.  no production of yolk at all but the first development of a primitive placenta in all sharks.
    C.  substantial care of young after the eggs are laid or young are born.
    D.  cases of oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous strategies.
    E.  a larval stage quite different from the adult.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. The spiral valve in the intestine of a shark serves to
    A. release strong acids to aid digestion.
    B.  function as a liver in producing bile salts.
    C.  entrap food molecules in a mucus strand.
    D.  slow passage of food and increase absorptive surface area.
    E.  propel food through the tract at a faster rate.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Ampullary organs of Lorenzini
    A. are located along the lateral-line of a shark.
    B.  help the shark see prey at night.
    C.  help the shark detect bioelectric fields at a close range.
    D.  detect orientation similar to that perceived by our semicircular canals.
    E.  amplify sounds of a struggling prey from great distances.

 

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Gradable: automatic

  1. The large spiracles on the top of the head of skates and rays is for
    A. air intake for respiration.
    B.  water intake to prevent clogging the gills.
    C.  detection of bioelectric fields from prey buried in the sea bottom.
    D.  detection of chemical odors in the water.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. The ovoviviparous sharks are those that
    A. lay eggs after external fertilization.
    B.  bear their young alive after retaining the eggs in the oviduct but with no further nourishment except from that of the yolk.
    C.  lay eggs after internal fertilization.
    D.  bear their young alive after external fertilization.
    E.  feed developing young a nutritious “uterine milk.”

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. The chimaera
    A. include representatives called ratfish and ghostfish.
    B.  have an odd mixture of shark-like and their own unique characteristics.
    C.  were more common in the Cretaceous than they are now.
    D.  have the upper jaw fused to the cranium.
    E.  All of the choices are correct

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. The most diverse fish group is the
    A. ray-finned fishes.
    B.  lung-fishes.
    C.  lobe-finned fishes.
    D.  cartilaginous fishes.
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. A representative of the ray-finned fish group, the chondrosteans, is the
    A. gar.
    B.  sturgeon.
    C.  coelacanth.
    D.  bowfin.
    E.  carp.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes


 

  1. Representatives of the most primitive non-teleost neopterygians are the
    A. gar and bowfin.
    B.  sturgeon and paddle-fish.
    C.  coelacanths.
    D.  minnows and suckers.
    E.  carp and buffalo fish.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. What feature(s) separates a shark from a blue-gill?
    A. Gill slits versus operculum
    B.  Cartilage versus bones
    C.  Internal versus external fertilization
    D.  No swim bladder versus swim bladder
    E.  All of the choices are correct distinctions

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. In schooling, fish rely on sensitivity to vibration and water currents. This is provided by cells called neuromasts located inside
    A. caudal fin.
    B.  gills.
    C.  swim bladder.
    D.  lateral-line.
    E.  placoid scales.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. Darters are fish that live in fast-running rapids; they eat surface insects, they rest on the bottom avoiding the push of the water, and make brief frantic dashes to the surface to feed. If they swam midstream, they would expend a huge amount of energy. What physiological strategy allows them to live on the bottom?
    A.Lack of gills
    B. Loss of a lateral-line
    C. Loss of a swim bladder
    D. Reduction in fin size and number
    E. Expansion of a swim bladder into a lung

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. The lungfishes
    A. are all extinct.
    B.  do not really have functional lungs.
    C.  live only in Australia, Africa, and South America.
    D.  are an aberrant branch of the cartilaginous fishes.
    E.  are survivors of primitive ray-finned fishes.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. The primary propulsive mechanism of a fish is
    A. its trunk and caudal musculature.
    B.  movement of water into the mouth and forced out the gills.
    C.  movement of the pectoral fins.
    D.  movement of the pelvic fins.
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. The mechanism whereby buoyancy is achieved in different kinds of fishes is
    A. through the presence of a large, oily liver when a swim bladder is not present.
    B.  through the presence of a swim bladder that is kept filled as the fish periodically swims to the surface and gulps air.
    C.  through the presence of a swim bladder that is regulated internally by structures that add or remove gas from the bladder by capillary beds.
    D.  All of the choices are methods for achieving buoyancy.
    E.  None of the choices are correct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Marine bony fishes are
    A. hypoosmotic regulators.
    B.  in osmotic equilibrium with seawater.
    C.  hyperosmotic regulators.
    D.  osmotic adjustors.
    E.  None of the choices are correct

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. To replace water lost osmotically, marine fish
    A. pump water inward across the gill surface by means of special absorptive cells.
    B.  drink seawater and then pump extra salt outward across the gill surface by means of salt secretory cells, and excrete the remaining ions in the feces.
    C.  increase glomerular filtration by the kidney.
    D.  drink much more seawater and accumulate unwanted salts in crystalline form.
    E.  produce water metabolically by the oxidation of food stuffs.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Eel-like, jawless fishes with both marine and freshwater species belong to the class ____________.
    Petromyzontida

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes

  1. The class __________ is composed of vertebrates having eel-like bodies, a biting mouth with two rows of eversible teeth, and numerous slime glands.
    Myxini

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes

  1. The group designation _________ was formerly considered a class name and designated bony fishes that possessed a swim bladder or lungs.  Cladistic analysis has resulted in the division of this group into two classes.  One includes ray-finned fishes and the other lobe-finned fishes.
    osteichthyes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes


 

  1. The class ____________ is composed of vertebrates having placoid scales, a heterocercal caudal fin, a ventral mouth, and a cartilaginous endoskeleton.
    Chondrichthyes

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. Great Lakes fisheries nearly collapsed last century due to an invasion by ____________ _____________.
    sea lampreys

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Living Jawless Fishes
Topic: Living Jawless Fishes

  1. In the elasmobranchs, the sexes are separate and fertilization is _________.
    internal

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. The lateral-line system of sharks contains special receptor organs, called __________, that are sensitive to vibrations and currents in water.
    neuromasts

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Sharks remove excess sodium chloride from blood by means of the kidney and the ____________ gland.
    rectal

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. Sarcopterygians are the sister group of the ________.
    tetrapods

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes

  1. A lobe-finned fish thought to have been extinct for 70 million years, but discovered off the coast of South Africa in 1938, is called the __________.
    coelacanth

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. Teleost fishes have a type of tail that is called a __________ tail.
    homocercal

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. The gas gland of the teleost swim bladder contains a remarkable network of blood capillaries called the ___________ _____________.
    rete mirabile

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. The gills of bony fishes are covered with a movable flap called the __________.
    operculum

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Adult eels from both Europe and North America swim enormous distances to spawn at great depth in the ______ ______.
    Sargasso sea

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Migratory fishes, such as the Atlantic salmon, that spend their adult lives at sea but return to fresh water to spawn are called ___________.
    anadromous

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. Experiments have shown that homing salmon are guided upstream by the characteristic _________ of the parent stream.
    odor

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Some sharks that develop a placental-like attachment for the nourishment of the embryo in the mother’s reproductive system exhibit _______ reproduction.
    viviparous

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes

  1. The term for external fish reproduction where eggs are released and sperm (milt) is exuded over the eggs.
    spawning

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

 

Essay Questions

  1. How does a shark detect potential prey or distinguish it from floating non-living debris?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Why has the coelacanth apparently changed so little from its fossil ancestor of 70 million years ago?

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes
Topic: Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes

  1. Why is there a relationship between fish size and speed? Does this not start an evolutionary speed race driving predator and prey to grow to ever increasing lengths? Why do any small fish survive?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. How is gas moved into and out of the teleost swim bladder? Describe the physiological process in detail.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Describe the life cycle of the eel. Contrast this migration with the Pacific salmon.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. How do we determine the age of a fish from its scales? Why are there rings on the scales? What do the rings represent?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Technically a teleost fish has a four-chambered heart. Yet this is not the same as the four-chambered heart of a bird or mammal. Compare and contrast these two “four chambered” hearts.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Discuss the efficiency of swimming versus walking or flying, in energy cost per kilogram per unit distance covered. How does this translate into advantages for being small or large?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Explain why some fish die if they are prevented from continuously swimming forward.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes


 

  1. Compare the ammocoete larva with the fry of a teleost fish.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Explain why the discovery of a complete conodont animal was so important to understanding the evolutionary history of fishes.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes
Topic: Ancestry and Relationships of Major Groups of Fishes

  1. Explain why there are relics of the transformation of Meckel’s cartilage during the development of modern sharks.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Gradable: manual
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Of what significance is it that gill supports immediately behind the jaws of sharks are hinged like jaws and serve to link the jaws to the braincase?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Gradable: manual
Section: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes
Topic: Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes


 

  1. Compare the swimming mechanisms of invertebrates such as cnidarians, platyhelminthes, and annelids with those of the fishes. Is one form superior to another? Why or why not?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Discuss the vascularization of the gills of fish. Is this homologous or analogous to the vascularization of mammalian lungs?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Outline and compare the life histories of Pacific Salmon and the North Atlantic eel. Which of these two life histories is the more evolutionarily successful (in your opinion)?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

  1. Discuss the difficulty of sound detection faced by fish and the adaptations that have evolved in certain groups to help increase their hearing sensitivity.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes
Topic: Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes

Chapter 38

Animal Ecology

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The term “ecology” was first introduced by whom?
    A.George Gaylord Simpson
    B. Charles Elton
    C. Ernst Haeckel
    D. Lawrence J. Henderson
    E. E.O. Wilson

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. An animal population is a group of animals that form which of the following?
    A. a disparate community within an ecosystem
    B.  a reproductive community with members of the same species
    C.  individuals in a family that do not reproduce
    D.  various species living in a community

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. A community is made up of
    A. different populations of organisms living in the same area.
    B.  living organisms & the nonliving environment.
    C.  ecosystems.
    D.  just the nonliving environment.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. A study of both a living community and all of its physical factors would focus on what level of organization
    A. Trophic levels
    B.  Various biomes
    C.  The biosphere
    D.  Ecosystem

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. A frog is found along the edge of a pond. The location where the frog lives would be the frog’s __________.
    A. niche
    B.  habitat
    C.  biotic component
    D.  abiotic component

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. A species of bat is found in 1) groves and grasslands, 2) has a 4 degree temperature limit and 3) is at the end of its food chain. This defines its
    A. range and habitat.
    B.  habitat and niche.
    C.  range and ecology.
    D.  ecology.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. While an animal can survive (determined by lab tests) between the temperatures of 10oC and 30oC, we find in nature that the animal only exists between 16oC and 28oC. This is a difference between the __________________ and __________________.
    A. fundamental habitat; realized habitat
    B.  fundamental niche; realized niche
    C.  realized habitat; fundamental habitat
    D.  realized niche; fundamental niche

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. When adding sterilized screw-worm flies to populations in an attempt to eradicate them from the United States, scientists found that not all of the adult screw-worm flies, often from different areas, were mating with each other. Each of the internally mating populations constituted a
    A. lineage.
    B.  limiting resource.
    C.  clone.
    D.  deme.
    E.  cohort.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The sponge constitutes an animal that is
    A. unitary due to cloning.
    B.  modular due to cloning.
    C.  a cohort due to cloning.
    D.  unitary due to fragmentation.
    E.  unitary due to age structure.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Whether most young of an animal die soon after they are born or grow up such that most of the population dies in old age is called
    A. carrying capacity.
    B.  intrinsic rate of growth.
    C.  cohort.
    D.  survivorship.
    E.  the limiting resource.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. With over one billion people, but less land to farm than is in the United States, the People’s Republic of China instituted a one-child-per-family policy. This immediately changed which numerical value in the logistic growth equation?
    A. r
    B.  N
    C.  K
    D.  None of the choices are correct

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. If severe floods reduced the amount of agricultural land in China, which term in the logistic growth formula will change?
    A. r
    B.  N
    C.  K

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. For a population experiencing logistic growth, what is the most likely result when N very closely aproaches the value of K?
    A. The population grows as fast as it can, or r(N).
    B.  The population levels off near carrying capacity.
    C.  The population has exceeds carrying capacity and begins to decline.
    D.  The population may grow or decline quickly, depending upon the value of r.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The maximum number of individuals of a species that an area can support is the
    A. growth rate.
    B.  carrying capacity.
    C.  net productivity.
    D.  gross productivity.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Natural populations are controlled by density-dependent and density-independent forces. What is an example of a density independent factor?
    A. Adverse weather
    B.  Food supply
    C.  Supply of nest sites
    D.  Supply of mates

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Commensalism differs from mutualism by the fact that in commensalism,
    A. one organism is not affected.
    B.  one organism is always harmed.
    C.  both organisms benefit.
    D.  neither organism benefits.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The carrying capacity of the environment is determined by
    A. the limiting resource in the environment.
    B.  the reproductive rate of an animal group.
    C.  the occurrence of disease.
    D.  a complex “balance of nature” that remains to be explained in terms that scientists can calculate.
    E.  the resources that are in surplus in the environment.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Two species of caterpillar feed on the same species of corn. On close inspection, the two insects are found to be feeding on different parts of the corn, the root and the stem. What principle does this support?
    A. keystone species.
    B.  niche overlap.
    C.  competitive exclusion.
    D.  Batesian mimicry.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. MacArthur observed that five species of similar warblers coexisted on spruce trees, in feeding guilds, because they
    A. ate different kinds of insects.
    B.  were kept below their carrying capacities by predators.
    C.  foraged in different places on the tree.
    D.  cooperated in their foraging habits.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. What is a keystone species?
    A. a predator that preys upon many different species in a community
    B.  a species whose removal causes major shifts in other species in a community
    C.  a mimic that has the same appearance as another, poisonous species
    D.  a prey species that must be present for its predator to survive
    E.  the most abundant species in a particular community

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The energy storage in an animal’s tissues is called
    A. primary productivity.
    B.  gross productivity.
    C.  standing crop.
    D.  biomass.

 

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Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. We could state a biological “law” that all food chains begin with photosynthetic producers if it wasn’t for the exception of
    A. lichens that make their own food energy.
    B.  anaerobic bacteria such as the tetanus agent.
    C.  chemosynthetic bacteria found around deep ocean thermal vents.
    D.  humans making synthetic food.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. In tidal pools, a food pyramid is inverted with a small base of phytoplankton supporting zooplankton consumers. How can this be explained?
    A. The pyramid is an energy pyramid and the trophic level occupied by zooplankton contains more energy than the level occupied by phytoplankton.
    B.  The pyramid is a numbers pyramid showing that only few phytoplankton support many zooplankton
    C.  These phytoplankton are actually deriving their food from dying animals, thus the pyramid is inverted.
    D.  The pyramid is a pyramid of biomass and the standing crop of phytoplankton has less biomass than the standing crop of zooplankton

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Most energy enters the ecosystem as
    A.cell respiration.
    B. plant growth.
    C. chemical bond energy.
    D. oxygen.
    E. light energy.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The producers in deep-sea thermal vent communities are
    A. bivalve molluscs.
    B.  giant pogonophoran worms.
    C.  deep-sea kelp.
    D.  chemoautotrophic bacteria.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Ecologists have found that
    A. life as we know it does not match the energy laws of physics.
    B.  ecology cannot be explained using principles from chemistry and physics.
    C.  it is possible to capture all the photosynthetic energy absorbed as molecules of glucose.
    D.  energy flows one way through ecosystems and requires external input.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. An assemblage of living organisms sharing the same environment is referred to as a ____________.
    community

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Almost all life depends on the energy from the _______.
    sun

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The deep-sea rift communities in the Pacific depend on the action of chemoautotrophic ____________ to derive energy from the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide.
    bacteria

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. The energy accumulated by plants, less that used in respiration, is the _____ _______ ______.
    net primary productivity

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. A series of steps in which plants are eaten by consumers, which are themselves eaten by other consumers, is called the ______ ______.
    food chain

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. There can usually be no more than 4 or 5 trophic levels in a food chain because there is such a great loss of __________ between trophic levels.
    energy

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. A species that when removed from a community changes the structure of the community is called a ____________ species.
    keystone

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. An interaction in which one species derives benefit from its host but neither benefits nor harms the host is ____________.
    commensalism

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. In the logistic equation to describe the growth of populations, r is the intrinsic rate of increase of the population, and ____________ is the carrying capacity of the environment.
    K

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Some conditions that can limit population size are severe cold, drought, fire, etc.; such conditions are regarded as density ____________.
    independent

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Only ______ are able to purposely and directly increase their carrying capacity.
    humans

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

 

Essay Questions

  1. What prevents all species from evolving toward a survivorship curve where most individuals live to old age?

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. When pioneers settled the Midwest and Plains states, they killed or drove off the American bison, cougar, wolf, etc. Why does the elimination of such natural predators cause ecological problems?

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. What is the role of decomposers in the cycling of carbon? What would eventually occur if decomposers lost the ability to break down plant and fungal matter?

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Can the biomass of all animals on earth ever exceed the biomass of all of the plants? Why? or why not?

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Explain the concept of “competitive exclusion.” Give several examples that clearly illustrate this concept.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Distinguish between a habitat and a niche. Can these terms ever refer to the same thing?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. What is the difference between a species’ fundamental niche and its realized niche? Why is this important to the study of ecology?

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Explain the following concepts: age structure, survivorship curves, and intrinsic rate of increase.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Identify the following terms: r, K, N. Why does the term (K-N)/K approach zero (no slope) as N approaches the value of K?

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Compare logistic growth with exponential growth. Would a pest insect species more likely exhibit a logistic growth curve or an exponential growth curve? Explain your reasoning.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Discuss the different ecological effects of density independent factors and density-dependent factors on animal populations.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Discuss the paradox of biodiversity concerning species isolation and potential for both speciation and extinction.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: Extinction and Biodiversity
Topic: Extinction and Biodiversity

  1. How does mutualism differ from commensalism? How would you experimentally determine if two species are living in a commensal or mutualistic relationship?

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Does competition promote the process of speciation? Why or why not?

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

Discuss how the following terms are interrelated: niche overlap, competitive exclusion, character displacement, and guild. How do all these terms relate to the concept of competition?

 

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Discuss how the extinction of a keystone species can affect an ecosystem.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Are the benefits derived from Mullerian mimics always equal for each member of the mimicry complex?

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology


 

  1. Discuss how ecosystems are based on energy transfer at different trophic levels.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

  1. Describe the functioning and possible patterns associated with metapopulation dynamics.

Answers will vary.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: manual
Section: The Hierarchy of Ecology
Topic: The Hierarchy of Ecology

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