Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition By Arnett-Test Bank

$30.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition By Arnett-Test Bank

Chapter 2 Genetics and Prenatal Development

 

Section 1 Genetic Influence on Development…………………………………………………….. 128

Test Item File………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 128

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 163

Essay Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 164

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………… 166

Pre-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 166

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167

Chapter Exam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 169

Quick Review……………………………………………………………………………………………. 172

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 176

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 176

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 176

Section 2 Prenatal Development and Prenatal Care………………………………………….. 178

Test Item File………………………………………………………………………………………………… 178

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 178

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 206

Essay Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………… 209

Pre-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210

Chapter Exam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 212

Quick Review……………………………………………………………………………………………. 215

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 218

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 218

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 218

Section 3 Pregnancy Problems…………………………………………………………………………. 223

Test Item File………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 223

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 247

Essay Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 248

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank………………………………………………………………… 250

Pre-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250

Post-Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252

Chapter Exam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 254

Quick Review……………………………………………………………………………………………. 257

Video Guide Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 262

Short Answer Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 262

Multiple Choice Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 262

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1 Genetic Influence on Development

 

Test Item File

 

Difficulty

1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

 

Learning Objective number refers to the textbook’s learning objectives.

 

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.

Pre=Pre-Test

Post=Post-Test

CE=Chapter Exam

QR=Quick Review

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The human body contains how many chromosomes?
  2. 23
  3. 46
  4. 69
  5. 92

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.1

 

  1. The average human cell has ____ chromosomes.
  2. 42
  3. 46
  4. 23
  5. 26

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.1

% correct 84      a= 1  b= 84  c= 14  d= 1      r = .19

 

  1. How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
  2. 23
  3. 46
  4. 69
  5. 92

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.2

% correct 76      a= 76  b= 24  c= 0  d= 0      r = .33

 

  1. How many chromosomes from each pair of chromosomes are generally inherited from the father?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, chromosomes are composed of complex molecules known as _____.
  2. nucleotides

Incorrect. The complex molecules are known as DNA.

  1. genes
  2. DNA

Correct. DNA is a long strand of cell material that stores and transfers genetic information.

  1. RNA

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.5

 

  1. Chromosomes are composed of complex molecules known as ____.
  2. DNA
  3. nucleotide pairs
  4. genetic
  5. dominant recessive

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Chromosomes are organized into segments called ____.
  2. DNA

Incorrect. The segments are called genes.

  1. RNA
  2. genes

Correct. Genes are segments of DNA that contain coded instructions for the growth and functioning of an organism.

  1. nucleotides

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Genes contain paired sequences of chemicals called ____.
  2. genes
  3. RNA
  4. DNA
  5. nucleotides

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Genes are made of ____.
  2. protein segments
  3. nucleotides
  4. fatty cells
  5. chromosomes

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.2

 

  1. Approximately how many genes comprise the human genome?
  2. 10,000
  3. 23,000
  4. 50,000
  5.          100,000

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. How many nucleotide pairs comprise the human genome?
  2. 100,000
  3. 150 million
  4. 3 billion
  5. 5 trillion

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The totality of an individual’s genes is referred to as his or her ____.
  2. phenotype
  3. genotype
  4. inheritance
  5. environment

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.3

 

  1. An individual’s complete genetic makeup is his or her ____.
  2. genotype
  3. phenotype
  4. allele
  5. reaction range

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.4

 

  1. A person’s ____ is/are their genetic makeup, whereas a person’s ____ is/are their characteristics.
  2. phenotype; genotype
  3. genotype; phenotype
  4. nucelotides; DNA
  5. DNA; nucleotides

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.3

% correct 88      a= 12  b= 88  c= 0  d= 0      r = .43

 

  1. The expression of an individual’s genetic material is referred to as his or her _____.
  2. phenotype
  3. genotype
  4. inheritance
  5. environment

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A person’s characteristics are known as his or her ____.
  2. phenotype
  3. genotype
  4. chromosomes
  5. DNA

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The difference between an individual’s genotype and its expression in his or her phenotype is a consequence of the person’s ____.
  2. genes
  3. DNA
  4. environment
  5. parents

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.5

 

  1. Fred was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his musical development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Fred’s genotype?
  2. Fred’s musical genes

Correct. One’s genotype is his or her complete genetic makeup.

  1. Fred’s musical talent

Incorrect. Musical talent is the characteristic, or the phenotype.

  1. Fred’s nurturing parents
  2. Fred’s musical genes and musical talent

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.10, Post 2.1.10

 

  1. Jill’s mother was an All-American in the 1,500m and qualified for the Olympic team in the marathon. Jill is a freshman in high school and does not think that she will need to train to become a member of the school’s cross country team. Jill keeps telling you that her mother was a great runner, so she will also be a great runner. What do you think?
  2. She is correct; she will be a great runner no matter what she does.

Incorrect. Jill will need to train to become a great runner; that is, she will need to interact with the environment to express those genes.

  1. It is unlikely that Jill even has the genotype for running.
  2. Jill might have the genotype for running ability, but she will need to train become a great runner.

Correct. The athletic ability that may be present in Jill’s genotype will not express itself if she does nothing to encourage it, such as training.

  1. Jill has also inherited the genes for superior intelligence.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 45–46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Alejandro was born into a family with high musical talent. Both his parents were professional musicians who encouraged and fostered his musical development. Throughout childhood he practiced the guitar whenever he could and eventually became a professional musician himself. Which of the following best describes Alejandro’s phenotype?
  2. Alejandro’s musical genes

Incorrect. Alejandro’s musical genes are his genotype.

  1. Alejandro’s musical talent
  2. Alejandro’s nurturing parents

Correct. Alejandro’s genotype includes exceptional musical ability, but it’s his parents’ support of this ability that encouraged those genes to be expressed.

  1. Alejandro’s practice of the guitar

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Thomas’s biological mother and father are both gifted athletes. He was adopted by a couple who had no interest in him being involved in sports. Although Thomas likely inherited athletic ability, it was never expressed in his _____.
  2. genotype
  3. phenotype

Correct. Thomas likely inherited his biological parents’ genotype, but his adoptive parents’ disinterest in sports likely inhibited the development of athletic ability in Thomas’s phenotype.

  1. genes

Incorrect. His genetic potential was not expressed in his phenotype.

  1. alleles

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 89      a= 7  b= 89  c= 3  d= 2      r = .18

 

  1. On every pair of chromosomes there are how many forms of each gene?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.1

 

  1. Each form of a gene that is contained within a chromosome is referred to as a ____.
  2. dominant gene
  3. recessive gene
  4. allele
  5.          single gene

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of gene, if it is present, will be expressed in the phenotype?
  2. recessive gene
  3. dominant gene

Correct. Recessive genes will only be expressed when there is no dominant gene present.

  1. expressed gene
  2. controller gene

Incorrect. If a dominant gene is present it will be expressed in the phenotype.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If having more than five fingers occurs because of a dominant gene, what needs to happen for a person to have more than five fingers?
  2. A person must have that dominant gene.

Correct. If a dominant gene is present it will be expressed in the phenotype.

  1. A person must have two recessive genes.
  2. The gene must mutate.
  3. Both dominant genes must be present.

Incorrect. For a dominant cell trait to be expressed, all that is needed is the presence of the dominant cell.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.6

 

  1. If the gene for curly hair is dominant and the gene for straight hair is recessive, from a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following would be an individual’s phenotype?
  2. straight hair

Incorrect. Straight hair is recessive.

  1. curly hair

Correct. Since curly hair is a dominant trait and a heterozygotic pairing is present, the individual’s phenotype would be the curly hair, because curly hair is dominant and straight hair is recessive.

  1. dominant-recessive
  2. their complete genetic makeup

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Jill’s mother and father both have brown eyes yet she has blue eyes. She has come to believe that she is not her parents’ actual biological daughter. What would you tell her?
  2. Her mother and father probably carry the recessive trait for blue eyes.                       Correct. The blue-eyed child of two brown-eyed parents probably inherited a recessive blue-eyed gene from each parent.
  3. She is correct; there is no way that she would have blue eyes if she were really her parents’ biological daughter.

Incorrect. Her parents most likely carry the recessive trait from blue eyes.

  1. Blue eyes are dominant, so her parents should have blue eyes too.
  2. Only the environment determines eye color once the fetus has been born.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  97     a= 97  b= 2  c= 1  d= 0      r = .20

 

  1. For a recessive gene to be expressed in the phenotype, it must be paired with a ____.
  2. dominant gene
  3. recessive gene

Correct. Two recessive genes must be present for that trait to be expressed.

  1. expressed gene

Incorrect. It must be paired with another recessive gene to be expressed.

  1. controller gene

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is occurring when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene?
  2. expression of the dominant gene
  3. expression of the recessive gene
  4. incomplete dominance

Correct. The sickle-cell trait that is common among black Africans and African Americans is an example.

  1. failure of expression

Incorrect. Incomplete dominance occurs when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a dominant-recessive pairing, which of the following genes would be expressed in a person’s phenotype?
  2. the dominant

Correct. In a dominant-recessive pairing, the dominant gene will express itself in a person’s phenotype. For example, if you inherited a gene for curly hair from one parent and straight hair from the other, you would have curly hair, because curly hair is dominant and straight hair is recessive.

  1. the recessive

Incorrect. The recessive trait would not be expressed in the presence of a dominant gene.

  1. the dominant-recessive pairing
  2. it is too complicated to know which genes will be expressed

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an incomplete dominant inheritance?
  2. Down syndrome

Incorrect. Down syndrome is a genetic-linked disorder.

  1. Fragile X
  2. sickle-cell anemia

Correct. Incomplete dominance occurs when the phenotype is influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene. One example of incomplete dominance involves the sickle-cell trait that is common among black Africans and their descendants, such as African Americans.

  1. HIV

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.7

 

  1. Who is most likely to have sickle-cell anemia?
  2. European and European Americans
  3. Hispanics and Hispanic Americans
  4. Asians and Asian Americans

Incorrect. Africans and African Americans are most likely to have sickle-cell Anemia.

  1. Africans and African Americans

Correct. It also occurs more rarely in people whose ancestors came from India or the Mediterranean.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What recessive disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?
  2. Tay-Sachs
  3. trisomy-21
  4. sickle-cell anemia
  5. malaria

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 46

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Sickle-cell anemia is an evolutionary defense against what disease?
  2. sickle-cell trait
  3. malaria
  4. smallpox
  5. Nile fever

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 47

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 88      a= 6  b= 88  c= 0  d= 6      r = .57

 

  1. Single gene pairs play a crucial role in development. However, it is more common that developmental outcomes occur because of the interaction of multiple genes. This is known as _____.
  2. inheritability
  3. polygenic inheritance

Correct. Polygenetic inheritance accounts for characteristics such as height and weight as well as intelligence and personality.

  1. bimodal inheritance

Incorrect. This type of inheritance is referred to as polygenic inheritance.

  1. single dominance

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 47

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Characteristics such as height, weight, and skin color are made up of a ____.
  2. homogenetic inheritance
  3. heterogenetic inheritance
  4. dominant-recessive inheritance
  5. polygenetic inheritance

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 47

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 47      a= 6  b= 18  c= 29  d= 47      r = .16

 

  1. The chromosomes that determine if a fetus will be male or female are known as the _____.
  2. sex chromosomes

Correct. These are called XX in females and XY in males.

  1. gender chromosomes

Incorrect. The sex chromosomes determine the sex of the offspring.

  1. male chromosomes
  2. female chromosomes

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If the fetus has the sex chromosomes XX, its genotype is ____.
  2. female

Correct. Males have XY sex chromosomes.

  1. male

Incorrect. XX genotype for the sex chromosome would be female.

  1. undertermined
  2. dimorphic

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If the fetus has the sex chromosomes XY, its genotype is _____.
  2. female

Incorrect. XY genotype for the sex chromosome would be male.

  1. male

Correct. Females have XX sex chromosomes.

  1. undetermined
  2. dimorphic

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A person with an XY pairing of chromosomes is a ____, whereas a person with an XX pairing of chromosomes is a ____.
  2. male; female
  3. female; male
  4. homogenetic inheritance; polygenetic inheritance
  5. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 48

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the two sex chromosomes is significantly smaller and contains approximately 30% less genetic material?
  2. X

Incorrect. The Y chromosome is notably smaller and contains less genetic material.

  1. Y

Correct.

  1. O
  2. They are both the same

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Of the following, which best describes the Y chromosome?
  2. The Y chromosome is bigger than X chromosome.
  3. The Y chromosome contains 30% less genetic material than the X chromosome.
  4. The Y chromosome is responsible for determining the sex of the child.
  5. There are no differences between the Y chromosome and the X chromosome.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 48

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. All ova contain which sex chromosome?
  2. X

Correct. Females carry no Y chromosomes.

  1. Y

Incorrect. All ova contain only the X chromosome.

  1. O
  2. None

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.2

 

  1. All ova, a female reproductive egg, are ____.
  2. X chromosome
  3. Y chromosome
  4. XY chromosome
  5. XX chromosome

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What determines the sex of the offspring?
  2. the ovum
  3. the first sperm cell to arrive at the ovum
  4. egg re-arrangement at fertilization
  5. time of the monthly cycle when fertilization occurs

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What happens that determines the sex of the offspring?
  2. The ovum contains the X chromosome and the sperm cells carry either the X or the Y. The sperm cell that is involved in fertilization determines the sex of the offspring.

Correct. The woman’s ova are not responsible for determining a child’s sex as they carry only X chromosomes.

  1. The sperm cells all carry the X chromosome. The ovum contains both the X and Y so it is the ovum that determines the sex of the offspring.

Incorrect. The sperm cell determines the sex of the offspring because it either carries the Y or the X chromosome.

  1. The ovum and sperm cells both carry X chromosomes. The placenta carries both the X and Y and it determines the sex of the offspring.
  2. The ovum and the sperm cells both contain the X chromosome. During the course of fertilization either an X or a Y will be created, which determines the sex of the offspring.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your older brother has a friend who was angry with his wife because they have two sons and he wanted to have a daughter. He thought that she was responsible for having two boys rather than a boy and a girl. What would you tell your brother?
  2. His friend was correct, she was purposefully having sons instead of a daughter.
  3. It was not anyone’s “fault,” but the sperm determined the sex of the offspring.

Correct. The sex of the offspring is determined by which chromosome is contributed by the sperm.

  1. It was not anyone’s “fault” even though her ova determined the sex of the offspring.

Incorrect. The sperm cell determines the sex of the offspring.

  1. Sex of the offspring is determined by day of the week. They both should have known what day they were trying to conceive.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 48

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 76      a= 6  b= 76  c= 12  d= 6      r = .17

 

  1. While having a conversation with a friend who is pregnant, she says to you that since she is “carrying high” she will have a girl. Based upon the textbook, which of the following statements are you thinking?
  2. There is no scientific evidence to support her belief.

Correct. This is a common misconception that has no scientific basis.

  1. There are countless research studies that support her belief.
  2. Statistically speaking she is correct.

Incorrect. “Carrying high” is folklore.

  1. She is wrong, a pregnant woman who is “carrying high” a more likely to be carrying a boy.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Who is more affected by X-linked inherited disorders?
  2. females

Incorrect. Males are more likely to be affected by X-linked inherited disorders.

  1. males

Correct. Males are more affected because they do not have a second X chromosome that may be carrying a dominant gene to block the expression of an X-linked inherited disorder.

  1. children under one year of age.
  2. adults with mutations

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Who are generally carriers of X-linked disorders?
  2. females
  3. males
  4. individuals who have been exposed to teratogens
  5. individuals with a trisomy

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why are males more likely to have X-linked inherited disorders?
  2. If the X chromosome contains the recessive gene for the disorder, their Y chromosome has no dominant gene to prevent it.

Correct. Males also would not have a second X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block the X-linked inherited disorder.

  1. They are generally more immature at birth
  2. Androgen is a hormone that causes disorders to occur
  3. If the Y chromosome does not develop properly, the genes on this chromosome cannot prevent the disorder from occurring

Incorrect. If the X chromosome contains the recessive gene for the disorder, the Y chromosome does not have the genes to counteract the gene on the X chromosome.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A% correct 91      a= 91  b= 0  c= 0  d= 9      r = .20

 

  1. Why are males more susceptible to X linked disorders?
  2. Because males have an XX pairing of chromosomes; therefore, this increases their odds of a disorder.
  3. Because males have an XY pairing of chromosomes and the Y chromosome is more likely to host a genetic disorder.
  4. Because most genetic disorders are connected to the dominant gene and since men have an XY pairing a disorder is more likely to be expressed.
  5. Because males have one X chromosome and if a recessive gene for a disorder is present he does not have another X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block its expression.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 49

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an X-linked disorder?
  2. schizophrenia
  3. hemophilia
  4. bipolar Disease
  5. enuresis

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your friend has hemophilia and was worried that he could pass it to his offspring when he had children. What would you tell him?
  2. He is probably correct, he will pass hemophilia on
  3. Hemophilia is an X-linked disorder and it would be impossible for him to pass it to any male offspring. It would be possible for his female offspring to be carriers though.

Correct. Since his male offspring would inherit his Y chromosome, he cannot pass along an X-linked disorder to them.

  1. X-linked disorders are not inherited; he has no worries

Incorrect. X-linked disorders are inherited.

  1. Since he has hemophilia, he is probably sterile and unable to father children.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 49

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an X-linked inheritance disorder?
  2. autism
  3. Down syndrome
  4. hemophilia
  5. Turner’s syndrome

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Nature is to ____ as nurture is to ____.
  2. conditioning; learning
  3. learning; conditioning
  4. environment; genetics
  5. genetics; environment

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.2

% correct 82      a= 0  b= 6  c= 12  d= 82      r = .32

 

  1. According to your text, what have researchers concluded about the nature–nurture debate in terms of development?
  2. Genetics is more important.
  3. Environment is more important.
  4. Both are important.
  5. Genetics is more important in infancy and environment in childhood.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.4

 

  1. Which the following statement best describes the nature–nurture debate?
  2. Most characteristics develop solely from nature or nurture, but not both.
  3. Most characteristics develop from a combination of nature and nurture.
  4. Most characteristics develop from only nature.
  5. Most characteristics develop from only nurture.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What field is concerned with the question of how much genes influence development?
  2. embryology
  3. behavior genetics
  4. developmental psychology
  5. genetics

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A behavioral geneticist would use which of the following research methods to study the influence of genetics?
  2. longitudinal studies
  3. cross-sectional studies
  4. quasi-experimental studies
  5. twin and adoption studies

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are also known as _____.
  2. fraternal twins
  3. identical twins
  4. dizygotic twins
  5. conjoined twins

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.5

 

  1. What percentage of their genes do monozygotic twins have in common?
  2. 40%
  3. 60%
  4. 80%
  5. 100%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following have a 100% genetic similarity to each other?
  2. brother and sister
  3. dizygotic twins
  4. cousins
  5. monozygotic twins

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.9

 

  1. If temperament were genetically based, which of the following would have the greatest degree of similarity?
  2. monozygotic twins

Correct. Monozygotic twins have a 100% genetic similarity.

  1. dizygotic twins

Incorrect. Dizygotic twins have a 40 to 60% genetic similarity.

  1. parents and children
  2. cousins

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.6

 

  1. Dizygotic (DZ) twins are also known as:
  2. fraternal twins

Correct. Dizygotic twins result when a woman releases two ova and both are fertilized by sperm.

  1. identical twins

Incorrect. Identical twins are monozygotic twins.

  1. monozygotic twins
  2. conjoined twins

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are pushing a stroller that has two babies in it. One boy, dressed in blue, and one girl, dressed in pink. Someone stops you tells you how beautiful your baby boy and girl are. Then they ask if they are “identical twins.” You tell them they are not, but what are you thinking?
  2. It is impossible to have identical twins of different sexes.

Correct. Identical twins have exactly the same genotype, including sex.

  1. They could be identical; that was a great question.

Incorrect. Identical twins share 100% of their genes, so they would both be of the same sex.

  1. Fraternal twins are usually both girls.
  2. Fraternal twins are usually both boys.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.14

% correct  85     a= 85  b= 13  c= 1  d= 1      r = .20

 

  1. What percentage of their genes do dizygotic twins have in common?
  2. 100%
  3. 70 to 90%
  4. 40 to 60%
  5. 10 to 30%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following have a 40 to 60% similarity of genetic inheritance?
  2. identical twins
  3. fraternal twins
  4. cousins
  5. adopted siblings

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of their genes do parents and their children have in common?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of study allows researchers to study whether certain behaviors or traits are more closely related to their genetics or their environment?
  2. genetics

Incorrect. Adoption studies examine the effects of environment.

  1. temperament
  2. chromosomal
  3. adoption

            Correct. Adoption studies let researchers observe the behavior of parents and children who share no genetic material.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.10

 

  1. ____ is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population.
  2. Heritability
  3. Reaction range
  4. Genetic ratio
  5. Environmental coefficient

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the name of the statistic that ranges from 0 to 1.00 and is used to estimate the degree to which genes are responsible for differences among people from a specific population?
  2. genetic correlation
  3. heritability estimate
  4. concordance rate
  5. chromosomal correction

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The heritability estimate ranges from ____.
  2. 1 to 100
  3. 0 to 1.00
  4. 1 to 5
  5. 0 to 20

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 50

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Professor Glossner proposes that the heritability of temperament is .80. Which of the following statements does Professor Glossner propose?
  2. A large portion of temperament is determined by genetics.

Correct. Heritability is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population. The value of the heritability estimate ranges from 0 to 1.00. The higher the heritability, the more the characteristic is believed to be influenced by genetics.

  1. A large portion of temperament is determined by environment.

Incorrect. From the estimate provided, 20% is determined by the environment.

  1. 80% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome.
  2. 20% of temperament is determined by the X chromosome.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 50

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.7

 

  1. Your friend’s mother is extremely intelligent. As a result, even though he usually does OK in school (2.8 GPA) he is convinced that he is a genius. What do you think?
  2. Since heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, he is probably overestimating his intelligence.

Correct. Heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, so given his GPA, it is likely that he is exaggerating his level of intelligence.

  1. He is definitely correct; he is likely a genius.

Incorrect. Heritability estimates for intelligence are .50, so given his GPA, it is likely that he is exaggerating his level of intelligence.

  1. Actually, children of intellectually gifted adults are usually much lower in intelligence.
  2.          With a 2.8 GPA, he must be correct.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 51

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to your text, what percentage of variation of intelligence is estimated to be attributed to genetics?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 100%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 51

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.4

 

  1. What measure allows researchers to estimate not just genetic influence, but of how much the environment allows the genes to be expressed?
  2. genetic correlation
  3. heritability estimate

Correct. Heritability is an estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population.

  1. concordance rate

Incorrect. The heritability estimate includes not just genetics, but how much the environment allows the genes to be expressed.

  1. chromosomal correction

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 51

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Concordance rate is defined as _____.
  2. the degree of similarity in characteristics among peoples of a cultural group
  3. the influence of genes on development by comparing people who share different amounts of their genes
  4. the percentage that indicates the degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members
  5. the degree of difference as expressed by variations in environment

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 51

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  88     a= 6  b= 0  c= 88  d= 6      r = .29

 

  1. If you were to design a research study that examines depression in relation to concordance rate, which of the following are the best groups to use for comparison?
  2. identical twins to and fraternal twins

Correct. Monozygotic twins are identical with a 100% genetic similarity and dizygotic twins are fraternal with a 50% genetic similarity. Therefore, twin studies are important in estimating concordance rate.

  1. college students and the general public
  2. brothers and sisters

Incorrect. Brothers and sisters have a 50% genetic similarity. Therefore, a comparison with the same environment will be of little value.

  1. parent(s) and children

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 51

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.8

 

  1. When concordance rates are higher among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, this indicates which of the following?
  2. There is partially a genetic basis.
  3. There is partially an environmental basis.
  4. There is a 100% environmental cause.
  5. There is a 100% genetic cause.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 51

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which measure allows behavior geneticists to determine the percentage of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members and is used mostly to examine mental disorders?
  2. genetic correlation
  3. heritability estimate

Incorrect. Similarity of phenotypes is estimated with the concordance rate.

  1. concordance rate

Correct. Concordance rates range from 0 to 100%. The higher the concordance rate, the more similar two persons are.

  1. chromosomal correction

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 51

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following pairs would have a higher concordance rate for schizophrenia?
  2. monozygotic twins
  3. dizygotic twins
  4. adopted siblings
  5. cousins

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 51

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.5

% correct  80     a= 80  b= 18  c= 1  d= 1      r = .38

 

  1. If John has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his monozygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?
  2. John’s brother will also have schizophrenia.
  3. There is an 80% probability that John’s brother will have schizophrenia.

Incorrect. There is a 50% probability that his identical twin will also have schizophrenia.

  1. There is a 50% probability that John’s brother will have schizophrenia.

Correct. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among monozygotic, or identical, twins is 50%.

  1. John’s brother will not have schizophrenia.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 51

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If John has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his dizygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?
  2. John’s brother will also have schizophrenia.
  3. There is a 38% probability that John’s brother will have schizophrenia.

Incorrect. There is an 18% probability that his fraternal twin will also have schizophrenia.

  1. There is an 18% probability that John’s brother will have schizophrenia.

Correct. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among dizygotic, or fraternal, twins is 18%.

  1. John’s brother will not have schizophrenia.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 51

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.8, CE 2.1.15

 

  1. The ____ is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences rather than specifically denoting a particular characteristic.
  2. reaction range
  3. nature-nurture debate
  4. genetic ratio
  5. concordance rate

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 52

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Genes establish a potential of expression and environment determines where a person’s phenotype will fall. What is this boundary of genetic influence?
  2. Environmental influence
  3. Gene boundaries
  4. The inheritability estimate

Incorrect. The boundary of genetic influence is the reaction range.

  1. The reaction range

Correct. The reaction range is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 52

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The concept of reaction range proposes ____ establish(es) boundaries, whereas ____ determines where a person falls within that range.
  2. genetics; environment
  3. environment; genetics
  4. phenotype; genotype
  5. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 52

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.3

% correct 53      a= 53  b= 12  c= 0  d= 29      r = .48

 

  1. Elizabeth was just born. Her father is 6´ 8˝ tall and her mother is 5´ 11˝ tall. It is quite likely that Elizabeth will be tall as well. However, the environment will play a role in her eventual height as well. The genetic potential for Elizabeth’s height is known as the ____.
  2. environmental range
  3. reaction range

Correct. The reaction range is when genes establish boundaries for environmental influences.

  1. genetic range

Incorrect. Elizabeth’s genetic potential for height is her reaction range.

  1. Interaction range

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 52

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.8

% correct  50     a= 9  b= 50  c= 32  d= 8      r = .40

  1. Which of the following individuals illustrates a person who is closer to the peak of their reaction range?
  2. Samir was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment, and is a highly motivated learner.

Correct. Reaction range proposes that genetics establishes limits, whereas one’s environment places them on that scale. This means that Samir was born with a potential of an IQ of 145 and he is living within an environment that allows him to reach his fullest potential.

  1. Joseppi, who was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment and is an unmotivated learner.

Incorrect. Joseppi has the genetic potential; however, his environment is limiting.

  1. Susan was born with the potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment and is an unmotivated learner.
  2. Iman, who was born with the potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment and is an unmotivated learner who makes little progress.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 52

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.9

 

  1. In the past few decades, the average height of adults in Western countries has not changed much. This indicates that adult height for these countries has reached the upper boundary of their ____.
  2. socio-economic range
  3. health status
  4. reaction range

Correct. Reaction range proposes that genetics establishes limits, whereas one’s environment places them on that scale.

  1. range of genetic dominance

Incorrect. Adult heigh in Western countries has reached the upper boundary of their reaction range.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 52

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.8

 

  1. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype ® environment effects. Which subtype occurs in biological families because parents provide both genes and environment for their children?
  2. Passive genotype ® environment effects

Correct. It’s difficult to separate genetic influences from environmental influences because parents provide both.

  1. Evocative genotype ® environment effects

Incorrect. The genotype ® environment effect in this case would be passive genotype ® environment effect.

  1. Active genotype ® environment effects
  2. Inactive genotype ® environment effects

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 52

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.7

 

  1. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype ® environment effects. Which subtype occurs when a person’s inherited characteristics bring about responses from others in their environment?
  2. Passive genotype ® environment effects

Incorrect. The genotype ® environment effect in this case would be evocative genotype ® environment effect.

  1. Evocative genotype ® environment effects

Correct. An example would be a parent who buys more books for a child who seems to enjoy reading and thereby encourages the expression of her inherited interest in reading.

  1. Active genotype ® environment effects
  2. Inactive genotype ® environment effects

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 53

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.9

 

  1. Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney proposed the theory of genotype ® environment effects. Which subtype occurs when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics?
  2. Passive genotype ® environment effects
  3. Evocative genotype ® environment effects
  4. Active genotype ® environment effects

Correct. An example would be an outgoing young adult seeking a career where she can interact with other people all day.

  1. Inactive genotype ® environment effects

Incorrect. The genotype ® environment effect in this case would be active genotype ® environment effect.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 53

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  81     a= 7  b= 10  c= 81  d= 2      r = .37

  1. What are the only cells in the human body that do not contain 46 chromosomes?
  2. lens cells
  3. neurons
  4. hair cells
  5. gametes

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.10

% correct  81     a= 4  b= 8  c= 7  d= 81      r = .31

 

  1. Human sex cells, sperm and ova, each contain how many chromosomes?
  2. 23
  3. 46
  4. 23 pairs
  5. 46 pairs

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Sperm and ova are produced by which of the following, respectively?
  2. penis and uterus
  3. scrotum and vulva
  4. testes and ovaries
  5. kidneys and pancreas

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Through what process are gametes formed?
  2. mitosis
  3. meiosis
  4. sex differentiation
  5. dimorphic cell division

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.6

 

  1. What is the process of regular cell division called?
  2. mitosis
  3. meiosis
  4. sex differentiation
  5. dimorphic cell division

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.3

 

  1. ____ is known as the normal process of cell reproduction in which chromosomes duplicate themselves and the cells divide to become two cells.
  2. Meiosis
  3. Mitosis
  4. Polar bodies
  5. Crossing over

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the process of meiosis, how many chromosomes does the cell originally have and how many chromosomes are present when the gametes are formed?
  2. 92, 46
  3. 69, 46
  4. 46, 23
  5. 23, 23

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 55

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At the conclusion of meiosis how many sperm cells have been formed?
  2. 2
  3. 4
  4. 8
  5. 16

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At the conclusion of meiosis how may ova have been formed?
  2. 1 with 3 polar bodies
  3. 2 with 2 polar bodies
  4. 3 with 1 polar body
  5. 4 with no polar bodies

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, why does the ovum have an excessive amount of cytoplasm?
  2. so that there is ample room for the sperms nucleus once it arrives
  3. to help protect against invading cells

Incorrect. Cytoplasm will be the main source of nutrition for the ovum.

  1. so that the ovum can be easily found by the sperm cells
  2. it will be the ovum’s main source of nutrition

            Correct. Cytoplasm is the ovum’s source of nutrients for the first two weeks after fertilization.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the process that allows mixing the combinations of genes in a single chromosome resulting in a virtually infinite possible combination of genes?
  2. sampling from a large genetic pool
  3. gamete swapping
  4. crossing over
  5. mitosis

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The typical male ejaculation expels how many sperm?
  2. 100 to 300
  3. 100 to 300 thousand
  4. 100 to 300 million
  5. 100 to 300 billion

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Males begin producing sperm ____, whereas females produce ova ____.
  2. at puberty; at puberty
  3. while in the womb; at puberty
  4. at puberty; while in the womb
  5. while in the womb; while in the womb

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.13

 

  1. How many ova are present in a female adolescent’s ovaries in puberty?
  2. 20,000
  3. 40,000
  4. 60,000
  5. 80,000

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Most women will run out of fertile ova by the time they reach their ____.
  2. 30s
  3. 40s
  4. 50s
  5. 60s

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.1

 

  1. Lamar and Chandra recently got married and have been discussing how long they could wait to have children. Based upon the text, at what age, statistically speaking, will Chandra run out of fertile ova?
  2. 30s

Incorrect. Most women run out of ova some time in their 40s.

  1. 40s

Correct. By contrast, men produce sperm throughout their adult lives although the quality and quantity may decline with age.

  1. 50s
  2. 60s

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 56

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.9

 

  1. How many days into the woman’s menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
  2. 2
  3. 14
  4. 28
  5. 40

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 57

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.1.11

 

  1. Fertilization is most likely to occur when intercourse occurs ____.
  2. within 2 days before and on the day of ovulation

Correct. It can take sperm from a few hours to a whole day to travel up the fallopian tubes.

  1. 2 days after ovulation

Incorrect. Fertilization is likely to occur within two days before and on the day of ovulation.

  1. 5 days after ovulation
  2. 1 week after ovulation

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 57

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.1.7

 

  1. According to the text, how long can sperm live in the woman’s body after ejaculation?
  2. 12 hours
  3. 1 day
  4. 5 days
  5. 1 week

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 57

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.12

 

  1. When the ovum and sperm cells unite and fertilization has occurred, what has just been formed?
  2. the fetus
  3. the embryo
  4. the blastocyst

Incorrect. When the ovum and sperm cells unite, the zygote has been formed.

  1. the zygote

Correct. The zygote’s 46 paired chromosomes constitute the new organism’s unique genotype.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 57

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.1.6

 

  1. When the ovum is fertilized by the sperm this is called ____.
  2. fertility
  3. conception
  4. cervix
  5. gametes

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 57

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following has increased due to advancements in fertility treatments?
  2. monozygotic twins
  3. dizygotic twins
  4. conjoined twins
  5. Siamese twins

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 57

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.1.4

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Give an example that explains the difference between phenotype and genotypes.

Answer: Two identical twins will have the same genotype because their genetic make up is exactly the same, but if they were adopted into homes with parents who had different views about health, they may have different phenotypes. One may be overweight because eating junk food is the norm, whereas the other twin may have a trim athletic build because fitness was always a part of the family’s routine and involvement in sports was encouraged.

Page 45-46

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. You have likely heard people say “the father is the one who determines the sex of the child.” Explain whether or not this is true.

Answer: Females’ eggs have two X chromosomes and males’ sperm contains either an x or a y. When a zygote is formed, it always gets an x from the female, but it can get either an x or a y from the male. If it gets a y, the result is a male, if it gets an x, it becomes a female.

Page: 48

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Although often viewed as the stronger sex, explain why males are actually more vulnerable.

Answer: Because the sex chromosome of females is composed of two Xs, if one of these Xs contains a recessive gene for a disorder or disease, it will not manifest itself due to the other X overriding it and not allowing it to be expressed. Since the sex chromosome make up of the male is XY, if there is a recessive gene for a disorder on his X chromosome it will express itself because there is not another X chromosome that may contain a dominant gene to block its expression.

Page: 49

Learning Objective: 2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. The concordance rate for schizophrenia among identical twins is .40; the concordance rate for Schizophrenia is only .10 if a person’s parent has schizophrenia. Explain what these number mean. Include a discussion of nature and nurture in your response.

Answer: This means that if one MZ twin has schizophrenia, there is a 40% chance that the other twin will also develop this disorder, whereas there is only a 10% chance of developing it if your mother or father has it. The higher rate for identical twins means that there is a genetic component to schizophrenia. However, there is still a 60% of not getting schizophrenia if your MZ has it, so environment plays a greater role than genes.

Page: 51

Learning Objective: 2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. What is a reaction range? Provide an example to illustrate.

Answer: A reaction range refers to the range of possibilities that a person is capable of as set forth by their genetic make up. It is similar to one’s genetic potential. If a person’s parents are both short in stature with a petite frame, it is genetically possible that the child have a body type suitable to be a jockey. However, the environment plays an important role; if the person eats a high fat diet and does not maintain her health, she may not have the trim, strong build required for this work.

Page: 52

Learning Objective: 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Explain the phenomenon of incomplete dominance in sickle cell inheritance.

Answer: Incomplete dominance occurs when there is a dominant-recessive pair of genes and the phenotype is affected mostly by the dominant gene, but the recessive gene also becomes expressed partially. In sickle cell anemia, a person inherits two recessive genes for the sickle-cell trait and their blood cells are disk-shaped rather than round, causing clogging and a number of problems, such as pain. If the person only inherits one recessive gene for the sickle cell trait, they will not have sickle cell anemia, but some of their blood cells will be misshaped. This condition causes resistance to malaria, an often fatal disease that is common in Africa. It would be adaptive to carry this recessive trait in Africa, so this explains the higher prevalence of sickle-cell diseases among people of African heritage.

Page: 46-47

Learning Objective: 2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Explain how DZ and MZ twins are formed. Include a discussion of ethnic variations and factors that increase the chances of having twins.

Answer: DZ twins result when the female releases two eggs instead of one and each is fertilized with a sperm. MZ twins result when a zygote is formed and it divides. DZ twins are more common among Africans and least common among Asians. MZ twins are not more common in some ethnic groups. The chances of having DZ twins increase if they run in the family, if the person is in good health and if the mother is older. None of these variables predicts MZ twins.

Page: 57-58

Learning Objective: 2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 2.1.1.         The average human cell has ____ chromosomes.

  1. 23
  2. 46
  3. 78
  4. 96

Answer: b

Page: 45

 

Pre 2.1.2.         Nurture is to ____; whereas, nature is to ____.

  1. environment; genetics
  2. genetics; environment
  3. learning; conditioning
  4. conditioning; learning

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

Pre 2.1.3.         The process of regular cell division is called ______.

  1. mitosis
  2. meiosis
  3. metamorphosis
  4. monophonic

Answer: a

Page: 55

 

Pre 2.1.4.         Due to advancements in fertility treatments, ____ have increased in recent times.

  1. monozygotic twins
  2. dizygotic twins
  3. conjoined twins
  4. Siamese twins

Answer: b

Page: 57

 

Pre 2.1.5.         Complex molecules that make up chromosomes are known as _____.

  1. DNA
  2. RNA
  3. MRI
  4. genes

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

Pre 2.1.6.         If temperament was genetically based, which of the following would have the greatest degree of similarity?

  1. identical twins
  2. fraternal twins
  3. cousins
  4. step- brothers and sisters

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

Pre 2.1.7.         If one proposes the heritability of IQ is .80, which of the following statements is correct?

  1. A large portion of IQ is determined by genetics.
  2. A large portion of IQ is determined by environment.
  3. 80% of IQ is determined by the X chromosome.
  4. 20% of IQ is determined by the X chromosome.

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

Pre 2.1.8.         Which of the following subjects would be best for a research study that examines the concordance rate of intelligence?

  1. identical twins to fraternal twins
  2. college students to the general public
  3. brothers to sisters
  4. parent(s) to children

Answer: a

Page: 51

 

Pre 2.1.9.         Keith and Carry have been discussing how long they could wait to have children. At what age, statistically speaking, will Carry run out of fertile ova?

  1. 30s
  2. 40s
  3. 50s
  4. 60s

Answer: b

Page: 56

 

Pre 2.1.10.       Jack’s father was an All-American in the 50M backstroke and qualified for the Olympic Team. Jack is a freshman in high school and does not think that he will need to train to become a member of the school’s Swim team. Jack keeps telling you that his father was a great swimmer, so he will also be a great swimmer. What do you think?

  1. He is correct; he will be a great swimmer no matter what he does.
  2. It is unlikely that Jack even has the genotype for swimming.
  3. Jack might have the genotype for swimming, but he will need to train to become a great swimmer.
  4. Jack has also inherited the genes for any athletic sport.

Answer: c

Page: 45

 

Post-Test

 

Post 2.1.1.        The average human cell (with exception to ova and sperm cells) contains how many chromosomes?

  1. 23
  2. 46
  3. 52
  4. 78

Answer: b

Page: 45

 

Post 2.1.2.        ____ are the basic building block of chromosomes.

  1. Genes
  2. Fatty cells
  3. Myelin
  4. Nucleotides

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

Post 2.1.3.        ____ is a person’s complete genetic makeup.

  1. Genotype
  2. Phenotype
  3. Reaction range
  4. Necelotide

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

Post 2.1.4.        According to the text, what percent of variation of intelligence is estimated to be the result of genetics?

  1. 10%
  2. 30%
  3. 50%
  4. 80%

Answer: c

Page: 51

 

Post 2.1.5.        Fraternal twins are also known as ______.

  1. dizygotic twins
  2. monozygotic twins
  3. conjoined twins
  4. identical twins

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

Post 2.1.6.        ____ is formed with the ovum and sperm unite and fertilization takes place.

  1. The fetus
  2. The embryo
  3. The blastocyst
  4. The zygote

Answer: d

Page: 57

 

Post 2.1.7.        Scarr and McCartney proposed the theory of genotype ® environment effects. From their theory, which subtype occurs when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics?

  1. Lateral genotype ® environment effects
  2. Evocative genotype ® environment effects
  3. Active genotype ® environment effects
  4. Inactive genotype ® environment effects

Answer: c

Page: 52

 

Post 2.1.8.        If an individual has schizophrenia, what is the probability that his dizygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?

  1. about 5%
  2. about 18%
  3. about 62%
  4. about 95%

Answer: b

Page: 51

 

Post 2.1.9.        Which of the following individuals illustrates a person who is closer to the lower portion of their reaction range?

  1. Martin, who was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment, and is a highly motivated learner.
  2. Nathan, who was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment, and is an unmotivated learner.
  3. Abby, who was born with a potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment, and is a motivated learner.
  4. Roman, who was born with the potential IQ of 80 (below average IQ), was raised in an educationally enriching environment, and is an unmotivated learner who makes little progress,.

Answer: b

Page: 52

 

Post 2.1.10.      Kendra is a professional singer who is the daughter of musical artists. Throughout her childhood, her parents encouraged and trained her to the best of their abilities. During school she enrolled in a specialized academy that continued to nurture her talent. Which of the following best describes Kendra’s genotype?

  1. Kendra’s musical genes
  2. Kendra’s musical talent
  3. Kendra’s nurturing parents
  4. Kendra’s musical genes and musical talent

Answer: a

Page: 45

Chapter Exam

 

CE 2.1.1.         By the time most women reach their ____ they will run out of fertile ova.

  1. 30s
  2. 40s
  3. 50s
  4. 60s

Answer: b

Page: 56

 

CE 2.1.2.         Sperm and ova, human sex cells, each contain how many chromosomes?

  1. 23
  2. 46
  3. 23 pairs
  4. 46 pairs

Answer: c

Page: 45

 

CE 2.1.3.         Reaction range proposes ____ establish(es) boundaries, and ____ determines where a person falls within that range.

  1. genetics; environment
  2. environment; genetics
  3. phenotype; genotype
  4. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance

Answer: a

Page: 52

 

CE 2.1.4.         An individual’s complete genetic makeup is referred to as his or her ______

  1. genotype
  2. phenotype
  3. archetype
  4. prototype

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

CE 2.1.5.         Which of the following factors when paired with an individual’s genotype creates an expression on their phenotype?

  1. environment
  2. genes
  3. DNA
  4. parents

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

CE 2.1.6.         Jackson was born with 5 fingers per hand (including the thumb). If having more than five fingers occurs because of a dominant gene, Jackson’s genetic inheritance must be ______.

  1. recessive-recessive
  2. dominant-dominant
  3. recessive-dominant
  4. recessive-recessive-dominant

Answer: a

Page: 46

 

CE 2.1.7.         ____ is an example of an incomplete dominant inheritance.

  1. Down syndrome
  2. HIV
  3. Sickle-cell anemia
  4. Fragile X

Answer: c

Page: 46

 

CE 2.1.8.         Grant is 7 years old and has ambitions of becoming a professional basketball player. His father is 5′ 7″ tall and his mother is 5′ 3″ tall.  It is quite likely that Grant will be 5′ 7″ tall or a little taller, but not of NBA height. Trying to explain genetics to a 7-year-old is hard; however, his genetic potential is known as ______.

  1. reaction range
  2. genetic loading
  3. interaction range
  4. chromosomal load

Answer: a

Page: 52

 

CE 2.1.9.         Scarr and McCartney proposed the theory of genotype ® environment effects. Which subtype occurs when a person’s inherited characteristics bring about responses from others in their environment?

  1. Evocative genotype ® environment effects
  2. Submissive genotype ® environment effects
  3. Proactive ® environment effects
  4. Active genotype ® environment effects

Answer: a

Page: 53

 

CE 2.1.10.       According to the text, what are the only cells in the human body that do not contain 46 chromosomes?

  1. Eardrum cells
  2. Hair cells
  3. Gametes
  4. Capillaries

Answer: c

Page: 55

 

CE 2.1.11.       Assume you have very close friends who are trying to get pregnant. To improve their odds you advise them that they should have intercourse when she is closer to ovulation and tell them that women generally ovulate ____ days into their menstrual cycles.

  1. 3
  2. 7
  3. 14
  4. 21

Answer: c

Page: 57

 

CE 2.1.12.       After ejaculation, sperm can live for ___ days inside the human body.

  1. 2
  2. 5
  3. 7
  4. 9

Answer: b

Page: 57

 

CE 2.1.13.       Females produce ova ____; whereas, males produce sperm ____.

  1. while in the womb; at puberty
  2. at puberty; while in the womb
  3. at puberty; at puberty
  4. while in the womb; while in the womb

Answer: a

Page: 56

 

CE 2.1.14.       You are at the airport with your twin babies. Your son is dressed in blue and your daughter is dressed in pink. Someone stops you and tells you how beautiful they are and asks if they are “identical twins.” You tell them no, but what are you thinking in your head?

  1. It’s impossible to have identical twins of different sexes.
  2. That’s a great question, they could be identical twins.
  3. Usually fraternal twins are boys.
  4. Usually fraternal twins are girls.

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

CE 2.1.15.       If Frank has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his identical twin brother will also have schizophrenia?

  1. Highly likely
  2. Very likely
  3. 50% chance
  4. Highly unlikely

Answer: c

Page: 51

Quick Review

 

QR 2.1.1.         How many chromosomes from each pair of chromosomes are generally inherited from the mother?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four

Answer: a

Page: 46

 

QR 2.1.2.         All ova (female eggs) contain which chromosome?

  1. X
  2. Y
  3. O
  4. A

Answer: a

Page: 48

 

QR 2.1.3.         A person’s ___ is/are their characteristics; whereas, a person’s ____ is/are their genetic makeup.

  1. phenotype; genotype
  2. genotype; phenotype
  3. nucleotides; DNA
  4. DNA; nucleotides

Answer: a

Page: 45

 

QR 2.1.4.         In terms of the nature-nurture debate, most researchers have concluded _____.

  1. genetics is more important
  2. environment is more important
  3. both are important
  4. genetics is more important in infancy and environment in childhood

Answer: c

Page: 50

 

QR 2.1.5.         If schizophrenia had a strong genetic basis, which of the following pairs would have the highest concordance rate?

  1. monozygotic twins
  2. dizygotic twins
  3. adopted siblings
  4. cousins

Answer: a

Page: 51

 

QR 2.1.6.         Gametes are formed through what process?

  1. Mitosis
  2. Meiosis
  3. Osmosis
  4. Orthosis

Answer: b

Page: 55

 

QR 2.1.7.         To improve the odds of fertilization occurring, intercourse should occur ______.

  1. within two days before and on the day of ovulation
  2. two days after ovulation
  3. five days after ovulation
  4. one week after ovulation

Answer: a

Page: 57

 

QR 2.1.8.         Over the past 30 years, the average height of adults in many developed countries has not changed much. Having reached a pinnacle, it is clear that adult height in these countries has reached the upper boundary of ______.

  1. social-economic range
  2. health status
  3. reaction range
  4. range of variation.

Answer: c

Page: 52

 

QR 2.1.9.         Which of the following have a 100% similarity of genetic inheritance?

  1.         identical twins
  2. fraternal twins
  3. cousins
  4. adopted siblings

Answer: a

Page: 50

 

QR 2.1.10.       Studying which of the following would best allow researchers to examine the influence of genetics and environment on specific behaviors or traits?

  1. Gender
  2. Temperament
  3. Chromosomal
  4. Adoption

Answer: d

Page: 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What are your thoughts on gender selective abortion in other countries? Did your viewing of this clip impact your thoughts?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. Describe your reaction to IVH gender selection that occurs in some of the countries discussed in this clip.

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. What are some of the reasons provided by individuals in this clip why boys are preferred over girls in the countries of Taiwan, India, and South Korea?

Answer: Some of the reasons include the following: In some cultures, once a female is married and out of the house she is no longer considered part of the family to contribute or support the family. In these cultures it is appropriate for the family of the female to provide a bride’s dowry to the husband’s family. The male children will be able to carry on the family name.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following countries was not mentioned in the video as having a strong preference for male children over female children?
  2. Taiwan
  3. Spain
  4. India
  5. South Korea

Answer: B

 

  1. Which of the following was listed as a reason why female children are not as preferred in these countries?
  2. Once a female is married, they no longer contribute financially.
  3. Females are less likely to carry heavy loads.
  4. Males are better equipped to deal with the weather conditions.
  5. Males understand the geography of the land much better than females.

Answer: A

 

  1. Which of the following was not listed as a reason that increases the pressure to have a son over a daughter?
  2. A son can carry on the family name.
  3. A daughter would require a bride’s dowry.
  4. A son is better able to parent the children.
  5. A daughter would no longer contribute financially once she has married.

Answer: C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2 Prenatal Development and Prenatal Care

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. What are the first 2 weeks after fertilization referred to as?
  2. the germinal period
  3. the embryonic period
  4. the fetal period
  5. the fertilization period

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 59

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The first 2 weeks after fertilization is known as ____.
  2. conception
  3. the germinal period
  4. the embryonic period
  5. the fetal period

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 59

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.1

% correct 94      a= 0  b= 94  c= 6  d= 0      r = .18

 

  1. By the end of the first week following conception the fertilized egg now has approximately 100 cells and is known as the _____.
  2. neonate
  3. fetus
  4. embryo
  5. blastocyst

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 59

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.1

% correct 46      a= 15  b= 23  c= 15  d= 46      r = .47

 

  1. The structure that will form the structures that will provide protection and nourishment for the newly formed organism is the ____.
  2. umbilical cord
  3. placenta
  4. embryonic disk
  5. trophoblast

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3

Page: 59

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.2

 

  1. The inner layer of blastocyst that will become the embryo is the ____.
  2. umbilical cord
  3. placenta

Incorrect. The inner layer of the blastocyst is the embryonic disk.

  1. embryonic disk

Correct. This is part of the blastocyst that is formed about one week after conception.

  1. trophoblast

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 59

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.7

 

  1. Which of the following is a correct sequence of development during the germinal period?
  2. placenta, implantation, blastocyst

Incorrect. During the germinal period, the zygote divides and forms blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins forming the amnion, placenta, and umbilical cord.

  1. blastocyst, implantation, placenta

Correct. During the germinal period, the zygote divides and forms blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins forming the amnion, placenta, and umbilical cord.

  1. placenta, blastocyst, implantation
  2. implantation, placenta, blastocyst

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 59

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.2

 

  1. The blastocyst will implant itself into the uterine wall during the ____ after conception?
  2. first day
  3. second day
  4. first week
  5. second week

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When the blastocyst becomes firmly embedded into the lining of the uterus, what has happened?
  2. implantation

Correct. This occurs during the second week after conception.

  1. fertilization

Incorrect. When the blastocyst becomes embedded into the uterus, implantation has occurred.

  1. conception
  2. pregnancy

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When does implantation of the blastocyst occur?
  2. at conception
  3. during the second week after conception
  4. during the second month after conception
  5. during the second trimester after conception

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.3

 

  1. According to the text, what structure provides a protective environment in which the fetus’s temperature is well regulated and protects the fetus from friction caused by the mother’s movements?
  2. The placenta

Incorrect. The amnion protects the fetus.

  1. The umbilical cord
  2. The amnion

Correct. The amnion develops from the trophoblast during the second week during the second week after conception.

  1. The germinal structure

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.5

% correct 64      a= 36  b= 0  c= 64  d= 0      r = .21

 

  1. The ____ is/are the organ(s) that allow(s) nutrients to pass from the mother to the child and allow(s) waste to pass from the child to the mother during the course of pregnancy.
  2. uterus
  3. placenta
  4. fallopian tubes
  5. ovaries

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

  1. What structure provides nutrients from the mother to the fetus, takes waste products away from the fetus, and protects the fetus from bacteria and waste in the mother’s blood?
  2. the placenta
  3. the umbilical cord
  4. the amnion
  5. the germinal structure

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 35      a= 35  b= 41  c= 12  d= 0      r = .42

 

  1. What percentage of blastocysts do not implant successfully?
  2. 15%
  3. 25%
  4. 50%
  5. 75%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The embryonic period lasts from the ____ to the ____.
  2. 1st week; 4th week
  3. 3rd week; 8th week
  4. 6th week; 16th week
  5. 12th week; 32nd week

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 78      a= 17  b= 78  c= 2  d=  3     r = .40

 

  1. The embryonic period is ____ weeks long.
  2. 4
  3. 6
  4. 8
  5. 10

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During the embryonic period, the ectoderm is formed which will become the ____.
  2. skin, hair, nails, sensory organs and nervous system

Correct. The ectoderm is formed within the third week after conception.

  1. muscles, bones, reproductive system and circulatory system

Incorrect. During the embryonic period, the ectoderm will become the skin, hair, nails, sensory organs and nervous system.

  1. digestive and respiratory systems
  2. hormonal and endocrine systems

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.2, Pre 2.2.8, CE 2.2.4

 

  1. The outer layer of the embryonic disk will become ____.
  2. the brain and spinal cord
  3. skin, hair, nails, and the nervous system
  4. muscle, bones, and the circulatory system
  5. the digestive and respiratory systems

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During the embryonic period, the mesoderm is formed, which will become the ____.
  2. skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system
  3. muscles, bones, reproductive system, and circulatory system

Correct. The mesoderm is formed within the third week after conception.

  1. digestive and respiratory systems

Incorrect. During the embryonic period, the mesoderm is formed, which will become the muscles, bones, reproductive system and circulatory system.

  1. hormonal and endocrine systems

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During the embryonic period, the endoderm is formed, which will become the ____.
  2. skin, hair, nails, sensory organs and nervous system

Incorrect. During the embryonic period, endoderm is formed, which will become the digestive and respiratory systems are formed.

  1. muscles, bones, reproductive system and circulatory system
  2. digestive and respiratory systems

Correct. The endoderm is formed within the third week after conception.

  1. hormonal and endocrine systems

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What embryonic structure will become the brain and spinal cord?
  2. brain stem
  3. neuralblast

Incorrect. The neural tube will become the brain and spinal cord.

  1. neural tube

Correct. The neural tube is formed by the end of the third week after conception.

  1. cerebral cortex

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.2

% correct 65      a= 12  b= 6  c= 65  d= 18      r = .50

  1. By the end of the third week the neural tube begins to form. This structure will eventually become ____.
  2. the skull and torso
  3. legs and arms
  4. the spinal cord and brain
  5. lungs and the digestive system

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 98      a= 0  b= 0  c= 98  d= 2      r = .22

 

 

  1. At what rate are neurons produced during the embryonic period?
  2. 25 per minute
  3. 250 per minute
  4. 250,000 per minute
  5. 2 billion per minute

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By the end of the fourth week the embryo’s head is apparent and the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears begin to form. How long is the embryo at this point?
  2. ¼ inch
  3. 4 inches
  4. 8 inches
  5. 12 inches

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 60

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Nearly all of the major organs are formed during what period?
  2. genetic
  3. zygotic
  4. fetal

Incorrect. The major organs are formed during the embryonic period.

  1. embryonic

Correct. This period lasts from the third to eighth week after conception.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct  63     a= 0  b= 7  c= 29  d= 63      r = .33

 

  1. At the end of the eighth week the embryo is only one inch long and weighs just one gram. According to the text, what can the embryo now do?
  2. Step in place
  3. Suck its thumb

Incorrect: The embryo can respond to touch during this time.

  1. Vocalize
  2. Respond to touch

Correct. The embryo’s sense of touch is especially sensitive around its mouth at this point.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By the end of the eighth week the embryo ____.
  2. is unrecognizable as human
  3.          responds to touch and can move

Correct. The embryo’s sense of touch is especially sensitive around its mouth at this point.

  1. has yet to develop major organs
  2.          has fully developed sex organs

Incorrect. By the end of the eighth week, the embryo responds to touch and all of the main organs are formed except the sex organs.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 60

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The fetal period ends at birth. When does it begin?
  2. 4 weeks after conception

Incorrect. The fetal period begins nine weeks after conception.

  1. 9 weeks after conception

Correct. The fetal period follows the embryonic period.

  1. 12 weeks after conception
  2. 15 weeks after conception

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.7

 

  1. The ____ period lasts from the ninth week after conception until birth.
  2. germinal
  3. embryonic
  4. fetal
  5. zygote

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the average weight of babies at birth in developed countries?
  2. 5 pounds

Incorrect. In developed countries the average size of babies is 7.5 pounds.

  1. 7.5 pounds

Correct. The average length of babies at birth in developed countries is 20 inches.

  1. 10 pounds
  2. 12.5 pounds

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.5

 

  1. Fernando and Rebecca are anxious to know the sex of their baby. It would not be until the end of the ____ month of pregnancy that they can find out because the genitalia will not have fully formed before then.
  2. 2nd
  3. 3rd

Correct. Fingernails, toenails, and taste buds begin to develop at the same time.

  1. 4th

Incorrect. By the end of the third month, genitalia are formed.

  1. 5th

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, at what month can the fetus’s heartbeat be heard with a stethoscope?
  2. during the third week
  3. during the third month
  4. during the fifth month
  5. during the seventh month

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your friend just had her first pregnancy check-up and is just starting her second month of pregnancy. She is very upset that she was not given the chance to hear her fetus’s heartbeat. Remembering what you learned in developmental class, what should you tell her?
  2. That probably means that the fetus died.

Incorrect. It is not likely that the heartbeat can be heard until the third month.

  1. She will not be able to hear the heartbeat with a stethoscope until the third month.

Correct. It is not until the third month of pregnancy that a fetal heartbeat can typically be heard using a stethoscope.

  1. The fetus probably has a heart problem.
  2. The doctor did not want her to hear the fetal heartbeat.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. At three months the average fetus _____.
  2. weighs three ounces and is three inches long
  3. weighs three pounds and is three inches long
  4. has developed three brain structures
  5. has developed three sensory systems

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By the end of the third month the typical fetus can be described as “three times three” because ____.
  2. it has been three months, the fetus weighs three ounces, and is three inches long
  3. it weighs three pounds, is three inches long, and has three senses
  4. three major systems have developed: brain, heart and, lungs
  5. all three facial features are clearly distinguishable

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Prenatal development is divided into segments. What are these segments called?
  2. fetalesters
  3. prenatal sections
  4. semesters

Incorrect. These segments are referred to as trimesters.

  1. trimesters

Correct. Prenatal development is divided into 3-month trimesters.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By the end of what month do pregnant women typically feel the movements of the fetus?
  2. second
  3. fourth

Correct. The fetus’s movements diversify over the course of the second trimester.

  1. sixth

Incorrect: Pregnant women typically feel the movement of the fetus during the fourth month.

  1. eight

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your sister-in-law just finished her fourth month of pregnancy. She swears that she can feel the movements of her fetus. Is this likely? After what month do women generally feel the fetus move?
  2. Yes, she has probably been feeling the fetus move since the second month.
  3. Yes, pregnant women can usually begin feeling the fetus’s movements by the fourth month of pregnancy.

Correct. The fetus’s movements begin to diversify at this time, and include kicking, hiccupping, and thumb sucking.

  1. No, the fetus is not developed enough to move very much until the end of the sixth month of pregnancy.

Incorrect. Pregnant women typically feel the movement of the fetus during the fourth month.

  1. No, it is very difficult for a pregnant woman to feel the fetus’s movement until the fetus is viable, during the 8th month of pregnancy.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.5

 

  1. Susan is talking to her friend who is at the end of her second trimester. Lucila wants to be reassured that she is not crazy, but thinks her baby actually kicks, turns, and hiccups. Lucila even thinks that the baby becomes more active if she talks to it. If you were Susan how do you respond to Lucila’s observations?
  2. “Lucila those activities are normal for the end of the second trimester, and fetuses can hear even in the womb.”

Correct. These are all normal actions and responses for a pregnant woman to feel

  1. “Lucila, I think you are going crazy. A fetus really doesn’t kick that early in the pregnancy and it’s crazy to think it can hear.”
  2. “Lucila all those things do happen, but not really until the end of the third trimester.”

Incorrect. During the second trimester, the mother can feel movement from the fetus. The fetus kicks, turns, hiccups, sucks its thumb, breathes amniotic fluid, and responds to sounds, especially music and familiar voices.

  1. “Lucila, I think you need to go see your doctor because something is absolutely wrong.”

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. It has been discovered that the fetus responds to sound at the end of the sixth month. What sound does the fetus prefer at this time?
  2. Mozart’s music

Incorrect. At the sixth month, the fetus is likely to respond to its mother’s voice.

  1. rhythmic tapping
  2. its mother’s voice

Correct. We know this is true because an increase in fetal heart rate is observed when a fetus hears its mother’s voice.

  1. a cat’s meow

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.15

 

  1. Your roommate’s sister-in-law is pregnant and is trying to do all that she can to protect her fetus and to make sure that her fetus develops well. She does not like to have any loud music on and even does not talk very loudly for fear that her fetus will be harmed. What would you tell her?
  2. That her fetus will not be adversely affected and that studies have discovered that fetus’s actually prefer their mothers’ voices. So, she should talk as much as she likes.

Correct. A fetus’s heart rate has been shown to increase when it hears its mother’s voice.

  1. That she is correct, loud music is readily transmitted through the amniotic fluid and will cause damage to the fetus’s cochlea.
  2. That she should play Mozart really loudly. Fetuses who listen to Mozart are more intelligent than those who do not listen to Mozart.
  3. Research has shown that fetuses’ love country music.

Incorrect. Fetuses have been shown to respond best to the sound of its mother’s voice.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 61

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the name of the white slimy substance that covers the fetus’s skin?
  2. lanugo
  3. vernix
  4. keratin
  5. ossicles

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.3

 

  1. A fellow worker was present at his son’s birth. He was really upset because his son was born with a white substance all over his skin and no one told him what the problem was. You should tell him ____.
  2. that it was probably cancer
  3. that his baby probably had something wrong with it. You have never heard of such a thing

Incorrect. The white substance is called vernix and is normal.

  1. that the white substance was vernix and many babies have that at birth. It protects their skin in utero

Correct.

  1. that that was a greasy like substance that is used to help the baby emerge from the birth canal. They will wash it off later

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.14

% correct  82     a= 0  b= 0  c= 82  d= 12      r = .20

 

  1. The purpose of lanugo is to ____.
  2. work as a lubricant during the birthing process
  3. lubricate the lungs
  4. guide neuro-migration during brain development
  5. help the vernix stick to the fetus’s skin, which protects against chapping

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the name of the downy hair that covers the fetus?
  2. lanugo
  3. vernix
  4. keratin
  5. ossicles

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the term used to describe the fetus’s likelihood of surviving outside of the uterus?
  2. survival index
  3. Apgar Score
  4. Braxton Hicks
  5. viability

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 53      a= 24  b= 0  c= 18  d= 53      r = .35

 

  1. ____ is the term for an infant’s ability to survive outside the womb if born preterm/premature.
  2. Immaturity
  3. Small for size
  4. Viability
  5. Survivability

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the likely outcome for a fetus whose mother lives in a developing country that is born before the end of the second trimester? The newborn will _____.
  2. not survive

Correct. Access to the necessary advanced medial care is scarce in developing countries, so the newborn’s chance of survival are not strong.

  1. be healthy

Incorrect. It is more likely that the newborn will not survive.

  1. have an Apgar score of at least 7
  2. have a breech birth

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The ____ is the last major organ system to develop during fetal life?
  2. heart

Incorrect. The last major organs to develop are the lungs.

  1. lungs

Correct. Even a baby born in the seventh or eighth month of pregnancy may need the help of a respirator to breathe.

  1. intestines
  2. skeletal muscles

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.3

% correct 68      a= 8  b= 68  c= 7  d= 17      r = .27

 

  1. Newborns weighing less than what weight are at risk for a wide range of developmental difficulties?
  2. 5.5 pounds

Correct. Many of these developmental difficulties will be discussed in Chapter 3.

  1. 7.0 pounds

Incorrect: Newborns weighing less than 5.5 pounds are at risk.

  1. 8.5 pounds
  2. 10 pounds

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.9

 

  1. As a result of evolutionary history, which of the following structures is the most underdeveloped at birth?
  2. the lungs
  3.          the spinal cord
  4.          the brain
  5. the digestive system

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 61

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Humans are born with immature brains that are incompletely developed. One result is that babies ______.
  2. are less vulnerable to environmental difficulties

Incorrect. The environment has a greater effect and parental care is required for a longer period than with other animals.

  1. learn to care for themselves very quickly
  2. have a genetic resistance to infection
  3. require parental care for a longer time than other animals

Correct. As we learned in Chapter 1, this is a result of evolutionary history.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 61

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.10

 

  1. DeCasper and Spence asked mothers to read The Cat in the Hat to their fetuses every day for the last six weeks of their pregnancies. After the birth, babies showed a preference for ____.
  2. hearing their mothers read any Dr. Seuss book
  3. their mother’s voice
  4. rhymic tapping

Incorrect. The babies showed a preference for The Cat in the Hat.

  1. hearing their mothers read The Cat in the Hat

Correct. The babies preferred this even over similar rhyming stories they had not heard before.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 62

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What do fetuses do when their mothers are highly stressed?
  2. become very still

Incorrect. They generally move more and have faster heart rates when their mothers are stressed.

  1. move more and have faster heart rates

Correct. Fetuses respond in kind to their mothers’ stress levels.

  1. suck their thumbs
  2. hold their hands to their ears

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 62

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.4, CE 2.2.6

 

  1. Your roommate is pregnant and she gets very angry and yells quite a bit over the smallest things. What is a good piece of advice that you could give her?
  2. It is OK if she gets upset, but she should not yell. It will harm the fetus’s hearing.
  3. Getting angry and yelling is good for the fetus since it will raise the fetus’s heart rate.
  4. She should probably get a different boyfriend. He is not going to be a very good father .

Incorrect. She should try relaxation therapy.

  1. That she should try relaxation therapy. Whenever she gets really upset, her fetus gets very upset too.

Correct. Fetuses generally move more and have faster heart rates when their mothers are stressed.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 62

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.7

 

  1. The Beng people of the Ivory Coast have several practices and suggestions for pregnant women. Which of the following is an example of a suggestion that can be very helpful to the pregnant woman?
  2. avoid eating the meat from a bushbuck antelope
  3. rub an oil on her belly

Correct. This will help her skin from feeling uncomfortably tight.

  1. her husband must stop hunting while she is pregnant
  2. she must not commit any immoral behavior

Incorrect. They rub an oil on her belly to help her skin from feeling uncomfortable.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 62

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.10

 

  1. Which of the following is the best practical advice of the Beng people of the West African nation of Ivory Coast?
  2. Do not drink palm wine during the early months of pregnancy.

Correct. Drinking alcohol when pregnant can cause widespread damage to prenatal development.

  1. Rub oil on the swelling belly to relief discomfort.

Incorrect. This is actually encouraged as it helps skin elasticity.

  1. Avoid eating meat from a bushbuck antelope.
  2. Do not cast any curse on any enemies because your baby will become a witch.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 62

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Many traditional cultures do not have access to trained physicians but may rely on which of the following individuals during the prenatal period?
  2. nurse
  3. midwife

Correct. Midwives assist in prenatal care and the birth process.

  1. staff from the World Health Organization

Incorrect. Midwives are commonly used.

  1. paramedics

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 63

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.8

 

  1. Based upon the reading, a midwife might perform a(n) ____ if the fetus’s feet are pointed towards the vaginal opening.
  2. diversion
  3. prenatal massage

Incorrect. If the fetus is turned in an unfavorable position, so that it would be likely to come out feet first rather than head first, the midwife will attempt an inversion to turn the fetus’s head toward the vaginal opening.

  1. inversion

Correct. If the fetus is turned in an unfavorable position, so that it would be likely to come out feet first rather than head first, the midwife will attempt an inversion to turn the fetus’s head toward the vaginal opening.

  1. amniocentesis

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 63

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A method of prenatal care that has been used by traditional cultures that is now being used by midwives, nurses, and physicians in developed countries is ____.
  2. dancing
  3. singing
  4. daily naps

Incorrect. Prenatal massage has a long history in many cultures. In recent years, it has also begun to be used by midwives, nurses, and physicians in developed countries.

  1. massage

Correct. Prenatal massage has a long history in many cultures. In recent years, it has also begun to be used by midwives, nurses, and physicians in developed countries.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 63

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.11

% correct 97      a= 1  b= 2  c= 1  d= 97      r = .26

 

  1. In recent years prenatal massage in developed countries has ____.
  2. increased
  3. decreased
  4. remained the same
  5. not been statistically tracked

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 63

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Recent scientific studies have shown that women should gain ____ pounds during pregnancy.
  2. 15–20
  3. 25–30
  4. 35–40
  5. 45–50

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.3, CE 2.2.9

 

  1. Women who gain less than 20 pounds are more likely to have babies who are _____.
  2. more likely to be obese during childhood
  3. above average in intelligence
  4. preterm and have low birth weight
  5. more likely to have heart disease later in life

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your friend is worried that she will gain quite a bit of weight since she is now pregnant. She is planning on dieting. What would be your advice?
  2. Tell her to definitely diet, this will insure that her children will not be obese.
  3. Tell her that dieting increases intelligence in neonates.

Incorrect. Dieting leads to low birth weight and prematurity.

  1. Tell her that dieting could lead to her baby being born preterm and having a low birth weight.

Correct. Women should gain 25–35 pounds during pregnancy.

  1. That it would be a good idea to keep her weight gain under 20 pounds.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.9

 

  1. What are possible side effects for the baby of a woman who gains less than 20 pounds during her pregnancy?
  2. Down syndrome and Fragile X
  3. gestational diabetes
  4. high blood pressure and gastrointestinal problems

Incorrect. Scientific studies have shown that women should typically gain 25–35 pounds during pregnancy, and women who gain less than 20 pounds are at risk for having babies who are preterm and low birth weight.

  1. the baby may be born preterm with a low birth weight

Correct.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 64

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Based upon the accumulated scientific knowledge on prenatal care, which of the following is the greatest thing a woman who is pregnant can do?
  2. avoid drinking of any alcohol

Incorrect. Most professionals agree that regular prenatal care is the greatest thing a pregnant woman can do.

  1. minimize as much stress as possible
  2. receive regular evaluations from a health care professional

Correct. The percentage of woman who receive regular prenatal care beginning early in pregnancy varies greatly based on ethnicity and SES.

  1. cut all caffeine from her diet

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 64

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.12

 

  1. Compared to developed countries, what percentage of maternal and infant deaths occur in developing countries?
  2. 99%
  3. 75%
  4. 50%
  5. 25%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.4

 

  1. ____ % of maternal and infant deaths occur in developing countries; whereas, ____ % occur in developed countries.
  2. 1; 99
  3. 25; 75
  4. 75; 25
  5. 99; 1

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The guidelines for prenatal care focus mostly on three key areas ____.
  2. rest, stress reduction, and the avoidance of fatty foods
  3. diet, exercise, and avoidance of teratogens
  4. exercise, mental state, and relaxation
  5. prenatal vitamins, exercise, and avoidance of caffeine

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.4

 

  1. Although many people say that pregnant women should be “eating for two,” how many more calories should a pregnant woman eat each day?
  2. 2,000
  3. 1,000
  4. 800
  5. 300

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.5, Post 2.2.6

 

  1. Your sister has been pregnant for a few months. She jokes that she is “eating for two” and has been eating quite a bit. You know that this is really not a good idea and are concerned that she will gain too much weight. How many more calories a day would you tell her that she would need to consume while she is pregnant?
  2. 2,000
  3. 1,000
  4. 800

Incorrect. Pregnant women should only eat 300 additional calories on average, during her pregnancy.

  1. 300

Correct. A healthy weight gain during pregnancy is typically 25–35 pounds.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 64

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Rosa is in her first trimester and her mother continually encourages her to eat more reminding her that she is now eating for two. Based upon the text, is Rosa’s mother giving her sound advice?
  2. Yes, women who are pregnant should double their caloric intake.

Incorrect. Pregnant women should eat somewhat more than they did prior to pregnancy, but only by about 300 calories a day.

  1. No, women who are pregnant only need about 300 more calories.

Correct. A healthy weight gain during pregnancy is typically 25–35 pounds.

  1. Yes, pregnant women should eat more but it should come from grains.
  2. No, pregnant women should not eat more as their bodies do not need any more calories than an average woman.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 64

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Iron-rich foods such as beef, duck, potatoes, spinach, and dried fruits are important in what way for the pregnant mother and fetus? These foods help to ____.
  2. build the blood supply of the mother and fetus

Correct. Iron deficiencies place women at risk of delivering preterm or low-birth-weight babies.

  1. increase the muscle mass of the fetus
  2. assist in visual development of the fetus

Incorrect. Iron-rich foods help to build the blood supply of the mother and fetus.

  1. provide nutrients for proper brain development

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.13

 

  1. Low iodine intake during pregnancy increases the risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, and abnormalities in fetal brain development. As a result, what has been done since the 1920s in developed countries?
  2. women receive iodine injections

Incorrect. Salt has been iodized.

  1. salt has been iodized

Correct. Iodine deficiencies are still a risk in developing countries.

  1. babies are given iodine baths after birth
  2. fetuses are examined with ultrasound

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.10

 

  1. As compared with developing nations, the rate of miscarriage, stillbirth, and abnormalities in fetal brain development have been lowered because iodine has been added to ____.
  2. salt
  3. school lunches
  4. bread
  5. the water supply

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 65

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Shantel is talking to her grandmother about how she is continuing her moderate exercise program while she is pregnant. However, Grandma warns her not to exercise because she holds the outdated belief, once common in developed countries, that Shantel is ____.
  2. in a physical state similar to a disability or illness

Correct. Until a few decades ago, it was widely believed in developed countries that pregnant women were too fragile to walk or carry groceries.

  1. too physically weak and could fall
  2. going to harm the baby while exercising
  3. going to stimulate a preterm birth

Incorrect. Until a few decades ago, it was widely believed in developed countries that pregnancy was a kind of disability or illness.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 65

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, what enhances the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus?
  2. mild to moderate exercise

Correct. One benefit is that mild to moderate oxygen increases a woman’s ability to process oxygen for herself and her fetus.

  1. drinking several cups of tea each day
  2. eating herbs
  3. conserving energy

Incorrect. Mild to moderate exercise enhances the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is an example of an aerobic exercise?
  2. walking/jogging

Correct. These stimulate a woman’s muscular and circulatory systems.

  1. weight lifting
  2. sprinting

Incorrect. Walking/jogging are examples of aerobic exercise.

  1. jumping

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why is aerobic exercise important to a pregnant woman? It helps to ____.
  2. lower muscle mass

Incorrect. It increases the woman’s ability to process oxygen.

  1. increase fetal heart rate
  2. stops dangerous teratogens from reaching the fetus
  3. increase the woman’s ability to process oxygen

Correct. This in turn benefits her fetus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.7

 

  1. Your best friend has just learned that she is pregnant. She is a healthy person and is planning on engaging in aerobic exercise during her pregnancy. What would be your advice to her? She should ____.
  2. be very careful in that this type of exercise during pregnancy could lower muscle mass

Incorrect. Aerobic exercise increases a pregnant woman’s ability to process oxygen, a benefit for both her and the fetus.

  1. not run too quickly in that it could dangerously increase fetal heart rate
  2. exercise regularly since it will stop dangerous teratogens from reaching the fetus
  3. exercise regularly in that she will increase her ability to process oxygen

Correct. Moderate aerobic exercise increases a pregnant woman’s ability to process oxygen, a benefit for both her and the fetus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.8

 

  1. According to the text, what type of exercise stimulates the circulatory and muscular systems of the woman’s body and increases her ability to process oxygen?
  2. meditation
  3. active Stretching
  4. weight training

Incorrect. Aerobic exercise stimulates the circulatory and muscular systems.

  1. aerobic exercise

Correct. Moderate aerobic provides benefit for both a pregnant woman and her fetus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.10

 

  1. What exercise strengthens the vaginal muscles and helps prepare the mother for the delivery of the fetus?
  2. bench presses
  3. squats
  4. Kegels
  5. abdominal crunches

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. How are Kegel exercises performed? By tensing the ____.
  2. muscles of the vagina and anus repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Correct. This strengthens the vaginal muscles in preparation for delivery of the fetus.

  1. abdominal muscles repeatedly for 15-second intervals

Incorrect. Kegel exercises are performed by tensing the muscles of the vagina and anus.

  1. quadriceps and hamstrings repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  2. muscles of the lower back repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.2.9, QR 2.2.8

 

  1. Your aunt is pregnant for the first time. She has heard that Kegel exercises are a good idea, but does not know how to perform them. You would tell her to tense the ____.
  2. muscles of the vagina and anus repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Correct. This strengthens the vaginal muscles in preparation for delivery of the fetus.

  1. abdominal muscles repeatedly for 15-second intervals

Incorrect. Kegel exercises involve tensing the muscles of the vagina and anus repeated for 10-second intervals.

  1. quadriceps and hamstrings repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  2. muscles of the lower back repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following exercise should be avoided during pregnancy?
  2. any contact sports

Correct. Contact sports are too traumatic for pregnant women.

  1. walking
  2. light jogging

Incorrect. Light jogging is recommended for pregnant women.

  1. swimming

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 65

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.6

 

  1. Your sister works at the post office. She is pregnant and stands at the service desk for her entire shift. You are worried that this will affect her fetus’s health. What do you tell her? That she should _____.
  2. take a break and sit for a couple of minutes every half an hour. Continuous standing has been linked to miscarriages and premature births

Correct.

  1. try to relax, being pregnant is great
  2. continue working, staying active is great for pregnant women and their fetuses

Incorrect. She should take frequent breaks.

  1. get a new job; working with the public exposes her to teratogens on a daily basis

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 66

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.2.1

 

  1. Heavy lifting, continuous standing, and strenuous physical exertion raise the risks of _____.
  2. postmaturity in the fetus

Incorrect. These activities raise the risks of miscarriage and premature birth.

  1. difficulties associated with neuronal development
  2. miscarriages and premature births

Correct. Pregnant women are advised to reduce strenuous physical activity.

  1. chromosomal errors in the fetus

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 66

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.2.6

 

  1. ____ is described as behaviors, environments, and bodily conditions that could be harmful to a fetus.
  2. Lanugo
  3. Teratogens
  4. Vernix
  5. Trophoblast

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 66

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.2.1

 

  1. What term refers to malnutrition, disease, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs that are harmful to the fetus?
  2. teratogens
  3. pathogens
  4. carcinogens
  5. fetogens

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 66

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 89      a= 89  b= 8  c= 2  d= 1      r = .38

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of teratogens?
  2. calcium, iron, and iodine
  3. prenatal vitamins and micronutrients
  4. meats, grains, and legumes
  5. alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 66

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. In what prenatal period are the lanugo and vernix formed? Explain what they are.

Answer: Both are formed during the fetal period. The vernix is the waxy coating that protects the skin while floating in the amnionic fluid; the lanugo is the fine hair that helps the vernix to stick to the skin.

Page: 61

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. Give an example of pregnancy advice that reflects cultural wisdom in traditional cultures. What is a plausible explanation that this advice is passed down from generation to generation?

Answer: Among the Beng people of West Africa, women are warned against drinking palm wine during pregnancy and also to avoid eating the meat of the bushback antelope (or the baby may be born with stripes). These warnings reflect the fact that people in these cultures know that many things can go wrong during pregnancy and these tips may offer a sense of control.

Page: 62-63

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Who usually performs prenatal massages in traditional cultures? Are there benefits to prenatal massage besides making the mother feel good and more relaxed? Explain.

Answer: It is usually performed by a midwife. Benefits to mother include less back pain, less swelling of joints, better sleep, and a better chance that the fetus will come out head first. Neonates score better on physical and social measures.

Page: 63

Learning Objective: 2.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Recall the World Health Organization’s guidelines for prenatal care. Name one nutrient that is of critical importance during pregnancy, where women would get it, and what the consequences would be of not having it.
    Answer: Iodine. In developed countries, iodine is added to salt. Without it, there is increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, or abnormal brain development. Iodine is more readily available in developed countries.

Page: 64-65

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. How much weight should a woman gain during pregnancy (provide an approximate range)? Provide one diet or exercise recommendation.

Answer: Women should gain between 25-35 pounds. They should drink more fluids and they should eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, especially iron-rich foods, such as leafy greens.

Page: 64-65

Learning Objective: 2.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Choose one prenatal period and provide a detailed overview of what happens. Include when it occurs.

Answer: The germinal period (0- 2 wks. After conception) includes the formation of the zygote, rapid cell division forming a 100-celled blastocyst, and implantation. The outer layer of the blastocyst, the trophoblast, develops into the structures that will house and nourish the embryo (amnion, placental, umbilical cord). The inner layer becomes the embryonic disk which eventually forms the embryo.

Pages: 59-62

Learning Objective: 2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understanding

 

  1. What does viability mean, and how likely is a fetus to be viable at 22 weeks? At 26 weeks? Why would this vary depending upon whether a person lives in a developed or a developing country? What is the main obstacle to viability even by the beginning of the third trimester?
    Answer: This is when a fetus would be able to survive outside the womb. Survival is unlikely before 22 weeks, even with medical intervention. Even if babies do survive when they are premature, they are at greater risk for birth defects and disabilities compared to full-term babies. In developing countries, there is less access to medical supplies and facilities, so the age of viability is later than in developed countries (some time in the third trimester, depending on the country and its technology). The reason babies are so vulnerable even in the third trimester is their immature lungs.

Page: 61

Learning Objective: 2.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 2.2.1.         After fertilization, the first 2 weeks of pregnancy is called _____.

  1. the germinal period
  2. the embryonic period
  3. the fetal period
  4. Sequence-one pregnancy period

Answer: a

Page: 59

 

Pre 2.2.2.         The _____ form from the outer layer of the embryonic disk.

  1. skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system
  2. brain and spinal cord
  3. lungs and heart
  4. digestive and respiratory systems

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

Pre 2.2.3.         What is the last major organ system to develop during the fetal period?

  1. lungs
  2. heart
  3. intestines
  4. kidneys

Answer: a

Page: 61

 

Pre 2.2.4.         According to the text, when a pregnant mother becomes highly stressed a fetus may ______.

  1. develop a faster heart rate and move more frequently
  2. become very ill and sick
  3. hold their hands over their eyes, covering them
  4. suck their fingers and bite their nails

Answer: a

Page: 62

 

Pre 2.2.5.         There is a rumor that pregnant women should dramatically increase their caloric

intake and “eat for two”; however, it is known that pregnant women need about ____ more calories than those who are not pregnant.

  1. 300
  2. 600
  3. 900
  4. 1200

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

Pre 2.2.6.         For women who are pregnant, heavy lifting, strenuous physical exertion, and continuous standing can raise the risk of ______.

  1. miscarriages,  preterm birth, and stillbirth
  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  3. difficulties associated with neuronal migration
  4. chromosomal errors in fetal development

Answer: a

Page: 66

 

Pre 2.2.7.         The embryonic disk forms from the _____ of the blastocyst and develops to become the embryo.

  1. inner layer
  2. outer layer
  3. right-lateral side
  4. dorsal-lateral side

Answer: a

Page: 59

 

Pre 2.2.8.         During the embryonic period, the ectoderm develops to become ______.

  1. skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system
  2. muscles, bones, reproductive system, and circulatory system.
  3. the digestive and respiratory systems
  4. the limbic system

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

Pre 2.2.9.         Your friend is pregnant and worried that she will gain weight. Having been extremely thin, she is planning to diet to maintain her figure. After reading the text what is your advice to her?

  1. Avoid dieting. It could lead to her baby being born preterm and having low birth weight.
  2. Definitely diet as this will insure that her children will not be obese.
  3. Definitely diet; it increases intelligence and test scores later in life.
  4. Dieting is a good idea because it increases muscle tone in the baby.

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

Pre 2.2.10.       Low iodine intake during pregnancy increases the risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, and abnormalities in fetal brain development. Since the 1920s the United States has required table salt to have iodine, which is a similar practice to many countries that have economic wealth and resources. In what county is the lack of iodine most likely still an issue for pregnant women?

  1. Cambodia, which is a developing country.
  2. Canada, which is a developed country.
  3. Great Britain, which is a Western country.
  4. Japan, which is a Non-western country.

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

Post-Test

 

Post 2.2.1.        By the 8th day after conception, the fertilized egg has approximately 100 cells and is known as the ______.

  1. blastocyst
  2. fetus
  3. embryo
  4. neonate

Answer: a

Page: 59

 

Post 2.2.2.        ____ is the embryonic structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord.

  1. Neural tube
  2. Cerebral cortex
  3. Neuroblast
  4. Brainstem

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

Post 2.2.3.        Recent scientific studies have concluded that most women should gain ____ pounds during pregnancy.

  1. 15 to 20
  2. 25 to 35
  3. 35 to 40
  4. 45 to 50

Answer: b

Page: 64

 

Post 2.2.4.        As compared to developed countries, ____ percent of maternal and infant deaths occur in developing countries.

  1. 99
  2. 75
  3. 50
  4. 15

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

Post 2.2.5.        ____ provides a protective environment in which the fetus’ temperature is regulated and protects the fetus from friction caused by the mother’s movements.

  1. The amnion
  2. The placenta
  3. The umbilical cord
  4. The germinal structure

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

Post 2.2.6.        Which of the following enhances the health of a pregnant woman and the fetus?

  1. Mild to moderate exercise
  2. Drinking several cups of tea each day
  3. Consuming coffee and eating herbs
  4. Conserving energy and eating fatty foods

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

Post 2.2.7.        Aerobic exercise is important to pregnant women because it helps to _____.

  1. lower muscle mass and increase fat mass
  2. increase fetal heart rate and blood pressure
  3. stop dangerous teratogens from reaching the fetus
  4. increase the woman’s ability to produce oxygen

Answer: d

Page: 65

 

Post 2.2.8.        Your sister is pregnant. She has always been health-conscious and exercises regularly. She is planning on engaging in aerobic exercise by continuing to go to her exercise classes.  What would be your advice to her? She should _____.

  1. exercise regularly as she will increase her ability to process oxygen
  2. be very careful as this type of exercise during pregnancy could lower muscle mass
  3. not run too quickly as it could dangerously increase fetal heart rate
  4. exercise regularly since it will stop dangerous teratogens from reaching the fetus

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

Post 2.2.9.        Your niece is pregnant. She has heard that Kegel exercises are a good idea, but does not know how to perform them. Having a very close relationship, you would tell her to tense the _____.

  1. muscles of the vagina and anus repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  2. abdominal muscles repeatedly for 15-second intervals
  3. quadriceps and hamstrings repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  4. muscles of the lower back repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

Post 2.2.10.      Samantha has always been a very active person and exercises regularly. During pregnancy she was concerned that maybe she was doing too much and it could be harmful for the fetus. Her physician told her that her exercise routine, which consisted of meditation, active stretching, Yoga, and aerobic exercise, was fine.  He even suggested that one of the activities positively stimulated her circulatory and muscular systems. According to the text, which of the following is Samantha’s physician referring to?

  1. Meditation
  2. Active stretching
  3. Yoga
  4. Aerobic exercise

Answer: d

Page: 65

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 2.2.1.         Your sister is pregnant and has a job where she is constantly on her feet and works with the public. You are worried about her. What advice do you give your sister?

  1. Take a break and sit for a couple of minutes every half hour. Continuous standing has been linked to miscarriages and premature births.
  2. Continue working, staying on your feet all day is good for pregnant women and their fetuses.
  3. Get a new job, working with the public exposes her to teratogens on a daily basis.
  4. Try to relax, being pregnant is awesome!

Answer: a

Page: 66

 

CE 2.2.2.         Which of the following represents the correct sequence of development during the germinal period?

  1. blastocyst, implantation, placenta
  2. placenta, implantation, blastocyst
  3. placenta, blastocyst, implantation
  4. implantation, placenta, blastocyst

Answer: a

Page: 59

 

CE 2.2.3.         The blastocyst generally implants itself to the uterine wall during ______.

  1. the 2nd week after conception
  2. at conception
  3. the 5th week after conception
  4. the 7th week after conception

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

CE 2.2.4.         It is during the ____ period of prenatal development that nearly all the major organs are formed?

  1. embryonic
  2. zygotic
  3. fetal
  4. chromosomal

Answer: a

Page: 60

 

CE 2.2.5.         After what month do women generally feel the fetus move?

  1. 2nd
  2. 4th
  3. 6th
  4. 8th

Answer: b

Page: 61

 

CE 2.2.6.         Researchers DeCasper and Spence asked pregnant mothers to read The Cat in the Hat every day for the last six weeks of their pregnancies. After birth, babies showed a preference for ______.

  1. hearing their mothers read The Cat in the Hat.
  2. seeing their mothers read The Cat in the Hat.
  3. hearing their mothers read any book.
  4. seeing their mothers read any book.

Answer: a

Page: 62

 

CE 2.2.7.         Your cousin is hot-tempered and gets very angry and yells quite a bit; even over little things. Which of the following is good advice for your cousin?

  1. She should try to relax. Whenever she gets really upset, her fetus’ heart beats faster.
  2. It is okay if she gets upset, but she should not yell. It will harm the fetus’ hearing.
  3. Getting angry and yelling is good for the fetus since it will raise the fetus’ heart rate.
  4. She should probably get a different job. Her current job doesn’t pay very well and makes her upset.

Answer: a

Page: 62

 

CE 2.2.8.         Many traditional cultures do not have access to trained physicians but rely on ____ during the prenatal period?

  1. midwives
  2. paramedics
  3. nurses
  4. staff from the World Health Organization

Answer: a

Page: 63

 

CE 2.2.9.         Based upon scientific studies, the average female should gain ____ pounds during pregnancy.

  1. 15-20
  2. 25-35
  3. 35-40
  4. 40-45

Answer: b

Page: 64

 

CE 2.2.10.       The Beng people have several suggestions for pregnant women. Which of the following is an example of a Beng suggestion that can be helpful for any pregnant woman?

  1. Rub oil on your belly.
  2. Avoid eating any meat.
  3. Have your husband refrain from hunting.
  4. Use mud to protect your skin from biting insects.

Answer: a

Page: 62

 

CE 2.2.11.       ____ has been used by many traditional cultures as a method of prenatal care and is now in vogue with many midwives, nurses, and physicians in developed countries.

  1. Massage
  2. Dancing
  3. Daily napping
  4. Singing

Answer: a

Page: 63

CE 2.2.12.       Which of the following is the single greatest thing a woman who is pregnant can do to take care of herself and her unborn child?

  1. Receive regular evaluations from a healthcare professional.
  2. Avoid drinking alcohol.
  3. Minimize exercise.
  4. Cut out all caffeine from her diet.

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

CE 2.2.13.       During pregnancy, iron-rich foods help to ______.

  1. build the blood supply of the mother and fetus
  2. increase the muscle mass of the fetus
  3. assist in visual development of the fetus
  4. provide nutrients for proper brain development

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

CE 2.2.14.       Your nephew was present at the birth of his new brother. Immediately after the baby traveled through the birth canal, your nephew looks horrified when he sees his new sibling. Looking at you, he asks, “What is that white, fuzzy stuff all over the baby?” You tell him ______.

  1. that it is amniotic fluid
  2. it is lanugo, and that many babies have it at birth as it protects their skin in utero
  3. that it is lactate because the baby was suckling while in vitro
  4. that it is probably an excess of white blood cells that became stuck to the baby

Answer: b

Page: 61

 

CE 2.2.15.       Researchers have concluded that by the end of the sixth month, fetuses respond to environmental noises. At birth, which of the following do most infants prefer?

  1. the sound of their mother’s voice
  2. the sound of classical music
  3. the sound of rock and roll music
  4. the sound of naturescapes and animals

Answer: a

Page: 61

 

Quick Review

 

QR 2.2.1.         _____ is described as behaviors, environments, and bodily conditions that could be harmful to a fetus.

  1. Teratogens
  2. Lanugo
  3. Hypertension
  4. Tachycardia

Answer: a

Page: 66

 

QR 2.2.2.         ____ is the structure that forms into the organ that protects and allows nourishment to pass from the mother to the newly formed organism during the prenatal period.

  1. The trophoblast
  2. The umbilical cord
  3. The umbryonic disk
  4. The amnion fluid

Answer: a

Page: 59

 

QR 2.2.3.         The white slimy substance that covers the fetus’ skin is known as:

  1. lanugo
  2. vernix
  3. keratin
  4. tendons

Answer: b

Page: 61

 

QR 2.2.4.         Which of the following are 3 key areas that are the guidelines for prenatal care focus?

  1. Avoidance of teratogens, diet, and exercise
  2. Prenatal vitamins, exercise, and avoidance of caffeine
  3. rest, stress reduction, and the avoidance of fatty foods
  4. exercise, psychological wellbeing, and relaxation

Answer: a

Page: 64

 

QR 2.2.5.         ____ is the term that refers to malnutrition, disease, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs that are harmful to the fetus.

  1. Teratogens
  2. Pathogens
  3. Carcinogens
  4. Phellogens

Answer: a

Page: 61

 

QR 2.2.6.         For those who are pregnant, which of the following exercises should be avoided?

  1. Any contact sport
  2. Walking
  3. Light jogging
  4. Yoga

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

QR 2.2.7.         When does the fetal period of prenatal development begin?

  1. Eight weeks after conception
  2. Four weeks after conception
  3. Twelve weeks after conception
  4. Sixteen weeks after conception

Answer: a

Page: 61

QR 2.2.8.         During pregnancy Kegel exercises are recommended, and they are performed by tensing the ______.

  1. muscles of the vagina and anus repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  2. abdominal muscles repeatedly for 15-second intervals
  3. quadriceps and hamstrings repeatedly for 10-second intervals
  4. muscles of the lower back repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Answer: a

Page: 65

 

QR 2.2.9.         Newborns weighing less than ____ pounds are at risk for a wide range of developmental difficulties.

  1. 5.5
  2. 7.5
  3. 9.5
  4. 11.5

Answer: a

Page: 61

 

QR 2.2.10.       At birth, which of the following is a result of newborn’s immature and underdeveloped brain?

  1. Newborns are less vulnerable to environmental difficulties.
  2. Newborns learn to care for themselves very quickly.
  3. Newborns have a genetic resistance to infection.
  4. Newborns require parental care for a longer time than other animals.

Answer: d

Page: 61

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Do you think the American expectant mother’s experience is typical of most expectant mothers in the U.S.? Why or why not?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Learning Objective: 2.12

 

  1. Compare and contrast the American expectant mother’s experience with the Mayan expectant mother’s experience.

Answer: The expectant American mother and the Mayan mother both seem very up-beat and excited about being pregnant.  Both of the expectant mothers discuss eating healthy fruits and vegetables. Both expectant mothers discuss the fact that they see a doctor for routine visits. The Mayan expectant mother tells the viewers that she is also seeing a midwife for massage. The American expectant mother tells the viewers that she has a number of routine tests performed at her doctor visits as well as two ultrasounds that have been conducted to view the baby. The American expectant mother discusses exercise and yoga. 

Learning Objective: 2.11, 2.12

 

  1. Describe the role of the midwife interviewed here. What are some advantages of seeing a doctor vs. a midwife as listed by the mothers in this clip?

Answer: The role of the midwife from this video is to provide, quite literally, a hands-on experience to the expectant mothers. She discusses that she checks the baby with her hands and massages to help maintain a good position. She can reposition the baby if it is not in the appropriate position.  She also discusses the use of an herb that can very effectively change the gender of the fetus. One of the expectant mothers in the clip states that she is seeing a physician because it is her first child and therefore more risk is involved.  She adds that if there is trouble while she is in labor the doctor can perform a Caesarian section while a midwife would not have that capability. The American expectant mother discusses the testing that her physician is able to perform, and does not make mention of the use of a midwife.

Learning Objective: 2.11, 2.12

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the video, which of the following is an important part of prenatal care in rural Mayan Mexico?
  2. drinking 10 glasses of water a day
  3. prenatal massage
  4. prayer
  5. eating two additional meals

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 2.11

 

  1. Which of the following was not mentioned by the American expectant mother as part of the routine visits to her doctor?
  2. cardiovascular check
  3. blood pressure check
  4. weight check
  5. measure fundal height

Answer: A

 

  1. The American expectant mother mentioned all of the following ways that she maintains her healthy pregnancy except for which of the following?
  2. goes to the gym twice per week
  3. yoga
  4. jogging
  5. eating a healthier diet

Answer: C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 3 Pregnancy Problems

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. 1. During meiosis, at times chromosomes sometimes fail to divide properly and as a result the person may have 45 or 47 chromosomes. Which of the following best describes this phenomenon?
  2. chromosomal disorder
  3. genetic misprinting
  4. mitosis error
  5. gene displacement

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.1

 

  1. It is estimated that half of all conceptions have too many or too few chromosomes. According to the text, what happens to most of the zygotes that are formed in these situations?
  2. They are spontaneously aborted.
  3. They result in neonates with birth defects.
  4. They result in twins.
  5. They have no problems.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.2

% correct 41      a= 41  b= 53  c= 0  d= 6      r = .43

 

  1. Approximately how many neonates have a chromosomal disorder?
  2. 1 in 10
  3. 1 in 200
  4. 1 in 500
  5. 1 in 1,000

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.15, Pre 2.3.1

 

  1. Your friend just found out that she is pregnant after trying for six months. But she is paranoid that she is going to have a baby with a chromosomal disorder. You try to reassure her by telling her that the rate of babies born with chromosomal disorders is _____.
  2. 1 in 10
  3. 1 in 200

Correct. There are two main types of chromosomal disorders: ones that involve sex chromosomes and ones that take place on the twenty-first pair of chromosomes.

  1. 1 in 500

Incorrect. Approximately 1 in 200 neonates have a chromosomal disorder.

  1. 1 in 1,000

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.2

 

  1. Approximately how many neonates have some type of sex chromosome disorder?
  2. 1 in 10
  3. 1 in 200
  4. 1 in 500
  5. 1 in 1,000

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are two common consequences of sex chromosome disorders?
  2. Shortened stature and the likelihood to develop nonorganic failure to thrive.
  3. An increased likelihood to have a pregnancy that is preterm and an infant with low birth weight
  4. The infant is more likely to have a difficult temperament and an insecure attachment

Incorrect. Cognitive deficits tend to be a side effect of various sex-linked disorders.

  1. Cognitive deficits and abnormal development of the reproductive system at puberty

Correct. Mental retardation, learning disabilities, and speech impairments are all common.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 67

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.6

% correct 94      a= 0  b= 6  c= 0  d= 94      r = .70

 

  1. One of the consequences of having a sex chromosomal disorder is that it might disrupt development of the reproductive system at puberty. What can be done about the difficulty at puberty?
  2. Role playing therapy

Incorrect. The type of treatment would be hormone replacement therapy.

  1. Hormone replacement treatment

Correct. This can often effectively correct the problems caused by a sex chromosomal disorder.

  1. Group therapy
  2. Strenuous exercise

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 67

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.2

 

  1. An individual with Down syndrome has how many chromosomes?
  2. 45
  3. 46
  4. 47
  5. 48

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.2, QR 2.3.3

 

  1. Down syndrome is also known as trisomy-21 because individuals with Down syndrome ____.
  2. have three distinct facial features by the 21st week of pregnancy
  3. show three distinct temperament patterns by the 21st week of infancy
  4. have a third chromosome on the 21st pair

Correct. Individuals with Down syndrome have an extra chromosome on the 21st pair.

  1. have 21 genes on the 3rd pair of chromosomes

Incorrect. Individuals with Down syndrome have an extra chromosome on the 21st pair.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 67

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is another name for trisomy-21?
  2. Non Sex-linked-21
  3. intellectual disability
  4. Edward’s syndrome
  5. Down syndrome

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 67

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.7

 

  1. What disorder includes the following characteristics: short, stocky build; flat face; a large tongue; extra fold of skin on the eyelids; and possible cognitive deficits, hearing impairments, and heart defects?
  2. Non Sex-linked-21
  3. Down syndrome
  4. Edward’s syndrome
  5. intellectual disability

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 67–68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What helps children with trisomy-21 develop more favorably?
  2. hormone replacement therapy
  3. weekly motor treatments

Incorrect. Children with trisomy-21 need supportive and encouraging parents.

  1. a heart transplant
  2. supportive and encouraging parents

Correct. Intervention programs in infancy and childhood have also been shown to have positive effects.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Adult individuals with trisomy-21 are _____.
  2. often able to hold a job that is highly structured with simple tasks

Correct. With adequate social support an adult with Down syndrome can often successfully hold a job,

  1. most likely institutionalized

Incorrect. Adults with trisomy-21 can hold jobs that are highly structured with simple tasks.

  1. not likely to make it to age 30
  2. as likely as individuals who do not have trisomy-21 to enter college

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Individuals who have what disorder are more likely to develop leukemia, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, or heart disease at earlier ages than usual (in their thirties and forties)?
  2. Non Sex-linked-21
  3. Down syndrome
  4. Edward’s syndrome
  5. intellectual disability

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Children born with chromosomal problems are almost always born to parents with ____.
  2. the very same chromosomal problem
  3. similar genetic disorders
  4. above average intelligence
  5. no genetic or chromosomal problems

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following increases the risk of having a child with Down syndrome?
  2. smoking while pregnant
  3. alcohol consumption
  4. maternal age
  5. paternal stress

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 76      a= 0  b= 24  c= 76  d= 0      r = .49

 

  1. How old are the ova of a 42 year-old woman trying to conceive?
  2. 2 weeks
  3. 2 months

Incorrect. A 42-year-old woman’s ova are 42 years old.

  1. 2 years
  2. 42 years

Correct. As we learned earlier in the chapter, a female produces all the ova she will ever have while she is still in the womb.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which period of prenatal development is considered the critical period and also a time in which teratogens can have a profound effect that endure into adulthood?
  2. conception
  3. germinal period

Incorrect. The placenta is not fully formed during the embryonic period.

  1. embryonic period

Correct. The embryonic period lasts from the third to the eighth week after conception.

  1. fetal period

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.8

% correct 53      a= 0  b= 6  c= 53  d= 41      r = .52

 

  1. What describes the profound and enduring effect on later development that teratogens can have during the embryonic period?
  2. critical period

Correct. The embryonic period lasts from the third to the eighth week after conception.

  1. sensitive period

Incorrect. The profound and enduring effect on later development that teratogens can have during the embryonic period describes a critical period.

  1. embryonic period
  2. fetal period

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During which period are the major organs being formed at a rapid rate?
  2. zygotic
  3. embryonic
  4. fetal
  5. infancy

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are the major teratogens during the fetal period?
  2. lack of maternal sleep and lack of exercise
  3. excessive maternal weight gain and maternal age
  4. malnutrition and tobacco

Correct. Malnutrition and tobacco use are the major teratogens during the fetal period.

  1. sugar and starch

Incorrect. The major teratogens during the fetal period are malnutrition and tobacco.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, what is the most common teratogen worldwide?
  2. malnutrition
  3. tobacco
  4. alcohol
  5. infectious disease

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.1

 

  1. From a global perspective, which of the following is the most common teratogen to affect pregnancies?
  2. lead
  3. malnutrition
  4. alcohol
  5. rubella

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Prenatal health depends on proper prenatal nutrition. Since approximately 50% of the world’s population is rural, pregnant women _____.
  2. have access to fruits and vegetables year round
  3. are malnourished regardless year round

Incorrect. Pregnant women who live in rural areas may only eat well during the summer and fall when the crops have been harvested.

  1. cannot afford required vitamins recommended by their physicians
  2. may only eat well only during the summer and fall

Correct. The diet of people in rural areas can vary dramatically depending on the season.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 68

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the condition when infants are born with parts of their brain missing?
  2. spina bifida
  3. anencephaly
  4. microcephaly
  5. exoancephaly

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 69

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the condition in which the neonate is born with an extreme distortion in the shape of the spinal column?
  2. spina bifida
  3. anencephaly
  4. microencephaly
  5. exoancephaly

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 69

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.7, Post 2.3.7, CE 2.3.14

 

  1. During pregnancy, deficiencies in folic acid may result in ____.
  2. low birth weight and premature delivery

Incorrect. Pregnancies result in a higher rate of spina bifida due to a lack of folic acid.

  1. anencephaly and spina bifida

Correct. Folic acid is the key to preventing these conditions.

  1. Down syndrome and Turner syndrome
  2. HIV and malaria

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 69

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.9

 

  1. What dietary substance has been found to reduce spina bifida and anencephaly?
  2. pectin
  3. vitamin D
  4. iodine
  5. folic acid

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 69

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.5

 

  1. Many countries have a lower rate of pregnancies resulting in spina bifida because ____.
  2. iodine is added to table salt

Incorrect. Many countries passed laws requiring folic acid to be added to grain products such as cereals, bread, pasta, flour, and rice.

  1. fluoride is added to drinking water
  2. folic acid is added to grain products

Correct. Many countries passed laws requiring folic acid to be added to grain products such as cereals, bread, pasta, flour, and rice.

  1. school immunizations are required

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 69

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Research conducted in Finland has shown that prenatal malnutrition is a risk factor in what disorder in emerging adulthood?
  2. dissociative disorder
  3. depression
  4. schizophrenia
  5. bipolar disorder

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 70

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is another name for the German measles?
  2. cephalopelvic disproportion
  3. rubella

Correct. The embryonic period is a critical period for exposure to rubella.

  1. anencephaly
  2. neurofibromatosis

Incorrect. German measles is also known as rubella.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.6

 

  1. Infants born with the effects of rubella (German measles) within the United States have greatly decreased since the 1960s because ____.
  2. vaccinations for infectious diseases have increased
  3. funding for Medicaid and Medicare have increased
  4. fluoride has been added to the water
  5. folic acid has been added to grain products

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 70

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What sexually transmitted infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus?
  2. syphilis
  3. herpes
  4. gonorrhea
  5. AIDS

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What sexually transmitted infection can be transmitted to the fetus during prenatal development and to the neonate during birth and later through breast milk?
  2. syphilis
  3. herpes

Incorrect. AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during prenatal development through the blood, during birth, or through breast milk.

  1. gonorrhea
  2. AIDS

Correct. HIV/AIDS damages brain development prenatally and increases the risk that an infant will not live to adulthood.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.5

 

  1. HIV/AIDS can be transmitted from the mother to the child ____.
  2. during prenatal development, birth, or through breast milk

Correct. HIV/AIDS damages brain development prenatally and increases the risk that an infant will not live to adulthood.

  1. through casual skin-to-skin contact such as hugs and kisses

Incorrect. HIV/AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during prenatal development through the blood, during birth, or through breast milk.

  1. via bacterial infections during times of illness while pregnant
  2. through HIV bacteria being transmitted via contaminated environmental objects

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.10

% correct 94      a= 94  b= 0  c= 6  d= 0      r = .18

 

  1. Where do 95% of all HIV infections take place?
  2. North America
  3. Asia
  4. Africa
  5. Europe

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.6

 

  1. What percentage of pregnant women in Africa is estimated to be HIV positive?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 95%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What teratogen causes the most widespread damage to prenatal development in developed countries?
  2. tobacco

Incorrect. Alcohol causes more damage to prenatal development in developed countries.

  1. infectious diseases
  2. cocaine
  3. alcohol

Correct.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following is a safe amount of alcohol an individual can consume during pregnancy?
  2. 1 glass of wine per week
  3. 1 glass of wine per week only after the second trimester
  4. 1 glass of wine per week only after the third trimester

Incorrect. A pregnant woman should not drink at all during her pregnancy.

  1. none at all

Correct. Research has shown that the only safe level of alcohol during pregnancy is none at all.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.3

 

  1. What condition might occur in the fetus and later in the child if the pregnant mother consumes alcohol during her pregnancy?
  2. fibromyalgia
  3. alcoholism

Incorrect. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder can result if a pregnant woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy.

  1. neuromuscular disorder
  2. fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Correct. This disorder can result in facial deformities, heart problems, and cognitive problems.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. An infant born with facial deformities, heart problems, misshapen limbs, and a variety of cognitive problems, such as mental retardation, has characteristics of which of the following?
  2. fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Correct.

  1. autism
  2. Prader-Willi syndrome
  3. rubella

Incorrect. These conditions are characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 70

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.9

 

  1. What is the leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries?
  2. smoking
  3. cocaine use
  4. drinking alcohol
  5. mega-dosing of vitamins

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 71

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.1

 

  1. What maternal behavior during pregnancy was related to conduct disorders and substance abuse in adolescence?
  2. mega-dosing of vitamins
  3. drinking alcohol
  4. cocaine use
  5. smoking

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 71

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.4

 

  1. You notice that your pregnant friend just lit a cigarette and you ask her, “What the heck are you doing?” Your friend replies that her doctor said that it was okay to smoke during pregnancy. Which of the following statements should be your reply?
  2. “There are known side effects to smoking and no responsible physician would tell you that you can smoke if you are pregnant.”

Correct. Maternal smoking is the leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries.

  1. “Okay, research has shown that smoking is harmless.”
  2. “Most physicians would recommend that you wait until the third trimester to begin smoking again.”

Incorrect. Pregnant women should not smoke at any time during their pregnancy.

  1. “That makes sense; smoking is harmful if it is secondhand smoke.”

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 71

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What paternal behavior during pregnancy leads to higher risks of low birth weight and childhood cancer?
  2. mega-dosing of vitamins
  3. drinking alcohol
  4. smoking
  5. cocaine use

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 71

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.7

 

  1. Which of the following are three techniques used to monitor pregnancy?
  2. fetal heart rate, blood pressure, and CT scans
  3. ultrasounds, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling

Correct. All three of these methods are commonly available in developed countries.

  1. genetic counseling, amniocentesis, and epidural

Incorrect. Genetic counseling is not used to monitor pregnancy.

  1. fMRI, CT, and PET scans

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 72

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What prenatal technique uses high-frequency waves to examine the characteristics of the fetus in-utero?
  2. amniocentesis

Incorrect. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to examine the fetus in-utero.

  1. chorionic villus sampling
  2. alphafetal protein
  3. ultrasound

Correct. Today ultrasound is used for most pregnancies in developed countries.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.9

 

  1. ____ uses high-frequency sound waves that are directed toward the uterus and as they bounce off the fetus they are converted by a computer to an image that can be viewed on a screen.
  2. Genetic counseling
  3. Ultrasound
  4. Chorionic villus sampling
  5. Amniocentesis

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is the cheapest, easiest, and safest way for physicians to monitor fetal development?
  2. genetic counseling

Incorrect. Ultrasounds can be used during routine appointments are relatively         inexpensive.

  1. amniocentesis
  2. ultrasound

Correct. Today ultrasound is used for most pregnancies in developed countries.

  1. chorionic villus sampling

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.10

 

  1. What prenatal technique uses a long hollow needle to extract amniotic fluid to examine the fetus’s genotype?
  2. amniocentesis
  3. chorionic villus sampling
  4. alphafetal protein
  5. ultrasound

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What prenatal technique can be used to examine the status of the fetus by taking samples of the cells that are beginning to form the umbilical cord?
  2. amniocentesis
  3. chorionic villus sampling
  4. alphafetal protein
  5. ultrasound

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following techniques is used sparingly because there is a slight but genuine risk of miscarriage or damage to the fetus; however, it has a 99% accuracy in diagnosing genetic problems?
  2. CT scan
  3. ultrasound
  4. amniocentesis
  5. chorionic villus sampling

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 72

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Why would some couples seek genetic counseling before attempting a pregnancy?
  2. They believe that they might be carriers for a genetic disorder.

Correct. Genetic counseling involves analyzing the family history and genotype of prospective parents.

  1. They live in a high-risk area.
  2. They want to have a high-IQ baby.
  3. They want a particular characteristic in their offspring.

Incorrect. Couples who believe that they might be carriers for genetic disorders might consider genetic counseling.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 72

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.8

 

  1. Latasha and Brett are having their first child and are concerned that their child may have Down syndrome because Latasha is over 40 years old. Which of the following would most likely be used to help Latasha and Brett through this process?
  2. an amniocentesis and PET scan
  3. an ultrasound and genetic counseling

Correct. Those who are at risk for Down syndrome would use an ultrasound because it the safest approach.

  1. an amniocentesis and ultrasound
  2. a chorinic villus sampling and fMRI

Incorrect. Those who are at risk for Down syndrome would use an ultrasound because it the safest approach.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 72

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.8

 

  1. Genetic counseling would be appropriate for which of the following couples?
  2. JJ and Jennifer, who are in their early 30s and have just completed an unsuccessful round of artificial insemination.

Incorrect. People with risks that merit genetic counseling include those who have an inherited genetic condition or a close relative who has one, couples with a history of miscarriages or infertility, and older couples.

  1. Stephen and Kerry, who are in their early 20s and have been trying to become pregnant but have been unsuccessful for the last two months.
  2. Merriam and Samir, who are in their early 40s and have a history of miscarriages and infertility.

Correct. People with risks that merit genetic counseling include those who have an inherited genetic condition or a close relative who has one, couples with a history of miscarriages or infertility, and older couples.

  1. Ngyuen and Pham, who are in their early 30s and both have a history of diabetes.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 72

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.10

 

  1. How is infertility defined?
  2. the presence of endometriosis
  3. when the male has a low sperm count

Incorrect. Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after trying of a year.

  1. inability to conceive after trying for a year

Correct. Most women of reproductive age will become pregnant with a year or two of trying to conceive.

  1. no desire to have children

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 73

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, infertility rates have remained constant over the past century at the rate of ____.
  2. 1–5%
  3. 10–15%
  4. 20–25%
  5. 30–35%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Over the past century, the rate of infertility in the United States has ____.
  2. remained the same at 35%
  3. declined to 5%
  4. remained the same at 10–15%
  5. declined to 10–25%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percent of infertility problems are related to the male?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.9

 

  1. It is a misconception that females are primarily responsible for infertility, because ____% of the time it is the male who is the source of a couple’s infertility.
  2. 40
  3. 50
  4. 60
  5. 70

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are three main sources for male infertility?
  2. erectile difficulties, decreased libido, and low sperm count
  3. sperm death, poor sperm mobility, and low seminal fluid
  4. low sperm production, poor sperm quality, and poor sperm movement
  5. low sperm production, increased libido, and poor sperm movement

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 2.3.5

 

  1. It takes approximately three times longer for men over the age of 40 to impregnate a partner than it does for men under age 25. Why?
  2. lack of libido

Incorrect: It takes longer because of the decrease in the quantity and quality of their sperm.

  1. endometriosis
  2. decrease in the quantity and quality of their sperm

Correct. Men’s sperm count decreases with age.

  1. their partner’s fertility

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 73

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.5

 

  1. Rashid and Varsha are seeking fertility treatment and were informed by their physician that Rashid’s sperm-count is low and the quality is poor. Which of the following suggestions were made to help increase his sperm production and quality?
  2. Quit smoking, decrease alcohol consumption, and do not abuse drugs.

Correct. These behavioral factors are among the most common sources of infertility.

  1. Start a calcium regimen, consume more iron, and take a multivitamin.

Incorrect. Drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and cigarette smoking are sources of infertility.

  1. Exercise daily, increase caffeine consumption, and reduce stress,
  2. Avoid wearing boxers shorts and switch to tighter underwear,

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 73

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.10

 

  1. ____ is the most common cause of infertility in women.
  2. Alcohol
  3. Stress
  4. Age
  5. Smoking

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 73

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.3

 

  1. In most cultures and throughout history, infertility has been regarded mostly as a problem that originates from ____.
  2. a lack of spiritual commitment
  3. the male
  4. the female
  5. both the male and female

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.11

 

  1. Based on historical misconception of infertility, which of the following was one of the most dangerous treatments as described by the text?
  2. encouraging men to refrain from climaxing too quickly
  3. the practice of bloodletting to increase fertility
  4. encouraging women to reach orgasm
  5. encouraging men to bring more attention to sexual pleasure for their wife

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.4

 

  1. Of the following, which is a modern technique used for fertility treatment?
  2. artificial insemination
  3. an infertility belt
  4. a chastity belt
  5. colonoscopy

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the oldest effective treatment for infertility?
  2. in vitro fertilization
  3. nutritional supplements
  4. surrogate motherhood
  5. artificial insemination

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is the process in which sperm is injected directly into the uterus, and is the simplest and most effective reproductive treatment.
  2. In vitro fertilization
  3. Artificial insemination
  4. Amniocentesis
  5. Infertility injections

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the success rate of artificial insemination?
  2. 10%
  3. 40%
  4. 70%
  5. 100%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the most common approach to female infertility if the woman cannot ovulate properly?
  2. eliminating nutritional deficiencies
  3. fertility drugs
  4. increasing the frequency of intercourse
  5. herbal therapy

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 2.3.4, CE 2.3.12

 

  1. More than half of the women who take fertility drugs become pregnant in how many cycles (months)?
  2. 2
  3. 6
  4. 10
  5. 20

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The use of fertility drugs increases the likelihood of all of the following except ____.
  2. blood clots
  3. decreased bone density
  4. kidney damage
  5. damage to the ovaries

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are known risks associated with fertility drugs?
  2. hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and gastrointestinal problems
  3. depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts
  4. blood clots, kidney damage, and damage to the ovaries
  5. diabetes, endometriosis, and eczema

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.3

 

  1. Depending on the drug, what percentage of multiple births results from using fertility drugs?
  2. 1–2%
  3. 10–25%
  4. 40–55%
  5. 60–75%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 74

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A friend tells you that she is on a fertility drug to increase the number of follicles during ovulation and is so excited about the possibility of having twins. Based upon the reading, would you agree that she has an increased possibility of conceiving twins?
  2. Yes, fertility drugs increase the rate of multiple births by increasing the probability of releasing more than one ovum; which might lead to fraternal twins.

Correct. Depending on the drug, 10–25% of multiple births result from using fertility drugs.

  1. No, the use of fertility drugs is in no way related in giving birth to twins.
  2. No, having twins is unpredictable and modern medicine has not been able to alter the process in any way.
  3. Yes, infertility drugs have shown to increase the rate of identical twins; however these pregnancies have a much higher rate of miscarriage than non-multiple pregnancies.

Incorrect. Fertility drugs increase the possibility of more than one ovum being released.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 74

Skill: A

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

% correct 41      a= 41  b= 6  c= 24  d= 29      r = .48

 

  1. What fertility technique extracts ova, combines them with sperm, and, after a few days, implants two or three blastocysts into the woman’s uterus?
  2. in vitro fertilization
  3. nutritional supplements
  4. surrogate motherhood
  5. artificial insemination

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1

Page: 75

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In vitro fertilization, or IVF, has improved in recent years. What is the current rate of success of IVF?
  2. 15%
  3. 35%

Correct: Success rates for IVF are about 35% for women under 35.

  1. 55%

Incorrect: The current rate of success of IVF is 35% for women under 35.

  1. 75%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1

Page: 75

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What theory argued that for conception to occur, both the man and the woman had to emit a “seed” and that the “seed” was only released through orgasm?
  2. mutual orgasm theory
  3. animal theory
  4. ovist theory

Incorrect: The semence theory argued for conception to occur that both the man and the woman had to emit a “seed” and that the seed was only released during orgasm.

  1. semence theory

Correct. This was the dominant theory of conception in the West for more than two millennia.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1

Page: 75

Skill: C

Learning Objective: 2.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.8

 

  1. Which of the following countries are included within the infertility belt across central Africa?
  2. Ethiopia, South Africa, and Liberia
  3. Cameroon, Sudan, and the Republic of the Congo
  4. Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam
  5. Nigeria, Chad, and Libya

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 76

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ are two possible causes for the higher rates of infertility in countries found in Africa.
  2. Malnutrition and sexually transmitted infections
  3. Warmer climate and higher levels of libido
  4. Religious attitude on sexuality and encouragement of larger families
  5. Poor sanitation and dietary habits

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 76

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 2.3.6, CE 2.3.4

 

  1. In most collectivist cultures, motherhood is an essential part of a female’s identity and if infertility occurs she may ____.
  2. travel to the city and seek fertility treatment
  3. use herbal remedies and consult a shaman
  4. become anxious and overly depressed
  5. divorce her husband and seek another who is more fertile

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 77

Skill: F

Learning Objective: 2.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 2.3.13

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. In addition to characteristic facial features, what other types of medical/physical complications might a person caring for an individual with Down Syndrome expect?

Answer: They are more at risk of heart problems, leukemia, cancer and their life expectancy is lower than average.

Page: 67-68

Learning Objective: 2.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. Which prenatal period is considered a critical period when teratogens are most likely to have severe and enduring effects? Why?

Answer: The embryonic period because this is when all the major organs and systems are forming.

Page: 68

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. What are two consequences of a folic acid deficiency?

Answer: Anencephaly- part of the brain is missing or deformed.

-Spina bifida- the spine is deformed and does not close.

Page: 68-69

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. What are the long-term effects FASD (in addition to characteristic physiological features)?

Answer: In childhood, there are cognitive deficits that put them behind academically and socially. In addition, in adolescence, they are at risk for delinquency, substance abuse, and depression.

Page: 70-71

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

 

  1. Which test can be done earlier: amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS)? Explain each.

Answer: CVS can be done earlier, at about 5-10 weeks gestation versus 15-20 weeks. CVS entails inserting a tube through the vagina and into the uterus to remove cells from what will eventually the umbilical cord. Amniocentesis involves inserting a needle into abdomen to remove amniotic fluid which contains cells that have been sloughed off from the developing organism. Both are used to detect genetic problems.

Page: 72

Learning Objective: 2.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Explain how prenatal health can depend on when the child was conceived in places where diet varies greatly depending upon which foods are available at different times of the year.

Answer: If there are little or no fruits or vegetables available, as in China in the ‘80’s, babies can be born with folic acid deficiencies. This caused anencephaly and spina bifida.

Page: 69

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. You are out to dinner with your friend who is in her second trimester of pregnancy. You order a beer and she proceeds to order a glass of wine. When you raise a concern about alcohol being dangerous for the developing fetus, she replies, “My doctor told me it was okay to have a glass of wine once in a while.” What is your evaluation of this advice?

Answer: No safe amount of alcohol has been determined during pregnancy. Even a few drinks can put a developing fetus at risk for lower height, weight, and head size and heavy drinking causes FASD. There is a dose-response relation between alcohol and negative effects.

Page: 70-71

Learning Objective: 2.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 2.3.1.         One in ____ children has a chromosomal disorder.

  1. 20
  2. 200
  3. 2,000
  4. 20,000

Answer: b

Page: 67

 

Pre 2.3.2.         Which of the following is a correlating factor with Down syndrome?

  1. Maternal exposure to radiation
  2. A family’s socioeconomic status
  3. The mother’s age
  4. The father’s sperm count

Answer: c

Page: 67

 

Pre 2.3.3.         Drugs that are used for infertility have been shown to increase the likelihood of ______.

  1. blood clots
  2. diabetes
  3. near sightedness
  4. ear infections

Answer: a

Page: 70

 

Pre 2.3.4.         Infertility is defined as ______.

  1. low sperm count
  2. the presence of endometriosis
  3. the inability to conceive after trying for a year
  4. low desire to conceive

Answer: c

Page: 74

 

Pre 2.3.5.         The ____ theory proposed that conception occurs when both the male and female emit their “seeds” during intercourse.

  1. Mutual orgasm
  2. Animal
  3. Ovist
  4. Semence

Answer: d

Page: 69

 

Pre 2.3.6.         Which of the following is the cheapest, easiest, and safest way for physicians to monitor fetal development?

  1. Ultrasound
  2. Amniocentesis
  3. Spinal tap
  4. Genetic counseling

Answer: a

Page: 76

 

Pre 2.3.7.         Down syndrome is sometimes referred to as trisomy-21 because individuals who have Down syndrome ______.

  1. have 3 distinct facial features by the 21st week of pregnancy
  2. show 3 distinct temperament patterns by the 21st week of infancy
  3. have a third chromosome on the 21st pair
  4. have 21 genes on the 3rd pair of chromosomes

Answer: c

Page: 69

 

Pre 2.3.8.         Your sister, who is pregnant, is smoking a cigarette. Which of the following is the most appropriate advice for your sister?

  1. There are known side effects to smoking while pregnant. She needs to stop.
  2. Research has shown that smoking is harmless.
  3. She needs to put the cigarette out and wait until the 3rd trimester to begin smoking again.
  4. Only second hand smoke is harmful, she can continue.

Answer: a

Page: 75

 

Pre 2.3.9.         Which of the following couples is most suited for genetic counseling? Merriam and Samir who are in their early 40s and have a history of miscarriages and infertility. JJ and Jennifer who are in their early 30s and have just completed an unsuccessful round of artificial insemination.  Stephen and Kerry who are in their early 20s and have been trying to become pregnant but have been unsuccessful for the last two months.  Ngyuen and Pham who are in their early 30s but both have a history of diabetes.

  1. Merriam and Samir
  2. JJ and Jennifer
  3. Stephen and Kerry
  4. Ngyuen and Pham

Answer: a

Page: 72

 

Pre 2.3.10.       In speaking with a friend, she tells you that she is on an infertility drug and is excited to have twins. Which of the following is the most appropriate based upon the text?

  1. Fertility drugs increase the rate of multiple births by increasing the probability of releasing more than one ovum, which might lead to fraternal twins.
  2. The use of fertility drugs is in no way related to giving birth to twins.
  3. Having twins is unpredictable and modern medicine has not been able to alter the process in any way.
  4. Infertility drugs have been shown to increase the rate of identical twins; however these pregnancies have a much higher rate of miscarriage than non-multiple pregnancies.

Answer: a

Page: 74

 

Post-Test

 

Post 2.3.1.        During meiosis, which of the following best describes a chromosome’s failure to divide properly resulting in a person having 45 or 47 chromosomes?

  1. Chromosomal disorder
  2. Genetic misprinting
  3. Mitosis air
  4. Gene displacement

Answer: a

Page: 67

 

Post 2.3.2.        Individuals with Down syndrome have ____ chromosomes.

  1. 45
  2. 46
  3. 47
  4. 48

Answer: c

Page: 67

 

Post 2.3.3.        According to the text, ____ is the most common cause of infertility in women.

  1. alcohol
  2. stress
  3. inability to ovulate
  4. smoking

Answer: c

Page: 73

 

Post 2.3.4.        If a woman cannot ovulate properly, which of the following is the most common approach to her infertility?

  1. Fertility drugs
  2. Herbal therapy
  3. Stress management and reduction
  4. Eliminating nutritional deficiencies

Answer: a

Page: 74

 

Post 2.3.5.        In regards to pregnancy and infertility, why does it take a male who is 40 longer than a male who is 25 to impregnate his partner?

  1. Decrease in the quantity and quality of sperm
  2. Lack of libido
  3. Endometriosis
  4. Partner’s fertility

Answer: a

Page: 73

 

Post 2.3.6.        A known teratogen, ____ is another name for German measles.

  1. Cephalopelvic disproportion
  2. Rubella
  3. Mumps
  4. Hydroencephalitis

Answer: b

Page: 70

 

Post 2.3.7.        Adding ____ to grain products has greatly reduced the number of infants born with spina bifida.

  1. iodine
  2. fluoride
  3. folic acid
  4. high fructose corn syrup

Answer: c

Page: 69

 

Post 2.3.8.        You have a couple with whom you are friends and they are trying to conceive their first child. The wife is over 40 years old and they are concerned that they may have a child with Down syndrome. Which of the following would be most beneficial for your friends?

  1. An ultrasound and genetic counseling
  2. An amniocentesis and PET scan
  3. An amniocentesis and ultrasound
  4. A Chorinic villus sampling and fMRI

Answer: a

Page: 72

 

Post 2.3.9.        While volunteering at a local hospital you notice an infant who has facial deformities, misshapen limbs, and are told that he has heart problems and is diagnosed with mental retardation.  Based upon the reading, which of the following might this infant have?

  1. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
  2. Autism
  3. Prader-Willi syndrome
  4. Measles

Answer: a

Page: 70

 

Post 2.3.10.      The following are couples who are attempting to conceive a child.  Based upon your understanding of the text, which of the following couples would be the most appropriate candidate for genetic counseling?

Jennifer and Jess who are in their early 30s but both have a history of diabetes. Vicky and Steven who are in their early 40s and have a history of miscarriages and infertility. Lashandra and Lamar who are in early 20s and have been trying to become pregnant but have been unsuccessful for the last two months. Billy Ray and Miley who are in their early 30s and have just completed an unsuccessful round of artificial insemination.

  1. Vicky and Steven
  2. Lashandra and Lamar
  3. Billy Ray and Miley
  4. Jennifer and Jess

Answer: a

Page: 72

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 2.3.1.         From a global perspective, ____ is the most common teratogen to affect pregnancies?

  1. lead
  2. malnutrition
  3. alcohol
  4. rubella

Answer: b

Page: 68

 

CE 2.3.2.         According to the text, during conception what happens to most zygotes that have too many or too few chromosomes?

  1. They are spontaneously aborted.
  2. They result in neonates with birth defects.
  3. They result in twins.
  4. They have no problems.

Answer: a

Page: 67

 

CE 2.3.3.         _____ are known risk factors associated with fertility drugs.

  1. Blood clots, kidney damage, and damage to the ovaries
  2. Hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and gastrointestinal problems
  3. Diabetes, endometriosis, and eczema
  4. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts

Answer: a

Page: 74

 

CE 2.3.4.         Which of the following are 2 possible causes for high infertility rates in some African countries?

  1. Malnutrition and sexually transmitted infections
  2. Warmer climates and higher levels of libido
  3. Religious attitude on sexuality and encouragement of large families
  4. Poor sanitation in dietary habits

Answer: a

Page: 76

 

CE 2.3.5.         Which of the following best describes possible routes for HIV/AIDS transmission from a mother to her child?

  1. during prenatal development through blood, during birth, or through breast milk
  2. through casual skin-to-skin contact such as hugs and kisses
  3. via bacterial infections during times of illness while pregnant
  4. through HIV bacteria being transmitted via contaminated environmental objects

Answer: a

Page: 70

 

CE 2.3.6.         In which the following areas do 95% of all HIV infections take place?

  1. Australia
  2. Asia
  3. Europe
  4. Africa

Answer: d

Page: 70

 

CE 2.3.7.         Which of the following is a paternal behavior that, if committed during pregnancy, can lead to a higher risk of low birth weight and childhood cancer for the unborn child?

  1. Mega dosing of vitamins
  2. Drinking of alcohol
  3. Smoking cigarettes
  4. Cocaine use

Answer: c

Page: 71

 

CE 2.3.8.         Which of the following is a reason for a couple to seek genetic counseling before attempting to conceive?

  1. They might be carriers for a genetic disorder.
  2. They live in a high-risk area.
  3. They want to have a high IQ baby.
  4. They want a particular characteristic in their offspring.

Answer: a

Page: 72

 

CE 2.3.9.         What percent of infertility problems can be traced back to the male?

  1. 20%
  2. 30%
  3. 40%
  4. 50%

Answer: d

Page: 73

 

CE 2.3.10.       Mehrak and Emma are seeking fertility treatment and were informed by their physician that Mehrak’s sperm-count is low and the quality is poor. Which of the following suggestions might help increase his sperm production and quality?

  1. Quit smoking, decrease alcohol consumption, and do not abuse drugs
  2. Start a vitamin C regimen, consume more folic acid, and take a multivitamin
  3. Exercise daily, increase nicotine consumption, and reduce stress
  4. Avoid wearing boxer shorts and switch to tighter underwear

Answer: a

Page: 73

 

CE 2.3.11.       Throughout history and in most cultures, infertility has been regarded mostly as a problem originating from ______.

  1. a lack of spiritual commitment
  2. the male
  3. the female
  4. both the male and the female

Answer: c

Page: 74

 

CE 2.3.12.       Sara was informed by her physician that she is not ovulating properly. Which of the following is her physician’s most likely course of treatment?

  1. Fertility drugs
  2. Eliminating nutritional deficiencies
  3. Increasing herbal consumption
  4. Decreasing stress and increasing caffeine intake

Answer: a

Page: 74

 

CE 2.3.13.       For many cultures, if a female is childless and desires to conceive, she may:

  1. Use herbal remedies and consult a Shaman.
  2. travel to the city and seek fertility treatment.
  3. become depressed or even suicidal.
  4. divorce her husband and seek a younger partner.

Answer: a

Page: 77

 

CE 2.3.14.       Your sister just gave birth to a new baby. In speaking with her, she tells you that the baby was born with an extremely deformed spinal column and continues by calling it _____.

  1. spina bifida
  2. endometriosis
  3. microencephaly
  4. cleft palate

Answer: a

Page: 69

 

CE 2.3.15.       Your sister just found out that she is pregnant after trying for nine months. Now she fears that she is going to have a baby with a chromosomal disorder. You try to assure her by telling her that the rate of babies born with chromosomal disorders is _____.

  1. 1 in 200
  2. 1 in 2,000
  3. 1 in 20,000
  4. 1 in 20

Answer: a

Page: 67

 

Quick Review

 

QR 2.3.1.         In developed countries, ____ is the leading cause for low birth weight

  1. smoking
  2. cocaine use
  3. drinking alcohol
  4. mega-dosing of vitamins

Answer: a

Page: 71

 

QR 2.3.2.         Which of the following is a treatment for a sex chromosomal disorder during adolescence?

  1. role playing therapy
  2. hormone replacement therapy
  3. group therapy
  4. behavioral cognitive therapy

Answer: b

Page: 67

 

QR 2.3.3.         A person with Down Syndrome has ____ chromosomes.

  1. 45
  2. 46
  3. 47
  4. 48

Answer: c

Page: 67

 

QR 2.3.4.         ____ maternal behavior during pregnancy is related to a higher prevalence of conduct disorder and substance abuse during adolescence.

  1. Smoking cigarettes
  2. Cocaine use
  3. Excessive alcohol consumption
  4. Mega-dosing of vitamins

Answer: a

Page: 71

 

QR 2.3.5.         ____ are 3 primary sources of male infertility.

  1. Sperm death, poor sperm mobility, and low seminal fluid
  2. Erectile difficulties, decreased libido, and low sperm count
  3. Low sperm production, poor sperm quality or poor sperm movement
  4. Low sperm production, increase libido, and poor sperm movement

Answer: a

Page: 73

 

QR 2.3.6.         What are two common consequences of sex chromosome disorders?

  1. Cognitive deficits and abnormal development of the reproductive system at puberty.
  2. The infant may have a shortened stature and the likelihood to develop nonorganic failure to thrive.
  3. An increased likelihood to have a pregnancy that is preterm and an infant with low birth weight.
  4. The infant is more likely to have a difficult temperament and an insecure attachment.

Answer: a

Page: 67

 

QR 2.3.7.         What is another name for Down syndrome?

  1. Trisomy-21
  2. Quint-36
  3. Quad-29
  4. Hex-12

Answer: a

Page: 67

 

QR 2.3.8.         ____ is the period of prenatal development that is considered the critical period where teratogens can have a profound effect.

  1. Embryonic period
  2. Conception
  3. Germinal period
  4. Fetal period

Answer: a

Page: 68

 

QR 2.3.9.         During pregnancy, deficiencies in ____ may result in anencephaly and spina bifida.

  1. folic acid
  2. fluoride
  3. calcium
  4. vitamin E

Answer: a

Page: 69

 

QR 2.3.10.       During prenatal development, which of the following sexually transmitted infections can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus?

  1. HIV/AIDS
  2. Syphilis
  3. Herpes
  4. Gonorrhea

Answer: a

Page: 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice Test Questions from the Textbook

 

  1. Keisha has inherited one recessive gene for the sickle-cell trait along with one normal dominant gene. As a result of this ______________ , she is resistant to malaria and does not have sickle-cell anemia.
  2. dominant-recessive inheritance
  3. incomplete dominance
  4. polygenic inheritance
  5. reaction range

ANS: B (L.O. 2.1) p. 46

% correct  50     a= 28  b= 50  c= 11  d= 0      r = .35

 

  1. Who has the greatest risk of developing hemophilia, which is an X-linked recessive disorder?
  2. a female who has one X chromosome that contains the gene for this disorder
  3. a male who has one X chromosome that contains the gene for this disorder
  4. males and females with one X chromosome that contains the gene for the disorder will have equal risk
  5. only Native Americans, due to their unique genetic makeup

ANS: B (L.O. 2.2) p. 49

 

  1. Which of the following questions would a behavioral geneticist be most likely to ask?
  2. “Why are children in the same family so different from one another?”
  3. “Are preterm babies more likely to have learning difficulties during the school years?”
  4. “How can prenatal tests be used to detect Down syndrome?”
  5. “What effects does alcohol have on the developing organism?”

ANS: A (L.O. 2.3) p. 50

 

  1. Why has there has been little change in the average height in Western countries over the last few decades?
  2. The population has become overweight or obese, which negatively affects height.
  3. People in Western countries have been exposed to more diseases.
  4. People have reached the upper boundary of their reaction range for height.
  5. Evolutionary influences are causing all populations to decrease in height.

ANS: C (L.O. 2.4) p. 52

% correct  61     a= 17  b= 0  c= 61  d= 11      r = .40

 

  1. John is short for his age and is very coordinated. Although exposed to a variety of activities, none has particularly interested him. His father, who used to wrestle when he was younger, signs John up for wrestling thinking this could be the perfect sport. He convinces John to give it a try and John goes on to become a champion wrestler. This is an example of
  2. passive genotype → environment effects.
  3. evocative genotype → environment effects.
  4. active genotype → environment effects.
  5. heritability.

ANS: A (L.O. 2.5) pp. 52–53

 

  1. As a result of the process of crossing over
  2. the risk of Down syndrome is increased.
  3. boys are more likely to be born with a learning disability.
  4. women are at increased risk for infertility.
  5. each child born to a set of parents is genetically unique (with the exception of identical twins).

ANS: D (L.O. 2.6) p. 56

 

  1. S. J. is most likely to have DZ twins if
  2. she has Asian biological parents.
  3. she is in her late teens.
  4. she is concerned about gaining too much weight and severely restricts her calorie intake.
  5. her mother had DZ twins.

ANS: D (L.O. 2.7) p. 57

 

  1. If a woman learns that her infertility problem is due to a problem with the ______________ successfully implanting, something went wrong during the germinal period.
  2. zygote
  3. blastocyst
  4. fetus
  5. trophoblast

ANS: B (L.O. 2.8) p. 60

 

  1. During the embryonic period
  2. the blastocyst forms.
  3. the zygote is created.
  4. the zygote attaches to the uterine wall.
  5. the nervous system develops.

ANS: D (L.O. 2.9) p. 60

 

  1. Saad, a baby born 6 weeks prematurely is more at risk of not surviving than Nona, a baby who is full term because Saad’s ______________ is/are still immature.
  2. small intestines
  3. heart
  4. lungs
  5. spleen

ANS: C (L.O. 2.10) p. 61

 

  1. In traditional cultures, prenatal massage
  2. is usually done only when there is reason to believe that the fetus is not developing properly.
  3. is usually considered dangerous.
  4. has beneficial effects for both mother and fetus.
  5. is almost exclusively performed by the pregnant mother herself in complete isolation.

ANS: C (L.O. 2.11) p. 63

 

  1. K. M. is an American woman of healthy weight who went to the doctor for her second prenatal checkup. What would be LEAST LIKELY recommended by her physician?
  2. to increase her fluid intake
  3. to avoid exercise as much as possible, especially aerobic activities
  4. to increase her caloric intake
  5. to be sure she is getting enough iron and folic acid in her diet

ANS: B (L.O. 2.12) p. 65

 

  1. A child who has an X0 chromosomal makeup (where 0 denotes a missing chromosome where there is supposed to be a 23rd pair) will most likely:
  2. be a male with Down syndrome.
  3. be a female who will later experience problems in the development of the reproductive system.
  4. be a typical female who will not experience cognitive or physical problems.
  5. not survive past the age of 3.

ANS: B (L.O. 2.13) p. 67

 

  1. K. L.’s baby was born blind, deaf, and with mental retardation. It is most likely that during her pregnancy she.
  2. contracted AIDS.
  3. had rubella.
  4. had a severe nutritional deficiency.
  5. ate foods that were too high in folic acid.

ANS: B (L.O. 2.14) p. 70

 

  1. Carissa has a family history of Down syndrome and is in her 5th week of pregnancy. She decides that she would like to find out as early as possible whether her unborn child has Down syndrome or any other genetic abnormality. What test is she most likely to get?
  2. fetal monitoring
  3. ultrasound
  4. amniocentesis
  5. chorionic villus sampling

ANS: D (L.O. 2.15) p. 72

 

  1. Sam would be LEAST LIKELY to be infertile if
  2. his sperm have been found to be low in motility.
  3. he is under the age of 25.
  4. he smokes marijuana and binge drinks.
  5. his sperm count has been found to be low.

ANS: B (L.O. 2.16) p. 73

 

  1. Fertility drugs
  2. lead to pregnancy in virtually all women if they take them long enough.
  3. decrease a woman’s chances of having DZ twins.
  4. are also known in the medical community as in vitro fertilization.
  5. carry risks such as blood clots and kidney damage.

ANS: D (L.O. 2.17) p. 74

 

  1. A married woman from a non-Western, collectivist culture has been unable to have a child for over 3 years. Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY?
  2. She will have a lower status relative to her husband.
  3. She will get a lot of social support from her mother- and father-in-law.
  4. She will try an herbal remedy.
  5. She will be blamed for this “problem.”

ANS: D (L.O. 2.18) p. 77

% correct  78     a= 0  b= 0  c= 11  d= 78      r = .51

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What are your thoughts on genetic counseling after viewing this clip? Did you have any thoughts or opinions on genetic counseling prior to viewing the clip? If so, did viewing this clip change your opinion?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. Would you/Did you seek genetic counseling during your pregnancy? Why or why not? Would you recommend it to others?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. The professional interviewed in this clip lists several reasons why individuals might consider genetic counseling. List and describe at least three of these reasons.

Answer: Answers will vary, but should include at least 3 of the following: Genetic counselors can provide information about a diagnosis to help individuals better understand it. They can provide testing to help in the diagnosis of a child. Genetic counseling can help diagnose an adult onset disorder, or conduct prenatal testing. Individuals carry approximately 5-8 lethal recessive genes, and genetic counseling can help individuals better understand through testing and physical exams as well as information gathering. 

Learning Objective: 2.15

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. How many lethal recessive genes would a typical person carry?
  2. 0-1
  3. 5-8
  4. 25-50
  5. 100-200

Answer: B

 

  1. According to the genetic counselor interviewed in this video segment, about how many human genes are there?
  2. 20,000
  3. 30,000
  4. 45,000
  5. 90,000

Answer: B

 

  1. Who generally has the right to decide the course of treatment, should a genetic condition be diagnosed prenatally?
  2. the doctor
  3. the genetic counselor
  4. the family
  5. It depends on the severity of the condition and the cause of the condition.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 2.15

 

Chapter 12 Late Adulthood

 

Section 1 Physical Development 1370

Test Item File. 1370

Multiple Choice Questions. 1370

Short Answer Questions. 1401

Essay Questions. 1402

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank. 1403

Pre-Test 1403

Post-Test 1405

Chapter Exam.. 1407

Quick Review.. 1409

Video Guide Questions. 1412

Short Answer Questions. 1412

Multiple Choice Questions. 1412

Section 2 Cognitive Development 1415

Test Item File. 1415

Multiple Choice Questions. 1415

Short Answer Questions. 1442

Essay Questions. 1442

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank. 1445

Pre-Test 1445

Post-Test 1447

Chapter Exam.. 1449

Quick Review.. 1452

Video Guide Questions. 1454

Short Answer Questions. 1454

Multiple Choice Questions. 1454

Section 3 Emotional and Social Development 1457

Test Item File. 1457

Multiple Choice Questions. 1457

Short Answer Questions. 1484

Essay Questions. 1485

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank. 1488

Pre-Test 1488

Post-Test 1490

Chapter Exam.. 1492

Quick Review.. 1495

Video Guide Questions. 1498

Short Answer Questions. 1498

Multiple Choice Questions. 1498

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1 Physical Development

 

 

Test Item File

 

Difficulty

1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult

 

Learning Objective number refers to the textbook’s learning objectives.

 

MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.

Pre=Pre-Test

Post=Post-Test

CE=Chapter Exam

QR=Quick Review

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Late adulthood is usually marked off by developmental psychologists as beginning at age ____.
  2. 55 years
  3. 60 years
  4. 65 years
  5. 70 years

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.1, QR 12.1.1

 

  1. In what country is there a Respect for the Aged Day, which is a national holiday?
  2. the United States
  3. Japan
  4. the Netherlands
  5. Greece

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your roommate was talking about how after the academic year he is going back to Japan. His grandfather is turning 60 years old and they have a ritual that symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities and elevates the individual to a new and respected status as elder. What is the name of this ritual?
  2. kanreki

Correct. Kanreki refers to the Japanese ritual that symbolizes a person’s status elevation to that of a respected elder.

  1. sensei

Incorrect. Sensei is a Japanese term of respect.

  1. koto
  2. utsubo

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.9

 

  1. The practice that no matter how old children are, they owe obedience and respect to their parents, no matter how old the parents are is ____.
  2. momma love
  3. children imperative
  4. parental positive regard

Incorrect. The term for this concept is filial piety.

  1. filial piety

Correct. The term for this concept is filial piety.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.8

 

  1. The stage of late adulthood begins at age ____.
  2. 55
  3. 60
  4. 65
  5. 70

Answer: a

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.2

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the Japanese ritual of kanreki?
  2. It celebrates a person’s retirement from work and marks a time of leisure and rest.
  3. It celebrates a person’s 60th birthday and their transition into the respected status of an elder.

Correct. Usually held around the person’s 60th birthday, the ritual symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities.

  1. It celebrates a person’s movement into young adulthood and marks a time of personal and social responsibility.

Incorrect. Usually held around the person’s 60th birthday, the ritual symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities.

  1. It celebrates a person’s graduation from college and their transition into the workforce as a productive member of society.

Answer: b

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Aoi is Japanese and just turned 60 years old, the celebration that his family will have to mark the occasion is called ____.
  2. tomoko
  3. kanreki
  4. yoko
  5. ayaka

Answer: b

Page: 553

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.1

 

  1. In Asian cultures, the tradition of filial piety is ____.
  2. obedience and respect to parents, no matter how old they are
  3. honor and trust to everyone in the family
  4. loyalty to the laws and codes of society
  5. commitment to one’s family and their village

Answer: a

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty:

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Older people are more likely to have high status in cultures where:
  2. older adults are quite virile
  3. extended families are common

Correct. Older adults are more likely to have high status in cultures in which extended families are common.

  1. older adult men have very young wives
  2. older adult women are the head of the families

Incorrect. Older adults are more likely to have high status in cultures in which extended families are common.

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.9

 

  1. An analysis of American television advertisements containing older adults (Miller et al., 2004) found that what percentage of them presented older adults in positive ways?
  2. 78%
  3. 68%
  4. 58%
  5. 48%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Increased social welfare and health entitlements during the 1960s and 1970s have now made older adults ____.
  2. independent and powerful
  3. dependent on social programs

Incorrect. Older adults are the wealthiest segment of the United States population.

  1. the wealthiest segment of developed countries

Correct. Older adults are the wealthiest segment of the United States population.

  1. the least wealthy segment of developed countries

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You are speaking with your 67-year-old grandfather who is jokingly telling you that he is about as old as one can get. Remembering your developmental class, what do you know about his age in reference to the lifespan? He is actually in the ____.
  2. young-old group

Correct. Your grandfather is in the young-old group, ages 65–74.

  1. old-old group

Incorrect. Your grandfather is in the young-old group, ages 65–74.

  1. middle-old group
  2. oldest-old group

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If an older adult is 82 years old, what developmental group would he or she be in?
  2. young-old group
  3. old-old group

Correct. An 82-year-old adult would be in the old-old group.

  1. middle-old group

Incorrect. An 82-year-old adult would be in the old-old group.

  1. oldest-old group

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If an older adult is 92 years old, what developmental group would he or she be in?
  2. young-old group
  3. old-old group
  4. middle-old group

Incorrect. A 92-year-old adult would be in the oldest-old group.

  1. oldest-old group

Correct. A 92-year-old adult would be in the oldest-old group.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A developmental psychologist and demographer would describe an individual who is 85 years or older as ____.
  2. young-old
  3. old-old
  4. oldest-old
  5. older-old

Answer: c

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.2

 

  1. What percentage of Americans over 85 are impaired enough in their ADL capacities to be institutionalized in a nursing home or other facility?
  2. 10%
  3. 25%
  4. 50%
  5. 80%

Answer: b

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.1

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Countries that have a birth rate that is below 2.1 children per woman ____.
  2. will see a decline in their total population
  3. will see an increase in the total population
  4. will see a leveling off in their total population
  5. are unable to predict population values

Answer: a

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.2

 

  1. The old-age dependency ratio (OADR) is calculated as the number of persons ____.
  2. age 65 or older, divided by the number of persons age 20 to 64
  3. age 20 to 64, divided by the number of persons age 65 or older
  4. age 55 or older, multiplied by the number of persons age 18 or older
  5. age 55 or older, added to the number of persons age 21 or older

Answer: a

Page: 555–6

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The number of persons aged 65 or older, divided by the number of persons age 20–64 is known as ____.
  2. young adulthood as compared to aging (YACA)
  3. old-age comparison to youthfulness (OACY)
  4. age of retirement compared to the age of productivity (ARCAP)
  5. old-age dependency ratio (OADR)

Answer: d

Page: 555–6

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 94-year-old great-grandmother is having difficulty with bathing, dressing, food preparation and eating, housekeeping, and paying bills. Your family is considering getting some professional nursing care for her. During the interview with the nursing care provider, the nurse asks what your great-grandmother’s major concerns are. What would you tell the nurse?
  2. activities of daily living

Correct. The difficulties center around activities of daily living.

  1. self-care activities

Incorrect. The difficulties center around activities of daily living.

  1. grooming behavior
  2. adult activities

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.1.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.10

 

  1. What percentage of persons over age 80 years rated their health as “good” or “excellent?”
  2. 16%
  3. 33%
  4. 48%
  5. 64%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of Americans over 85 years of age are impaired enough to be institutionalized in a nursing home or other facility?
  2. 15%
  3. 25%
  4. 35%
  5. 45%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What concept signifies the actual competence and performance of older adults?
  2. functional age

Correct. Functional age refers to the actual competence and performance of older adults’ abilities.

  1. chronological age
  2. competency age

Incorrect. Functional age refers to the actual competence and performance of older adults’ abilities.

  1. geriatric age

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.2

 

  1. Your grandfather is joking that there are going to be more people over 60 years of age than there will be people under 15 soon. He says that there will not be enough people working to cover the costs of Social Security. By what year will people over 60 years of age outnumber those under age 15?
  2. 2020
  3. 2030
  4. 2040

Incorrect. In 2050 it is projected that the number of individuals older than 60 will be larger than the number of individuals under age 15 for the first time in history.

  1. 2050

Correct. In 2050 it is projected that the number of individuals older than 60 will be larger than the number of individuals under age 15 for the first time in history.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.3

 

  1. What is the ratio of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20 to 64 years (number of persons aged 65 years or older/number of persons 20 to 64) referred to as?
  2. Medicare ratio
  3. old-age dependency ratio

Correct. This ratio is referred to as the old-age dependency ratio since those older than 65 are more likely to be dependent on the resources of those younger than age 65.

  1. older adult to younger adult ratio

Incorrect. This ratio is referred to as the old-age dependency ratio since those older than 65 are more likely to be dependent on the resources of those younger than age 65.

  1. Social Security ratio

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 555

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the ratio of the number of person aged 65 years or older to the number of person aged 20 to 64 years in Japan?
  2. 25%
  3. 35%
  4. 45%
  5. 55%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  3

Page: 556

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.
  2. Primary aging
  3. Secondary aging
  4. Lateral aging
  5. Tertiary aging

Answer: a

Page: 558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.4

 

  1. ____ is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.
  2. Primary aging
  3. Tertiary aging
  4. Lateral aging
  5. Secondary aging

Answer: D

Page: 558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms, whereas ____ is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.
  2. Tertiary aging; vertical aging
  3. Vertical aging; tertiary aging
  4. Primary aging; secondary aging
  5. Secondary aging; primary aging

Answer: c

Page: 558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In developed countries, what is the life expectancy of a person who is 65 years old?
  2. 5 to 10 additional years
  3. 15 to 20 additional years
  4. 25 to 30 additional years
  5. 35 to 40 additional years

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3

Page: 557

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Around the world, about how much longer will women at age 65 live longer than men?
  2. 5 additional years
  3. 10 additional years
  4. 15 additional years
  5. 20 additional years

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3

Page: 557

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.3

 

  1. Your grandmother is 87 and she has remarked to you that nearly all of her friends are women. She told you that it is rare to see a man over age 85. Is she correct? Yes, past age 85, for every 100 men there are ____.
  2. 678 women
  3. 452 women
  4. 226 women

Correct. Past age 85, for every 100 men there are 226 women.

  1. 113 women

Incorrect. Past age 85, for every 100 men there are 226 women.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3

Page: 557

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the term that is used to describe the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species?
  2. primary aging

Correct. The term used to describe the inevitable biological aging process is primary aging.

  1. secondary aging

Incorrect. The term used to describe the inevitable biological aging process is primary aging.

  1. tertiary aging
  2. quaternary aging

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the term that is used to describe the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution?
  2. primary aging

Incorrect. The term used to describe the loss in functioning due to lifestyle behaviors is secondary aging.

  1. secondary aging

Correct. The term used to describe the loss in functioning due to lifestyle behaviors is secondary aging.

  1. tertiary aging
  2. quaternary aging

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.5

 

  1. Your grandmother has quite a bit of gray hair. She told you that she first started getting gray hair when she was 52 and it keeps getting grayer each year. What is happening that her hair is getting gray?
  2. Gray pigments occur more frequently in older adults.

Incorrect. Gray hair occurs because there is a loss of pigment from the hair.

  1. The hair becomes more transparent in old age.
  2. Stress creates more gray pigment to appear in older adults.
  3. Most people experience loss of pigment that provides hair color.

Correct. Gray hair occurs because there is a loss of pigment from the hair.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.6

 

  1. What percentage of women older than 60 years of age exhibit osteoporosis?
  2. 33%
  3. 44%
  4. 55%
  5. 66%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What are age-related changes that occur due to the accumulation of decades of exposure to the sun, and are most likely to develop on light-skinned persons and on the part of the bodies that receive the most sun exposure: the face, arms, and hands?
  2. melanoma
  3. age spots
  4. sun tan
  5. age-related pigmentosa

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 5′ 8″-tall grandfather always jokes that he used to be 6′ 2″. All of the other males in your family average about 5′ 10″ tall. Is he telling the truth about his original height? No, men lose height after 60, but is usually about ____.
  2. 1.0″

Incorrect. The loss in height for males older than 60 is about 1.5 inches.

  1. 1.5″

Correct. The loss in height for males older than 60 is about 1.5 inches.

  1. 2.0″
  2. 2.5″

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of Americans over age 65 years have lost all of their natural teeth?
  2. 5%
  3. 10%
  4. 15%
  5. 20%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your neighbor is quite upset. She is 82 years old and has been having some serious vision problems. You have suggested quite a few times that she needs to see her doctor. She finally went and she was told that she has cataracts. She feels like she is the only one her age that has this problem. What could you tell her regarding what percentage of adults her age have cataracts?
  2. 90%
  3. 70%
  4. 50%

Correct. Approximately 50% of adults older than 80 years of age have cataracts.

  1. 30%

Incorrect. Approximately 50% of adults older than 80 years of age have cataracts.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.8

 

  1. What is a condition in which there is a progressive thickening of the lens causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted?
  2. macular degeneration
  3. cataracts
  4. glaucoma
  5. retinosis pigmentosa

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.3

 

  1. What is the leading cause of blindness in late adulthood for people in developing countries?
  2. macular degeneration
  3. cataracts
  4. glaucoma
  5. retinosis pigmentosa

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The hair continues to become grayer and thinner in both men and women as they age. Actually, it is not that hair turns gray or white, but that it loses the pigments that had previously made it appear to be other colors. During what stage of life is this loss of pigment the most profound?
  2. early adulthood
  3. young adulthood
  4. mid-adulthood

Incorrect. Mid-adulthood ranges from 40 to 65.

  1. late adulthood

Correct. In late adulthood the hair is already white but continues to lose pigment and thins for both men and women.

Answer: d

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.7

 

  1. The following description is of an individual in the early stages of ____? “The hair continues to become grayer and thinner in both men and women. Bones continue to thin, especially in women, which contributes to a stooped posture.”
  2. early adulthood
  3. young adulthood
  4. mid-adulthood

Incorrect. The signs of physical aging in late adulthood can be viewed as a continuation of middle adulthood.

  1. late adulthood

Correct. These are signs of physical aging that develop in late adulthood.

Answer: d

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. On the skin, many people develop “age spots,” or pools of dark pigment. Age spots are due to the accumulation of ____
  2. decades of exposure to the sun
  3. an overabundance of calcium
  4. low levels of iron
  5. undue stress and anxiety

Answer: a

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Loss of bone mass is considered ____.
  2. primary aging

Correct. Primary aging is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.

  1. secondary aging

Incorrect. Secondary aging is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.

  1. tertiary aging
  2. vertical aging

Answer: a

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.10

 

  1. Body weight decline, mainly from eating less due to changes in the hormones that regulate hunger, is considered ____.
  2. primary aging

Correct. Primary aging is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.

  1. secondary aging

Incorrect. Secondary aging is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.

  1. tertiary aging
  2. vertical aging

Answer: a

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Teeth losing enamel and becoming yellower due the accumulated effects of food, tea, coffee, and tobacco is considered ____.
  2. primary aging

Incorrect. Primary aging is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.

  1. secondary aging

Correct. Secondary aging is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.

  1. tertiary aging
  2. vertical aging

Answer: b

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.3

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is a progressive thickening of the lens causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted.
  2. A cataract
  3. Macular degeneration
  4. Glaucoma
  5. Tinnitus

Answer: a

Page: 559

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is the loss of acuity in the center of the visual field.
  2. Glaucoma
  3. A cataract
  4. Tetanus
  5. Macular degeneration

Answer: d

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.3

 

  1. In some people, fluid builds up in the eye and the pressure damages the optic nerve, leading to ____, which causes loss of peripheral vision.
  2. glaucoma
  3. a cataract
  4. tetanus
  5. macular degeneration

Answer: a

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.7

 

  1. What percentage of older adults aged 75 and older develops macular degeneration?
  2. 10%
  3. 15%
  4. 20%
  5. 25%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Aging is the main cause, but what increases the risk of macular degeneration?
  2. uncorrected vision
  3. lack of exercise
  4. eating fish and green leafy vegetables
  5. smoking

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the textbook, about what percentage of older adults aged 90 years and older have glaucoma?
  2. 10%
  3. 20%
  4. 30%
  5. 40%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of persons over 85 years old report that their visual problems are serious enough to interfere with their daily lives?
  2. 10%
  3. 20%
  4. 30%
  5. 40%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By age 70, roughly what percentage of individuals report some degree of hearing impairment?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 95%

Answer: C

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.4

 

  1. ____ involves hearing a ringing or buzzing sound with no external source.
  2. Tinnitus
  3. Glaucoma
  4. A cataract
  5. Macular degeneration

Answer: a

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Other than natural aging, which of the following are other known factors to increase the risk for hearing loss?
  2. smoking cigarettes

Correct. Most hearing impairment is due simply to aging, but as with many age-related difficulties, smoking increases the risk.

  1. excess of calcium
  2. exposure to sun

Incorrect. Exposure to sun increases age spots on the skin, but is not a factor in tinnitus.

  1. sleep deprivation

Answer: a

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.8

 

  1. About ____ of adults over age 65 report some degree of impairment in taste and smell.
  2. one-fourth
  3. one-half
  4. two-thirds
  5. three-fourths

Answer: a

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.9

 

  1. You are talking to your grandmother and you keep hearing a noise that is a little irritating to you, but your grandmother does not seem to be bothered by it. Why?
  2. She is good at ignoring irritating things.
  3. It is a high-pitched noise, so she probably does not hear it.

Correct. The noise is a high-pitched sound which older adults are not likely to hear.

  1. It is a low-pitched noise, so she probably does not hear it.

Incorrect. The noise is a high-pitched sound which older adults are not likely to hear.

  1. She lip-reads and does not hear any noises.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.8

 

  1. People who hear a ringing or buzzing sound with no external source probably have:
  2. macular degeneration
  3. presbycusis

Incorrect. Presbyscusis is the normative age-related change in hearing in which older adults cannot hear high-pitched noises.

  1. tinnitus

Correct. Tinnitus is a problem in the auditory system that entails hearing a ringing or buzzing sound.

  1. a chronic middle ear infection

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. You know that you should not be, but you are a smoker. Your grandmother has hearing aids and does not like them because they seem to amplify all types of sounds rather than just the ones she has a difficult time hearing. What is one of the things that you can do so that you do not have the same difficulties with hearing as your grandmother?
  2. Eat fish and green leafy vegetables.
  3. Practice listening very carefully to conversations.
  4. Stop smoking.

Correct. That would help, but smoking is related to hearing impairments. You should stop smoking.

  1. Turn down your mp3 player’s volume.

Incorrect. That would help, but smoking is related to hearing impairments. You should stop smoking.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Because conversations are strenuous and stressful when a person experiences hearing loss, loss of hearing can lead to ____.
  2. presbycusis
  3. social withdrawal

Correct. Hearing loss can lead to social withdrawal.

  1. thinning cilia

Incorrect. Hearing loss can lead to social withdrawal.

  1. tinnitus

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.10

 

  1. What has lessened the stigma associated with hearing aids?
  2. They are less outwardly visible.
  3. Celebrities use them.
  4. They work so well.
  5. They are a sign of maturity.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. After age 60 years, the olfactory bulbs in the brain ____.
  2. enlarge
  3. shrivel
  4. become cancerous
  5. start to dissected

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.11

 

  1. What percentage of adults over the age of 80 years have impairments in taste and smell?
  2. 80%
  3. 60%
  4. 40%
  5. 20%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Impairments in taste and smell can sometimes lead to ____.
  2. obesity
  3. alcoholism
  4. malnutrition
  5. excessive gum chewing

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In adulthood, the prevalence of sleep problems begins to increase around age ____, but increases substantially again after age ____.
  2. 10; 30
  3. 20; 40
  4. 40; 60
  5. 60; 80

Answer: c

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. From middle adulthood to late adulthood the amount of sleep people need ____.
  2. declines slightly

Correct. The amount of sleep people need declines only slightly from middle adulthood to late adulthood.

  1. declines sharply

Incorrect. It is a common misconception that older adults do not need sleep for a lengthy amount of time.

  1. increases slightly
  2. increases sharply

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.5

 

  1. In late adulthood, the amount of time spent in Stage 1, the lightest sleep, ____, and time in the deepest sleep of Stage 4 and REM sleep ____.
  2. increases; decreases
  3. decreases; increases
  4. remains the same; decreases
  5. decreases; remains the same

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best describes sleep changes during late adulthood?
  2. With age, most people come to prefer an earlier bedtime as well as an earlier wakeup time.
  3. With age, most people come to prefer a later bedtime as well as a later wakeup time.
  4. With age, most people come to prefer an earlier bedtime and a later wakeup time.
  5. With age, most people come to prefer a later bedtime and an earlier wakeup time.

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In one study comparing adults over age 65 to younger adults, most of the older adults and virtually none of the younger adults described themselves as feeling healthiest and most alert ____.
  2. “definitely late at night”
  3. “definitely midday”
  4. “definitely evenings”
  5. “definitely mornings”

Answer: d

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.4

 

  1. ____ is a sleep disorder in which breathing actually stops for 10 seconds or more numerous times in the course of a typical night, as the air passage to the lungs closes, resulting in a sudden loud snore as the airway opens again and the sleeper awakens.
  2. Sleep apnea
  3. Narcolepsy
  4. Insomnia
  5. Sleep-walking

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which are the following are correlating factors to sleep apnea?
  2. obesity and heavy alcohol use
  3. anemia and high levels of stress
  4. a hyperactive central nervous system and low calcium levels
  5. high exposure to sun and iron deficiencies

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Sleep apnea is ____.
  2. substantially more common in men than among women
  3. substantially more common in women than among men
  4. slightly more common in men than among women
  5. slightly more common in women than among men

Answer: a

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.12

 

  1. What type of sleep decreases with age?
  2. alpha stage
  3. Stage 1
  4. State 4
  5. REM

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is an especially common sleep problem of late adulthood affecting more than half of persons over age 65 years?
  2. narcolepsy
  3. sleep apnea
  4. insomnia
  5. snoring

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.5

 

  1. Your grandfather is having quite a bit of difficulty sleeping. Your grandmother told you that he sometimes stops breathing for 10 seconds or longer several times during the course of a typical night. What is the most common treatment for this difficulty?
  2. prescription medications
  3. alcohol prior to bedtime
  4. sleeping in a chair

Incorrect. The most common treatment is a continuous positive airway pressure device that is used to keep the airway open.

  1. a continuous positive airway pressure device

Correct. The most common treatment is a continuous positive airway pressure device that is used to keep the airway open.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.10

 

  1. Several aspects of aging in late adulthood contribute to sleep disturbances. For men, what leads to frequent urination and can disrupt sleep?
  2. atrophy of the bladder
  3. shrinkage of the urethra

Incorrect. Enlargement of the prostate gland leads to frequent urination and sleep disturbances.

  1. slowing of the digestive system
  2. enlargement of the prostate gland

Correct. Enlargement of the prostate gland leads to frequent urination and sleep disturbances.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.13

 

  1. What can enhance sleep for many older adults?
  2. taking naps during the day
  3. drinking alcohol before bedtime
  4. eating spicy foods

Incorrect. Regular exercise enhances sleep for not only older adults, but also for individuals of all ages.

  1. regular exercise

Correct. Regular exercise enhances sleep for not only older adults, but also for individuals of all ages.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common chronic health problem in late adulthood?
  2. jaundice
  3. arthritis
  4. osteoporosis
  5. macular degeneration

Answer: b

Page: 563

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is a disease of the joints that especially affects the hips, knees, neck, hands, and lower back.
  2. Osteoporosis
  3. Jaundice
  4. Macular degeneration
  5. Arthritis

Answer: d

Page: 563

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of women in developed countries report symptoms of arthritis?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 90%

Answer: B

Page: 563

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of adults over age 65 years in developed countries report symptoms of arthritis?
  2. 70%
  3. 50%
  4. 30%
  5. 10%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 563

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is an increasingly common and routine treatment for arthritis pain that occurs in the hip or knee?
  2. artificial joint
  3. aspirin
  4. marijuana
  5. DSMO

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 563

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Osteoporosis is a result of a steep ____.
  2. decline in estrogen and more prevalent in women

Correct. Estrogen levels drop in midlife, which creates brittleness in the bones; two-thirds of women at age 60 in developed countries report being affected by osteoporosis.

  1. increase in estrogen and more prevalent in women

Incorrect. Estrogen levels do not increase during adulthood.

  1. decline in testosterone and more prevalent in men
  2. increase in testosterone and more prevalent in men

Answer: a

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.6

 

  1. Roughly, what proportion of women age 60 in developed countries report being affected by osteoporosis?
  2. 1/4
  3. 1/3
  4. 1/2
  5. 2/3

Answer: d

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Wiona is in late adulthood and was diagnosed with a disease where her bones are very brittle, her spine is compressed, she has decreased in height, and she is susceptible to major bone breakage if she falls. Wiona most likely has which of the following diseases?
  2. osteoporosis

Correct. Osteoporosis is a thinning of bone tissue and density over time.

  1. jaundice
  2. macular degeneration

Incorrect. Osteoporosis is a thinning of bone tissue and density over time.

  1. arthritis

Answer: a

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.9

 

  1. High blood pressure is also known as ____.
  2. hypertension
  3. hypotension
  4. hydraulic tension
  5. hydrostatic tension

Answer: a

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Cataracts can be treated with ____.
  2. artificial lenses
  3. depressurizing the eyes
  4. reshaping the cornea
  5. replacing the rods and cones of the retina

Answer: a

Page: 560

Learning Objective: 12.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The risk of osteoporosis rises sharply for women in midlife as a consequence of a steep ____.
  2. reduction in estrogen

Correct. There is a steep decrease in estrogen that leads to a decrease in bone density.

  1. increase in progesterone
  2. decrease in bone density

Incorrect. There is a steep decrease in estrogen that leads to a decrease in bone density.

  1. increase in androgens

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.6, Post 12.1.5

 

  1. What percentage of women over age 65 years who experience a major bone fracture die within a year?
  2. 5%
  3. 15%
  4. 25%
  5. 35%

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your grandmother who is 72 just found out that she has osteoporosis. Her birthday is coming up and you thought you would get her a gift that would also help her improve her bone density and perhaps reverse the progress of osteoporosis. What gift should you give her?
  2. a heating pad
  3. weight-lifting equipment

Correct. Weight-lifting equipment would be a very good gift that would help to build bone mass.

  1. a cane

Incorrect. Weight-lifting equipment would be a very good gift that would help to build bone mass.

  1. salt-bath solutions

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.14

 

  1. What is the medical term for high blood pressure?
  2. hypertension
  3. arteriosclerosis
  4. atherosclerosis
  5. cardiovascular disease

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.4

 

  1. The vast difference in life expectancy between developed and developing countries is due primarily to differences in infant/child mortality and ____.
  2. diet
  3. the amount of exercise adults receive
  4. the type of job opportunities available to adults

Incorrect. Other than infant/child mortality the other major contributor is access to health care in late adulthood.

  1. access to health care in late adulthood

Correct. Other than infant/child mortality the other major contributor is access to health care in late adulthood.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.1.15

 

  1. What are the best ways to maintain good health in late adulthood? Eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly and avoid ____.
  2. accidents
  3. smoking

Correct. Maintaining good health in late adulthood involves avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

  1. divorce

Incorrect. Maintaining good health in late adulthood involves avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

  1. high-blood pressure

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2

Page: 564

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following are three lifestyle practices that are discussed in the text that have a positive influence on health?
  2. healthcare and promotion, a healthy diet, and healthy exercise

Correct. These are positive lifestyle practices.

  1. cease smoking, use sunblock, and avoid environmental teratogens

Incorrect. These are behavioral changes.

  1. health conscientiousness, a healthy community, and a healthy spirit
  2. aging gracefully, mental soundness, and physical well-being

Answer: A

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.1.7

 

  1. Calcium, zinc, and vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, and E are considered ____.
  2. micronutrients
  3. macronutrients
  4. physiological elements
  5. biological compounds

Answer: a

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. During late adulthood, poor diets that are high in fat and sugars are related to ____.
  2. obesity and cardiovascular disease

Correct. Poor diet makes obesity more likely, and in turn obesity raises the risk of disease and death, especially in middle and late adulthood. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries.

  1. hypertension and jaundice

Incorrect. Hypertension yes, but jaundice is most likely the result of a malfunctioning liver.

  1. dementia and osteoporosis
  2. diabetes and Alzheimer’s

Answer: a

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.7

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the recommended level of aerobic exercise for individuals in late adulthood?
  2. walking at a rapid pace

Correct. Aerobic exercise is recommended.

  1. cardio kickboxing
  2. heavy strength training

Incorrect. Strength training helps build muscle and bone mass, but is not considered aerobic activity.

  1. intense karate

Answer: a

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Eating a good diet is even more important in late adulthood than at earlier ages because it ____.
  2. prevents cancer
  3. decreases the likelihood of cardiovascular disease
  4. slows down primary aging

Correct. A good diet in late adulthood slows down primary aging.

  1. provides energy boosts

Incorrect. A good diet in late adulthood slows down primary aging.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.1.6

 

  1. The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in adults who are:
  2. widows/widowers
  3. sedentary

Incorrect. The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in adults who are obese.

  1. alcoholics
  2. obese

Correct. The risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in adults who are obese.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 73-year-old uncle is quite obese and is afraid that he might have serious physical and medical difficulties as a result. What would be your advice? He should lose weight because obesity raises the risk of cancer by what percentage?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to one estimate (Lovasi et al., 2007), regular vigorous exercise reduces the risk of heart attack by what percentage?
  2. 10%
  3. 30%
  4. 50%
  5. 70%

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of exercise includes walking at a rapid pace, jogging, or pedaling a stationary bike and enhances the functioning of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems?
  2. eccentric
  3. agility
  4. aerobic
  5. strength

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565–566

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of exercise builds muscle and bone mass and promotes the functioning of the circulatory system?
  2. eccentric
  3. agility

Incorrect. Aerobic exercise involves walking at a rapid pace, jogging, or pedaling a stationary bike.

  1. aerobic
  2. strength

Correct. Strength training builds muscle and bone mass and promotes the functioning of the circulatory system.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 565-566

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States what percentage of older adults between the ages of 65 and 74 years never engage in vigorous exercise?
  2. 85%
  3. 70%
  4. 55%
  5. 40%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 566

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What behavior has an astonishing range of damaging health effects including causing cancer of the lungs, mouth, throat, esophagus, larynx, bladder, kidney, cervix, pancreas, and stomach? It causes cardiovascular disease and leads to heart attacks. It also causes strokes and causes vision, hearing, taste, and smell to decline more quickly.
  2. overeating
  3. excessive drinking

Incorrect. Smoking causes all of these ills.

  1. smoking

Correct. Smoking causes all of these ills.

  1. lack of exercise

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 567

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of the adult population in the United States smoked in the 1960?
  2. 50%
  3. 40%
  4. 30%
  5. 20%

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2

Page: 567

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of the adult population in the United States smokes today?
  2. 50%
  3. 40%
  4. 30%
  5. 20%

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2

Page: 567

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What term is used to describe the number of years that individuals’ physical functioning are favorable enough for them to enjoy their lives and to perform most of their daily activities without impairment?
  2. favorable lifespan
  3. chronological lifespan
  4. active lifespan
  5. functional lifespan

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2

Page: 567

Learning Objective: 12.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.1.1

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Which cultures are known for filial piety? Include the definition in your response.

Answer: Filial piety refers to reverence and obedience to the older generation. Asian cultures are known to respect elders more than those in Western cultures.

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. At what age are people considered to be part of the oldest-old group? Can you think of someone who does not meet this age criteria, but still fits the definition? Explain.

Answer: The old-old refer to people who are 85 years of age and older. The distinction was made between them and the young-old and the old-old because late adulthood encompasses a wide age range and the oldest old tend to be more impaired in cognitive and physical abilities than those in the other two groups. Answers will vary for examples.

Page: 554

Learning Objective: 12.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Why is the Old-age dependency ratio (OADR) rising and thus becoming a problem for certain countries?

Answer: The OADR is the ratio of people 65 yrs. and older to those 20-64. If both numbers are approximately equal, younger individuals in the working age range can generate enough money to support the older group by paying taxes. In countries where there are lower birth rates and a rising population of elderly, there is an imbalance and consequently a crisis in how to pay for necessary services.

Page: 556-557

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Describe two eye problems that are more likely to develop as people age.

Answer: -Glaucoma- a fluid build-up in the eye with no warning signs. If left untreated it can cause blindness.

-Cataracts- the most common visual impairment of late adulthood, it is a clouding of the lens that causes distortions and discoloration in vision.

Page: 559-560

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Discuss one sleep problem that is due to physiological causes and one that is due to psychological causes.

Answer: Sleep apnea is a condition that causes people to wake up throughout the night because they stop breathing for periods of time. It is caused by blocked airways, and it is correlated with obesity. Depression can cause disturbances in sleep.

Page: 562

Learning Objective: 12.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. In which country is there a “New Old People’s movement?” Explain the benefits.

Answer: Japan has the most serious imbalance in the number of younger people to elderly and has begun this movement to address the problem. It encourages older people to stay more active by trying new activities and companies have brought back retired workers at reduced hours. This allows them to pass on their wisdom and also to learn new skills. Research on both physical and cognitive aging has shown that if you don’t use it, you lose it.

Page: 557-558

Learning Objective: 12.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Melina’s grandmother has trouble hearing and she says to her mother, “I don’t know why she won’t wear hearing aids; you said she has the money and that you would take her to the doctor to get them.” Explain two reasons why she might have a hearing impairment and at least one reason why she will not get hearing aids.

Answer: Most hearing loss is due to primary aging, but if her grandmother worked in a loud environment or was a smoker, she may experience hearing loss earlier than she would have otherwise. She may not want to wear hearing aids because they magnify all sounds, not just the ones that she is trying to attend to. Also, she may feel that they are a sign of being old and she may feel embarrassed and incompetent.

Page: 561

Learning Objective: 12.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 12.1.1.       Which of the following terms is used to describe the number of years that an individual’s physical functioning is favorable enough for them to enjoy their lives and to perform most of their daily activities without impairment?

  1. actual lifespan
  2. chronological lifespan
  3. active lifespan
  4. functional lifespan

Answer: c

Page: 567

 

Pre 12.1.2.       The stage of late adulthood begins at age ____.

  1. 65
  2. 50
  3. 60
  4. 70

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

Pre 12.1.3.       As cited in the text, globally, about how much longer will a woman who is 65 years old live than a male who is 65 years old?

  1. 5 additional years
  2. 10 additional years
  3. 15 additional years
  4. 20 additional years

Answer: a

Page: 557

 

Pre 12.1.4.       ____ percent of individuals who are 70 years old report some degree of hearing impairment.

  1. Seventy-five
  2. Ninety-five
  3. Fifty
  4. Twenty-five

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

Pre 12.1.5.       According to the text, from middle adulthood until late adulthood the amount of sleep an individual needs ____.

  1. declines slightly
  2. declined sharply
  3. increases slightly
  4. increases sharply

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

Pre 12.1.6.       As a consequence of ____, the risk of osteoporosis for women in midlife rises sharply.

  1. a reduction in estrogen
  2. an increase in her progesterone
  3. a decrease in bone density
  4. an increase in androgens

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

Pre 12.1.7.       During late adulthood, ____ are related to poor diets, ones that are high in fat and sugars.

  1. obesity and cardiovascular disease
  2. hypertension and jaundice
  3. dementia and osteoporosis
  4. diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease

Answer: a

Page: 565

 

Pre 12.1.8.       Your grandmother is quite upset. She is 82 years old and has been having some serious vision problems. You have suggested quite a few times that she needs to see her doctor. She finally went and she was told that she has cataracts. She feels like she is the only one her age that does. What percentage of adults her age have cataracts?

  1. 50%
  2. 70%
  3. 90%
  4. 30%

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

Pre 12.1.9.       Your co-worker was talking about how, after the academic year, he is going back to Japan. His grandmother is turning 60 years old and they have a ritual that symbolizes the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities and elevates the individual to a new and respected status as elder. What is the name of this ritual?

  1. kanreki
  2. sensei
  3. karaoke
  4. utsubo

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

Pre 12.1.10.     Your grandfather is having quite a bit of difficulty sleeping. Your grandmother tells you that your grandfather sometimes stops breathing for 10 seconds or longer several times during the course of a typical night. What disorder might he have and what is the most common treatment for this difficulty?

  1. sleep apnea-a continuous positive airway pressure device is used
  2. sleep paralysis-sleeping in a chair is the treatment
  3. insomnia-consuming alcohol prior to bedtime is recommended
  4. sleepwalking-prescription drugs are used to treat this

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

Post-Test

 

Post 12.1.1.      Aoi is Japanese and just turned 60 years old. His family is planning a celebration, called ____, of this new life stage.

  1. kanreki
  2. tomoko
  3. ayaka
  4. yoko

Answer: a

Page: 553

 

Post 12.1.2.      According to the text, countries that have a birth rate that is below 2.1 children per woman ____ over the 21st century.

  1. will see a decline in their total population
  2. will see an increase in the total population
  3. will see a leveling off in their total population
  4. will be unable to predict population levels

Answer: a

Page: 555

 

Post 12.1.3.      Which of the following is a progressive thickening of the lens causing vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted?

  1. cataract
  2. macular degeneration
  3. glaucoma
  4. tetanus

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

Post 12.1.4.      In research that compared adults over the age of 65 to younger adults, most respondents who were older than 65 and virtually none of the respondents who were younger described themselves as feeling healthiest and most alert during what part of the day?

  1. “definitely mornings”
  2.  “definitely evenings “
  3.  “definitely midday “
  4.  “definitely late at night “

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

Post 12.1.5.      During midlife, which of the following increases a woman’s risk of developing osteoporosis?

  1. a reduction in estrogen
  2. an increase in progesterone
  3. a decrease in bone density
  4. an increase in estrogen

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

Post 12.1.6.      A good diet in late adulthood is even more critical than in earlier ages, because research has shown it ____.

  1. slows down primary aging
  2. provides energy boosts
  3. decreases the likelihood of cardio-vascular disease
  4. prevents cancer

Answer: a

Page: 565

 

Post 12.1.7.      The hair continues to become grayer and thinner in both men and women, although it is not that hair “turns gray” or white, but that it loses the pigment that had previously made it appear to be other colors. This sentence describes the hair of an individual in which of the following stages of life?

  1. late adulthood
  2. young adulthood
  3. middle adulthood
  4. early adulthood

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

Post 12.1.8.      You are speaking to your grandfather when you notice that his hearing aid has a sharp noise coming from it. The noise is soft but irritating. Your grandfather does not seem to be bothered by it or even hear it. Why?

  1. It is a high-pitched noise, so he probably does not hear it.
  2. He is good at ignoring irritating things.
  3. It is a low-pitched noise, so he probably does not hear it.
  4. He lip reads and does not hear any noises.

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

Post 12.1.9.      George is in late adulthood and was diagnosed with a disease where his bones are very brittle, his spine is compressed, he has decreased in height, and he is susceptible to major bone breakage if he falls. George most likely has which of the following diseases?

  1. osteoporosis
  2. jaundice
  3. arthritis
  4.         macular degeneration

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

Post 12.1.10.    Your 85-year-old great grandfather is having difficulty with bathing, dressing, food preparation, eating, housekeeping, and paying bills. Your family is considering getting some professional nursing care for him. During the interview, the nurse asks what is your major concern for your great grandfather? Based on the difficulties that he is having, what would you tell the nurse?

  1. activities of daily living
  2. self-care activities
  3. grooming behavior
  4. adult activities

Answer: a

Page: 555

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 12.1.1.       Most developmental psychologists would state that age ____ usually marks the beginning of late adulthood.

  1. 65
  2. 60
  3. 55
  4. 70

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

CE 12.1.2.       ____ is used to illustrate the actual competence and performance of older adults.

  1. Functional age
  2. Chronological age
  3. Competency age
  4. Geriatric age

Answer: a

Page: 555

 

CE 12.1.4.       What is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms?

  1. primary aging
  2. secondary aging
  3. lateral aging
  4. tertiary aging

Answer: a

Page: 558

 

CE 12.1.5.       Which of the following is used to describe the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution?

  1. secondary aging
  2. primary aging
  3. tertiary aging
  4. quaternary aging

Answer: a

Page: 558

 

CE 12.1.6.       Your mother has quite a bit of gray hair. She told you that she first started getting gray hair when she was 52 and it keeps getting grayer each year. Which of the following explains why your mother’s hair keeps on getting gray?

  1. There is a loss of pigment that provides color to hair.
  2. Gray pigments occur more frequently in older adults.
  3. The hair becomes more transparent in old age.
  4. Stress creates more gray pigment to appear in older adults.

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

CE 12.1.7.       ____ is when fluid builds up in the eye and the pressure damages the optic nerve, which causes loss of peripheral vision.

  1. Glaucoma
  2. A cataract
  3. Tetanus
  4. Macular degeneration

Answer: a

Page: 560

 

CE 12.1.8.       In addition to natural aging, which of the following is another known factors to increase the risk for hearing loss?

  1. smoking cigarettes
  2. an excess amount of calcium
  3. high exposure to sun
  4. chronic sleep deprivation

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

CE 12.1.9.       It is estimated that roughly ____ of individuals over age 65 have some degree of impairment in taste and smell.

  1. one-fourth
  2. one-half
  3. two-thirds
  4. three-fourths

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

CE 12.1.10.     Older adults who have hearing loss may find having conversations with others strenuous and stressful. According to the text, due to their hearing loss they may:

  1. engage in social withdrawal
  2. experience thinning cilia
  3. experience tinnitus
  4. develop social anxiety

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

CE 12.1.11.     After age 60, the olfactory bulbs located in the brain:

  1. shrivel
  2. enlarge
  3. begin to dehydrate
  4. start to disconnect

Answer: a

Page: 561

 

CE 12.1.12.     According to the text, sleep apnea is ____.

  1. substantially more common in men than among women
  2. substantially more common in women than among men
  3. slightly more common in men than among women
  4. slightly more common in women than among men

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

CE 12.1.13.     Several aspects of aging in late adulthood contribute to sleep disturbances.  ____ for men can lead to frequent urination and disrupted sleep.

  1. Enlargement of the prostate gland
  2. Slowing of the digestive system
  3. Shrinkage of the urethra
  4. Atrophy of the bladder

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

CE 12.1.14.     Your grandfather is 78 and just found out that he has osteoporosis. His birthday is coming up and you thought you would get him a gift that would also help improve his bone density. What gift should you give him?

  1. weight-lifting equipment
  2. a heat pad
  3. a cane
  4. salt bath solutions

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

CE 12.1.15.     Beyond infant and child mortality, which of the following makes up the vast difference in life expectancy between developed and developing countries?

  1. access to health care in late adulthood
  2. type of job opportunities available to adults
  3. carcinogens and toxins located in the environment
  4. the amount of diet and exercise adults receive

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

Quick Review

 

QR 12.1.1.       The timeframe of late adulthood is usually marked off by developmental psychologists as beginning at age ____.

  1. 65
  2. 60
  3. 55
  4. 70

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

QR 12.1.2.       According to the text, a developmental psychologist and demographer would describe an individual who is 85 years or older as the ____.

  1. oldest-old
  2. old-old
  3. young-old
  4. older-old

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

QR 12.1.3.       For individuals who are in late adulthood and living in a developing country, which of the following is a leading cause of blindness?

  1. cataracts
  2. macular disease
  3. glaucoma
  4. retinosis pigmentosa

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

QR 12.1.4.       Which of the following is the medical term for high blood pressure?

  1. hypertension
  2. hypotension
  3. cardiovascular disease
  4. tachycardia

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

QR 12.1.5.       ____ is an especially common sleep problem of late adulthood affecting more than half of persons over the age of 65 years.

  1. Sleep apnea
  2. Narcolepsy
  3. Insomnia
  4. Sleepwalking

Answer: a

Page: 562

 

QR 12.1.6.       According to the text, the risk of osteoporosis rises along with a steep ____.

  1. decline in estrogen,  and is more prevalent in women
  2. increase in estrogen, and is more prevalent in women
  3. decline in testosterone, and is more prevalent in men
  4. increase in testosterone, and is more prevalent in men

Answer: a

Page: 564

 

QR 12.1.7.       As described in the text, which of the following are three lifestyle practices that have a positive influence on health, life expectancy, and extending the active life span?

  1. a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding health-damaging behavior
  2. smoking only moderately, using sun block, and avoiding environmental teratogens
  3. health conscientiousness, a healthy community, and a healthy spirit
  4. aging gracefully, mental soundness, and physical well-being

Answer: a

Page: 565

 

QR 12.1.8.       Which of the following describes the concept that children are expected to obey and respect their parents no matter how old the parents are?

  1. filial piety
  2. momma love
  3. parental positive regard
  4. children imperative

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

QR 12.1.9.       Older adults are more likely to have high status in cultures where ____.

  1. extended families are common
  2. older adults are quite virile
  3. older adult men have very young wives
  4. older adult women are the head of the families

Answer: a

Page: 554

 

QR 12.1.10.     According to the text, loss of bone mass is considered ____.

  1. primary aging
  2. secondary aging
  3. tertiary aging
  4. vertical aging

Answer: a

Page: 559

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Compare and contrast at least two of the individuals interviewed in this video.

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. Analyze the attitudes and lifestyles of the American couple and the male from the Mexican village. What do you feel are the major differences? Can you find any similarities?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. The video closes with the woman from Botswana stating that it is important to stay young at heart. The male from the United States mentioned that a positive attitude is a key. Describe a time in your own life when you feel that your attitude directly impacted your physical well-being or health.

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, Late Adulthood is a life stage when a variety of health problems _________.
  2. disappear
  3. decrease
  4. surface
  5. increase

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 12.6

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, healthy eating and regular exercise are important because they slow down primary aging and _________.
  2. enhance the immune system
  3. decrease stress
  4. provide adults with more control
  5. allow more time for close relationships.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 12.7

 

  1. What is the reason that the male from rural Mayan Mexico gives as why he does not visit the doctor?
  2. too far to travel
  3. He does not believe in doctors, only in a curer.
  4. lack of money
  5. The doctors cannot treat his disease.

Answer: C

 

 

 

 

 

Section 2 Cognitive Development

 

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. What task is used to evaluate selective attention?
  2. vision/auditory test
  3. dichotomous listening test
  4. selective attention test
  5. Stroop test

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.13, QR 12.2.1

 

  1. The ability to keep track of more than one information source simultaneously is ____.
  2. selective attention

Incorrect. Divided attention is the ability to keep track of more than one information source simultaneously.

  1. divided attention

Correct. Divided attention is the ability to keep track of more than one information source simultaneously.

  1. sustained attention
  2. on-task attention

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.1

 

  1. As aging occurs, people’s ability to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time ____.
  2. increases

Incorrect. Sustained attention actually declines with aging.

  1. remains constant
  2. declines

Correct. Sustained attention declines with aging.

  1. improves

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.5

 

  1. Which of the following best describes changes to attention and memory in late adulthood?
  2. decline to some degree
  3. decline to a vast degree
  4. increase to some degree
  5. increase to a vast degree

Answer: a

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.2

 

  1. Which is following best describes the type of attention where individuals must tune out irrelevant information?
  2. selective attention
  3. deprived attention
  4. divided attention
  5. sustained attention

Answer: a

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.1

 

  1. The ____ is a classic psychology experiment in which people are asked to indicate the color of a word flashing on a screen, but the word itself presents contrary information.
  2. Stroop test
  3. Myers-Briggs
  4. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  5. Q-sort

Answer: a

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.7

 

 

  1. ____ is described as the ability to keep track of more than one information source simultaneously.
  2. Selective attention
  3. Deprived attention
  4. Divided attention
  5. Sustained attention

Answer: c

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of when an individual must perform divided attention?
  2. driving a car while navigating with a map and carrying on a conversation

Correct. The text discusses a classic laboratory experiment was conducted where individuals were asked to drive a car while navigating on a monitor and carrying on a conversation as an illustration of divided attention.

  1. using a blender while baking a cake
  2. painting a picture while passively listening to music

Incorrect. This is a better illustration of selective attention.

  1. planting a garden in the spring

Answer: a

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.8

 

  1. ____ is described as when people are required to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time.
  2. Selective attention
  3. Deprived attention
  4. Divided attention
  5. Sustained attention

Answer: d

Page: 569

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: two

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.2

 

 

  1. As aging occurs, what happens to people’s ability to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time? In laboratory tests, older and younger adults were presented with a series of stimuli and required to press a key only when they see a particular pattern. Compared to younger adults, how did older adults do on this task? Older adults ____.
  2. responded more quickly and made fewer errors

Incorrect. Actually, older adults responded more slowly and made more errors.

  1. responded more slowly, but made fewer errors
  2. responded more quickly, but made more errors
  3. responded more slowly and made more errors

Correct. Older adults responded more slowly and made more errors.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 569–570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of memory is involved when an individual remembers how to perform a task or activity involving motor skills?
  2. task memory

Incorrect. This type of memory is referred to as procedural memory.

  1. procedural memory

Correct. This type of memory is referred to as procedural memory.

  1. instructional memory
  2. performance memory

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your grandmother used to play piano at her church for many years. Lately, she has had some difficulty when she plays. She is having difficulty with what type of memory?
  2. task

Incorrect. This type of memory is referred to as procedural memory.

  1. procedural

Correct. This type of memory is referred to as procedural memory.

  1. instructional
  2. performance

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.8

 

  1. Your grandfather works on the New York Times crossword puzzle every day. He has been very good at solving the puzzle and nearly always does. His ability to remember the meaning of words has shown no decline as he has aged, and really shows very little decline for most older adults. What type of memory is this?
  2. semantic memory

Correct. This type of memory is referred to as semantic memory.

  1. procedural memory

Incorrect. This type of memory is referred to as semantic memory. Procedural memory involves memory for how to perform tasks or activities.

  1. episodic memory
  2. lexical memory

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.8

 

  1. What type of memory, which involves memory for information that is the current focus of a person’s attention, declines with age?
  2. semantic memory

Incorrect. The type of memory for information that is the current focus of a person’s attention and declines with age is working memory.

  1. working memory

Correct. The type of memory for information that is the current focus of a person’s attention and declines with age is working memory.

  1. episodic memory
  2. lexical memory

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What is the feeling of knowing information that is in long-term memory, but being unable to retrieve it at the moment?
  2. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Correct. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon refers to a person knowing that he or she knows the answer, but being unable to immediately recall that information.

  1. Stroop phenomenon

Incorrect. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon refers to a person knowing that he or she knows the answer, but being unable to immediately recall that information.

  1. gotcha memory
  2. forgetful memory

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.9

 

  1. Your 83-year-old uncle has always been a very entertaining storyteller. In the past few years he has been having difficulty remembering the names of people who are important for his stories. What difficulty is your uncle experiencing?
  2. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Correct. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon refers to a person knowing that he or she knows the answer, but being unable to immediately recall that information.

  1. Stroop phenomenon

Incorrect. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon refers to a person knowing that he or she knows the answer, but being unable to immediately recall that information.

  1. gotcha memory
  2. forgetful memory

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Older adults often believe that they can remember events of long ago with special clarity. Research has found that there are ____.
  2. actual increases in episodic memory abilities
  3. substantial declines in episodic memory

Correct. There are substantial declines in episodic memory.

  1. very little change in episodic memory

Incorrect. There are substantial declines in episodic memory.

  1. few changes in older adult males and substantial changes in older adult females

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.7

 

  1. You have overheard you parents talking about your grandfather and his memory of his past. It seems that he remembers pleasant events very well, but often forgets unpleasant events entirely. What type of memory are your parents discussing?
  2. episodic memory
  3. procedural memory
  4. autobiographical memory

Correct. Autobiographical memory involves remembering pleasant life events and forgetting negative events.

  1. working memory

Incorrect. Working memory involves memory for information that is currently the focus of a person’s attention.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.9

 

  1. In the course of late adulthood people have increasing difficulty in remembering where they learned something or when an item was first used. What type of memory is this?
  2. source memory

Correct. Source memory involves remembering the source of learning.

  1. procedural memory
  2. autobiographical memory
  3. working memory

Incorrect. Working memory involves memory for information that is currently the focus of a person’s attention.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.2

 

  1. When older adults are shown a list of related items and then later shown another list and asked which of the items on the new list had been on the original list, older participants ____.
  2. do not recognize any of the items from the old list
  3. recognize all of the items from the old list

Incorrect. Older adults are more likely to indicate that they recognized a word, even though it was not on the original list.

  1. panic and refuse to participate any longer
  2. were more likely to indicate that they recognized a word, even though it was not on the original list

Correct. Older adults are more likely to indicate that they recognized a word, even though it was not on the original list.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is memory for how to perform tasks or activities involving motor skills, such as playing a musical instrument, typing on a keyboard, or sewing a button.
  2. Procedural memory
  3. Long-term memory
  4. Episodic memory
  5. Sensory memory

Answer: A

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.3

 

  1. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that individuals who are in late adulthood show ____ in procedural memory.
  2. little decline
  3. dramatic decline
  4. slight increase
  5. dramatic increase

Answer: A

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.2

 

  1. Your grandmother describes countless recollections of her life such as her 16th birthday, the first time she drove a car, and the birth of her children. Your grandmother is providing you with ____.
  2. procedural memories
  3. working memories

Incorrect. Working memory is memory for information that is currently the focus of your attention.

  1. autobiographical memories

Correct. She is recalling positive life events.

  1. unconscious memories

Answer: C

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.14

 

  1. Which of the following best describes working memory?
  2. memory for information currently the focus of your attention
  3. memories that are stored in the cerebral cortex
  4. memories that are below one’s level of awareness
  5. memories for simplistic motor skills that are stored in the cerebellum

Answer: a

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.3

 

  1. Your grandfather explains to you how to use his new multifunctional phone. You ask him where he learned to use his new phone but he cannot recall. Trying his best, he can only tell you how it works. It is clear that your grandfather has limited ____.
  2. source memory

Correct. Source memory is memory for where a piece of information was acquired; there is a slight decline in this type of memory in older adults.

  1. episodic memory
  2. working memory

Incorrect. Source memory is memory for where a piece of information was acquired.

  1. procedural memory

Answer: A

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.10

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of factors that influence secondary aging?
  2. smoking, exercise, and cognitive stimulation

Correct. Secondary aging is the decline in physical functioning that takes place due to lifestyle behaviors such as unhealthy diet, insufficient exercise, and substance use, as well as environmental influences such as pollution.

  1. neurogenesis, maturation, and cell death
  2. white blood cells, red blood cells, and capillaries
  3. decreased estrogen, loss of bone density, and nearsightedness

Incorrect. Primary aging is the inevitable biological aging that takes place in all members of the human species, as it takes place in all living organisms.

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.15

 

  1. In late adulthood the brain ____ and total brain mass ____.
  2. shrinks; remains the same
  3. enlarges; remains the same
  4. enlarges; increases
  5. shrinks; declines

Answer: d

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In late adulthood the brain shrinks and total brain mass declines, so that by age 80, most people have lost ____% of their peak brain mass.
  2. 5–10%
  3. 15–25%
  4. 25–45%
  5. 45–60%

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following brain structures helps to transfer information into the long-term memory system?
  2. hippocampus
  3. cerebellum
  4. frontal lobe
  5. reticular formation

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Samantha was diagnosed with Lyme disease and as a result has problems with balance and coordination. When she walks it looks as if she is intoxicated, even though she does not drink alcohol. Which of the following structures is related to Samantha’s balance and coordination?
  2. the hippocampus

Incorrect. This area of the brain is responsible for transferring information from the working memory into long-term memory system.

  1. the cerebellum

Correct. It is the cerebellum that is responsible for unconscious balance and coordination—the structure of the brain that is affected by both alcohol and Lyme disease.

  1. the brainstem
  2. the corpus callosum

Answer: b

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.4

 

  1. The cerebellum is ____, whereas the frontal lobes are ____.
  2. responsible for planning and judgment; involved in balance and coordination
  3. involved in balance and coordination; responsible for planning and judgment
  4. responsible for auditory and visual processing; involved in sensory and motor skills
  5. involved in sensory and motor skills; responsible for auditory and visual processing

Answer: b

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ is a condition that entails losses in cognitive functioning severe enough to interfere with daily life.
  2. Diabetes
  3. Myopia
  4. Jaundice
  5. Dementia

Answer: d

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Across developed countries, only ____of persons in their 60s are afflicted with dementia, but the prevalence rises steeply after age 75 and reaches over ____ beyond age 85.
  2. 1–2%; 50%
  3. 10%; 25%
  4. 15%; 35%
  5. 25%; 75%

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. As cited in your text, which of the following best describes why few people in India or Africa are affected by dementia?
  2. Relatively few people live into late adulthood.
  3. Their diets are primarily made of fish, which is high in the B vitamins.
  4. They have lower levels of calcium in their diet.
  5. There are less environmental teratogens, which are known to cause dementia.

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common disease that causes dementia?
  2. Alzheimer’s disease
  3. Huntington’s disease
  4. AIDS
  5. Parkinson’s disease

Answer: a

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. By age 80 years most people have lost what percentage of their peak brain mass?
  2. 1 to 4%
  3. 5 to 10%
  4. 11 to 15%
  5. 16 to 20%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. From age 30 to 70 years, the amount of space between the brain and the skull ____.
  2. decreases by 50%
  3. decreases by 25%
  4. increases by 25%
  5. increases by 100%

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What brain structure influences the transfer of information to long-term memory?
  2. hippocampus
  3. cerebellum
  4. frontal lobes
  5. thalamus

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to the text, what brain structure is involved in balance and coordination?
  2. hippocampus
  3. cerebellum
  4. frontal lobes
  5. thalamus

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.4

 

  1. What brain structure is responsible for planning and judgment?
  2. hippocampus
  3. cerebellum
  4. frontal lobes
  5. thalamus

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Neurons are dying and being generated anew throughout life. What happens in late adulthood?
  2. Many more neurons are being generated to assist with loss of brain functioning.
  3. There are slightly more neurons being generated to assist with loss of brain functioning.
  4. There are no changes in the number of neurons being generated.

Incorrect. In late adulthood, there are fewer neurons being generated than there are neurons that are dying.

  1. More neurons die than are being generated.

Correct. In late adulthood, there are fewer neurons being generated than there are neurons that are dying.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.8

 

  1. What can be done to lessen the decline and preserve brain functioning?
  2. Take mega-doses of vitamins C and E.
  3. Stay physically and cognitively active.

Correct. Staying physically and cognitively active helps to lessen the decline in brain functioning.

  1. Drink red wine.

Incorrect. Staying physically and cognitively active helps to lessen the decline in brain functioning.

  1. Enjoy life.

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What neurotransmitter, which is especially involved in the functioning of memory, declines in late adulthood?
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. dopamine
  5. acetylcholine

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.5

 

  1. What neurotransmitter, which is especially involved in movement and motor coordination, declines in late adulthood?
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. dopamine
  5. acetylcholine

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 74-year-old grandfather was recently diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. Initially, he will have difficulties with involuntary movement and motor coordination. One form of treatment is to provide medication that increases what neurotransmitter?
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. dopamine

Correct. Deficiencies in dopamine are related to Parkinson’s disease.

  1. acetylcholine

Incorrect. Deficiencies in dopamine are related to Parkinson’s disease.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.9

 

  1. A condition that entails losses in cognitive functioning severe enough to interfere with daily life is ____.
  2. dementia

Correct. Severe losses in cognitive functioning are dementias.

  1. catastrophic illness

Incorrect. Severe losses in cognitive functioning are dementias.

  1. biological decrement
  2. cognitive impairment

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of people in their 60s are afflicted with losses in cognitive functioning severe enough to interfere with daily life?
  2. 1–2%
  3. 4–5%
  4. 7–8%
  5. 10–12%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percentage of people past age 85 are afflicted with losses in cognitive functioning severe enough to interfere with daily life?
  2. 30%
  3. 40%
  4. 50%
  5. 60%

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.3

 

  1. Your 78-year-old grandmother is having difficulty with memories of her grandchildren, whom she dearly loves. She has difficulty with simple tasks that she has performed hundreds of times, such as remembering the route to the grocery store. She is also quite a bit different in her personality than she used to be. There are several types of dementia; what type is your grandmother most likely experiencing?
  2. Alzheimer’s disease

Correct. These detrimental changes in memory and personality are symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Lou Gehrig’s disease

Incorrect. These detrimental changes in memory and personality are symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Hunington’s disease
  2. a negative medical interaction effect

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.10

 

  1. Fred was diagnosed with a disease that is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Which of the following diseases does Fred have?
  2. Huntington’s disease
  3. Parkinson’s disease

Incorrect. Parkinson’s is marked by an extreme reduction of dopamine levels, leading to progressively more severe difficulties in motor control.

  1. Korsakoff’s disease
  2. Alzheimer’s disease

Correct. Two patterns of structural decline in the brain that distinguish Alzheimer’s are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

Answer: d

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Amyloid plaques are an indicator of Alzheimer’s disease, and are best described as ____.
  2. small deposits of iron and calcium in the brain
  3. large areas of dead and low density neurons
  4. deposits of proteins along with clumps of dead neurons

Correct. The deposits are amyloid plaques which encompass clumps of dead neurons.

  1. bundles of twisted neurons that are tangled with each other

Incorrect. The deposits are amyloid plaques which encompass clumps of dead neurons.

Answer: c

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A true and definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can only be made by ____.
  2. autopsy
  3. biopsy
  4. a urine test
  5. a spinal tap

Answer: a

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.3

 

  1. Early-onset Alzheimer’s, occurring before age 65, clearly has a genetic basis as it runs strongly in a family and accounts for ____ cases of this disease.
  2. a relatively small portion of

Correct. Early-onset Alzheimer’s, which may have a genetic basis, accounts for 5% of cases.

  1. a moderate portion of

Incorrect. Early-onset Alzheimer’s only accounts for 5% of all cases.

  1. a relatively large portion of
  2. almost all

Answer: a

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is a gene that is suspected to be related to early-onset Alzheimer’s disease?
  2. ApoE
  3. XQ-28
  4. UC-1
  5. U-47

Answer: a

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.11

 

  1. Your great-uncle, who is 70 years old, was diagnosed two years ago with Alzheimer’s disease. What is his life expectancy?
  2. 74 years

Correct. The life expectancy of a 70 year old man with Alzheimer’s disease is an additional 4 years.

  1. 78 years

Incorrect. The life expectancy of a 70 year old man with Alzheimer’s disease is an additional 4 years.

  1. 82 years
  2. 86 years

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are two of the main characteristics of what disease?
  2. Hodgkins disease
  3. Lou Gehrig’s disease

Incorrect. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are two important features of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Hunington’s disease
  2. Alzheimer’s disease

Correct. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are two important features of Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.9

 

  1. When is a 100% accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease possible?
  2. after the first two symptoms have occurred
  3. after a blood test has detected antibodies for the disease

Incorrect. The only way presently to make a 100% accurate diagnosis is through autopsy after death to detect the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

  1. after a brain biopsy
  2. after an autopsy

Correct. The only way presently to make a 100% accurate diagnosis is through autopsy after death to detect the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. There is an early-onset form of Alzheimer’s in which the symptoms occur before age 65. This form of Alzheimer’s has a very strong genetic basis. What percentage of Alzheimer’s patients have early-onset Alzheimer’s?
  2. 5%
  3. 20%
  4. 35%
  5. 50%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Many individuals in your family have difficulties associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Your parents just learned that there is a test to detect the presence of a gene that has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease and are interested in having lab work done to determine if they have that gene. What is that gene?
  2. Ape-IV
  3. ApoE
  4. Alz-II
  5. Alpo3

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.5

 

  1. Who has the highest rate of Alzheimer’s disease among American ethnic groups?
  2. African Americans
  3. Hispanic Americans
  4. Native Americans
  5. Asian Americans

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 572–3

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is described as a protective factor for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
  2. maintaining a high level of cognitive activity

Correct. People who have attained a university degree are only half as likely to develop the disease as people who have not, suggesting that high cognitive ability is a protective factor against developing Alzheimer’s.

  1. maintaining a high level of calcium
  2. avoiding environmental teratogens

Incorrect. Medical science does not know the true cause of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. decreasing stress and anxiety

Answer: a

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In regards to Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive activity in late adulthood appears to act as a kind of brain exercise, creating new dendritic connections and a ____, or a larger bank of neural pathways that can enable the brain to keep functioning well even as primary aging of the brain continues.
  2. cognitive reserve

Correct. Maintaining a high level of cognitive activity appears to be another protective factor against developing Alzheimer’s.

  1. cognitive pool

Incorrect. Maintaining a high level of cognitive activity appears to be another protective factor against developing Alzheimer’s.

  1. neurological savings account
  2. neurological backup

Answer: a

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Alzheimer’s disease ____.
  2. has no known cure
  3. is caused by malnutrition
  4. can be prevented with a vaccine
  5. can be cured with an antibiotic

Answer: a

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Caregivers for patients with Alzheimer’s disease have a higher than normal rate of ____.
  2. depression
  3. anxiety
  4. hypertension
  5. diabetes

Answer: a

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. The Yoruba tribe in Nigeria has the same likelihood of carrying the gene for Alzheimer’s that individuals in the United States do, but they are less likely to experience Alzheimer’s disease. Why?
  2. Their diet has low levels of fats and sugars.

Correct. The Yoruba tribe has a diet that is low in fats and sugars and African Americans have a diet that is much higher in fats and sugars.

  1. They live in less polluted areas.
  2. They are not exposed to urban crowding.

Incorrect. The Yoruba tribe has a diet that is low in fats and sugars and African Americans have a diet that is much higher in fats and sugars.

  1. They do not live long enough to have difficulties with Alzheimer’s diesase.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 82-year-old grandmother was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease four years ago. Your mother is very concerned about the potential of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease herself. She has been an avid runner for many years and vigorously exercises at least five times a week for 20 to 30 minutes a day. What would you tell your mother?
  2. Exercise surely will help, but there is no evidence that it does.
  3. Do not worry too much, exercise has been shown to decrease the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease.

Correct. Diet helps too, but exercise alone has been shown to reduce the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. For any benefit to accrue from exercise, she will also need to closely monitor her diet.

Incorrect. Diet helps too, but exercise alone has been shown to reduce the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Very strenuous exercise actually increases the likelihood of experiencing Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. There is a strong negative association between Alzheimer’s risk and ____.
  2. family income
  3. number of siblings
  4. educational level

Correct. There is no association between Alzheimer’s disease and weight, although indirectly, the more fats and sugars consumed the more likely that an individual will develop Alzheimer’s.

  1. weight

Incorrect. There is no association between Alzheimer’s disease and weight, although indirectly, the more fats and sugars consumed the more likely that an individual will develop Alzheimer’s.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In terms of medical interventions for Alzheimer’s disease, current medications seek to limit the loss of ____.
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. dopamine

Incorrect. Deficiencies in dopamine are related to Parkinson’s disease.

  1. acetylcholine

Correct. Current medications seek to limit the loss of acetylcholine for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is the definition of wisdom?
  2. expertise in the conduct and meaning of life
  3. an IQ score of 130 or greater
  4. the mental process of knowing, such as awareness and perception
  5. the growth of neurological pathways in the brain

Answer: a

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.4

 

  1. As cited in the textbook, which of the following are components of wisdom?
  2. insight, knowledge, strategies, values, and awareness
  3. metacognition, megacognition, and metalinguistic awareness
  4. assimilation, accommodation, disequilibrium, and formal operations
  5. morals, ethics, values, and social responsibility

Answer: a

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In many traditional cultures, village elders are known to have insight into human nature, knowledge of human social relations and emotions, and they apply strategies from insight and knowledge to help with everyday life. It is clear that village elders possess ____.
  2. wisdom

Correct. Wisdom is composed of insight, knowledge, strategies, values, and awareness.

  1. morals and values

Incorrect. One would assume that village elders would have strong morals and values; however, there are not components of wisdom.

  1. low working memory
  2. effective procedural memory

Answer: a

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.10

 

  1. What did Baltes define as “expertise in the conduct and meaning of life?”
  2. ethics
  3. wisdom

Correct. Expertise in the conduct and meaning of life is how Baltes defined wisdom.

  1. existentialism

Incorrect. Expertise in the conduct and meaning of life is how Baltes defined wisdom.

  1. enlightenment

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.6

 

  1. At what age is wisdom the most probable?
  2. emerging adulthood
  3. middle adulthood
  4. late adulthood

Incorrect. Wisdom is not related to age.

  1. Wisdom is not related to age.

Correct. Wisdom is not related to age.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.6

 

  1. Wisdom is positively correlated with:
  2. Family income
  3. Gender
  4. Educational level

Correct. Wisdom is positively correlated with educational level. 

  1. Age

Incorrect. Wisdom is positively correlated with educational level. 

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.6

 

  1. Who is likely to score highly on measures of wisdom?
  2. people who have children
  3. people in leadership positions

Correct. Wisdom is positively correlated with educational level. People in leadership positions are likely to score highly in measures of wisdom. 

  1. people who have no formal education

Incorrect. Wisdom is positively correlated with educational level. People in leadership positions are likely to score highly in measures of wisdom. 

  1. people who have little income

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.4

 

  1. Your grandparents have both been interested in solving puzzles playing card games, watching educational television, and reading books. How do these activities affect the primary aging process?
  2. They have no affect on primary aging.
  3. Since they interfere with physical activities, they actually quicken the primary aging process.
  4. They enhance mental abilities and slow cognitive decline.

Correct. These activities slow primary aging in terms of cognition. 

  1. They negatively impact primary aging.

Incorrect. These activities slow primary aging in terms of cognition. 

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 574

Learning Objective: 12.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.2.12

 

  1. According to Baltes and his colleagues, the most successful adaptation to declining physical and cognitive abilities in late adulthood involves ____.
  2. maintaining a good family life

Incorrect. Baltes suggested that successful adaptation involves selective optimization with compensation.

  1. selective optimization with compensation

Correct. Baltes suggested that successful adaptation involves selective optimization with compensation.

  1. trying to improve the skills that have declined the most
  2. devices that allow for adjusting to the challenges of diminished strength and perception

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In research using Baltes’ model to assess wisdom on adults of all ages it was found that ____.
  2. less than 10% of subjects were considered wise

Correct. A small proportion, less than 10%, were considered wise when asked on advice about hypothetical situations such as a 14-year-old girl who was contemplating moving out of her parents home.

  1. roughly 25% of subjects were considered wise

Incorrect. A small proportion, less than 10%, were considered wise when asked on advice about hypothetical situations such as a 14-year-old girl who was contemplating moving out of her parents home.

  1. 50% of subjects were considered wise
  2. the great majority of subjects were considered wise

Answer: a

Page: 574–5

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the research findings that used Baltes’ model to assess wisdom?
  2. wisdom is negatively correlated with educational levels
  3. people who hold leadership positions are more likely to score lower in wisdom
  4. wisdom is generally unrelated to age
  5. wisdom correlates strongly with brain size

Answer: c

Page: 575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.1

 

  1. Which of the following individuals was an anthropologist who examined how wisdom is passed from one generation to another?
  2. Margaret Mead
  3. G. Stanley Hall
  4. Quanah Parker
  5. Charles Cooley

Answer: a

Page: 575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Difficulty: one

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Willis and Schaie’s longitudinal study on cognitive performance allowed for the comparisons of participants ____.
  2. to a larger mainstream group, who possessed similar characteristics

Incorrect. A major advantage of a longitudinal study is that it allows for the comparison, within an individual, to an earlier time.

  1. current performance on cognitive tasks to their performance years earlier

Correct. A major advantage of a longitudinal study is that it allows for the comparison, within an individual, to an earlier time.

  1. to others in various parts of the world and geographical locations
  2. current performance to others who are at a different developmental stage

Answer: b

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Willis and Schaie’s longitudinal study demonstrated that ____.
  2. training sessions in spatial orientation and reasoning skills had long-term effects on cognitive performance

Correct. Following this intervention, two-thirds of the participants improved their performance significantly, and 40% matched the level of performance they had shown on the tasks 14 years earlier.

  1. training sessions in fine and gross motor skills improved physical health of subjects
  2. aerobic exercise and moderate weight training improved muscle mass and increased bone density

Incorrect. Although this is true, this was not the focus of Willis and Schaie’s longitudinal study.

  1. cognitive functioning would deteriorate regardless of intervention

Answer: a

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In Willis and Schaie’s longitudinal study, five years after the study began, a recipient of intervention strategies performed ____ on memory, reasoning, and processing-speed tasks as compared to the control group.
  2. slightly better

Incorrect. Intervention participants were 75% better at memory tasks, 40% better on reasoning tasks, and 300% better on processing-speed tasks.

  1. significantly better

Correct. Intervention participants were 75% better at memory tasks, 40% better on reasoning tasks, and 300% better on processing-speed tasks.

  1. slightly worse
  2. significantly worse

Answer: b

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Baltes and his colleagues, the most successful adaptation to declining physical and cognitive abilities in late adulthood involves ____ to promote cognitive functioning.
  2. habituation and dishabituation to create equilibrium (HDE)
  3. cognitive reserve to improve IQ scores (CRI)
  4. mental images and language to improve cognitive functioning (MILCF)
  5. selective optimization with compensation (SOC)

Answer: d

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.2.5

 

  1. According to Baltes and his colleagues, the most successful adaptation to declining physical and cognitive abilities in late adulthood involves ____.
  2. increasing one’s cognitive reserve to improve IQ scores by engaging in lifelong learning
  3. using mental images in cognitive processing, increasing his or her language skills, and nurturing cognitive functioning

Incorrect. These are the three components of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) as established by Baltes and colleagues.

  1. habituation of one’s self to new environments, dishabituating one’s self to old environments, and creating equilibrium in one’s worldview
  2. selecting valued activities, optimizing performance in the remaining activities, and compensating for physical and cognitive declines

Correct. These are the three components of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) as established by Baltes and colleagues.

Answer: d

Page: 577

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When renowned pianist Arthur Rubenstein was asked how he managed to maintain a reputation as one of the world’s top concert pianists even into late adulthood, he explained that he had reduced the range of pieces he played, practiced each of the remaining pieces more, and learned to play very slowly just before beginning a fast passage, to make the contrast more effective since he could not play as fast as when he was younger. Arthur Rubenstein’s behaviors are an illustration of ____.
  2. the SQ3R: survey, question, read, recite, and review approach to adaption
  3. the habituation, dishabituation, equilibrium approach to adaption.

Incorrect. Rubenstein has limited his selection, optimized what has been selected, and compensated for physical declines in his approach.

  1. the selective optimization with compensation method of adaption

Correct. Rubenstein has limited his selection, optimized what has been selected, and compensated for physical declines in his approach.

  1. the mental images paired with language skills approach to adaption

Answer: c

Page: 577–578

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.10

 

  1. A person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood may choose to attend fewer of them so that they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues’ model for adaption for late adulthood, which of the following is closest to selection?
  2. choosing to attend fewer events

Correct. Selecting valued activities and picking which ones you would rather be at is the “selection” part of selective optimization with compensation.

  1. enjoying each occasion more
  2. getting extra rest before a gathering

Incorrect. Getting extra rest before a gathering would be a method of compensation.

  1. feeling overwhelmed by large family events

Answer: a

Page: 578

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.2.7, QR 12.2.6

 

  1. A person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood may choose to attend fewer of them so that they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues’ model for adaption in late adulthood, which of the following is closest to compensation?
  2. choosing to attend fewer events

Incorrect. Selecting valued activities and picking which ones you would rather be at is the “selection” part of selective optimization with compensation.

  1. enjoying each occasion more
  2. getting extra rest before a gathering

Correct. Getting extra rest before a gathering would be a method of compensation.

  1. feeling overwhelmed by large family events

Answer: c

Page: 578

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.2.7

 

  1. A person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood may choose to attend fewer of them so that they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues’ model for adaption in late adulthood, which of the following is closest to optimization?
  2. choosing to attend fewer events

Incorrect. Selecting valued activities and picking which ones you would rather be at is the “selection” part of selective optimization with compensation.

  1. enjoying each occasion more

Correct. Choosing to focus one’s energy and attention on one thing is an example of optimization.

  1. getting extra rest before a gathering
  2. feeling overwhelmed by large family events

Answer: b

Page: 578

Learning Objective: 12.11

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What is source memory? How do individuals in late adulthood compare to their younger counterparts on tasks that require source memory?

Answer: Source memory refers to remembering where you saw a particular stimulus. Older adults tend to do more poorly on tasks that require this ability unless the material is relevant to them.

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Nancy’s recently lost her father who suffered from Alzheimer’s the last several years of his life. She said she was going to do everything in her power to avoid the same fate. What are two measures that she can take to reduce the risk of developing this disease?

Answer: She can eat a low-fat Mediterranean diet, she can exercise, and she can exercise the brain by doing puzzles, reading, etc.

Page: 573

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. How do researchers using Baltes’ model measure wisdom? Are there any shortcomings to this approach?

Answer: Baltes et al., use scenarios of situations and then code responses. One shortcoming is that there may be different components of wisdom in different cultures and this work has been done mostly in Germany. Also, what people say they would do may be different from what they actually do.

Page: 574-575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. What is one variable that has been found to predict wisdom?

Answer: Educational level and leadership experience have been found to predict wisdom.

Page: 575

Learning Objective: 12.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Explain what Selective Optimization with Compensation means. Give a specific example, perhaps imagining yourself in late adulthood.

Answer: Selecting activities you can still do allows you to make the most of your skills and abilities. One way to optimize one’s abilities is to figure out ways to make up for losses (compensation).

Page: 577-578

Learning Objective: 12.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Although various aspects of memory decline in late adulthood, research has shown that the elderly do quite well when it comes to remembering certain events in their lives. Explain.

Answer: There is a “reminiscence bump” between the ages of 10 and 30. One reason that events during this time are remembered so well is that they are when many milestones occur (e.g., starting school, graduating, getting married).

Page: 570

Learning Objective: 12.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Your friend, who you have not heard from in a while, calls and tells you that her grandmother has dementia. She goes on to say that the doctor said that her grandmother has Alzheimer’s, but she said, “I’m not worried. She doesn’t have Alzheimer’s, just dementia.” Explain the inaccuracy of this comment and include information about the progression of the disease.

Answer: Dementia refers to loss of cognitive function severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living. Alzheimer’s is the most common type of dementia; prevalence rises steeply after age 75. At first people may merely forget names of objects or recent events, but in later stages they may forget names of loved ones and they may wonder off not remembering how to get home.

Page: 571

Learning Objective: 12.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 12.2.1.       Which of the following is consistent with Baltes’s overall conclusion on his model to assess wisdom?

  1. Wisdom is generally unrelated to age.
  2. People who hold leadership positions are more likely to score lower in wisdom.
  3. Wisdom is negatively correlated with educational levels.
  4. Wisdom correlates strongly with brain size.

Answer: a

Page: 575

 

Pre 12.2.2.       For late adulthood, attention and memory ____.

  1. decline to some degree
  2. decline to a vast degree
  3. increase to some degree
  4. increase to a vast degree

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

Pre 12.2.3.       Which of the following is the memory system that performs tasks and activities involving motor skills, such as playing a musical instrument, typing on a keyboard, or sewing a button?

  1. procedural memory
  2. long-term memory
  3. episodic memory
  4. sensory memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

Pre 12.2.4.       Which of the following structures of the brain is involved in balance and coordination?

  1. cerebellum
  2. hippocampus
  3. parietal lobe
  4. dallas

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

Pre 12.2.5.       Early-onset Alzheimer’s, where symptoms appear before age 65, clearly has a genetic basis as it accounts for ____ cases of this disease and runs strongly in a family.

  1. a relatively small portion of
  2. a moderate portion of
  3. a relatively large portion of
  4. almost all

Answer: a

Page: 572

 

Pre 12.2.6.       Which of the following did Baltes define as “expertise in the conduct and meaning of life”?

  1. wisdom
  2. ethics
  3. enlightenment
  4. existentialism

Answer: a

Page: 574

 

Pre 12.2.7.       For a person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood, he may choose to attend fewer of them so he they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues, which of the following is an example of the concept of compensation?

  1. getting extra rest before a gathering
  2. enjoying each occasion more
  3. choosing to attend fewer events
  4. feeling overwhelmed by large family events

Answer: a

Page: 578

 

Pre 12.2.8.       Your great-aunt used to play piano at her church for many years and is unconsciously skilled. Lately, she has had some difficulty when she plays, which shows a difficulty with what type of memory?

  1. procedural
  2. episodic
  3. autobiographical
  4. symantec

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

Pre 12.2.9.       Your 72-year-old grandmother was recently diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. Initially, there will be difficulties with involuntary movement and motor coordination difficulties, so one form of treatment is to provide medication that increases which of the following neurotransmitter?

  1. dopamine
  2. serotonin
  3. norepinephrine
  4. acetylcholine

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

Pre 12.2.10.     When renowned pianist Arthur Rubenstein was asked how he managed to maintain a reputation as one of the world’s top concert pianists well into late adulthood, he explained that he had reduced the range of pieces he played, practiced each of the remaining pieces more, and learned to play very slowly just before beginning a fast passage, to make the contrast more effective since he could not play as fast as when he was younger. Arthur Rubenstein’s behaviors are an illustration of ____.

  1. the selective optimization with compensation method of adaptation
  2. the habituation, dishabituation, equilibrium approach to adaptation
  3. the SQ3R: survey, question, read, recite, and review approach to adaptation
  4. the mental images paired with language skills approach to adaptation

Answer: a

Page: 577–578

 

Post-Test

 

Post 12.2.1.      ____ is a type of attention where individuals must tune out irrelevant information

  1. Selective attention
  2. Deprived attention
  3. Divided attention
  4. Sustained attention

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

Post 12.2.2.      According to the text, laboratory studies have demonstrated that individuals who are in late adulthood show ____ in procedural memory.

  1. little decline
  2. dramatic decline
  3. slight decline
  4. dramatic increase

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

Post 12.2.3.      ____ is the only true and definitive way of diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. An autopsy
  2. A urine test
  3. A spinal tap
  4. A biopsy

Answer: a

Page: 572

 

Post 12.2.4.      Wisdom is defined as ____.

  1. expertise in the conduct and meaning of life
  2. an IQ score of 130 or greater
  3. the mental process of knowing, such as awareness and perception
  4. the growth of neurological pathways in the brain

Answer: a

Page: 574

 

Post 12.2.5.      As an individual ages, his or her ability to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time ____.

  1. Declines
  2. Improves
  3. Increases
  4. remains the same

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

Post 12.2.6.      During which developmental time period is wisdom the most prevalent?

  1. Wisdom is not related to age.
  2. emerging adulthood
  3. middle adulthood
  4. late adulthood

Answer: a

Page: 575

 

Post 12.2.7.      A person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood may choose to attend fewer of them so that they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues, which of the following is an example of the concept of selection?

  1. choosing to attend fewer events
  2. enjoying each occasion more
  3. getting extra rest before a gathering
  4. feeling overwhelmed by large family events

Answer: a

Page: 578

 

Post 12.2.8.      Your grandfather watches the TV game show Jeopardy every day. The show itself asks contestants questions based upon facts from various areas of knowledge. Your grandfather is still very good at Answering the great majority of the questions on every show. His ability to remember the meaning of words has shown no decline as he has aged and really shows very little decline for most older adults. What type of memory is this?

  1. semantic memory
  2. procedural memory
  3. episodic memory
  4. autobiographical memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

Post 12.2.9.      You have overheard your parents talking about your great-uncle and his memory of his past. It seems that he remembers pleasant events very well, but often forgets unpleasant events entirely. What type of memory are your parents discussing?

  1. autobiographical memory
  2. procedural memory
  3. working memory
  4. retroactive memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

Post 12.2.10.    Your 68-year-old grandmother is having difficulty with memories of her grandchildren, whom she dearly loves. As her dementia gets worse she has difficulty remembering the names of people who have been part of her life even longer, such as your aunt, her oldest child. She is also quite a bit different in her personality than she used to be.  There are several types of dementia; what type is your grandmother most likely experiencing?

  1. Alzheimer’s disease
  2. Lou Gehrig’s disease
  3. Huntington’s chorea
  4. Lyme disease

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 12.2.1.       ____ is the ability to keep track of more than one information source simultaneously.

  1. Divided attention
  2. Selective attention
  3. Sustained attention
  4. On-task attention

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

CE 12.2.2.       Some people in late adulthood have difficulty remembering where they learned something or when an item was first used. What type of memory is this?

  1. source memory
  2. procedural memory
  3. working memory
  4. sensory memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

CE 12.2.3.       Working memory can be best described as ____.

  1. memory for information currently the focus of your attention
  2. memories that are stored in the cerebral cortex
  3. memories that are below one’s level of awareness
  4. memories for simplistic motor skills that are stored in the cerebellum

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

CE 12.2.4.       Shana was diagnosed with Lyme disease and as a result has problems with balance and coordination. When she walks it looks as if she is intoxicated, even though she does not drink alcohol. Which of the following structures is related to Shana’s balance and coordination?

  1. the cerebellum
  2. the hippocampus
  3. the brainstem
  4. the corpus callosum

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

CE 12.2.5.       Which of the following neurotransmitters is explicitly involved in the functioning of memory and declines in late adulthood?

  1. acetylcholine
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. dopamine

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

CE 12.2.6.       There is a strong positive correlation between wisdom and ____.

  1. educational level
  2. gender
  3. family income
  4. age

Answer: a

Page: 574

 

CE 12.2.7.       ____ is a classic psychology experiment in which people are asked to indicate the color of a word flashing on a screen, but the word itself presents contrary information.

  1. The Stroop test
  2. The Myers-Briggs
  3. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  4. The Q-sort

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

CE 12.2.8.       Of the following, which is an example of where an individual must perform divided attention?

  1. driving a car while navigating with a map and carrying on a conversation
  2. using a blender while making a cake
  3. painting a picture while passively listening to music
  4. planting a garden in the spring

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

CE 12.2.9.       ____ is the feeling of knowing information that is in long-term memory, but being unable to retrieve it at the moment.

  1. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
  2. Stroop phenomenon
  3. Gotcha memory
  4. Forgetful memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

CE 12.2.10.     Your grandmother explains to you how to use her new smart phone. You ask her where she learned to use her new phone but she cannot recall. Trying her best, she can only tell you how it works. It is clear that your grandmother has limited ____.

  1. source memory
  2. procedural memory
  3. working memory
  4. retroactive memory

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

CE 12.2.11.     According to the text, ____ is a gene that is suspected to be related to early-onset Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. ApoE
  2. XQ-28
  3. UC -1
  4. U-47

Answer: a

Page: 572

 

CE 12.2.12.     Your grandparents have both been interested in solving puzzles, playing card games, watching educational television, and reading books. How do these activities affect the primary aging process?

  1. They enhance mental abilities and slow cognitive decline.
  2. Since they interfere with physical activities, they actually quicken the primary aging process.
  3. They have no effect on primary aging.
  4. They negatively impact primary aging.

Answer: a

Page: 574

 

CE 12.2.13.     The ____ is an assessment instrument that is used to evaluate selective attention.

  1. Stroop Test
  2. Selective Functioning Test
  3. Dichotomous Listening Test
  4. Vision/Auditory Test

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

CE 12.2.14.     Your grandfather describes countless recollections of his life, such as his 18th birthday, the first time he drove a tractor, and the birth of his children. According to the text, your grandfather is providing you with ____.

  1. autobiographical memories
  2. working memories
  3. procedural memories
  4. subcortical memories

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

CE 12.2.15.     ____ are examples of lifestyle behaviors that influence secondary aging.

  1. Smoking, exercise, and cognitive stimulation
  2. Neurogenesis, maturation, and cell death
  3. White blood cells, red blood cells, and capillaries
  4. Decrease in estrogen, loss of bone density, and near sightedness

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

Quick Review

 

QR 12.2.1.       Which of the following assessment instruments is used to evaluate selective attention?

  1. Stroop test
  2. selective attention test
  3. Dichotomous Listening Test
  4. Dichotomous Attention Test

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

QR 12.2.2.       Which of the following is described as when people are required to concentrate on a task for an extended period of time?

  1. sustained attention
  2. selective attention
  3. divided attention
  4. deprived attention

Answer: a

Page: 569

 

QR 12.2.3.       What percentage of people past the age of 85 are affected with a loss of cognitive ability that is severe enough to interfere with daily functioning?

  1. 50%
  2. 40%
  3. 60%
  4. 30%

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

QR 12.2.4.       People who ____ are more likely to score high on measures of wisdom.

  1. are in leadership positions
  2. have children
  3. have no formal education
  4. have high income

Answer: a

Page: 575

 

QR 12.2.5.       According to Baltes and his colleagues, ____ has been shown to be the most successful adaptation to declining physical and cognitive abilities in late adulthood.

  1. selective optimization with compensation (SOC)
  2. mental images and language to improve cognitive functioning (MILCF)
  3. cognitive reserve to improve IQ scores (CRI)
  4. habituation and dishabituation to create equilibrium (HDE)

Answer: a

Page: 577

 

QR 12.2.6.       For a person who begins to find large family gatherings overwhelming in late adulthood may choose to attend fewer of them so that they can enjoy the occasions more, and be sure to get extra rest before a gathering occurs. According to Baltes and his colleagues, which of the following is an example of the concept of selection?

  1. feeling overwhelmed by large family events
  2. getting extra rest before a gathering
  3. enjoying each occasion more
  4. choosing to attend fewer events

Answer: d

Page: 578

 

QR 12.2.7.       Some older adults believe they can remember events from years ago with special clarity. What has the research found in regards to their assumptions?

  1. There are substantial declines in episodic memory.
  2. There are actual increases in episodic memory as one grows older.
  3. There is very little change in episodic memory.
  4. There are few changes in older adult males and substantial changes in older adult females.

Answer: a

Page: 570

 

QR 12.2.8.       Researchers now show that neurons die and are generated throughout life. What happens to neurons in late adulthood?

  1. More neurons die than are being generated.
  2. There are no changes in the number of neurons being generated.
  3. There are slightly more neurons being generated to assist with loss of brain functioning.
  4. Many more neurons are being generated to assist with loss of brain functioning.

Answer: a

Page: 571

 

QR 12.2.9.       ____ is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

  1. Alzheimer’s disease
  2. Lou Gehrig’s disease
  3. Hodgkin’s disease
  4. Huntington’s chorea

Answer: a

Page: 572

 

QR 12.2.10.     In many traditional cultures, village elders are known to have insight into human nature and knowledge of human social relations and emotions, and they apply strategies from insight and knowledge to help with everyday life. This is also known as ____.

  1. wisdom
  2. morals and values
  3. low working memory
  4. effective procedural memory

Answer: a
Page: 574

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Describe the risk factors mentioned in the video as well as the actual organic changes that happen with Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: Largest single risk factor is age. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by a series of plaques and tangles that develop in the brain. As the disease progresses there are so many plaques and tangles that the brain actually shrinks in size.

Learning Objective: 12.9

 

  1. This video describes several activities that are available for the entertainment of the residents of the facility. Imagine that you have just been hired as the Activity Director for a similar facility. What entertainment activities would you wish to hold and why?

Answer: Answers will vary.

 

  1. Compare and contrast the benefits and pitfalls of utilizing a facility such as this for relatives of those with Alzheimer’s disease.

Answer: Utilizing a facility for a family who has Alzheimer’s disease can be a struggle as well as a necessary step. When the disease reaches the point that the individual no longer can take care of their daily living activities such as grooming and bathing or even waste elimination, it may be the best step to find a reputable facility to take over the care.  Benefits would include planned meals, no yard work or shoveling, and possibly transportation. Many facilities have several activities for their residents from modified exercise programs to entertainment. The decision to move a family member to a facility can be a difficult one, but it can also bring relief on the caregiver relative. Ultimately the decision must result in what is the best for all of those involved.

Learning Objective: 12.9

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. According to this video, the largest risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease is _________.
  2. poor diet
  3. lack of exercise
  4. lack of cognitive stimulation
  5. age

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 12.9

 

  1. Over ____% of the population over the age of 85 have a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.
  2. 50
  3. 75
  4. 80
  5. 85

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 12.9

 

  1. In Alzheimer’s disease the brain actually _________.
  2. swells
  3. produces extra fluid
  4. shrinks in size
  5. increases in capacity

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 12.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 3 Emotional and Social Development

 

Test Item File

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Mroczek (2001) asked over 2,700 Americans aged 25 to 74 years about their emotional status during the past 30 days. Mroczek found that positive emotions:
  2. increased sharply during late adulthood

Correct. Positive emotions increased sharply during late adulthood.

  1. increased slightly during late adulthood

Incorrect. Positive emotions increased sharply during late adulthood.

  1. decreased slightly during late adulthood
  2. decreased sharply during late adulthood

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 579

Learning Objective: 12.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.6

 

  1. The majority of research on emotions and the self-concept of individuals in late adulthood have concluded that most individuals have a greater number of:
  2. positive emotions and experience a more positive self-esteem.

Correct. Positive emotions and self-evaluations are more common in late adulthood than at earlier ages, but depressive symptoms are lower.

  1. negative emotions and experience a low self-esteem.

Incorrect. The opposite of what is correct; a small minority of individuals might be in a state of despair as described by Erikson.

  1. positive emotions and experience a low self-esteem.
  2. negative emotions and experience a high self-esteem.

Answer: a

Page: 579

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.8

 

  1. From Figure 12.4, positive emotions were ____ from emerging through middle adulthood and then ____ sharply in late adulthood, while negative emotions ____ steadily across the age range.
  2. stable, decreased, increased
  3. declined, increased, stable
  4. increased, stable, declined
  5. stable, increased, declined

Answer: d

Page: 579

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 4

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.1

 

  1. From research on emotions in the self-concept of individuals during late adulthood, descriptors such as “cheerful”, “calm and peaceful”, and “in good spirits” describe:
  2. positive emotions.
  3. negative emotions.
  4. desirable emotions
  5. undesirable emotions.

Answer: a

Page: 579

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.1

 

  1. Research on emotions and the self-concept of individuals during late adulthood have speculated that positive emotions and self-esteem tend to be high because older adults:
  2. tend to be more accepting of their past and present selves

Correct. Older adults tend to be more accepting of their past and present selves than young or middle adults are, whereas young and middle adults tended to be more optimistic about their future selves (Ryff 1991).

  1. have a mature parietal lobe of the brain
  2. have greater financial stability
  3. have successfully completed an identity crisis

Incorrect. From an Ericksonian perspective this could be the case; however, by definition the crisis of identity occurred during adolescence.

Answer: a

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.6

 

  1. One national American study of adults ages 18 and over found that adults over age 55 were less likely than any younger age group to report symptoms that fit the diagnosis of:
  2. paranoid schizophrenia.
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  4. generalized anxiety disorder.
  5. major depressive disorder.

Answer: D

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.1, QR 12.3.2

 

  1. For both self-esteem and depressive symptoms, studies have consistently found that the gender differences that exist in earlier development:
  2. slightly increase by late adulthood.

Incorrect. One might assume that depression increases in late adulthood.

  1. dramatically increase by late adulthood.
  2. maintain themselves into adulthood.
  3. diminish or disappear by late adulthood.

Correct. More consistent positive emotions and higher self-evaluations contribute to lower rates of depression for women in late adulthood (Barefoot et al., 2001; Robins et al., 2002).

Answer: d

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.12

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.15

 

  1. Erik Erikson, in his theory of the lifespan, proposed that late adulthood is when the central challenge is:
  2. trust vs. mistrust.
  3. industry vs. inferiority.
  4. identity achievement vs. confusion.
  5. ego integrity vs. despair.

Answer: d

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. An individual who is in late adulthood can be categorized into Erikson’s stage of:
  2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
  3. identity vs. role confusion.
  4. ego integrity vs. despair.
  5. intimacy vs. isolation.

Answer: c

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Erikson, an individual who experiences ego integrity has:
  2. reflected upon his or her life and has accepted its outcomes.

Correct. Ego integrity means looking back on one’s life and accepting the outcome of it, including the choices that turned out well as well as the mistakes and disappointments.

  1. reflected upon his or her life and is experiencing regret in bitterness.
  2. developed a sense of mistrust for individuals in their life.

Incorrect. Trust vs. mistrust is Erikson’s first psychosocial crisis; generally experience during infancy.

  1. feels as if he or she is not a productive member in society.

Answer: a

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Erikson, an individual who experiences ego despair has:
  2. reflected upon his or her life and has accepted its outcomes.
  3. reflected upon his her life and is experiencing regret in bitterness.

Correct. Despair entails regrets and bitterness about the course of one’s life, and a conclusion that it has not gone well and now cannot be changed.

  1. developed a sense of mistrust for individuals in their life.

Incorrect. Trust vs. mistrust is Erikson’s first psychosocial crisis; generally experienced during infancy.

  1. feels as if he or she is not a productive member in society.

Answer: b

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Erikson, ego ___ involves looking back on one’s life and accepting the outcome of it; whereas, ego ____ entails regrets and bitterness about the course of one’s life, and a conclusion that it has not gone well and now cannot be changed.
  2. inferiority; mistrust
  3. mistrust; inferiority
  4. integrity; despair
  5. despair; integrity

Answer: c

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In asking Fred, who is in late adulthood, if he could go back to any age in his life and change anything, which age would it be? Fred replies that he is content, that his life has been good, and that he rather not change anything about it, even his mistakes. According to Erikson, it is clear that Fred possesses:
  2. ego integrity.

Correct. Ego integrity means looking back on one’s life and accepting the outcome of it, including the choices that turned out well as well as the mistakes and disappointments, and concluding that overall it was a life well-lived.

  1. ego despair.
  2. ego content.

Incorrect. Fred is experiencing content; however, this is not the phrase that Erikson used to describe this particular stage of psychosocial development.

  1. ego mistrust.

Answer: a

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.8

 

  1. A longitudinal study (Smith & Freund, 2002) examined the “possible selves” of Germans who were between 70 and 103 years old over a four-year period and found that they:
  2. had no goals for self-development
  3. had very negative views of themselves

Incorrect. The participants had goals for self-development and were actively attempting to achieve those goals.

  1. were satisfied with themselves
  2. still had goals for self-development that they wanted to achieve

Correct.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.2

 

  1. Erikson proposed that late adulthood is when the central challenge is:
  2. identity versus role confusion
  3. intimacy versus isolation
  4. generativity versus stagnation

Incorrect. In late adulthood the central challenge was integrity versus despair.

  1. integrity versus despair

Correct.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.10

 

  1. In a classic study (Neugarten; 1972, 1977) in which Americans in late adulthood were interviewed and found a variety of different paths of self-development. The most common was what she termed the “integrated personality” in which the individual:
  2. mourns becoming older
  3. rejects becoming older

Incorrect. Those with integrated personalities in late adulthood accept becoming older.

  1. is ambivalent about becoming older
  2. accepts becoming older

Correct.

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your uncle who is 82 years old has very been having serious difficulties with his hearing. Although he does not want to get hearing aids, you know that if he does not get some help with his hearing he is likely to become:
  2. angry and frustrated
  3. sad and depressed

Correct. Those with hearing deficits are likely to become depressed because they are not able to engage in conversations.

  1. irritated and confused

Incorrect. Those with hearing deficits are likely to become depressed because they are not able to engage in conversations.

  1. happy and relieved

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 580

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.3

 

  1. Which of the following is Laura Carstensen’s theory that proposes older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their social contacts?
  2. psychosocial obligation theory
  3. psychosocial contractual theory
  4. socioemotional moratorium theory
  5. socioemotional selectivity theory

Answer: d

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.1

 

  1. According to Carstensen and her colleagues, at younger ages the goals that people have for their social relationships are:
  2. knowledge-based.
  3. emotions-based.
  4. task-based.
  5. conflict-based.

Answer: a

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.4

 

  1. According to Carstensen, at late adulthood, the goals that people have for their social relationships are:
  2. knowledge-based.
  3. emotions-based.
  4. task-based.
  5. conflict-based.

Answer: b

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Older adults seek to maintain and develop relationships that are low in conflict and high in mutual enjoyment, and drop the rest. This is as also known as:
  2. emotions-based social relationships.
  3. knowledge-based social relationships.
  4. tasked-based social relationships.
  5. people-based social relationships.

Answer: a

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Kathy, who is in late adulthood, has noticed that she no longer spends time with her former colleagues from work, but spends a great deal of time with people who she volunteers with at a local volunteer ambulance base. She finds that her friends who volunteer bring her a great degree of happiness and she has a lower degree of conflict, if any, with them. It is clear that Kathy has moved towards a(n):
  2. emotions-based social relationship.

Correct. Emotions based; older adults seek to maintain and develop relationships that are low in conflict and high in mutual enjoyment, and drop the rest.

  1. knowledge-based social relationship.

Incorrect. Knowledge-based social relationships generally occur in middle adulthood and are related to work or the passing of knowledge.

  1. tasked-based social relationship.
  2. people-based social relationship.

Answer: a

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.10

 

  1. Why is depression high in the early stages of dementia? Because:
  2. changes in brain chemistry cause depression
  3. the individual understands the incurable nature of their condition
  4. going to physicians is a depressing activity for individuals in late adulthood
  5. their family members generally talk about the disease constantly, which is depressing

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.2

 

  1. Your grandfather has Alzheimer’s Disease and your grandmother is the sole person taking care of him. She does not want outside help at this point. As a result, your grandmother is at risk for:
  2. depression

Correct. Although taking care of an ailing spouse can be exhausting, your grandmother is at risk for depression.

  1. also acquiring Alzheimer’s Disease
  2. exhaustion

Incorrect. Although taking care of an ailing spouse can be exhausting, your grandmother is at risk for depression.

  1. memory loss

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.10, CE 12.3.5

 

  1. According to Carstensen’s socioemotinoal selectivity theory, older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their:
  2. entertainment choices
  3. physical activities
  4. social contacts
  5. time commitment to family

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.6

 

  1. You have noticed that your 84-year-old great-grandmother has a much smaller set of friends then she used to have. You know that the same individuals who she used to be friends with are still living in the same neighborhood. According to Cartensen, why is your grandmother not interacting with some of the people for whom she was a friend? Older adults tend to:
  2. withdraw from friendships that are not rewarding

Correct. They tend to focus on relationships that are strong and withdraw from friendships that are not rewarding.

  1. become more reclusive
  2. not care about friends any longer

Incorrect. Older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their social contacts. They tend to focus on relationships that are strong and withdraw from friendships that are not rewarding.

  1. become increasingly nervous around other old people

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, at younger ages the goals that people have for their social relationships are:
  2. activity-based
  3. emotion-based
  4. knowledge-based

Correct. At younger ages the goals for individuals for their social relationships are knowledge-based.

  1. romance-based

Incorrect. At younger ages the goals for individuals for their social relationships are knowledge-based.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, in late adulthood the goals that people have for their social relationships are:
  2. activity-based
  3. emotion-based

Correct. In late adulthood, relationships are mostly emotion-based.

  1. knowledge-based
  2. romance-based

Incorrect. At younger ages the goals for individuals for their social relationships are knowledge-based.

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.9

 

  1. In one American study, what percent of older adults had at least one child who lived within a 30-minute drive of them?
  2. 90%
  3. 75%
  4. 60%
  5. 45%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.7

 

  1. How often does the average older adult and a child visit or talk to each other? At least once a:
  2. day
  3. week
  4. month
  5. year

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your family lives about two hours away from your grandparents. Your mother and your grandparents talk to each other about once a day. Is this typical for older adult parents and their children? It is not unusual, but most older adult parents talk to their children at least once a:
  2. day
  3. week

Correct. Generally, an older adult and a child talk or visit at least once a week.

  1. month

Incorrect. Generally, an older adult and a child talk or visit at least once a week.

  1. year

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In terms of assisting each other, American children provide more assistance when their parents reach late adulthood:
  2. but, the balance of assistance still flows from parents to children

Correct. Generally, individuals in late adulthood still prove substantial assistance to their children.

  1. which results in children providing considerably more assistance to their parents than the parents do for their children
  2. but, their parents generally resent this situation

Incorrect. Generally, individuals in late adulthood still prove substantial assistance to their children.

  1. which puts a serious strain on the relationship

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. From a global perspective, which of the following best describes the living arrangements for most individuals who are in late adulthood and their children?
  2. parents and children live in separate households once children reach adulthood

Incorrect. This is a description of common practice for mainstream American culture.

  1. parents and children live in different towns or cities
  2. parents and children live in different homes but in the same town
  3. parents and children continue to live in the same household

Correct. Most parents and children have close relationships and it is a responsibility of the child to continue to care for their parent; most live in the same household.

Answer: d

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.7

 

  1. Of late adult Americans, what percentage live within a 30 minute drive of at least one of their children, and frequently visit and talk with that child, at least once a week?
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 95%

Answer: c

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Tawanda is a typical American who is in the stage of late adulthood and has 3 children. Statistically speaking one can assume that she lives:
  2. within a 30 minute drive of one of her children and speaks with him or her at least once a week.

Correct. In one American study, 75% of older adults had at least one child who lived within a 30-minute drive, and most parents and children visited or talked to each other at least once a week (Field & Minkler, 1988).

  1. 1 hour away from one of her children and speaks to him or her once a month.

Incorrect. The proximity is close to the correct answer; however, the psychosocial connectedness is not as strong as what has been found by research.

  1. further than 3 hours away from any of her children and speaks with at least one of them once a week.
  2. within an hour’s drive of all of her children and speaks with all of them at least once a month.

Answer: a

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.9

 

  1. Most people become grandparents for the first time in:
  2. emerging adulthood.
  3. young adulthood.
  4. middle adulthood.
  5. late adulthood.

Answer: c

Page: 582

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. According to Chen and Elder (2000. most grandchildren report being:
  2. more emotionally close to their grandmother than their grandfather.

Correct. Gender differences established earlier endure, with most grandchildren feeling closer to their grandmothers (especially on the mother’s side) than to their grandfathers.

  1. more emotionally close to their grandfather than their grandmother.
  2. equally emotionally close to both their grandfather and grandmother.

Incorrect. A hypothetical-idealistic notion of emotional closeness that some students may have.

  1. emotionally close to their grandfather and emotionally disconnected to their grandmother.

Answer: a

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States, parents in late adulthood reported that their children provided mainly what type of support?
  2. Financial
  3. Medical
  4. Emotional
  5. Transportation

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In Eastern countries like China, Japan and India, the tradition is that older parents live with:
  2. The oldest daughter
  3. The youngest daughter
  4. The oldest son
  5. The youngest son

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.2

 

  1. In Western countries, who consistently is more likely to provide care for elderly parents?
  2. A son
  3. A daughter
  4. A geriatric nurse-practitioner
  5. An orderly in a nursing home

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In developed countries what percent of older adults have at least one grandchild who is 18 years old or older?
  2. 90%
  3. 70%
  4. 50%
  5. 30%

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. If your relationship with your grandparents is like most people’s, what do your grandparents think about the relationship that they have with you? Their relationship with you is:
  2. Highly positive

Correct. Grandparents report that their relationships with their adult grandchildren are highly positive.

  1. Relatively positive

Incorrect. Grandparents report that their relationships with their adult grandchildren are highly positive.

  1. Relatively negative
  2. Highly negative

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.8

 

  1. Due to the social welfare program instituted in developed countries in the course of the 20th century, people over age 65years are now:
  2. the most dependent segment of the population
  3. the poorest segment of the population
  4. the most affluent segment of the population
  5. the least self-sufficient segment of the population

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.3

 

  1. Your grandmother has been living alone for the past 14 years since your grandfather died. She is 86 years old and your parents have been discussing the possibility of having her come to live with them. How is your grandmother likely to feel about this option? She would prefer to live:
  2. with a friend
  3. alone and independently

Correct. In Western countries, older adults prefer to live independently.

  1. with your parents, she is lonely

Incorrect. In Western countries, older adults prefer to live independently.

  1. in a nursing home or other long-stay institution

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of living facility for older adults has separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided with meals in a common dining area and offers housekeeping services, transportation for shopping and medical appointments and provides social activities?
  2. Assisted living
  3. Nursing homes
  4. Geriatric hospitals
  5. Hospice

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What type of living facility for older adults has separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided meals in a common dining area, offers housekeeping services, transportation for shopping and medical appointments and provides social activities, but also offers extensive medical care and most residents are afflicted with dementia or other serious health problems?
  2. Assisted living
  3. Nursing homes
  4. Geriatric hospitals
  5. Hospice

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percent of individuals in the United States, Canada and northern Europe 85 years old and older live in institutional care facilities?
  2. 5 to 15%
  3. 20 to 40%
  4. 50 to 70%
  5. 80 to 95%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In Denmark, a program to provide home services and an assisted living option to older adults results in a:
  2. 30% increase in the number of nursing home placements over 15 years
  3. 60% increase in the number of nursing home placements over 15 years
  4. 60% decrease in the number of nursing home placements over 15 years
  5. 30% decrease in the number of nursing home placements over 15 years

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. A century ago, the elderly were the ____ segment of the population; however, currently, in developed countries they are now the ____ segment.
  2. poorest; most affluent
  3. most affluent, poorest
  4. most educated, least educated
  5. least educated, most educated

Answer: a

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.3

 

  1. In Western countries, most people in late adulthood would prefer to live:
  2. in a group home rather than independently.
  3. in a nursing home rather than with their children.
  4. with their children rather than independently.
  5. independently rather than with their children.

Answer: d

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following countries has the lowest rate of those listed of individuals in late adulthood who live, or share co-residents, with her adult children?
  2. Denmark

Correct. Denmark is a northern European country and statistically only 5% of older adults live with their children.

  1. Greece
  2. Italy

Incorrect. Greece is a southern European country and statistically 45% of older adults lived with her children.

  1. Spain

Answer: a

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.8

 

  1. Which of the following countries has the highest rate of those listed of individuals in late adulthood who live, or share co-residence, with their adult children?
  2. Netherlands

Incorrect. The Netherlands is a northern European country and statistically only 5% of older adults live with their children.

  1. Denmark
  2. Spain

Correct. Spain is a southern European country and statistically 45% of older adults lived with their children.

  1. Sweden

Answer: c

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.3

 

  1. In the Scandinavian countries of Northern Europe such as Denmark, Netherlands, and Sweden, about ____ of older adults lived with a child.
  2. 5%
  3. 25%
  4. 50%
  5. 85%

Answer: a

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Co-residence of older adults and adult children Southern European countries such as Greece, Italy, Spain is about ___.
  2. 5%
  3. 25%
  4. 45%
  5. 85%

Answer: c

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ facilities have separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided with meals in a common dining area, housekeeping services, transportation for shopping and medical appointments, and social activities; whereas, ____ provide all of these services as well as extensive medical care, and most residents are afflicted with dementia or other serious health problems.
  2. Assisted living, nursing homes
  3. Nursing home, assisted living
  4. Group home, community homes
  5. Community home, group homes

Answer: a

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.9

 

  1. ____ facilities have separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided with meals in a common dining area, housekeeping services, transportation for shopping and medical appointments, and social activities and most residents are semi-independent without dementia or serious health problems.
  2. Assisted living
  3. Nursing home
  4. Group home
  5. Community home

Answer: a

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. ____ provide meals, housekeeping, transportation, and social activities for their residents; as well as, extensive medical care, and most residents are afflicted with dementia or other serious health problems.
  2. Assisted living facilities
  3. Nursing homes
  4. Group homes
  5. Community homes

Answer: b

Page: 584

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 1

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the sentiments of most Asian countries in regards to placing an elderly parent in a nursing home or assisted living facility?
  2. It is something shameful and should be avoided if possible.

Correct. Filial piety proposes that it is a children’s responsibility to care for their parent.

  1. It is of little controversy because it is common practice.

Incorrect. Closer to the sentiments of modern Western culture.

  1. Most families look forward to placing parents in these facilities.
  2. It is not shameful because it is mandated by the government.

Answer: a

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.15

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.10

 

  1. In general, marital satisfaction tends to be the highest during:
  2. young adulthood.

Incorrect. Some may view wedding bliss as the happiest time within a marriag.

  1. early adulthood.
  2. late adulthood.

Correct. Marital satisfaction increases from middle adulthood to late adulthood and reaches its highest point of the entire lifespan.

  1. quarterly adulthood.

Answer: c

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Clarence and Wiona have been married for 50 years and have a peaceful and tranquil relationship, with high marital satisfaction. As compared to a younger married couple, which of the following is most likely a characteristic that fosters their higher marital satisfaction?
  2. They are both retired and have more time to enjoy joint leisure activities.

Correct. Having more time to spend on joint leisure activities is one of four characteristics that are discussed within the text on why marital satisfaction in late adulthood is high.

  1. They both have slow to warm up temperament styles that match well with each other.
  2. They both have insecure attachments with each other and their children.
  3. They both keep their religious and political views to themselves, to avoid conflict.

Incorrect. Most married individuals have similar religious and political views.

Answer: a

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.9

 

  1. Your roommate is from China. He was discussing his home life with you and part of that discussion centered around his grandparents who are in late adulthood. Where do his grandparents live?
  2. In a state-sponsored assisted living center
  3. In a state-sponsored nursing home
  4. With his parents

Correct. In China older adults are either living with an adult child or receive considerable assistance from the adult child.

  1. With your grandparents’ sister

Incorrect. In China older adults are either living with an adult child or receive considerable assistance from the adult child.

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In general, when does marital satisfaction reach its peak? During:
  2. the second year of marriage
  3. childrearing
  4. the first year after divorce
  5. late adulthood

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.4

 

  1. What percent of divorces take place after individuals are 65 years of age or older in the United States and Canada?
  2. 1%
  3. 11%
  4. 21%
  5. 31%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 585

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.4

 

  1. Your uncle died nine years ago and since that time your 78-year-old aunt has developed a relationship and for the past three years has had a boyfriend. They are thinking about taking their relationship to the next level. What is that likely to be?
  2. Getting married
  3. Cohabitating

Correct. They are likely to get married and are more likely to live together for financial reasons or because of resistance from children.

  1. Remaining close, but not living together

Incorrect. They are likely to get married and are more likely to live together for financial reasons or because of resistance from children.

  1. Moving into an assisted living center

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 586

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.11

 

  1. During late adulthood, after the death of a spouse, men are more likely to become depressed and take longer to recover from the loss. Of the following, which one is cited in the text as a reason that contributes to this?
  2. Most men have difficult temperaments which do not match well with the loss of a loved one.
  3. Men tend to be inexperienced in expressing and coping with emotions such as loss.

Incorrect. Possibly the case; some have proposed that mainstream American culture has created a society of men who are emotionally illiterate; however, this is not discussed within the text.

  1. Most men tend to have insecure attachments with people they are close to and this makes them prone to depression.
  2. Men have fewer friends than women do and fewer close family relations, so they have less social support.

Correct. Having high social support tends to be an inoculated for depression and the bereavement process for women; for the most part men have a lower degree of social support and when discussing topics between men most more likely to “report” and not truly share emotions.

Answer: d

Page: 586

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.5

 

  1. Which are the following is the largest predictive value of whether or not an individual in late adulthood is sexually active?
  2. whether or not they have a partner

Correct. Sexual activity in late adulthood depends crucially on the availability of a partner and on physical health.

  1. whether or not they have a strong libido

Incorrect. An individual’s libido does not drop due to late adulthood.

  1. whether or not they have high testosterone levels
  2. whether or not they are physically fit

Answer: a

Page: 586

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a national American survey of adults ages 57-85, ____ of men reported occasional erectile problems and about one-third reported chronic erectile dysfunction.
  2. 15%
  3. 30%
  4. 60%
  5. 90%

Answer: d

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.4

 

  1. By estimate, what proportion of individuals, both men and women, in late adulthood masturbate “about once per week”?
  2. a large minority

Correct. About 50% of men and one third of women; a large minority.

  1. more than half

Incorrect. Half of all men; but a third of women; therefore not more than half.

  1. about 75%
  2. almost all

Answer: a

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 12.3.5

 

  1. About ____ of men age 65 and over in industrialized countries are still employed.
  2. 1/3
  3. 1/2
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

Answer: d

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.17

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.12

 

  1. In developed countries, the median age of retirement is:
  2. 55 to 58.
  3. 60 to 63.
  4. 65 to 72.
  5. 72 to 73.

Answer: b

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.17

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In men, testosterone levels decrease by what percent between ages of 40 and 70 years?
  2. 22%
  3. 33%
  4. 44%
  5. 55%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a national survey of American adults aged 57 to 85 years, what percent of men reported occasional erectile problems?
  2. 90%
  3. 70%
  4. 50%
  5. 30%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In a national survey of American adults aged 57 to 85 years, what percent of men reported having chronic erectile dysfunction?
  2. 99%
  3. 77%
  4. 55%
  5. 33%

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your great aunt was very disturbed because she just learned that your 76-year-old great uncle occasionally masturbates. She thinks that there is something wrong with him. Is there?
  2. No, about 50% of men over age 70 masturbate.

Correct. About 50% of men who are 70 or older masturbate.

  1. No, about 90% of men over age 70 masturbate.
  2. Yes, only about 5% of men over age 70 masturbate.
  3. Yes, this is clearly an indication that he has serious sexual issues.

Incorrect. About 50% of men who are 70 or older masturbate.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.13

 

  1. As recently as a century ago, what percent of men age 65 years and older in industrialized countries were still employed?
  2. 90%
  3. 75%
  4. 60%
  5. 45%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Currently, what percent of men aged 60 years and older are employed in the United States?
  2. 22%
  3. 33%
  4. 44%
  5. 55%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 587

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Currently, what percent of men aged 60 years and older are employed in Japan?
  2. 27%
  3. 37%
  4. 47%
  5. 57%

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Your 60-year-old grandfather has been retired for nearly 20 years. He says that he is the happiest that he has ever been, which seems to be true from your observations? What type of job did he have when he was employed? A:
  2. manual labor job
  3. high-status job

Correct. People who have the highest retirement satisfaction tended to have high-status jobs when they were employed.

  1. hourly clerk job

Incorrect. People who have the highest retirement satisfaction tended to have high-status jobs when they were employed.

  1. job in sales

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percent of American workers aged 55 years and older said that the only reason they continued to work was for the money?
  2. 33%
  3. 44%
  4. 55%
  5. 66%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States, as recently as 1960, what percent of older adults were poor, the highest poverty rate of any age group?
  2. 35%
  3. 45%
  4. 55%
  5. 65%

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Older adults are now the sector of the population with the:
  2. Highest poverty rate
  3. Lowest income rate
  4. Most tax deductions
  5. Lowest poverty rate

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.5

 

  1. In the United States, what percent of older adults own their own home?
  2. 90%
  3. 80%
  4. 70%
  5. 60%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Walter is 66 years old and was forced to retire due to financial hardships of his company. He knew that if he did not retire he could have been laid off. He was not prepared to retire and would rather be working. Walter is not prepared financially, emotionally, or psychologically. Based upon statistics, what percent of retirees share similar sentiments to Walter?
  2. 5%
  3. 15%
  4. 25%

Correct. Although most older adults welcome retirement and adjust well to it, about one-fourth have adjustment problems of one kind or another.

  1. 45%

Incorrect. A number that is almost twice as large as a true statistic; students may overinflate.

Answer: c

Page: 588

Learning Objective: 12.17

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Which of the following is an example similar to the activities of the Exploritas program?
  2. studying architecture in London, seals in Antarctica, or ancient art in Greece.

Correct. Exploritas combines older adults’ desire to learn with their desire to travel. Exploritas sponsors “learning adventures” throughout the world.

  1. exploring uncharted territory such as the Amazon rainforest, the forests of New Guinea, and the deserts of North Africa.

Incorrect. Most likely too dangerous for individuals late adulthood; and most lack the physical stamina needed.

  1. climbing large mountain peaks such as K2, Denali, and Mount Everest
  2. black bear hunting in the Appalachian Mountains and trout fishing in Alaska of the United States

Answer: a

Page: 589

Learning Objective: 12.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 12.3.7

 

  1. As amount of time spent working declines in late adulthood, older adults spend a lot more time:
  2. engaged in reminiscing about the “good-old days”
  3. alone and unhappy
  4. looking for part-time work
  5. pursuing leisure activities

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 589

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percent of people in their 60s do volunteer work?
  2. 60%
  3. 50%
  4. 40%
  5. 30%

Answer: C

Difficulty:  2

Page: 590

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. What percent of older adult Americans attend religious services weekly?
  2. 10 to 20%
  3. 20 to 30%
  4. 30 to 40%
  5. 40 to 50%

Answer: D

Difficulty:  2

Page: 590

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. In the United States, which of the following is the main setting for volunteer work for individuals who are in the development timeframe of late adulthood?
  2. Federal organizations
  3. religious organizations
  4. local and State organizations
  5. community organizations

Answer: b

Page: 590

Learning Objective: 12.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. Various surveys report that ____ of Americans over age 65 attend religious services weekly.
  2. a large minority

Correct. 40-50% of Americans over age 65 attend religious services weekly.

  1. more than half

Incorrect. Closest to the correct answer.

  1. about 75%
  2. almost all

Answer: a

Page: 591

Learning Objective: 12.18

Difficulty: 3

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.6

 

  1. During late adulthood, across cultures and countries, ____ are more religious than ____, in both beliefs and practices.
  2. men, women
  3. women, men
  4. those who are married, individuals who are single
  5. individuals who are single, those who are married

Answer: b

Page: 591

Learning Objective: 12.18

Difficulty: 2

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. It seems like whenever you visit your grandparents they are watching television. Is this unusual? What percent of older adult Americans leisure time is spent watching television?
  2. 20%
  3. 40%

Correct. Older adult Americans spend about 40% of their leisure time watching television.

  1. 60%

Incorrect. Older adult Americans spend about 40% of their leisure time watching television.

  1. 80%

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 593

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A

 

  1. When older adults are shown on television they are more likely to be portrayed:
  2. Positively

Correct.

  1. Fairly neutrally
  2. Negatively
  3. As incompetent

Incorrect. Older adults are portrayed in a positive manner on television.

Answer: A

Difficulty:  2

Page: 594

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 12.3.14

 

  1. Medical practitioners in a variety of developed countries are now advocating the use of the Internet and electronic devices to enhance communication between health providers and patients, especially older adults. What is the name of this program?
  2. Elder-care
  3. E-health

Correct. This program is known as e-health.

  1. Medical bridge

Incorrect. This program is known as e-health.

  1. Doctor Talk

Answer: B

Difficulty:  2

Page: 594-595

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 12.3.7

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Briefly describe the emotional life and self-evaluations of individuals in late adulthood. Do sex differences exist?

Answer: During late adulthood, people are more likely to experience a number of positive emotions than they did in early years and they are more likely to accept themselves. This seems to be the case for both older males and females.

Page: 579

Learning Objective: 12.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Are there sex differences between the West and East in the care of aging parents? Explain.

Answer: In the West, females tend to be the ones who take primary responsibility for caring for aging parents. In contrast, in the East, the son is the one who cares for his aging parents because they live together. However, it is the wife who provides much of the daily assistance, and the son is more of a financial “provider.” This trend is changing as a result of the “one child” policy; if the daughter is the only child, she will be the one who cares for her aging parents.

Page: 583

Learning Objective: 12.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Coping with the loss of a spouse is difficult, but it seems especially hard for men. Explain using two research findings.

Answer: -Men are more likely to suffer from depression and they experience it for a longer period than do women.

-Men are more likely to die after their spouse dies. This could be because of the increased stress and the lack of social support. Men have fewer friends and they tend not to seek social support. Their health may decline because their wife was the one who took care of them.

Page: 586

Learning Objective: 12.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. Your 70-year-old mother, who is in good health, tells you that she gets bored, especially during the long, cold winters. When you suggest that she volunteer, she says, “I don’t want to be tied down with any commitments.” What arguments could you make that volunteering is well worth the investment?

Answer: -Psychological benefits include higher life satisfaction, sense of meaning/accomplishment, cognitive stimulation.

-Physical benefits include higher self-perception of health, lower rates of disability and mortality.

Page: 590

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

  1. A selection effect is a possible explanation for the finding that people become more religious with age. Explain this rationale.

Answer: Selection effects occur when people with certain characteristics are more likely to remain in a study than others. In this case, those who are religious have been found to be in better health, so it may be that the healthy religious people just happen to be the ones who are alive in late adulthood to participate in the research.

Page: 593

Learning Objective: 12.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. What theory proposes that the relationships of younger adults are knowledge-based, whereas those of late adulthood are more emotion-based. Explain.

Answer: Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that as people age, they become more selective about who they want to spend their time with and consequently reduce the number of people in their social circle. This may be due in part to their perceiving that they have less time left to live, so they want to spend it with those who are most meaningful. However, it could also be that in earlier parts of the lifespan, relationships serve a wider range of functions, such as providing knowledge and information. For example, they may enjoy doing sports or hobbies with friends who provide an opportunity for learning and improving, whereas these goals become less relevant in later life.

Page: 581

Learning Objective: 12.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

  1. Describe ethnic and cultural differences in rates of institutional care for aging parents.

Answer: In the East, due to the tradition of filial piety, it would be considered a disgrace for a parent to live in an institution rather than in the home of a loved one. Rates of living with children were highest in Asia. In Western countries, most elderly people would prefer to live independently, perhaps in part because of individualistic cultural beliefs and also because they do not want to burden their children. If they do move in with their adult children, it is usually as a last resort. There are ethnic differences within countries; those with African, Latino, or Asian background are more likely to live in multi-generational homes.

Page: 584-585

Learning Objective: 12.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank

 

Pre-Test

 

Pre 12.3.1.       Descriptors such as “cheerful,” “calm and peaceful,” and “in good spirits” describe ____.

  1. positive emotions
  2. negative emotions
  3. conflicted emotions
  4. undesirable motions

Answer: a

Page: 579

 

Pre 12.3.2.       In China, Japan, India, and other Eastern countries it is traditional that older people live with ____.

  1. their youngest daughter
  2. their oldest son
  3. their youngest son
  4. their oldest daughter

Answer: b

Page: 583

 

Pre 12.3.3.       According to the text, a century ago the elderly were the ____ segment of the population; however, currently, in developed countries they are the ____ segment.

  1. poorest; most affluent
  2. most affluent; poorest
  3. most educated; least educated
  4. least educated; most educated

Answer: a

Page: 584

 

Pre 12.3.4.       In a national American survey of adults ages 57 to 85, ____ of men reported occasional erectile problems and about one-third reported chronic erectile dysfunction.

  1. 90%
  2. 60%
  3. 30%
  4. 15%

Answer: a

Page: 587

 

Pre 12.3.5.       According to the text, ____ of men and women in late adulthood masturbate about once per week.

  1. between one-third and one-half
  2. more than half
  3. about 75%
  4. almost all

Answer: a

Page: 587

 

Pre 12.3.6.       For individuals in late adulthood, research on emotions and the self-concept have speculated that positive emotions and self-esteem tend to be high because older adults ____.

  1. tend to be more accepting of their past and present selves
  2. have a mature parietal lobe of the brain
  3. have greater financial stability
  4. have successfully completed an identity crisis

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

Pre 12.3.7.       Globally, which of the following best describes the living arrangements for most late adults and their children?

  1. parents and children continue to live in the same household
  2. parents and children live in different homes but in the same town
  3. parents and children live in different towns or cities
  4. parents and children live in separate households once children reach adulthood

Answer: a

Page: 582

 

Pre 12.3.8.       If your relationship with your grandparents is like most people’s, which of the following is the best description? Your relationship is ____.

  1. highly positive
  2. relatively positive
  3. relatively negative
  4. highly negative

Answer: a

Page: 583

 

Pre 12.3.9.       Edith and Archie have been married for 45 years and have a peaceful and tranquil relationship, with high marital satisfaction. As compared to a younger married couple, which of the following is most likely a characteristic that fosters their higher marital satisfaction?

  1. They are both retired and have more time to enjoy joint leisure activities.
  2. They both have slow-to-warm-up temperament styles that match well with each other.
  3. They both have insecure attachments with each other and their children.
  4. They both keep their religious and political views to themselves, to avoid conflict.

Answer: a

Page: 585

 

Pre 12.3.10.     Virginia, who is in late adulthood, has noticed that she no longer spends time with her former colleagues from work, but spends a great deal of time with people who she volunteers with at a local fire department. She finds that her friends who volunteer bring her a greater degree of happiness and she has a lower degree of conflict, if any, with them. It is clear that Virginia has moved toward  ____.

  1. emotion-based social relationships
  2. knowledge-based social relationships
  3.         tasked-based social relationships
  4. people-based social relationships

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

Post-Test

 

Post 12.3.1.      Laura Carstensen proposes older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their social contacts. This theory is known as ____.

  1. socioemotional selectivity theory
  2. socioemotional moratorium theory
  3. psychosocial contractual theory
  4. psychosocial obligation theory

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

Post 12.3.2.      There is a high rate of depression in early stages of dementia because ____.

  1. the individual understands the incurable nature of their condition
  2. changes in brain chemistry cause depression
  3. going to physicians is a depressing activity for individuals in late adulthood
  4. their family members generally talk about the disease constantly, which is depressing

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

Post 12.3.3.      As a result of social welfare programs instituted in developed countries during the 20th century, people over age 65 years are now ____.

  1. the most affluent segment of the population
  2. the least self-sufficient segment of the population
  3. the poorest segment of the population
  4. the most dependent segment of the population

Answer: a

Page: 584

 

Post 12.3.4.      In the United States and Canada what percentage of divorces take place after individuals are 65 years of age or older?

  1. 1%
  2. 9%
  3. 11%
  4. 18%

Answer: a

Page: 585

 

Post 12.3.5.      During late adulthood, after the death of a spouse men are more likely to become depressed and take longer to recover from the loss. Of the following, which is a reason that contributes to this?

  1. Men have fewer friends than women do and fewer close family relations, so they have less social support.
  2. Most men tend to have insecure attachments with people they are close to and this makes them prone to depression.
  3. Men tend to be inexperienced in expressing and coping with emotions such as loss
  4. Most men have difficult temperaments that do not match well with the loss of a loved one.

Answer: a

Page: 586

 

Post 12.3.6.      ____ Americans over age 65 attend religious services weekly.

  1. About 40-50% of
  2. Less than 20% of
  3. About 75% of
  4. Almost all

Answer: a

Page: 591

 

Post 12.3.7.      According to the text, medical practitioners in a variety of developed countries are now advocating the use of the Internet and electronic devices to enhance communication between health providers and patients, especially older adults. This is known as ____.

  1. e-health
  2. eldercare
  3. medical bridge
  4. doctor talk

Answer: a

Page: 594–595

 

Post 12.3.8.      You ask your neighbor Maury, who is in late adulthood, if he could go back to any age in his life and change anything, which age would it be? Maury replies that he is content, that his life has been good, and that he’d rather not change anything about it, even his mistakes. According to Erikson, it is clear that Maury possesses ____.

  1. ego integrity
  2. ego despair
  3. ego content
  4. ego mistrust

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

Post 12.3.9.      Beverly is a typical American who is in the stage of late adulthood and has three children. Statistically speaking one can assume that she  ____.

  1. sees at least one of her children at least once a week
  2. lives 1 hour away from one of her children and speaks to him or her once a month
  3. lives further than 3 hours away from any of her children and speaks with at least one of them once a week
  4. sees all of her children at least once a month

Answer: a

Page: 582

 

Post 12.3.10.    Your grandfather has Alzheimer’s disease and your grandmother is the sole person taking care of him. She does not want outside help at this point. She is doing everything she can to take care of him, but by the end of the day is exhausted. She is up all night worrying that he might get out of bed and wander off. When family members ask if there is anything they can do to help, your grandmother politely states that everything is OK and she has it under control. The truth of the matter is that your grandmother is extremely stressed and worried. As a result of your grandmother taking sole responsibility for your grandfather, she is at risk for ____.

  1. depression
  2. dementia
  3. hypotension
  4. cardiac arrhythmias

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

Chapter Exam

 

CE 12.3.1.       Adults over age 55 were less likely than any younger age group to report symptoms that fit the diagnosis of:

  1. major depressive disorder.
  2. generalized anxiety disorder.
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  4. paranoid schizophrenia.

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

CE 12.3.2.       Smith and Freund (2002) examined the “possible selves” of  Germans who were between 70 and 103 years old over a four-year period and found that they:

  1. still had goals for self-development that they wanted to achieve.
  2. were satisfied with themselves.
  3. had very negative views of themselves.
  4. had no goals for self-development.

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

CE 12.3.3.       Your aunt who is 72 years old has been having serious difficulties with her hearing. Although she does not want to get hearing aids, you know that if she does not get some help with her hearing, she is may become:

  1. sad and depressed.
  2. angry and frustrated.
  3. irritated and confused.
  4. happy and relieved.

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

CE 12.3.4.       According to Carstensen and her colleagues, when individuals are younger, the goals that people have for their social relationships tend to be more:

  1. knowledge-based.
  2. emotions based.
  3. task-based.
  4. conflict-based.

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

CE 12.3.5.       Your grandfather has Alzheimer’s Disease and your grandmother is the sole person taking care of him.  She does not want outside help at this point. As a result, your grandmother is at risk for:

  1.         depression.
  2. also acquiring Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. osteoporosis.
  4. memory loss.

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

CE 12.3.6.       Older adults maximize their emotional well-being by becoming increasingly selective in their:

  1. social contacts.
  2. physical activities.
  3. entertainment choices.
  4. time commitment to family.

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

CE 12.3.7.       ____ percent of older adults had at least one child who lived within a 30-minute drive of them.

  1. Seventy-five
  2. Ninety
  3. Sixty
  4. Forty-five

Answer: a

Page: 582

 

CE 12.3.8.       Which of the following has the lowest rate of individuals in late adulthood who live, or share co-residents, with their adult children?

  1. Denmark
  2. Greece
  3. Italy
  4. Spain

Answer: a

Page: 584

 

CE 12.3.9.       According to the text, ____ facilities have separate apartments for each person, but residents are provided with meals in a common dining area, housekeeping services, transportation for shopping and medical appointments, and social activities; whereas, ____ facilities provide all of these services as well as extensive medical care, and most residents are afflicted with dementia or other serious health problems.

  1. assisted living, nursing home
  2. nursing home, assisted living
  3. group home, community home
  4. community home, group home

Answer: a

Page: 584

 

CE 12.3.10.     In regards to placing an elderly parent in a nursing home or assisted living facility, which of the following best describes the sentiments of most Asian countries?

  1. It is something shameful and should be avoided if possible.
  2. It is of little controversy because it is common practice.
  3. Most families look forward to placing parents in these facilities.
  4. It is not shameful because it is mandated by the government.

Answer: a

Page: 585

 

CE 12.3.11.     Your uncle died nine years ago and since that time your 68-year-old aunt has developed a relationship and for the past three years has had a gentleman-friend.  They are thinking about taking their relationship to the next level.  What is that likely to be?

  1. Cohabitating
  2. Getting married
  3. Remaining close, but not living together
  4. Moving into an assisted living center

Answer: a

Page: 586

 

CE 12.3.12.     What percent of men age 65 and over in industrialized countries are still employed?

  1. 75%
  2. 33%
  3. 50%
  4. 66%

Answer: a

Page: 587

 

CE 12.3.13.     Your great aunt was very disturbed because she just learned that your 76-year-old great uncle occasionally masturbates.  She thinks that there is something wrong with him.  Is there?

  1. No, about 50% of men over age 70 masturbate.
  2. No, about 90% of men over age 70 masturbate.
  3. Yes, only about 5% of men over age 70 masturbate.
  4. Yes, this is clearly an indication that he has serious sexual issues.

Answer: a

Page: 587

 

CE 12.3.14.     For the most part, the portrayal of older adults on American television ads tends to emphasize:

  1. independence.
  2. filial piety.
  3. a weak cognitive state.
  4. an individual in poor health.

Answer: a

Page: 594

 

CE 12.3.15.     As discussed in the text, for both self-esteem and depressive symptoms, studies have consistently found that the gender differences that exist in earlier development:

  1. diminish or disappear by late adulthood.
  2. maintain themselves into adulthood.
  3. dramatically increase by late adulthood.
  4. slightly increase by late adulthood.

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

Quick Review

 

QR 12.3.1.       As illustrated in Figure 12.4, positive emotions ____ from emerging through middle adulthood and then ____ sharply in late adulthood.

  1. are stable; increase
  2. increase; are stable
  3. decline; increase
  4. are stable; decrease

Answer: a

Page: 579

 

QR 12.3.2.       ____ is the time when most people become grandparents.

  1. Middle adulthood
  2. Late adulthood
  3. Young adulthood
  4. Emerging adulthood

Answer: a

Page: 582

 

QR 12.3.3.       Of the countries listed, ____ has the highest rate of individuals in late adulthood who live with their adult children?

  1. Spain
  2. Denmark
  3. Netherlands
  4. Sweden

Answer: a

Page: 584

 

QR 12.3.4.       Marital satisfaction generally reaches its peak during ____.

  1. late adulthood
  2. childrearing
  3. the second two years of marriage
  4. the first years after divorce

Answer: a

Page: 585

 

QR 12.3.5.       According to the text, older adults are now the sector of the population with the ____.

  1. lowest poverty rate
  2. most taxable deductions
  3. lowest income rate
  4. highest poverty rate

Answer: a

Page: 588

 

QR 12.3.6.       Researcher Mroczek (2001) asked more than 2,700 Americans aged 25 to 74 years about their emotional status during the past 30 days. He found that positive emotions ____.

  1. increased sharply during late adulthood
  2. increased slightly during late adulthood
  3. decreased slightly during late adulthood
  4. decreased sharply during late adulthood

Answer: a

Page: 579

 

QR 12.3.7.       The activities of the Exploritas program are similar to which of the following examples?

  1. studying architecture in London, seals in Antarctica, or ancient art in Greece
  2. exploring uncharted territory such as the Amazon rainforest, the forests of New Guinea, and the deserts of North Africa
  3. climbing large mountain peaks such as K2, Denali, and Mount Everest
  4. black bear hunting in the Appalachian Mountains and trout fishing in Alaska

Answer: a

Page: 589

 

QR 12.3.8.       Which of the following summarizes the overall conclusion of research on emotions and the self-concept of individuals in late adulthood?

  1. positive emotions and a more positive self-esteem
  2. negative emotions and low self-esteem
  3. positive emotions and low self-esteem
  4. negative emotions and high self-esteem

Answer: a

Page: 579

 

QR 12.3.9.       From Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, in late adulthood the goals that people have for their social relationships are ____.

  1. emotion-based
  2. activity-based
  3. knowledge-based
  4. romance-based

Answer: a

Page: 581

 

QR 12.3.10.     Erik Erickson proposed that late adulthood is when the central challenge is ____.

  1. ego integrity vs. ego despair
  2. generativity vs. stagnation
  3. intimacy vs. isolation
  4. identity vs. role confusion

Answer: a

Page: 580

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video Guide Questions

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. The narrator lists several factors that should be considered when retiring. List those factors.

Answer: The narrator lists three main factors to consider before retirement. These factors include finances, physical health, and job satisfaction.

Learning Objective: 12.17

 

  1. Imagine you are going to retire in the next year or so, what would you do to plan and prepare both mentally and financially?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Learning Objective: 12.17

 

  1. Looking ahead to the future, what do you see yourself doing during your retirement? What activities will you fill your days?

Answer: Answers will vary.

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Thelma, the 80 year old female from the US, goes to __________ every Friday.
  2. church
  3. the doctor
  4. therapy
  5. school

Answer: D

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, the factors that influence the decision to retire include finances, physical health, and _________.
  2. job satisfaction
  3. number of dependents
  4. the size of your home
  5. friendships

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 12.17

 

  1. According to the narrator of this video, across cultures, people who are forced to retire often experience _________.
  2. a decline in physical and mental health
  3. a decline only in physical health
  4. a renewed sense of self
  5. a renewed sense of freedom

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 12.17

 

 

Practice Test Questions from the Textbook

 

  1. Older adults in developed countries
  2. are the group most likely to be receiving public assistance.
  3. are the wealthiest segment of the population.
  4. are now more likely to be living in extended-family households than in the past.
  5. usually perform a ritual celebrating the person’s freedom from previous responsibilities.

ANS: B (L.O. 12.1) p. 554

 

  1. The old-age dependency ratio
  2. refers to the number of elderly living independently compared to the number in nursing homes.
  3. refers to the number of elderly with chronic illnesses compared to the number without any illnesses.
  4. refers to the number of persons aged 65 or older compared to the number of persons age 20–64.
  5. refers to the number of individuals who are retired compared to the number still in the workforce.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.2) p. 555

 

  1. During late adulthood
  2. height slowly declines for women, but not for men.
  3. body weight increases from middle adulthood because few older adults exercise.
  4. loss of bone mass in the jaw makes the face look thinner.
  5. Age spots increase, but only among dark-skinned people.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.3) p. 559

 

  1. The most common visual impairment in late adulthood is
  2. macular degeneration.
  3. cataracts.
  4. tinnitus.
  5. glaucoma.

ANS: B (L.O. 12.4) p. 559

 

  1. Which of the following best describes how sleep patterns change during late adulthood?
  2. Women in late adulthood often experience sleep apnea, but the disorder is rare among men.
  3. People experience changes in sleep, but these changes are not correlated with psychological problems, such as depression, as they were in earlier parts of the life span.
  4. People have fewer sleep problems than they did earlier in their lives because they no longer have the daily stress associated with work and childcare.
  5. People sleep less deeply than they did when they were younger.

ANS: D (L.O. 12.5) p. 562

 

  1. Arthritis
  2. is caused by a steep drop in estrogen.
  3. affects more men than women.
  4. has no cure.
  5. is less common than other chronic illnesses in late adulthood, such as hypertension or osteoporosis.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.6) p. 563

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding influences on health in late adulthood?
  2. Smoking rates in the United States and other developed countries have increased in the last few decades due to more aggressive marketing campaigns.
  3. Aerobic exercise enhances cognitive functioning.
  4. Even moderate alcohol consumption increases risk of cardiovascular disease.
  5. Automobile crashes are not a health threat to older adults since most have become expert drivers.

ANS: B (L.O. 12.7) p. 566

 

  1. ______________ shows relatively little decline in late adulthood.
  2. Procedural memory
  3. Working memory
  4. Selective attention
  5. Divided attention

ANS: A (L.O. 12.8) p. 570

 

  1. ______________ are more at risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease.
  2. Highly educated people
  3. African Americans
  4. Small-framed people
  5. Those who exercise frequently

ANS: B (L.O. 12.9) p. 572

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding research on wisdom?
  2. Wisdom is not correlated with educational levels.
  3. Wisdom is related to age; it increases as people get older.
  4. People who hold leadership positions are more likely than others to score high on wisdom.
  5. There has been no empirical research conducted on wisdom because researchers disagree about how it should be measured.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.10) p. 575

 

  1. Arthur Rubenstein, a renowned pianist, continued to give award-winning performances into late adulthood. He did this by sticking with the range of pieces he felt most comfortable, practicing more, and playing the slow passages very slowly just before the fast passages so that the fast pieces sounded that much faster. This is an example of
  2. improved procedural memory with age.
  3. better divided attention among experts.
  4. selective optimization with compensation.
  5. faster reactions times of older experts compared to their younger counterparts.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.11) p. 577

 

  1. ______________ are more common in late adulthood than at earlier ages.
  2. Gender differences in self-esteem
  3. Depressive symptoms
  4. Negative emotions
  5. Positive emotions

ANS: D (L.O. 12.12) p. 579

 

  1. According to socioemotional selectivity theory
  2. adults with lower self-esteem are biologically programmed to be more conforming.
  3. due to increased rates of depression in late adulthood, the elderly tend to withdraw from society.
  4. the older we get, the more important it becomes to acquire knowledge.
  5. shrinking social networks in adulthood are by choice.

ANS: D (L.O. 12.13) p. 581

 

  1. Mrs. El Reedy is an American woman living in the United States who is widowed, and has a married son and a married daughter. If she becomes ill, she is likely to be cared for by
  2. her son.
  3. her son and daughter equally.
  4. her daughter or daughter-in-law.
  5. her best friend, who is also a widow.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.14) p. 583

 

  1. J. M. is a 92-year-old woman living in Canada. She would be most likely to be living in a nursing home if she has a(n) ______________ cultural background.
  2. Asian
  3. European
  4. African
  5. Latino

ANS: B (L.O. 12.15) p. 584

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding late adulthood relationships in Western culture?
  2. The risk of death after the loss of a spouse is greater for men than for women.
  3. Rates of remarriage in late adulthood are higher than in middle adulthood because children are less likely to be living in the same household.
  4. Women are more likely than men to become depressed after a spouse dies.
  5. Rates of sexual activity are essentially the same regardless of one’s perceived health status.

ANS: A (L.O. 12.16) p. 586

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding work and retirement?
  2. Retirement satisfaction tends to be highest among those in lower status jobs because they feel a sense of relief to no longer have to go to work every day.
  3. Most older Americans say they would prefer to end retirement gradually.
  4. For most older adults, the main reason they work past the traditional “retirement age” is that they need the money.
  5. Younger adults are more likely to be self-employed than their older counterparts.

ANS: B (L.O. 12.17) p. 588

 

  1. In late adulthood, religious beliefs are
  2. weaker than in middle adulthood because many older adults have become disillusioned with organized religion.
  3. strongest among Europeans.
  4. positively correlated with both mental and physical health.
  5. strong among Christians, but weak among followers of Eastern religions such as Buddhism.

ANS: C (L.O. 12.18) p. 592

 

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Human Development A Cultural Approach 1st Edition By Arnett-Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *