Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia – Test bank

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Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia – Test bank

 

 

2 THEORY AND RESEARCH

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. What purpose do theories serve and what are two basic theoretical issues on which developmental scientists differ?
  2. What are five theoretical perspectives on human development, and what are some theories representative of each?
  3. How do developmental scientists study people, and what are some advantages and disadvantages of each research method?
  4. What ethical problems may arise in research on humans?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following statements about theories is true?

  1. Theories change to incorporate new findings.
  2. Theories are based on certain assumptions.
  3. Theories and research are interwoven.
  4. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the study of human development, a theory is a set of
  2. logically related statements seeking to describe, explain, and predict development.
  3. facts derived from research.
  4. predictions about future outcomes.
  5. opinions of a well-known authority in a field.

Answer: A

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A good theory suggests __________ be tested by research.
  2. data
  3. hypotheses
  4. findings
  5. conclusions

Answer: B

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested are called
  2. theories.
  3. hypotheses.
  4. research findings.
  5. conclusions.

Answer: B

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. “If children learn aggression from models, then children who watch violent television shows should be more aggressive than children who watch nonviolent shows.” This is an example of a
  2. theory.
  3. finding.
  4. hypothesis.
  5. conclusion.

Answer: C

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Which early philosopher described children as a tabula rasa on which society writes?
  2. John Locke
  3. Jean Piaget
  4. Jean Jacques Rosseau
  5. Erik Erikson

Answer: A

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. If Bill’s behavior is viewed as passive and reactive, he would be perceived as demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
  2. naturalistic
  3. mechanistic
  4. organismic
  5. maturationistic

Answer: B

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. If Troy’s behavior is viewed as active and self-determining, he would be perceived as demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
  2. naturalistic
  3. mechanistic
  4. organismic
  5. maturationistic

Answer: C

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Organismic theorists emphasize __________ change, while mechanistic theorists emphasize __________ change.
  2. quantitative; qualitative
  3. behavioral; developmental
  4. qualitative; quantitative
  5. mechanistic; organismic

Answer: C

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The quantitative changes of sitting up, crawling, and walking, which are predicted by earlier behaviors, support which theory?
  2. mechanistic
  3. developmental
  4. qualitative
  5. organismic

Answer: A

Page: 24

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, favored the __________ perspective on human development.
  2. organismic
  3. quantitative
  4. mechanistic
  5. behavioristic

Answer: A

Page: 24

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory was developed by
  2. Sigmund Freud.
  3. Ivan Pavlov.
  4. Albert Bandura.
  5. Erik Erikson.

Answer: A

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Stacy’s mother believes that most of Stacy’s acting out lately has been caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. Stacy’s perspective is called
  2. humanistic.
  3. ethological.
  4. psychoanalytic.
  5. learning.

Answer: C

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. A therapeutic approach aimed at giving patients insight into their unconscious conflicts is called
  2. repression analysis.
  3. psychoanalysis.
  4. psychosexual analysis.
  5. psychoconsciousness.

Answer: B

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Freud’s theory on human development states that people develop in an unvarying sequence of maturationally determined stages of __________ development.
  2. psychosocial
  3. psychoanalytic
  4. psychounconscious
  5. psychosexual

Answer: D

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The proper order of Freud’s psychosexual stages of development is
  2. anal, phallic, oral, latency, genital.
  3. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
  4. anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic.
  5. oral, latency, genital, anal, phallic.

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to psychosexual theory, 4-year-old Austin would be in which stage?
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. phallic
  5. latency

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. As an adult, Mary spends considerable time each day cleaning her apartment, arranging her socks in a drawer until they are just so, and making schedules on a calendar. According to Freud, Mary is probably fixated in the __________ stage.
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. genital
  5. phallic

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Freud, during early childhood boys develop sexual attachment to their mothers. Freud called this development ______________.
  2. the Electra complex
  3. the unconscious complex
  4. the Oedipus complex
  5. regressing

Answer: A

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The stage of psychosexual development that occurs during middle childhood and is characterized by relative calm is called the __________ stage.
  2. oral
  3. childhood
  4. latency
  5. anal

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the personality as proposed by Freud?
  2. superego
  3. libido
  4. id
  5. ego

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the “pleasure principle,” seeking the immediate gratification of desires, is the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. ego ideal.

Answer: A

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the “reality principle,” realistically finding ways to obtain gratification, is the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. conscience.

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Christa, a rather demonstrative 7-year-old, hits her brother for laughing at her, and feels guilty about it afterward. According to Freud, Christ’s guilty feelings reflect the operation of the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. defense mechanism.

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which one of the following personality entities would be most similar to what is called “conscience”?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. superego
  5. libido

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. One of the criticisms of Freud’s work is that he _____________________.
  2. did not make us aware of the importance of unconscious thoughts
  3. did not acknowledge childhood feelings and experiences in motivation
  4. did not scientifically test concepts of id and superego
  5. None of these.

Answer: C

Page: 26-27

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Unlike Freud’s theory, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
  2. sees society as a positive force.
  3. focuses on biological instincts.
  4. covers infancy and childhood but not adulthood.
  5. has much in common with behaviorism.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Each of Erikson’s stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time. Erikson referred to these issues as __________ in personality.
  2. traumas
  3. crises
  4. maturationals
  5. phases

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, the resolution of the crisis at each stage of psychosocial development must include a _______ between positive and negative traits.
  2. balance
  3. skewing toward the positive
  4. skewing toward the negative
  5. synthesis

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Pauline is in her fourth stage of development according to the developmental stage theory that Erikson put forth. Under normal conditions, if Pauline lives into old age, in how many stages will she ultimately participate?
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 8
  5. 12

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, the first stage of development, which occurs during infancy, is
  2. trust versus mistrust.
  3. autonomy versus state of doubt.
  4. initiative versus guilt.
  5. industry versus inferiority.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, a teenage girl would be facing the crisis of
  2. intimacy versus isolation.
  3. integrity versus despair.
  4. industry versus inferiority.
  5. identity versus identity confusion.

Answer: D

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An example of Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt would be
  2. an infant learning that she can depend on being fed.
  3. a 3-year-old trying to fill a cup with water and cheerfully wiping up the water when it spills.
  4. a 10-year-old learning to read fluently.
  5. a teenager conforming to peer pressure.

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Freud’s research stressed the importance of
  2. conscious behavior.
  3. the role of heredity in parenting.
  4. ways in which early relationships affect later ones.
  5. the uselessness of recalling childhood experiences.

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In contrast with Freud, Erikson placed more emphasis on
  2. physical development.
  3. intellectual development.
  4. the role of parents.
  5. social and cultural influences.

Answer: D

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A long-lasting change in behavior as a result of experience or adaptation to its environment is called
  2. modification.
  3. cognition.
  4. learning.
  5. behaviorism.

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Two important learning theories are____________ and_______________.
  2. behaviorism; cognitive therapy
  3. social learning theory; behaviorism
  4. social learning theory; psychoanalytic theory
  5. psychoanalytic theory; cognitive theory

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Learning theorists are most concerned with
  2. measurable, observable behaviors.
  3. unconscious determination of behaviors.
  4. development of intelligence.
  5. personality conflicts between parents and children.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the _________ perspective, people’s actions are reactions to aspects of their environment that they find pleasing, painful, or threatening.
  2. organismic
  3. behaviorism
  4. psychoanalytic
  5. humanistic

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The ________ perspective emphasizes the influence of the environment rather than thought processes or unconscious fantasies.
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. learning
  4. organismic
  5. humanistic

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Behaviorists maintain that human behavior is determined by
  2. defense mechanisms.
  3. self-actualization.
  4. unconscious conflicts.
  5. conditioning.

Answer: D

Page: 28-29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which one of the following is NOT a type of associative learning?
  2. learning conditioning
  3. classical conditioning
  4. behavior conditioning
  5. operant conditioning

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In classical conditioning, an association is learned between
  2. an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus.
  3. an operant response and a reinforcer.
  4. a conditioned stimulus and an operant response.
  5. an internal stimulus and an external stimulus.

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following researchers worked with “Little Albert” in one of the earliest and most famous examples of classical conditioning in human development?
  2. John B. Watson
  3. Ivan Pavlov
  4. B. F. Skinner
  5. Edward Thorndike

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The principles of classical conditioning were developed by
  2. John B. Watson.
  3. Ivan Pavlov.
  4. B. F. Skinner.
  5. Edward Thorndike.

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A girl receives an injection and cries. Each time she receives an injection again, the same nurse gives it. Her mother notices that the child now cries when she sees this nurse even if no injection is given. This is an example of
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. operant conditioning.
  4. fixation.
  5. negative reinforcement.

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The psychologist who formulated the principles of operant conditioning was
  2. John B. Watson.
  3. Sidney Pressey.
  4. B. F. Skinner.
  5. Ivan Pavlov.

Answer: C

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is the principle that an organism will repeat behaviors when these behaviors are reinforced.
  2. Classical conditioning
  3. Operant conditioning
  4. Pleasure principle
  5. Reality principle

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Any consequence of a behavior that INCREASES the likelihood of that behavior being repeated is called
  2. punishment.
  3. reinforcement.
  4. an aversive event.
  5. classical conditioning.

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Punishment __________ a behavior by bringing on a(n)__________event.
  2. increases; aversive
  3. suppresses; aversive
  4. suppresses; positive
  5. increases; negative

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Reinforcement is most effective when it is __________ after the behavior it is designed to reinforce.
  2. delayed
  3. immediately
  4. constant
  5. aversive

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ann’s mother has stopped reinforcing Ann to make her bed. Ann’s bed making behavior is likely to be ___________.
  2. increased
  3. extinguished
  4. punished
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Edwin is learning to ride his bike. Each time that he rides onto the gravel driveway, he loses control of the bike and falls. Eventually Edwin will no longer ride in the driveway. This example represents the learning process of
  2. negative reinforcement.
  3. intermittent reinforcement.
  4. punishment.
  5. conditioning.

Answer: C

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The use of operant conditioning to modify or shape human behavior is called
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. punishment.
  4. behavior modification.
  5. reinforcement.

Answer: C

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The principles of social learning theory were developed by
  2. B. F. Skinner.
  3. Carl Rogers.
  4. John B. Watson.
  5. Albert Bandura.

Answer: D

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to social learning theory, the most important element in how children learn a language, deal with aggression, develop a sense of morality, and learn gender-appropriate behavior is
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. observation and imitation.
  4. punishment of inappropriate behavior.
  5. shaping of appropriate behavior.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The process of modeling, or observing and imitating others, is referred to as
  2. social learning theory.
  3. observational learning.
  4. self-efficacy.
  5. social cognitive theory.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. ____________develops as children gradually establish guidelines for judging their own actions and select models who exemplify these guidelines.
  2. Social cognitive theory
  3. Applied behavioral analysis
  4. Social learning theory
  5. Self-efficacy

Answer: A

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Stacy feels confident in knowing she has what it takes to succeed. Stacy has developed
  2. cognition.
  3. behavioral analysis.
  4. social learning.
  5. self-efficacy.

Answer: D

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The perspective on human behavior that is concerned with thought processes and the behavior that reflects those processes is called the __________ perspective.
  2. cognitive
  3. thinking
  4. behavioral
  5. intellectual

Answer: A

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is the researcher best known for his theory of cognitive development.
  2. Abraham Maslow
  3. Sigmund Freud
  4. Erik Erikson
  5. Jean Piaget

Answer: D

Page: 30-31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The two major points of Jean Piaget’s cognitive perspective are that people are ______ and behavior develops ______.
  2. controlled by the environment; in a specific order
  3. active in their development; randomly at any developmental stage
  4. active in their development; in a specific order
  5. controlled by the environment; randomly at any developmental stage

Answer: C

Page: 30-31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the cognitive stages through which a child progresses, as theorized by Jean Piaget?
  2. post-conceptual
  3. sensorimotor
  4. preoperational
  5. concrete operations

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget’s use of questions and flexible exploration of a child’s responses is known as the __________ method.
  2. Socratic
  3. clinical
  4. field observation
  5. interview

Answer: B

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A structure of organized patterns of behavior that a person uses to think about and act in a situation is that person’s
  2. scheme.
  3. situation.
  4. adaptation.
  5. assimilation.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the interrelated principles developed by Piaget to explain the gradual development of a child’s mental processes?
  2. organization
  3. adaptation
  4. equilibration
  5. cognition

Answer: D

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget’s term for the process of taking information and incorporating it into EXISTING ways of thinking is
  2. schematization.
  3. shaping.
  4. accommodation.
  5. assimilation.

Answer: D

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When a child first sucks on a Sippy cup the same way the child sucked from a bottle the child is trying to learn to drink from the cup using the process of
  2. assimilation.
  3. modification.
  4. acculturation.
  5. adaptation.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. From Jean Piaget’s perspective, a child who alters her behavior to more effectively deal with a new situation is exhibiting
  2. accommodation.
  3. primary process thinking.
  4. assimilation.
  5. generalization.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Jean Piaget, what is the primary goal or need that leads children to change their ways of thinking to adapt to new experiences?
  2. satisfaction of id impulses
  3. equilibrium
  4. stable sense of identity
  5. approval from parents

Answer: B

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. It is important for parents and teachers to understand how children think so they can more effectively _________ them.
  2. discipline
  3. teach
  4. organize
  5. manage

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Jean Piaget’s formal operations stage does not account for the capacity to
  2. develop practical problem-solving skills.
  3. deal with ambiguous situations.
  4. deal with competing truths.
  5. All of these.

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Piaget’s theory of development?
  2. It pays little attention to emotional development.
  3. It pays little attention to the influence of education on intellectual development.
  4. It overestimates the cognitive abilities of young children.
  5. It does not say much about individual differences in ability.

Answer: C

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychologist Lev Vygotsky saw cognitive growth as a collaborative process in which children learn through social
  2. cognition.
  3. status.
  4. learning.
  5. interaction.

Answer: D

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A teacher is helping to direct and organize Jay’s learning with blocks to help him master and internalize his skills. This reflects Vygotsky’s notion of
  2. structured application.
  3. zone of proximal development.
  4. distal learning.
  5. zone of distal development.

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. ____________ refers to the temporary support that parents, teachers, and others give a child in doing a task until the child can do it alone.
  2. Laddering
  3. Constructing
  4. Scaffolding
  5. Supporting

Answer: C

Page: 32-33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A major distinction between Piaget’s developmental theory and the information-processing approach is that
  2. Piaget sees development as continuous, whereas the information-processing approach views development as occurring in distinct stages.
  3. Piaget sees development as an active process, whereas the information-processing view sees the organism as passive.
  4. Piaget focused on perception, whereas the information-processing approach focuses on thinking and memory.
  5. Piaget sees development as occurring in stages, whereas the information-processing approach sees development as continuous.

Answer: D

Page: 32-33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The information-processing approach to explaining cognitive development compares the brain to a __________; sensory impressions go in and behavior comes out.
  2. calculator
  3. computer
  4. modem
  5. telephone

Answer: B

Page: 33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following best explains the neo-Piagetian perspective on cognitive development?
  2. It emphasizes the efficiency with which information is processed.
  3. It explains individual differences in cognitive ability.
  4. It explains how qualitative changes in cognition take place.
  5. All of these are part of the neo-Piagetian perspective.

Answer: D

Page: 33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which perspective emphasizes the idea that species-specific behaviors enhance the survival of that species?
  2. behavioral
  3. social cognitive
  4. contextual
  5. ethological

Answer: D

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the 1950s, the British psychologist, __________, extended ethological principles to the study of human development, focusing attention on the mother-infant bond and the bonding process that produces attachment.
  2. Mary Ainsworth
  3. John Bowlby
  4. Konrad Lorenz
  5. Niko Tinbergen

Answer: B

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The leader of a mother and baby workshop tells new mothers that attachment between an infant and caregiver must occur during a critical period to ensure normal development. Which developmental perspective does this workshop leader support with this statement?
  2. behavioral
  3. ethological
  4. psychoanalytic
  5. informative-processing

Answer: B

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to the __________ perspective, development can be understood only when individual behavior is observed in interaction with the environment.
  2. environmental
  3. contextual
  4. interactive
  5. behavioral

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which American psychologist developed the bioecological perspective, which involves five interlocking contextual systems ranging from the most intimate to the most distant?
  2. Lev Vygotsky
  3. Ivan Pavlov
  4. Urie Bronfenbrenner
  5. Jean Piaget

Answer: C

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Dr. Willard is studying the way in which infant siblings interact with one another in the home. According to the ecological approach, Dr. Willard is studying the children in their
  2. microsystem.
  3. mesosystem.
  4. exosystem.
  5. macrosystem.

Answer: A

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Dr. Berry, who employs the ecological approach to human development, is studying the relationship between the quality of parent-child interactions in the home and the success of children in school. Dr. Berry is studying development at the __________ level of environmental influence.
  2. microsystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. exosystem
  5. macrosystem

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has significantly altered most government institutions there. According to the ecological approach, the government changes are changes in people’s
  2. microsystem.
  3. mesosystem.
  4. endosystem.
  5. macrosystem.

Answer: D

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Professor Powers studies how frequent moves from one town to another can influence children’s emotional development over time. According to the ecological approach, Professor Powers is studying the __________ of children.
  2. exosystem
  3. chronosystem
  4. macrosystem
  5. minisystem

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Sociocultural theory, developed by __________, stresses children’s active involvement with their environment as the process by which they acquire cognitive skills.
  2. Urie Bronfenbrenner
  3. Jean Piaget
  4. Lev Vygotsky
  5. Margaret Mead

Answer: C

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The approach that views human development as the outcome of a dynamic process of bidirectional interaction between person and environment is a(n)
  2. developmental system.
  3. interpersonal system.
  4. cognitive system.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which theory of human development is universally accepted as the theory that best explains all facets of development?
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. behavioristic
  4. sociocultural
  5. No one theory is able to do this.

Answer: D

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Instead of looking for broad stages, developmental scientists seek to discover what specific kinds of behavior show_________ and what ___________ are involved in each.
  2. abrupt changes; behaviors
  3. continuity; processes
  4. discontinuity; stages
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Daniel is doing research that involves gathering detailed descriptions from people about their beliefs. Daniel is doing which kind of research?
  2. qualitative
  3. quantitative
  4. theoretical
  5. hypothetical

Answer: A

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When research deals with objectively measurable data, this is a description of
  2. qualitative research.
  3. quantitative research.
  4. theories.
  5. hypotheses.

Answer: B

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When conducting research, scientists will typically measure a __________ and generalize the results to a _____________.
  2. cohort; sample
  3. non-normative group; normative group
  4. population; sample
  5. sample; population

Answer: D

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One of the most reliable sampling methods is the use of __________, which increases the likelihood that the sample is representative of the population.
  2. representative selection
  3. random assignment
  4. random selection
  5. random sample

Answer: C

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique?
  2. questionnaire
  3. diary or log
  4. interview
  5. observation

Answer: D

Page: 38

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A problem associated with the interview method is that
  2. a single interview may give only a partial picture.
  3. people are not always accurate or honest in answering questions.
  4. interview reports may need to be confirmed by more objective research.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One commonly used type of written interview is a
  2. diary.
  3. case study.
  4. questionnaire.
  5. journal.

Answer: C

Page: 38

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When a researcher decides to travel with the circus in order to observe the performers, without altering the environment they live and work in, the research is
  2. a laboratory observation.
  3. a naturalistic observation.
  4. quantitative research.
  5. a natural experiment.

Answer: B

Page: 38-39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The primary difference between a naturalistic observation and a laboratory observation is the degree of
  2. manipulation.
  3. control.
  4. involvement.
  5. There is no difference.

Answer: B

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Professor Bailey watches Tehra closely through a one-way mirror as she participates in her social studies class. This is an example of what research method?
  2. clinical study
  3. case study
  4. naturalistic observation
  5. laboratory observation

Answer: C

Page: 39

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A disadvantage of the use of naturalistic observation techniques is that they
  2. can be used to study only infancy.
  3. omit emotional development.
  4. record only cognitive development.
  5. are prone to observer bias.

Answer: D

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with observational studies?
  2. They cannot determine cause and effect relationships.
  3. The subjects may behave differently when they know they are being observed.
  4. It is not possible to gain information regarding relationships between variables.
  5. Laboratory studies may not generalize to real life.

Answer: C

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. When test results are reasonably consistent from one time to another they are said to be
  2. valid.
  3. reliable.
  4. operational.
  5. standardized.

Answer: B

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A plan for conducting a scientific investigation is a
  2. research design.
  3. hypothetical study.
  4. scientific project.
  5. research grant.

Answer: A

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An in-depth study of an individual is a(n)
  2. naturalistic observation.
  3. case study.
  4. interview.
  5. experiment.

Answer: B

Page: 40

Guidepost:  3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In developing his psychoanalytic theory, Freud studied several individuals in great detail for an extended period of time. This technique is referred to as the __________ approach.
  2. laboratory observation
  3. interview
  4. experimental
  5. case study

Answer: D

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. An in-depth case study of a culture or subculture is an __________ study.
  2. enculturation
  3. ethnographic
  4. acculturation
  5. ethnic

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher who wants to find out if a statistical relationship exists between variables should use a(n)
  2. questionnaire.
  3. correlation.
  4. experiment.
  5. case study.

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher studies the relationship between family income and achievement motivation. A correlation of +1.20 is found. From this, the researcher can conclude that
  2. other variables must be negatively correlated with family income.
  3. high income causes high achievement motivation.
  4. increases in income predict higher achievement motivation.
  5. an error was made in calculating the correlation.

Answer: D

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Liefeld has studied the relationship between the amount of time children spend playing video games and their academic performance in school. She finds that as time spent playing video games increases, grades in school decrease. This finding represents a
  2. a positive correlation.
  3. a negative correlation.
  4. a variable interaction.
  5. a case study approach.

Answer: B

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Suppose you asked the following two questions of a group of 100 children: How much time do your parents spend reading to you each day? and What are your grades in school? You find that children whose parents read to them for more than one hour each day have better grades than children whose parents read to them for only a few minutes each day. What could you conclude from this pattern of data?
  2. Reading by parents causes children to do better in school.
  3. Parental reading time and grades are positively correlated.
  4. Parental reading time and grades are uncorrelated.
  5. Better students cause their parents to spend more time reading to them.

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. A strong correlation between variables does not necessarily mean that one variable __________ the other.
  2. determines
  3. causes
  4. results from
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The subjects who receive the treatment or independent variable in an experimental study are called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. dependent group.
  5. independent group.

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A controlled procedure in which the experimenter manipulates variables to learn how one affects another is a(n)
  2. manipulation.
  3. experiment.
  4. observation
  5. correlation.

Answer: B

Page: 42-43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The word “manipulation” is most strongly associated with the __________ technique.
  2. experimental
  3. correlational
  4. case study
  5. interview

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The subjects who do NOT receive the treatment or independent variable in an experimental study are called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. dependent group.
  5. independent group.

Answer: B

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The treatment in an experiment is called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. independent variable.
  5. dependent variable.

Answer: C

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In an experiment, Professor Daley manipulates the __________ variable and then looks for an effect of that manipulation by measuring the ___________variable.
  2. dependent; independent
  3. control; experimental
  4. experimental; control
  5. independent; dependent

Answer: D

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In an experiment, one group of children is given a drink each day with a special vitamin supplement. A second group of children is given the same drink but without the vitamin. Later, all children are given an IQ test to see if the vitamin had an effect on intelligence. In this experiment, the children’s scores on the IQ test would be the
  2. independent variable.
  3. cross-sequential variable.
  4. dependent variable.
  5. control variable.

Answer: C

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. In a study of the effects of behavior modeling, one group of children observes role models who share toys; another group observes role models whose behavior is neutral (neither initiating sharing nor refusing to share). What is the independent variable?
  2. observing role models who share or don’t share
  3. observing negative role models
  4. the group with neutral role models
  5. the group with sharing role models

Answer: A

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A group of children is given special training on how to handle their anger. A second group is treated the same as the first group except for the fact that these subjects do not receive the special training. The group given the training is the __________ group and the group given no training is the __________group.
  2. experimental; control
  3. control; experimental
  4. dependent; independent
  5. independent; dependent

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The chief advantage of experimental methods is that they are
  2. more flexible than other methods.
  3. more generalized than other methods.
  4. more descriptive of real-life events.
  5. better able to determine cause and effect.

Answer: D

Page: 43-44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Experimenters can ensure results that are representative of a given population through
  2. random selection.
  3. random assignment.
  4. controlling for all relevant variables.
  5. convenience sampling.

Answer: B

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher who studies twins accidentally separated at birth and reared in different environments is using a
  2. laboratory experiment.
  3. field experiment.
  4. natural experiment.
  5. correlation experiment.

Answer: C

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Gearhart is hopeful that her research results will be verified by others through replication. If she wishes her work to be replicated most accurately, what research technique should she use?
  2. natural experiment
  3. interview
  4. case study
  5. cross-sectional naturalistic observation

Answer: A

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The greatest difference between a laboratory experiment and a field experiment is the degree of
  2. control.
  3. manipulation.
  4. random assignment.
  5. correlation.

Answer: A

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is a shortcoming of the laboratory experimental approach to understanding human development?
  2. It is often difficult to randomly assign subjects to different treatment conditions.
  3. Experiments rarely inform us about cause-and-effect relationships.
  4. This technique does not work well for the study of aggression.
  5. The results may not be applicable outside the experimental situation.

Answer: D

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Ellie Cheetham follows the same group of children over a 10-year period, measuring their performance twice a year. This is which method of data collection?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. clinical

Answer: B

Page: 45-46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Professor Bingham measures the cognitive skills of 100 30-year-olds and compares them with 100 50-year-olds. This is an example of which method?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. clinical

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which type of study is time-consuming, expensive, and has problems associated with attrition?
  2. longitudinal
  3. cross-sectional
  4. interview
  5. clinical

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Suppose your psychology professor asks you to do a study examining how emotional reactions change in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Given that the study needs to be completed in less then two weeks, which type of data collection method should you employ?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. ethological

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which studies have the greatest difficulty with the loss of subjects?
  2. longitudinal
  3. cross-sectional
  4. clinical
  5. case history

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Cohort differences are a problem for which kind of studies?
  2. time-sampling
  3. cross-sectional
  4. sequential
  5. longitudinal

Answer: B

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following methods was designed to deal with the disadvantages of both the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs?
  2. life-span sampling
  3. clinical
  4. sequential study
  5. behavior-sampling

Answer: C

Page: 47

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Professor Watt studies the behavior of children whose parents divorced 6 months before the children started school and children whose parents divorced 2 years before the children started school. Both groups of children are then followed and measured over the course of several years. This is which kind of design?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. sequential
  4. longitudinal
  5. life-span sampling

Answer: B

Page: 47

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Objections to Watson and Rayner’s study of __________ stimulated the American Psychological Association to establish more stringent ethical guidelines for research studies that involved human subjects.
  2. Fat Albert
  3. Little Albert
  4. Prince Albert
  5. Baby Albert

Answer: B

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to the American Psychological Association, participants in psychological research have all of the following rights EXCEPT the right to
  2. privacy and confidentiality.
  3. informed consent.
  4. financial remuneration.
  5. self-esteem.

Answer: C

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In Guidepost 4, the resolution of ethical problems in research is discussed. Which of the following is an ethical principle?
  2. beneficence
  3. justice
  4. respect
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Professor Carney is interested in family factors that influence the development of children who commit violent and illegal acts in their early lives. He is also interested in the influences in a child’s environment that may play a part in their violent behavior. List three research methods available to Professor Carney and identify the kinds of information he would be able to obtain by using each of these methods. Compare both the advantages and the disadvantages of using each of these methods in the investigation of this particular topic.

 

  1. List and describe each of the five theoretical perspectives discussed in your text. Select any developmental issue and explain how a person might look at the issue from each of the theoretical perspectives. (Some suggested issues are: eating disorders, family violence, sibling rivalry, drug abuse, gifted children, and children with ADHD.)

 

8                  PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. How does the self-concept develop during early childhood, and do children show self-esteem, emotional growth, and initiative?
  2. How do boys and girls become aware of the meaning of gender, and what explains differences in behavior between the sexes?
  3. How do preschoolers play, and how does play contribute to and reflect development?
  4. How do parenting practices influence development?
  5. Why do young children help or hurt others, and why do they develop fears?
  6. How do young children get along with—or without—siblings, playmates, and friends?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. A system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self is called
  2. self-concept.
  3. self-awareness.
  4. self-definition.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: A

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When children talk about their own concrete, observable behaviors, they are defining
  2. cognition.
  3. self.
  4. others.
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. When a 4-year-old boy is asked to describe himself, he will typically tell you about his
  2. relational self.
  3. real self.
  4. descriptive self.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: D

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In neo-Piagetian terminology, the first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms, is called
  2. deductive.
  3. single representations.
  4. representational mappings.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: B

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is a part of self-definition?
  2. recognizing oneself
  3. parental values
  4. developing a concept of the ideal self
  5. developing a concept of self-centeredness

Answer: C

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The judgment children make about their overall worth is their
  2. self-worth.
  3. self-concept.
  4. self-esteem.
  5. self-description.

Answer: C

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When Austin says, “I am Spiderman,” he is demonstrating a perception of his _______ self.
  2. conception
  3. real
  4. ideal
  5. perceived

Answer: C

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. A child is motivated to achieve when his or her personal self-esteem is
  2. high.
  3. low.
  4. medium.
  5. absent.

Answer: A

Page: 254

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they
  2. attribute failure to themselves.
  3. attribute disappointments to their own choices.
  4. move on and do something different.
  5. persevere and develop strategies that will provide success.

Answer: D

Page: 254-255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following EXCEPT
  2. guide their behavior in social situations.
  3. control the way they show their feelings.
  4. talk about their feelings.
  5. control all social situations.

Answer: D

Page: 255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to research on children’s understanding of emotions, when 4-year-olds do something that has been forbidden by their parents, they feel shame
  2. whether or not their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
  3. only if their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
  4. only if their parents punish them for performing the forbidden act.
  5. never, even if their parents saw them perform the forbidden act.

Answer: D

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. At what age do children first begin to take pride in their accomplishments, even when no one is around to see them doing something well?
  2. 4 to 5 years
  3. 7 to 8 years
  4. 10 to 12 years
  5. 13 to 15 years

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 3-year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?
  2. They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same time.
  3. They only experience strong emotions when others around them show emotions.
  4. They don’t realize that anyone besides them actually has emotions.
  5. They do not understand that emotions depend on innate, temperamental factors.

Answer: A

Page: 255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?
  2. trust versus mistrust
  3. autonomy versus shame and doubt
  4. initiative versus guilt
  5. identity versus role confusion

Answer: C

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, the conflict between young children’s urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is
  2. initiative versus guilt.
  3. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  4. industry versus inferiority.
  5. identity versus role confusion.

Answer: A

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Four-year-old Marcie would like to hide her little brother’s toys in the basement. However, she realizes this will make her brother cry, and she wonders if she will feel bad about this. According to Erikson, Marcie is experiencing the conflict of
  2. identity versus role confusion.
  3. initiative versus guilt.
  4. purpose versus will.
  5. industry versus inferiority.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. The virtue acquired through successful resolution of Erikson’s developmental crisis of initiative versus guilt is
  2. hope.
  3. purpose.
  4. trust.
  5. will.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of
  2. will.
  3. hope.
  4. trust.
  5. purpose.

Answer: D

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Gender refers to
  2. role-learning.
  3. what it means to be male or female.
  4. identification with parents.
  5. friendship patterns between males and females.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females are called
  2. sex differences.
  3. gender differences.
  4. gender stereotypes.
  5. gender constancy.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One of the measurable differences between males and females is that females
  2. have a biological advantage for survival.
  3. are more physically vulnerable.
  4. are more reactive to stress.
  5. are more active in utero than males.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Research has found that the genders differ in that
  2. boys are more physically aggressive.
  3. girls are more empathetic.
  4. boys are more cooperative.
  5. girls know more about taking care of babies.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and trains. He is developing a gender
  2. need.
  3. role.
  4. desire.
  5. All of these.

Answer: B

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Learning one’s gender role is called
  2. achieving gender identity.
  3. gender conservation.
  4. gender-typing.
  5. gender stereotyping.

Answer: C

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Melissa is 4 years old, and now wants to avoid dressing “like a boy.” She talks about being “a wife and mommy” when she grows up. Melissa is engaged in the process of
  2. sex-typing.
  3. gender-typing.
  4. sexism-generalizing.
  5. conflict-resolution.

Answer: B

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. At preschool, Tommy plays with trucks and Mary plays with dolls. They are
  2. undergoing gender-typing.
  3. acquiring gender stereotypes.
  4. learning the sexism schema.
  5. becoming androgynous.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Gender stereotypes are
  2. preconceived generalizations about male and female behavior.
  3. often a result of gender conservation and identity.
  4. based on myths about sex differences.
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 258

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Gender differences are believed to be influenced by
  2. hormones.
  3. parents.
  4. the media.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 256-257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research has linked aggressive behavior in certain animals to prenatal exposure to the hormone
  2. estrogen.
  3. progesterone.
  4. testosterone.
  5. adrenaline.

Answer: C

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A male rat has been given an injection of testosterone. Which of the following behaviors is likely to INCREASE as a consequence?
  2. aggressive behavior
  3. maternal behavior
  4. nonspecific gender behavior
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. A baby boy had reconstructive surgery to have his severely damaged penis removed, and thereafter, he was raised as a girl. He rejected this female role as a teenager, providing evidence that
  2. gender identity requires more counseling.
  3. gender assignment works when the social support is increased.
  4. gender identity may be rooted in chromosomal structure.
  5. gender identity occurs in early childhood.

Answer: C

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Ruthann has a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which has caused her to
  2. prefer the gender-specific behavior of other girls.
  3. prefer the type of rough-and-tumble play activities that boys generally prefer.
  4. show decreased spatial skill orientation.
  5. seek out female playmates and reject playing with boys.

Answer: B

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to ___________, male competitiveness and aggressiveness and female nurturance develop during childhood as preparation for these adult roles.
  2. evolutionary theory
  3. Piagetian theory
  4. behaviorism
  5. learning theory

Answer: A

Page 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Freud referred to the adoption of the characteristics, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex as
  2. gender identity.
  3. gender-typing.
  4. identification.
  5. androgyny.

Answer: C

Page: 260

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Jessica imitates her mother’s gestures, speech, and behaviors. Which of the following terms describes this?
  2. identification
  3. reinforcement
  4. role conflict
  5. gender constancy

Answer: A

Page: 260

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Kohlberg, children learn their gender through
  2. identification.
  3. imitation of adult models, reinforcement, and punishment.
  4. their own active mental classification and organization of behavior.
  5. maturation.

Answer: C

Page: 260

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Brooke becomes upset because a stranger mistakes her for a boy. Kohlberg would say that she has developed
  2. gender conservation.
  3. gender constancy.
  4. penis envy.
  5. cognitive awareness.

Answer: B

Page: 261

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Tina realizes that she will never be a boy. According to Kohlberg, she has developed
  2. identification.
  3. gender identity.
  4. gender constancy.
  5. penis envy.

Answer: C

Page: 261

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Danielle knows that she is a girl, but she becomes angry when she is told that she cannot grow up to be a father. “I will, too!” she cries. According to cognitive-developmental theory, she has not yet achieved
  2. gender identity.
  3. gender constancy.
  4. penis envy.
  5. an Electra complex.

Answer: B

Page: 261

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Which of the following behavior patterns is INCONSISTENT with Kohlberg’s views regarding the acquisition of gender roles?
  2. A young boy has acquired gender constancy and refuses to play dolls with his sister.
  3. A young girl has not yet achieved gender constancy and claims to want to be a daddy when she grows up.
  4. A young boy has not yet achieved gender identity, and when asked if he is a boy or girl, he says he doesn’t know.
  5. A young boy who has not yet achieved gender constancy asks to be given only toys for boys and no girl toys for his birthday.

Answer: D

Page: 261

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Sandra Bem’s gender-schema theory, how do children adopt gender-appropriate behavior?
  2. through identification with same-sex parent after resolution of sexual conflict
  3. as a result of imitation and reinforcement
  4. as a by-product of achieving gender constancy
  5. by socializing themselves to their gender roles

Answer: D

Page: 261

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Don is beginning to understand how his culture classifies males and females. Based upon this knowledge, Don is developing patterns of behavior based upon his organized knowledge of male-appropriate and female-appropriate behavior. According to Bem, the patterns of behavior that Don is beginning to develop are organized around
  2. sexism schema.
  3. gender constancy.
  4. gender schema.
  5. gender identity.

Answer: C

Page: 261-262

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to traditional social learning theory, children acquire gender roles by observing models. Children then
  2. pick models that are powerful and nurturing.
  3. always pick the same sex parent.
  4. avoid patterning themselves after peers.
  5. focus only on indirect teaching by parents.

Answer: A

Page: 262-263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Social learning theory holds that a child identifies with a parent
  2. as a consequence of the phallic stage.
  3. after resolving the Electra or Oedipus complex.
  4. through observation and imitation.
  5. because of guilt.

Answer: C

Page: 263-264

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Some studies have found that parents affect children’s knowledge about gender more than their gender
  2. identity.
  3. schemas.
  4. behavior.
  5. constancy.

Answer: C

Page: 263-264

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Billy sees his father working with power tools. As a consequence, Billy grows up enjoying work with power tools himself, and he perceives this kind of work to be “masculine.” The sequence of events is consistent with the ___________________ theory of identification.
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. gender-constancy
  4. social learning
  5. conflict-resolution

Answer: C

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. With regard to the social learning theory of gender-typing, research has indicated that
  2. boys do not imitate their mothers.
  3. most parents punish fighting and reward helpfulness in girls but not in boys.
  4. children imitate their parents as well as many other adults.
  5. children are more similar to their parents than to other adults.

Answer: C

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In socializing children, parents generally
  2. treat boys and girls about the same until age 2 or 3.
  3. give girls more latitude than boys with regard to gender roles.
  4. show less tolerance for “tomboys” than for “sissies.”
  5. have little influence on gender-role development.

Answer: B

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. ____________ are most likely to encourage ____________ to engage in gender-typed activities appropriate for their sex.
  2. Mothers; sons
  3. Fathers; sons
  4. Mothers; daughters
  5. Fathers; daughters

Answer: B

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following preschool children is most likely to show strong gender-typing?
  2. Leila, whose mother works full time outside the home
  3. Jim, who lives with his divorced mother
  4. Jacob, whose father becomes upset when he plays with dolls
  5. Marla, whose father lets his wife make all major decisions

Answer: C

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. In egalitarian households, the _____________ role in gender socialization seems especially important.
  2. father’s
  3. mother’s
  4. neighbors’
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the images of males and females on television is true?
  2. More females are shown than males.
  3. Gender stereotypes are more pronounced on television than in real life.
  4. Gender-typing on television approximates real-life gender roles.
  5. Gender stereotyping on television has been largely eliminated in recent years.

Answer: B

Page: 263-264

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Frankie is a second-born sibling in a family of four. Frankie’s gender development will likely
  2. become more like his mother’s.
  3. become more like his father’s.
  4. become more like that of his older sibling.
  5. be a combination of all family members.

Answer: C

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Social learning theory would predict that watching current television programs will ______ gender-typing.
  2. increase
  3. decrease
  4. eliminate
  5. have no impact on

Answer: A

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Social learning theory would predict that a boy’s peers will provide
  2. reinforcement for gender-typed behavior.
  3. inconsistency in gender behavior.
  4. approval of opposite sex gender-typed behavior.
  5. no impact on gender-typing.

Answer: A

Page: 263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to social cognitive theory,
  2. parents are the reinforcers of children’s behavior.
  3. parents and peers in combination influence socialization.
  4. children only learn socialization after they begin school.
  5. socialization is a complex system involving parents, peers, and other agents.

Answer: D

Page: 262-263

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. While engaged in play, young children do all of the following EXCEPT
  2. stimulate their senses.
  3. coordinate sight with movement.
  4. practice being quiet.
  5. acquire new skills.

Answer: C

Page: 265

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Play that involves repetitive muscular movements involving gross motor skills is called ______ play.
  2. functional
  3. constructive
  4. pretend
  5. generic

Answer: A

Page: 265

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Rich spends a considerable amount of his play time making things out of blocks, coloring and painting, and making art projects. Rich is engaged in ______ play.
  2. functional
  3. constructive
  4. pretend
  5. generic

Answer: B

Page: 265

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Stacy and Mindy enjoy organized games, play hours of Monopoly, and have become champions at marbles. The girls are engaged in ______ play.
  2. functional
  3. constructive
  4. pretend
  5. formal

Answer: D

Page: 265

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. A high level of solitary play may indicate that a child has
  2. high levels of maturity.
  3. a physical disability.
  4. experienced child abuse.
  5. high levels of passivity.

Answer: A

Page: 267

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following statements regarding solitary play is TRUE?
  2. Children in the 1920s exhibited more solitary play than children do today.
  3. Solitary play seems associated with independence and maturity.
  4. Children who engage in solitary play are at high risk for social problems.
  5. Children who engage in solitary play are less mature than children who engage only in social play.

Answer: B

Page: 267

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Several children are playing in the same area. Each child plays with blocks in a different way, without any attempt to alter the others’ play. They are engaged in which kind of play?
  2. associative
  3. parallel
  4. solitary
  5. cooperative

Answer: B

Page: 267

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Stacy has an imaginary friend, Mindy. Stacy can be expected to be a ______ child.
  2. happy
  3. imaginative
  4. cooperative
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 268

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. The tendency toward sex segregation in play seems to be
  2. cultural.
  3. universal.
  4. uncommon.
  5. decreasing.

Answer: B

Page: 269

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In research described in your textbook, which of the following was NOT encouraged in Anglo-American preschools?
  2. independent thinking
  3. problem solving
  4. active involvement in learning
  5. academic skills development

Answer: D

Page: 269

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A method of molding character, teaching self-control, and encouraging acceptable behavior is called
  2. development.
  3. discipline.
  4. distrust.
  5. description.

Answer: B

Page: 270

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. If punishment is used, it is best administered
  2. as soon as the unacceptable behavior begins.
  3. only after an unacceptable behavior has been completed.
  4. only after the behavior has been repeated several times.
  5. by someone with whom the child has little contact.

Answer: A

Page: 270

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. If punishment is used, it is most effective when combined with
  2. no explanation.
  3. a full explanation.
  4. a short explanation.
  5. a postponed explanation, so that the child will have time to think about it.

Answer: C

Page: 270

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Linda has been caught throwing rocks at a neighbor’s house. Her parents wish to stop this behavior through punishment. To be most effective, it would be best to have which of the following people administer the punishment?
  2. Her mother, who is usually nurturing and affectionate toward Linda.
  3. Her father, who is usually cold and distant toward Linda.
  4. A relative who is kind, but whom Linda does not know very well.
  5. Punishment would be equally effective from any of these three people.

Answer: A

Page: 270

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Punishment that is consistent, immediate, and related to the offense is called ____________ punishment.
  2. prudent
  3. imprudent
  4. appropriate
  5. effective

Answer: D

Page: 270

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ellen has just run across the street against her parents’ wishes. Her parents firmly explain to her that she must not do that again because she could get hurt. Ellen’s parents are using _______________ as a form of discipline.
  2. inductive techniques
  3. power assertion
  4. withdrawal of love
  5. external reinforcement

Answer: A

Page: 271

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Demands, threats, denial of privileges, and spanking are considered ______________ forms of discipline.
  2. withdrawal of love
  3. power assertive
  4. inductive
  5. negatively reinforced

Answer: B

Page: 271

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is
  2. induction.
  3. power assertion.
  4. withdrawal of love.
  5. physical punishment.

Answer: A

Page: 271

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which kind of parental style emphasizes control and unquestioning obedience?
  2. authoritarian
  3. permissive
  4. authoritative
  5. egalitarian

Answer: A

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When Barbara asks her father why she is not allowed to play in the street, he says, “Because I say so, and if you don’t do what I say, you will get a spanking.” This illustrates the ______________ style of parenting.
  2. permissive
  3. authoritarian
  4. authoritative
  5. longitudinal

Answer: B

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Which kind of parent tends not to set rules, but allows children to monitor their own behavior?
  2. authoritarian
  3. permissive
  4. authoritative
  5. egalitarian

Answer: B

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Five-year-old Chad’s parents let him go to bed whenever he chooses. He can explore the neighborhood and go to anyone’s house anytime he wishes. Which style of parenting is this?
  2. authoritarian
  3. permissive
  4. authoritative
  5. egalitarian

Answer: B

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Which of the following describes the behavior of authoritative parents?
  2. They allow children to make judgments about proper behavior.
  3. They rely on strict rules.
  4. They never impose punishment.
  5. They rely on children’s fear of losing their love.

Answer: A

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who are
  2. authoritarian.
  3. permissive.
  4. authoritative.
  5. egalitarian.

Answer: C

Page: 272

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Prosocial behavior is
  2. motivated by concern for another person.
  3. motivated by reward and punishment.
  4. a form of social learning.
  5. the main goal of socialization.

Answer: A

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Factors that have consistently been related to prosocial behavior include
  2. gender of the child.
  3. parent’s income.
  4. age of the child.
  5. social status of the family.

Answer: C

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Jenny offered to share her peanut butter and jelly sandwich (her favorite kind) with another child who has no lunch. Jenny is most likely to be
  2. at least 6 years old.
  3. from a high-income family.
  4. advanced in moral reasoning.
  5. in an Electra complex.

Answer: C

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. A cognitive capability that is related to the occurrence of prosocial behavior is
  2. obedience.
  3. detachment.
  4. empathy.
  5. gender identity.

Answer: C

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Parents of prosocial children tend to do all of the following EXCEPT
  2. encourage reflection on actions.
  3. emphasize ethical principles.
  4. emphasize obedience.
  5. set high standards.

Answer: C

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Parents of prosocial children tend to discipline them by
  2. reasoning.
  3. scolding.
  4. spanking.
  5. withdrawing affection.

Answer: A

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which method of discipline seems to promote prosocial behavior in children?
  2. power assertion
  3. withdrawal of love
  4. proactive
  5. inductive

Answer: D

Page: 274

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Tommy Jon knocks over another child while running to the street to see a circus parade. Tommy Jon is displaying
  2. instrumental aggression.
  3. classical aggression.
  4. displaced aggression.
  5. hostile aggression.

Answer: A

Page: 274-275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. Nia’s little sister has repeatedly knocked down a tower of blocks Nia has carefully constructed. Finally, Nia teases her little sister until she cries. Nia is displaying
  2. regressive aggression.
  3. relational aggression.
  4. displaced aggression.
  5. operational aggression.

Answer: B

Page: 275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. Relational aggression among girls
  2. becomes more frequent with age.
  3. is seldom seen in early childhood.
  4. is used as an instrument to attain a goal.
  5. is hard to provoke.

Answer: A

Page: 275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements about aggression in early childhood is NOT true?
  2. It usually centers on disputes about toys and control of space.
  3. It surfaces mostly during social play.
  4. It increases between the ages of 2 and 5.
  5. It gradually shifts from physical to verbal conflict.

Answer: C

Page: 275-276

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Two-year-olds who show the most aggression are
  2. the least sociable.
  3. the least competent.
  4. the most empathetic.
  5. likely to be the most aggressive at age 5.

Answer: D

Page: 275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. John and Mary are the parents of a normally aggressive 2-year-old. What can John and Mary expect over the next 3 years regarding future levels of aggression in their child?
  2. A steady increase in the level of aggression until about 5, then a rapid decline in aggression.
  3. The level of aggression will remain constant over the next 3 years.
  4. The level of aggression will gradually decline.
  5. The level of aggression will decline rapidly at 3 years, but then abruptly increase between 4 and 5 years.

Answer: C

Page: 275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. All of the following are examples of relational aggression, also called indirect or psychological aggression, EXCEPT
  2. spreading rumors.
  3. name-calling.
  4. withholding friendship.
  5. hair-pulling.

Answer: D

Page: 275

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Fears in early childhood are
  2. abnormal.
  3. more common in boys than girls.
  4. likely to eventually disappear.
  5. symptoms of a deeper psychological problem.

Answer: C

Page: 276-277

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Fears develop during early childhood because young children
  2. are developing inner conflicts and anxieties.
  3. have trouble separating reality from fantasy.
  4. are learning that there are many things to be afraid of.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 277

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following helps children deal with their fears?
  2. instilling a sense of trust and normal caution
  3. ridicule
  4. coercion
  5. logical persuasion

Answer: A

Page: 277

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are over
  2. relationships with parents.
  3. bedtime rituals.
  4. territoriality.
  5. property rights.

Answer: D

Page: 277

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The main pattern of relationships between brothers and sisters early in life is one of
  2. conflict and rivalry.
  3. affection, interest, and companionship.
  4. each tending to their own self-interests.
  5. constant squabbling.

Answer: B

Page: 277

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. As younger children reach their ____________ birthday, siblings become less physical and verbal in their relationships.
  2. fourth
  3. fifth
  4. sixth
  5. seventh

Answer: B

Page: 278

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A statistical analysis of studies of only children shows that they tend to be
  2. spoiled.
  3. lonely.
  4. weaker academically than students with siblings.
  5. better students than children with siblings.

Answer: D

Page: 278

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT describe only children?
  2. They are more mature.
  3. They are more motivated to achieve.
  4. They are better adjusted socially.
  5. They have higher self-esteem.

Answer: C

Page: 278

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which country has mandated that families have only one child?
  2. Japan
  3. China
  4. Korea
  5. India

Answer: B

Page: 278

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Children begin to have friends at about age
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 5.
  5. 7.

Answer: B

Page: 279

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In a study cited in the text, young children rated all of the following as important features of friendship EXCEPT
  2. doing things together.
  3. sharing or helping.
  4. living in the same neighborhood.
  5. getting to play with the friend’s toy.

Answer: D

Page: 279

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Generalizing from the text, an important characteristic of young children who are popular with their peers is their
  2. tendency to stay on the sidelines and watch other children socialize.
  3. ability to control the expression of anger.
  4. possession of more toys and other material goods than less popular children.
  5. tendency to report the misdeeds of others to an adult.

Answer: B

Page: 279

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Identify the differences between the terms self-concept and self-esteem. Give three examples to illustrate how caregivers can facilitate children’s development of each of these areas. Include in your answer the ideal self versus the real self and the concept of representational mapping in early childhood.

 

  1. Sara likes dressing like her brother and plays more often with his toys instead of her own “gender-specific” toys. Describe how children develop gender roles and give two reasons why Sara may behave as she does.
  1. Identify each of the four major perspectives on gender identity and describe the various viewpoints. Explain how the more recent theories—cognitive-developmental theory and gender-schema theory—add to the information we already have about gender development.

 

  1. List each of Baumrind’s parenting styles. Describe each of these parenting styles and the child-development outcomes to which each has been linked, and explain how each style provides a different outcome.

18         PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

IN LATE ADULTHOOD

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. Does personality change in old age, and what special issues and tasks do older people need to deal with?
  2. What strategies and resources contribute to older adults’ well-being and mental health?
  3. How do older adults handle work and retirement decisions, financial resources, and living arrangements?
  4. How do personal relationships change in old age, and what is their effect on well-being?
  5. What are the characteristics of long-term marriages in late life and what impact do widowhood, divorce, and remarriage have at this time?
  6. How do unmarried older people and those in cohabiting and gay and lesbian relationships fare, and how does friendship change in old age?
  7. How do older adults get along with—or without—grown children and with siblings, and how do they adjust to great-grandparenthood?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following statements about the stability of personality in old age is TRUE?
  2. Individuals from more recent cohorts show more flexibility in old age than people from previous generations.
  3. In old age, the only trait that shows much change is the level of depression.
  4. Most older adults show large increases in personality flexibility between the ages of 60 and 80.
  5. Personality shows a high degree of rigidity after age 65.

Answer: A

Page: 588

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Although there is a common belief that older adults tend to be depressed, research suggests that
  2. only older women are depressed.
  3. older adults grow more content and satisfied.
  4. older adults, because of illness, are indeed more depressed.
  5. older men are depressed if they retire.

Answer: B

Page: 588

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A longitudinal study of older adults demonstrated that negative emotions such as boredom, loneliness, and unhappiness
  2. increased after age 60.
  3. increased after age 70.
  4. decreased after age 60.
  5. decreased in women after 60.

Answer: C

Page: 588

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Those older adults who reported higher levels of positive emotion and retained their positivity were those
  2. that had introverted personalities.
  3. that were considered to be extroverts.
  4. who were neurotic.
  5. who grew increasingly inflexible.

Answer: B

Page: 588

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Older adults who are overanxious and restless and who seem to complain and have negative affect are likely to have
  2. introverted personalities.
  3. extroverted personalities.
  4. neurotic personalities.
  5. dementia.

Answer: C

Page: 588

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Erikson, persons in late adulthood are in the crisis of
  2. ego integrity versus despair.
  3. identity versus identity confusion.
  4. generativity versus stagnation.
  5. intimacy versus isolation.

Answer: A

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. June is 75 years old and is examining her life in order to accept her approaching death. She is at which of Erikson’s stages?
  2. ego integrity versus despair
  3. identity versus identity confusion
  4. generativity versus stagnation
  5. intimacy versus isolation

Answer: A

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. The virtue gained during Erikson’s final stage is
  2. hope.
  3. trust.
  4. love.
  5. wisdom.

Answer: D

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, wisdom includes acceptance of all of the following EXCEPT
  2. imperfections in one’s parents.
  3. imperfections in oneself.
  4. dependency.
  5. death.

Answer: C

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When 80-year-old Monty is asked about his life, he states that he knows he has lived life as well as he could and that he loves his deceased parents despite all their faults. According to Erikson, Monty seems to have the virtue of
  2. hope.
  3. wisdom.
  4. trust.
  5. integrity.

Answer: B

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Erikson’s theory,
  2. people who successfully resolve the final crisis will not experience despair.
  3. people who successfully resolve the final crisis can overcome despair.
  4. despair is a sign of mental illness.
  5. despair leads to a loss of ego strength.

Answer: B

Page: 587

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The ability to adapt thinking and behavior to reduce or relieve stress that arises from harmful, threatening, and challenging conditions is referred to as
  2. wisdom.
  3. integrity.
  4. generativity.
  5. coping.

Answer: D

Page: 589

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In the Vaillant Study, an important factor in predicting the best psychosocial adjustment in old age included all of the following EXCEPT
  2. altruism.
  3. humor.
  4. sublimation.
  5. denial.

Answer: D

Page: 589

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The process of adapting to harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions is referred to as
  2. disengagement.
  3. decentering.
  4. coping.
  5. elaboration.

Answer: C

Page: 589

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. David has had trouble getting into his apartment building because the steps are too steep. He makes several complaints to the owner of the building until finally the owner installs a ramp, making entry easier. Which style of coping did David employ?
  2. congruence
  3. emotion-focused
  4. palliative
  5. problem-focused

Answer: D

Page: 590

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Delores wishes she could see her grandchildren more often, but they live on the other side of the country. To help herself feel better, Delores volunteers at a daycare center so she can be around small children. Which style of coping is Delores using?
  2. problem-focused
  3. emotion-focused
  4. regenerative-focused
  5. decentering-focused

Answer: B

Page: 590

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the use of emotion-focused coping in adulthood?
  2. Older adults use it more often than younger adults.
  3. Older adults gradually become unable to use this coping strategy.
  4. Older and younger adults use this strategy equally often.
  5. Younger adults tend to use it in nonemotional situations.

Answer: A

Page: 590

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, who would likely have the most flexible coping strategy?
  2. an adolescent
  3. an elderly adult
  4. a middle-aged adult
  5. a young adult

Answer: B

Page: 590

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In a recent study of ways in which older people cope with stressful events, the three most frequently reported coping strategies included all of the following EXCEPT
  2. keeping busy.
  3. accepting situations that cannot be changed.
  4. outward expressions of anger and frustration.
  5. religious faith.

Answer: C

Page: 590-591

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following are examples of what Pauline Boss calls an ambiguous loss EXCEPT
  2. the loss of a loved one to Alzheimer’s disease.
  3. the loss of a child to drug addition.
  4. the loss of a homeland.
  5. the loss of a child by auto accident.

Answer: D

Page: 590-591

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to research cited in the text, which of the following Americans is most likely to show a strong correlation between religious activity and well-being?
  2. elderly black people
  3. elderly white people
  4. middle-age black people
  5. middle-age white people

Answer: A

Page: 591

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Successful or optimal aging has been measured using all of the following criteria EXCEPT
  2. cardiovascular functioning and cognitive performance.
  3. productivity and longevity.
  4. degree of personal control retained in old age.
  5. number of family and friendship relationships.

Answer: D

Page: 591-592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The question of whether people are well because they are active in late adulthood or active because they are well is a constant focus in studying the______ theory.
  2. disengagement
  3. continuity
  4. activity
  5. productivity

Answer: C

Page: 592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the _______________ theory, the normal way to age is to cut down in activities and commitments to others and to become increasingly preoccupied with the self.
  2. activity
  3. disengagement
  4. compensation
  5. integrity

Answer: B

Page: 592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Dan, age 78, has reduced his social commitments, is slowing down, and is focusing on his own needs. He is aging successfully, according to the _______________ theory.
  2. integrity
  3. compensation
  4. activity
  5. disengagement

Answer: D

Page: 592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Which theory holds that people age most successfully by remaining involved in as many roles as possible and finding substitutes for lost roles?
  2. activity theory
  3. disengagement theory
  4. compensation theory
  5. integrity theory

Answer: A

Page: 592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Cathy, after retiring from teaching school, rechanneled her energy into serving on the boards of directors for both a senior center and a historical foundation. She also volunteered for “meals on wheels.” Which theory of successful aging does she appear to be following?
  2. activity theory
  3. disengagement theory
  4. compensation theory
  5. integrity theory

Answer: A

Page: 592

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Which theory of successful aging suggests that older adults should continue to do what they have been doing as long as they find that activity satisfying?
  2. activity theory
  3. continuity theory
  4. disengagement theory
  5. engagement theory

Answer: B

Page: 593

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Atchley’s continuity theory, the most desirable pattern of development in later life is for older people to
  2. ignore the past and only look forward in life.
  3. change their external structures but keep their internal structures unchanged.
  4. welcome some change but maintain links with the past.
  5. try to experience as little change as possible in order to maximize contentment.

Answer: C

Page: 593

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the coping method of selective optimization and compensation?
  2. Its success depends on having goals to guide development and resources to make the goals potentially achievable.
  3. Implementation is aided by a lack of availability of coping skills.
  4. Successful use of this strategy depends on maintaining contact with younger people.
  5. It describes what occurs when the aging brain fails to compensate for losses in certain areas.

Answer: A

Page: 594

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Carstensen’s socioemotional selectivity theory, which is the most important psychological function of social interaction in old age?
  2. information seeking
  3. emotional support
  4. breaking up social convoys
  5. increasing novelty

Answer: B

Page: 594

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A study that analyzed styles of aging found all of the following EXCEPT
  2. it is possible to identify a single “best” pattern for successful aging.
  3. most older people who have aged successfully remained active.
  4. less active lifestyles are also associated with successful aging.
  5. different personality types react to aging in a variety of ways.

Answer: A

Page: 594

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the research of Carstensen, what is “the most reliable finding in social gerontology”?
  2. Older people become less accepting of the deaths of friends and family.
  3. Older people prefer to disengage from active work roles.
  4. Older people tend to reduce their social contacts.
  5. Older people wish they could relive their lives.

Answer: C

Page: 603-604

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A noted gerontologist is giving a lecture titled “How to Age Successfully.” Which of the following suggestions is the audience LEAST likely to hear?
  2. Find a job with decent pay.
  3. Don’t get too involved in child care.
  4. Get plenty of physical exercise.
  5. Do some volunteer work in your community.

Answer: B

Page: 593-594

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Which of the following is the most crucial lifestyle decision people make as they approach late adulthood?
  2. where to live
  3. whether and when to retire
  4. when to give up driving
  5. what to do with leisure time

Answer: B

Page: 595

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The concept of retirement became widespread during
  2. the early twentieth century.
  3. the last 20 years.
  4. the 1950s.
  5. the early nineteenth century.

Answer: A

Page: 595

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Primarily because of the Social Security system, retirement at age _____ eventually became almost universal.
  2. 55
  3. 60
  4. 65
  5. 70

Answer: C

Page: 595

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following choices about working is available to older adults?
  2. early retirement
  3. retiring from one career to start another
  4. working part-time
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 595-597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to younger workers, the typical older worker is
  2. less dependable.
  3. more careless.
  4. more responsible.
  5. All of these.

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements about older workers is FALSE?
  2. They have more experience than younger workers.
  3. They are absent from work less than younger workers.
  4. They work at a faster rate than younger workers.
  5. They are more loyal than younger workers.

Answer: C

Page: 596-597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1986) protects most workers age _____ and older from being denied a job, fired, paid less, or forced to retire because of age.
  2. 40
  3. 50
  4. 60
  5. 70

Answer: A

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Older adult workers have been found to
  2. lack the coping skills necessary to deal with the public.
  3. have serious health problems that interfere with their productivity.
  4. be better educated than those that retire, as well as to say they are in good health.
  5. fail at learning new skills needed in the changing workplace.

Answer: C

Page: 596-597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The Plitton Company tries hard to hire people that are close to retirement age, because their experience with older workers has taught them that all of the following are true about older workers EXCEPT
  2. they work more slowly, but are more accurate.
  3. older workers are frugal with both time and materials.
  4. they are eager to make new friends and join in company social events.
  5. they display more careful, dependable, and responsible work habits.

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In a study commissioned by the United States Congress, findings about older workers demonstrated that
  2. physical fitness and health decrease steadily after 60.
  3. there are huge health differences between age groups.
  4. tests of specific abilities predict job performance better than age.
  5. risks to workers will increase when the age for Social Security benefits increases.

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Since the turn of the century, the participation of older men in the workforce of the United States has __________, and the participation of older women has __________.
  2. decreased; decreased
  3. increased; increased
  4. increased; decreased
  5. decreased; increased

Answer: D

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, volunteer work among older adults
  2. increases their anxiety about retirement.
  3. is not tied to well-being during retirement.
  4. is tied to well-being about retirement.
  5. is important for older adult men but not older adult women.

Answer: C

Page: 597-598

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The single largest source of income for older people in the United States is
  2. pensions.
  3. savings and other assets.
  4. Social Security.
  5. earnings from work.

Answer: C

Page: 598

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. What proportion of older Americans receives Social Security benefits?
  2. 6 out of 10
  3. 7 out of 10
  4. 8 out of 10
  5. 9 out of 10

Answer: D

Page: 598

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Statistically, which of the following groups of Americans is most likely to be poor in late adulthood?
  2. white men
  3. black women
  4. married couples
  5. skilled workers

Answer: B

Page: 598

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Since1959, the proportion of older adults living in poverty
  2. increased slightly.
  3. stayed the same.
  4. increased markedly.
  5. fell somewhat.

Answer: D

Page: 598

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to a study cited in the textbook, the most powerful predictor of satisfaction in retirement was the size of a retiree’s
  2. economic resources.
  3. personal resources.
  4. social support network.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Key predictors of positive morale after retirement for both men and women include
  2. whether or not people experience a loss of balance and muscle strength.
  3. people’s sense of physical attractiveness before retirement.
  4. workers’ satisfaction in their jobs before retirement.
  5. whether or not people had a strong social conscience.

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A pattern of retirement activity that is found in well-educated older adults who seem to allocate their time equally among family, work, and leisure is referred to as a_____ lifestyle.
  2. family-focused
  3. serious leisure
  4. balanced investment
  5. work-focused

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Dan and Diane are retirees who spend much of their time visiting family and friends, watching television, and going to inexpensive restaurants with friends. According to the text, Dan and Diane exhibit a _______________ retirement lifestyle.
  2. balanced investment
  3. family-focused
  4. serious leisure
  5. compassionate

Answer: B

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Ellen, who is recently retired from her job as a nurse, now devotes most of her time to making furniture, something she has always wanted to do. Ellen is exhibiting a ________________ retirement lifestyle.
  2. family-focused
  3. balanced investment
  4. serious leisure
  5. delay of gratification

Answer: C

Page: 597

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Most older Americans live
  2. with a spouse, children, or other relatives.
  3. with nonrelatives.
  4. alone.
  5. in institutions.

Answer: A

Page: 599

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Most older adults in industrialized countries prefer
  2. to stay with their children.
  3. to stay in an independent living facility.
  4. to stay with relatives
  5. to stay in their own homes.

Answer: D

Page: 599

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which living arrangement is most desired by the majority of elderly Americans?
  2. congregate housing
  3. retirement community
  4. assisted-living facility
  5. aging in place

Answer: D

Page: 599-600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. What is the single most important factor that enables older adults to live in their own homes instead of in institutions?
  2. having adequate income
  3. being in good health
  4. being married
  5. makeup of the neighborhood

Answer: C

Page: 600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Older women in the United States are
  2. less likely to live alone.
  3. more likely to live alone.
  4. more likely to be upper income.
  5. less likely to end up in institutional care facilities.

Answer: B

Page: 600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following reasons have been cited to explain the growth of elderly single-person households EXCEPT
  2. increased old-age benefits.
  3. decreased old-age benefits that make assisted living unaffordable.
  4. increased home ownership.
  5. more availability of community support.

Answer: B

Page: 600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Families seem to make the assumption that when older adults live alone they are lonely, but other factors also play a significant role in whether or not a loved one will be vulnerable to loneliness. They include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. personality traits of the older adult.
  3. the physical health of the person that is living alone.
  4. the depletion of a person’s social network.
  5. the financial status of the older adult.

Answer: D

Page: 600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. One of the reasons that older adults do not want to be absorbed into their children’s households is
  2. they will be older than everyone else in the household.
  3. they will be isolated from their friends.
  4. they will feel very helpful and family won’t feel like an intrusion.
  5. they are tired of being independent and welcome others’ assistance.

Answer: B

Page: 600

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The older adults most likely to be institutionalized are those who
  2. enjoy taking part in social activities with others their own age.
  3. have good health and want to spend time in varied activities.
  4. have overburdened their busy families with their poor health and disabilities.
  5. want independence from their families.

Answer: C

Page: 601

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of Americans over 85 years old lives in nursing homes?
  2. 38
  3. 28
  4. 18
  5. 8

Answer: C

Page: 601

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following features would be desirable in a nursing home EXCEPT
  2. privacy for social activity.
  3. a hospital-like atmosphere.
  4. opportunities for socialization.
  5. a full range of social and therapeutic services.

Answer: B

Page: 601-602

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following elements is MOST important in a good nursing home?
  2. separation of men and women for privacy
  3. opportunity for residents to make decisions
  4. having a large number of nursing aides
  5. social activities

Answer: B

Page: 601-602

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. What is the fastest-growing form of housing for the elderly in the United States?
  2. retirement hotel
  3. congregate housing
  4. retirement community
  5. assisted-living facility

Answer: D

Page: 603

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Close friends and family members upon whom older people can rely for social support and well-being are called
  2. integrated associates.
  3. inner-circles.
  4. primary supports.
  5. social convoys.

Answer: D

Page: 604

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Carstensen, who would most likely want to get to know new and interesting people?
  2. an older person who is near the end of his life
  3. a young adult in good health
  4. a young adult with a terminal illness
  5. an infant

Answer: B

Page: 604

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Clara has recently lost her spouse. To help her maintain satisfaction in life after this trauma, it is very important that Clara’s family and friends provide
  2. financial support.
  3. a home.
  4. emotional support.
  5. All of these.

Answer: C

Page: 604

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Now that multigenerational families are beginning to span five generations, many of the “over 60” family members
  2. find themselves lonely and lack social contacts.
  3. are caregivers to parents for a longer time than they cared for their children.
  4. find roles within the family unit that make them feel valuable.
  5. have the ultimate retirement situation, with independence and a close family to enjoy.

Answer: B

Page: 605

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following cultures demonstrates a lineal, or intergenerational obligation, with power and authority lodged in the older generations?
  2. Americans
  3. African Americans
  4. Hispanic Americans
  5. Native Americans

Answer: C

Page: 605

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. African Americans and Irish Americans, whose cultures have been marked by poverty, have household structures that are highly flexible. These structures are referred to as
  2. lineal.
  3. intergenerational.
  4. collateral.
  5. low-income.

Answer: C

Page: 605

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to research cited in the text, couples who are still together in late adulthood are
  2. more likely than young couples to find their marriages satisfying.
  3. more likely than middle-aged couples to find their marriage satisfying.
  4. Both of these.
  5. Neither of these.

Answer: B

Page:  606

Guidepost: 8

Type: F

 

  1. All of the following are likely reasons why marital satisfaction of couples who are still together in late adulthood is greater than satisfaction of middle-aged couples EXCEPT
  2. since divorce is relatively easy today, people who are still together have usually chosen to be together.
  3. they have had more time to work out their difficulties.
  4. they are less happy with other aspects of life and thus look to marriage to satisfy their needs.
  5. they may need to justify having remained married so long.

Answer: C

Page: 606

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Men tend to be more ______ in late-life remarriages than in midlife remarriages.
  2. unhappy
  3. satisfied
  4. resolved
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 607

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. U.S. women ages 65 and over are _______________________of the same age to be widowed.
  2. less likely than men
  3. more likely than men
  4. similar to
  5. there is no clear evidence

Answer: B

Page: 607

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. What percent of U.S. men and women 65 years of age and older have never married?
  2. 2
  3. 4
  4. 6
  5. 8

Answer: B

Page: 606

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Generalizing from the textbook, it could be concluded that in comparison with older people who have been married, “never marrieds” are more likely to be
  2. lonely.
  3. independent.
  4. negatively affected by aging.
  5. dissatisfied with life.

Answer: B

Page: 608

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Glenda, who is 74 years old, never married nor had children. The relationship she would probably find LEAST important to her would be with
  2. aunts.
  3. siblings.
  4. similarly aged men.
  5. people young enough to be her children.

Answer: C

Page: 608

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Because of negative attitudes toward homosexuality throughout much of the twentieth century, many homosexuals’ self-concepts were shaped by the prevailing _________; those born later tend to view their homosexuality as a _________.
  2. status; stigma
  3. stigma; status
  4. disease theory; stigma
  5. disease theory; status

Answer: B

Page: 609

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is a common problem for aging homosexuals?
  2. They have difficulty maintaining relationships as their physical attractiveness fades.
  3. They may have poor relations with their family of origin.
  4. They feel the stigma of age more intensely than do heterosexuals.
  5. They have trouble dealing with reductions in sexual activity.

Answer: B

Page: 609

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to research, which of the following statements about friendships in old age is TRUE?
  2. Friends are important because they are chosen by the person.
  3. Friends are less important to women than to men.
  4. Overall, time spent with friends results in more life satisfaction than time spent with a spouse.
  5. Friends provide immediate enjoyment but rarely provide long-term emotional support.

Answer: A

Page: 609

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Older people rely on ______ in emergencies.
  2. children
  3. neighbors
  4. siblings
  5. themselves

Answer: B

Page: 610

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An important benefit of having friends in late adulthood is that
  2. choosing friends gives one a sense of control.
  3. they often help one another with financial problems.
  4. spending time with friends dramatically increases one’s satisfaction with life.
  5. people feel more calm and relaxed around friends than they do around family members.

Answer: A

Page: 609

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The textbook states that elderly parents who have _______________with their adult children are less likely to be depressed.
  2. an infrequent relationship
  3. no relationship
  4. an equal relationship
  5. a good relationship

Answer: D

Page: 610

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research on some elderly childless people suggests that
  2. childless widows sometimes regret not having children.
  3. nonparents are far more likely than parents to be institutionalized in old age.
  4. nonparents tend to go to friends or neighbors when they need help.
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 612

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements about sisters and brothers in late adulthood is TRUE?
  2. Sisters tend to be more nurturing than brothers.
  3. Brothers play a primary role in maintaining family relationships.
  4. Older people who are close to their brothers worry less about aging than those who are not.
  5. A widow with a married sister is likely to resent the fact that her sister still has a husband.

Answer: A

Page: 613

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Great-grandparenting offers the family
  2. a sense of renewal.
  3. a source of diversion.
  4. a mark of longevity.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 613

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Describe the disengagement and activity theories of aging. Describe the recent improvements that have been made to activity theory.

 

  1. List both the positive and the negative effects of employing older adults in the workplace. Describe how older adults see retirement as an ongoing process, and how working full-time, part-time, or as a volunteer affects them personally, economically, and socially.

 

  1. Maria’s sisters have died, as have most of her closest friends. At age 78, Maria has left her house, her neighborhood, and her church activities and moved to another state in order to live close to her oldest son and his family. Describe some of the effects this move might have on Maria’s personal relationships. List some of the risks that will be involved if Maria does not have the ability or the opportunity to make new friends.

 

  1. How do gay and lesbian older adults fare in the United States?

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