The Human Body In Health And Illness 4th Edition by Barbara Herlihy – Test Bank

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The Human Body In Health And Illness 4th Edition by Barbara Herlihy – Test Bank

Herlihy: The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4th Edition

 

Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is located in the orbits surrounding the nucleus?
a. Isotopes
b. Protons
c. Electrons
d. Neutrons

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration [H+]?
a. Atomic number
b. Atomic mass
c. Isotope
d. pH

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The sharing of electrons is referred to as
a. covalent bonding.
b. ionic bonding.
c. radioactive decay.
d. isotope formation.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which element must be present for a substance to be classified as organic?
a. Iodine
b. Iron
c. Carbon
d. Calcium

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. A cation is a(n)
a. positively charged ion.
b. electrolyte.
c. isotope.
d. ion that has an atomic mass of 2.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is an anion?
a. Sodium ion
b. Potassium ion
c. Chloride ion
d. Calcium ion

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which ion has 8 protons in the nucleus and 9 electrons in its orbits?
a. Cation
b. Electrolyte
c. Acid
d. Anion

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true of an anion?
a. An anion always ionizes to form electrolytes.
b. An anion always has an atomic mass of 15.
c. An anion carries a negative charge.
d. Hydrogen ion is an anion.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. NaCl, table salt, is called a(n)
a. anion.
b. electrolyte.
c. cation.
d. ion.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which process refers to the dissociation of NaCl into Na+ and Cl?
a. Radioactivity
b. Ionization
c. Covalent bonding
d. Hydrogen bonding

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is descriptive of the chemical reaction in the previous question?
a. Cation + anion ® electrolyte
b. Electrolyte ® cation + anion
c. Electrolyte + anion ® cation
d. Neutralization of an acid by a base

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is an anion?
a. NaCl
b. KCl
c. H2SO4
d. HCO3

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following represents bicarbonate, an anion that is important in acid-base regulation?
a. HCl
b. Ca(OH)2
c. HCO3
d. KCl

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which compound is the universal solvent?
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Oxygen
c. ATP
d. Water

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. [H+] refers to
a. an isotope of hydrogen.
b. heavy hydrogen.
c. hydrogen bonding.
d. hydrogen ion concentration.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which compound is a waste product of cellular metabolism?
a. Oxygen
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Catalyst
d. ATP

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following increases the speed of a chemical reaction, but is itself not used up in the chemical reaction?
a. An isotope
b. A cation
c. A catalyst
d. ATP

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. What is the energy-transferring molecule?
a. H+
b. ATP
c. Ca2+
d. NaCl

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following acts as a catalyst?
a. An acid
b. An enzyme
c. A buffer
d. ATP

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The word ferrous refers to
a. an acid solution.
b. an alkaline solution.
c. any cation.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Na+
a. is an anion.
b. is an electrolyte.
c. bonds ionically with Ca2+.
d. is a cation.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following carries no net electrical charge?
a. An anion
b. A cation
c. A polar molecule
d. An ion

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following illustrates antacid activity?
a. NaCl ® Na+ + Cl
b. HCl ® H+ + Cl
c. Mg(OH)2 + HCl ® MgCl2 + H2O
d. KCl ® K+ + Cl

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Zinc, selenium, cobalt, and iodine are all
a. trace elements.
b. compounds.
c. radioactive.
d. isotopes of hydrogen.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Iron is a(n)
a. anion.
b. electrolyte.
c. acid.
d. cation.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is described by this statement? One atom of oxygen bonds covalently with two atoms of hydrogen.
a. Carbon dioxide
b. A tincture
c. Water
d. Neutralization of an acid with a base

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. A solution that has a pH of 6.8
a. has a neutral pH.
b. is alkaline.
c. is basic.
d. is acidic.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. What happens when HCl is added to a solution with a pH of 7.45?
a. The pH will be higher than 7.45.
b. The solution will become more alkaline.
c. The [H+] of the solution will increase.
d. The pH will be higher than 8.0.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which pH is considered neutral?
a. 7.35
b. 7.45
c. 7.00
d. 14.0

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Blood has a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45 and therefore
a. is acidic.
b. is three to four times more viscous (thicker) than water.
c. has a pH that is similar to urine and stomach contents.
d. is alkaline.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. In which of the following is the number of hydrogen ions greater?
a. An alkaline solution
b. A basic solution
c. Blood
d. Urine

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. An atom has 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons; it has an atomic
a. number of 6.
b. mass of 2.
c. mass of 4.
d. number of 4.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An atom has 1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron; its isotope has
a. 2 electrons and 0 neutrons.
b. 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
c. 1 proton and 1 neutron.
d. 2 protons and 0 neutrons.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An atom has 1 proton, 0 neutrons, and 1 electron. What will convert this atom to a cation?
a. Add 1 neutron.
b. Add 1 proton.
c. Lose 1 electron.
d. Add 1 proton and 2 neutrons, and eliminate 1 electron.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The heart pushes blood into the blood vessels as chemical energy is converted to which form of energy?
a. Thermal
b. Radiant
c. Mechanical
d. Nuclear

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following best describes a solution in which water is the solvent?
a. Colloidal suspension
b. Aqueous solution
c. Tincture
d. Isotope

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following best describes a solution in which alcohol is the solvent?
a. Tincture
b. Alkaline
c. Acid
d. Aqueous

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. A combination of sugar granules and iron filings is best described as a(n)
a. mixture.
b. colloidal suspension.
c. tincture.
d. isotope.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following can neutralize H+?
a. Ca2+
b. Na+
c. OH
d. H2O

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is incorrect?
a. Mixtures: suspension, colloidal suspension, solution
b. Ions: Na+, Cl, Ca2+, K+
c. Electrolytes: NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, HCO3
d. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, H+

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The ionization of salt (NaCl)
a. produces an acid and a base.
b. produces an electrolyte.
c. lowers pH.
d. produces a cation and an anion.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true of iodine and radioactive iodine?
a. Both have the same atomic numbers.
b. Both have the same atomic masses.
c. Neither have electrons in their orbits.
d. Both create radiation hazards.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Na+?
a. Called the sodium ion
b. Has fewer protons than electrons
c. Called an anion
d. Lowers pH

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Cl?
a. Is an electrolyte
b. Is an anion
c. Increases pH
d. Is an electrolyte

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of HCl?
a. Is called bicarbonate
b. Is an acid
c. Raises pH
d. Dissociates into Na+ and Cl

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Water is a(n)
a. molecule.
b. aqueous solvent.
c. compound.
d. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An atom that has 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons
a. has an atomic mass of 7.
b. is a cation.
c. has an atomic number of 4.
d. has an atomic number of 10.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. An atom has 3 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons; another atom has 3 protons, 3 neutrons, and 3 electrons. Which of the following is most descriptive of this pair of atoms?
a. Mixture
b. Cation
c. Electrolyte
d. Isotope

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. An atom that has 4 protons, 4 neutrons, and 4 electrons. It
a. has an atomic number of 8.
b. is a cation.
c. has an atomic mass of 12.
d. has an atomic mass of 8.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. ATP
a. is a buffer, removing H+ from solution.
b. is an energy transfer molecule.
c. is a radioactive isotope of phosphate.
d. ionizes to H+, thereby lowering pH.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of the nucleus of the atom?
a. Contents determine the atomic number
b. Contents determine the atomic mass
c. “Home” of the protons
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of ionic and covalent?
a. Types of bonding in which the electrons are shared
b. Types of bonding in which the electrons are swapped
c. Types of bonding
d. Types of bonding only found in reactions in which H+ is produced

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An electrolyte
a. dissociates into ions.
b. yields only cations.
c. always yields H+ and lowers pH.
d. always removes H+ and increases pH.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. A catalyst
a. is an H+-yielding molecule.
b. is an acid.
c. is an alkali.
d. increases the speed of a chemical reaction.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of the function of an enzyme?
a. Neutralization
b. Ionization
c. Catalyst
d. pH

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. A patient with a blood pH of 7.28
a. has an excess of H+.
b. has a blood pH that is within normal limits.
c. is alkalotic.
d. has a blood pH that indicates a deficiency of acid.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 8
a. is more acidic than blood.
b. is more acidic than stomach contents.
c. has more H+ than urine.
d. is more alkaline than blood.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The pH of urine
a. is more alkaline than blood.
b. is always acidic.
c. can be acidic or alkaline.
d. is more acidic than stomach contents.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The addition of H+ to blood
a. increases blood pH.
b. makes the blood more acidic.
c. makes the blood more alkaline.
d. changes the blood pH from 7.4 to 7.8.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Blood is called a colloidal suspension because
a. it has a pH of 7.4.
b. it is alkaline.
c. of the suspended plasma proteins.
d. of the sodium and chloride ions

 

 

ANS:  C

 

Herlihy: The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4th Edition

 

Chapter 14: Endocrine System

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is least descriptive of the hypothalamus?
a. Secretes releasing hormones
b. Controls the secretion of the anterior pituitary gland
c. Secretes ACTH, TSH, and gonadotropins
d. Synthesizes oxytocin and ADH

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. T3, T4, and calcitonin are
a. secreted by the thyroid gland.
b. secreted by the parathyroid glands.
c. secreted in response to declining plasma levels of calcium.
d. steroids.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Insulin and glucagon
a. are secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
b. elevate blood glucose levels.
c. are secreted in response to declining plasma levels of glucose.
d. are secreted by the pancreas and are concerned with the regulation of blood glucose.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The islets of Langerhans
a. are cells found in the adenohypophysis.
b. secrete insulin and glucagon.
c. secrete steroids.
d. secrete releasing hormones.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Steroids
a. are secreted by the adrenal medulla.
b. include the glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.
c. stimulate the membranes of the target cells to produce the second chemical messenger, cAMP.
d. are secreted by the pancreas.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The adrenal medulla
a. is controlled primarily by ACTH.
b. secretes steroids.
c. is part of the fight-or-flight response.
d. secretes iodine-containing hormones.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Iodine-containing hormones
a. include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
b. are secreted by the hypothalamus as releasing hormones.
c. are steroids.
d. regulate the metabolic rate.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
a. are secreted by the neurohypophysis.
b. are mineralocorticoids.
c. are secreted by the islets of Langerhans.
d. stimulate the kidney to excrete Na+ and water.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Portal capillaries carry releasing hormones from the brain to the
a. neurohypophysis.
b. pancreas.
c. anterior pituitary gland.
d. posterior pituitary gland.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is the response to low plasma levels of calcium?
a. Secretion of calcitonin
b. Secretion of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
c. Inhibition of the adenohypophyseal release of ACTH
d. Secretion of PTH

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. What is the stimulus for the release of insulin?
a. Low plasma levels of calcium
b. High plasma levels of potassium
c. High plasma levels of glucose
d. Low blood volume

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The adenohypophysis
a. secretes ADH and oxytocin.
b. refers to the anterior pituitary gland.
c. secretes releasing hormones.
d. secretes glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which gland secretes TSH, ACTH, and growth hormone?
a. Neurohypophysis
b. Pancreas
c. Adrenal medulla
d. Anterior pituitary gland

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The adrenal cortex
a. is the target gland of ACTH.
b. secretes catecholamines.
c. is an extension of the sympathetic nervous system.
d. secretes ADH and oxytocin.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which gland is associated with “sugar, salt, and sex?”
a. Adrenal cortex
b. Pancreas
c. Parathyroid gland
d. Neurohypophysis

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is least associated with the adrenal medulla?
a. Catecholamines
b. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
c. Fight-or-flight response
d. Sugar, salt, and sex

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Catecholamines
a. include cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone.
b. are secreted by the adrenal cortex.
c. lower plasma glucose levels.
d. include epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Enlargement of the thyroid gland
a. is called a goiter.
b. causes Addisonian crisis.
c. makes a person appear cushingoid.
d. causes hypocalcemic tetany.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. “Sugar, salt, and sex” is descriptive of
a. ACTH, TSH, and somatotropic hormone.
b. cortisol, aldosterone, and testosterone.
c. epinephrine, norepinephrine, and estrogen.
d. insulin, glucagon, and cortisol.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, and oxytocin
a. are hypothalamic-releasing hormones.
b. are secreted by the adenohypophysis.
c. increase blood glucose levels.
d. are hormones.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Lactogenic hormone
a. is also called oxytocin.
b. is a gonadotropin.
c. stimulates the mammary glands to make milk.
d. exerts its greatest effect on the gonads.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is not controlled by a hypothalamic-releasing hormone?
a. ACTH
b. ADH
c. Growth hormone
d. Prolactin

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Growth hormone
a. is secreted by the adenohypophysis.
b. stimulates growth of the musculoskeletal system.
c. is also called somatotropic hormone.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
a. are feminizing hormones.
b. induce virilization.
c. are secreted by the gonads.
d. are secreted by the adenohypophysis.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Testosterone is best described as
a. virilizing.
b. lactogenic.
c. adenohypophyseal.
d. pancreatic.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
a. are both secreted by the parathyroid glands.
b. increase plasma levels of calcium.
c. decrease plasma levels of calcium.
d. control plasma levels of calcium.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following structures connects the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis?
a. Islets of Langerhans
b. Portal capillaries
c. Corpus callosum
d. Medulla oblongata

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following hormones are found within the hypophyseal-hypothalamic portal capillaries?
a. Gonadotropins
b. Releasing hormones
c. Catecholamines
d. Mineralocorticoids

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. A deficiency of insulin causes
a. hypocalcemia.
b. hyperglycemia.
c. Cushing’s syndrome.
d. adrenal shock.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Oxytocin
a. is a neurohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the uterine muscle to contract, thereby assisting in labor.
b. is a gonadotropin.
c. stimulates the kidney to reabsorb Na+ and water, thereby expanding blood volume.
d. is a mineralocorticoid.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is most descriptive of cAMP?
a. Second chemical messenger
b. Catecholamine that contributes to the fight-or-flight response
c. Steroid
d. Releasing hormone

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. TSH
a. stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin.
b. is secreted by the neurohypophysis.
c. stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete TRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
d. is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The only hormone that lowers blood glucose levels is
a. glucagon.
b. insulin.
c. epinephrine.
d. cortisol.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. PTH
a. lowers plasma calcium.
b. stimulates osteoclastic activity.
c. is an iodine-containing hormone.
d. stimulates osteoblastic activity and causes blood calcium levels to increase.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Insulin
a. is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
b. is secreted by the liver.
c. raises blood glucose levels.
d. is released by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose levels.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. ACTH stimulates the
a. hypothalamus to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
b. adenohypophysis to secrete cortisol.
c. adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol.
d. adrenal medulla to secrete glucagon.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland suppresses further secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland. What is this interaction called?
a. Cerebral lateralization
b. Circadian rhythm
c. Cellular differentiation
d. Negative feedback control

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following steroids is an androgen?
a. Progesterone
b. Testosterone
c. Estrogen
d. Aldosterone

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of parathyroid hormone?
a. It causes the excretion of calcium in the urine.
b. It stimulates osteoblastic activity to form bone.
c. It stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin.
d. It increases plasma levels of calcium.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Cretinism, myxedema, and Graves’ disease are all
a. thyroid hormone deficiency diseases.
b. thyroid hormone disorders caused by oversecretion of thyroxine.
c. calcium imbalances due primarily to the lack of calcitonin.
d. disorders of thyroid gland function.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Hypocalcemic tetany
a. causes a flaccid paralysis.
b. resembles neuromuscular blockade by curare.
c. may be caused by a deficiency of PTH.
d. is caused by a deficiency of insulin.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The neurohypophysis
a. is the anterior pituitary gland.
b. secretes ACTH, TSH, and the gonadotropins.
c. secretes the releasing hormones.
d. is the posterior pituitary gland.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. What is the most likely effect of a deficiency of aldosterone?
a. High blood pressure
b. Low level of potassium in the blood
c. Low blood volume and hypotension
d. Goiter formation

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which gland secretes melatonin and is concerned with our biologic rhythms?
a. Pancreas
b. Adenohypophysis
c. Pineal gland
d. Adrenal gland

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The person with _____ is most likely to receive insulin therapy.
a. myxedema
b. Graves’ disease
c. diabetes insipidus
d. hyperglycemia

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The hypersecretion of which hormone is least likely to cause hyperglycemia?
a. Cortisol
b. Growth hormone
c. Insulin
d. Epinephrine (adrenalin)

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to cause the secretion of calcitonin?
a. Hypocalcemia
b. Hyperglycemia
c. Dehydration
d. Elevated plasma calcium level

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Ketoacidosis is most related to
a. adrenocortical insufficiency.
b. Cushing’s syndrome.
c. excess fatty acid catabolism.
d. hyperglycemia.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is characterized by low blood volume?
a. Cushing’s syndrome
b. Tetany
c. Diabetes insipidus
d. Oversecretion of ACTH

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Bronzing
a. always accompanies hyperglycemia.
b. is the most prominent symptom of Cushing’s syndrome.
c. is characteristic of chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency (Addison’s disease).
d. is a consequence of ADH insufficiency.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Insulin
a. stimulates the formation of glycogen.
b. increases the transport of glucose into a cell.
c. stimulates the synthesis of proteins and fats.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Obesity
a. antagonizes insulin.
b. elevates blood glucose levels.
c. causes Na+ and water reabsorption, thereby increasing blood pressure.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Excess secretion of epinephrine
a. relieves anxiety.
b. stimulates the synthesis of glycogen.
c. elevates blood glucose levels.
d. slows heart rate and lowers blood pressure.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Kussmaul respirations occur in response to
a. hyperglycemia.
b. metabolic acidosis.
c. a pH of 7.48.
d. dehydration.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is most responsive to treatment with thyroxine?
a. Diabetes mellitus
b. Hyperglycemia
c. Myxedema
d. Graves’ disease

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which gland secretes two hormones; one hormone elevates blood glucose levels and the second hormone decreases blood glucose levels?
a. Adrenal cortex
b. Adenohypophysis
c. Thyroid
d. Pancreas

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Iodine, colloid, and goiter refer to which gland?
a. Pancreas
b. Parathyroid
c. Thyroid
d. Neurohypophysis

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An excessive growth of hair in locations where hair growth in women is normally minimal is known as
a. a goitrogenic effect.
b. addisonian crisis.
c. myxedema.
d. hirsutism.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which group is incorrect?
a. Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland: ACTH, prolactin, TSH, growth hormone
b. Hormones of the posterior pituitary gland: ADH, oxytocin
c. Steroids: cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, epinephrine
d. Secretions of the gonads: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which group is incorrect?
a. Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland: ACTH, prolactin, TSH, oxytocin
b. Steroids: cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone
c. Secretions of the gonads: estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
d. Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland: T3, T4, calcitonin

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the hypothalamus?
a. Secretes releasing hormones into the portal capillaries
b. Composed of glandular tissue
c. Called the adenohypophysis
d. Connected to the neurohypophysis by the portal capillaries

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The anterior pituitary gland
a. is called the neurohypophysis.
b. releases ADH and oxytocin.
c. secretes releasing hormones.
d. is connected to the hypothalamus by the portal capillaries.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. ACTH, TSH, and gonadotropins are
a. hypothalamic-releasing hormones.
b. secreted by the neurohypophysis.
c. “aimed at” the adrenal cortex.
d. tropic hormones.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The adrenal medulla
a. is an extension of the “feed-and-breed” division of the autonomic nervous system.
b. secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
c. secretes steroids.
d. causes Cushing’s syndrome when it is overactive.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Aldosterone
a. is a mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex.
b. functions in the regulation of blood glucose levels.
c. stimulates the kidney to excrete sodium and reabsorb potassium.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The pancreas
a. secretes steroids that are concerned with sugar, salt, and sex.
b. is controlled by the adenohypophysis.
c. secretes hormones that affect blood glucose levels.
d. secretes iodine-containing hormones that regulate the basal metabolic rate.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the function of insulin?
a. Lowers blood glucose levels
b. Stimulates cells to make glucose (gluconeogenesis)
c. Deficiency causes diabetes insipidus
d. Decreases blood volume

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. As plasma levels of calcium decrease
a. insulin is secreted.
b. the parathyroid glands secrete an osteoclastic hormone.
c. the kidneys excrete calcium and phosphorus.
d. calcitonin is secreted.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Hypocalcemic tetany is
a. a consequence of a deficiency of calcitonin.
b. caused by a lack of TSH.
c. caused by osteoclastic activity.
d. develops in response to a deficiency of parathyroid activity.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. T3 and T4
a. stimulate the adenohypophysis to secrete TSH.
b. regulate the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
c. stimulate osteoclastic activity, thereby elevating plasma calcium levels.
d. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following suppresses the secretion of ACTH?
a. Elevated blood glucose levels
b. Dietary iodine
c. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
d. Elevated plasma cortisol levels

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, and epinephrine
a. are all secreted by the adrenal gland.
b. expand blood volume.
c. raise blood glucose levels.
d. stimulate osteoclastic activity.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is descriptive of prolactin?
a. Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
b. Also called lactogenic hormone
c. Causes the milk let-down reflex
d. Stimulates the neurohypophysis to synthesize oxytocin

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is concerned with “sugar, salt, and sex”?
a. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenalin
b. Glucagon, insulin, thymosin
c. ICSH, FSH, LH
d. Glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. A deficiency of dietary iodine
a. lowers plasma calcium levels.
b. causes low blood volume and shock.
c. decreases the synthesis of calcitonin.
d. causes a goiter.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of insulin?
a. Lowering blood glucose levels
b. Synthesis of protein
c. Hepatic gluconeogenesis
d. Fatty acid synthesis

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. A deficiency of ADH is most likely to
a. elevate blood glucose levels.
b. cause diabetes mellitus.
c. induce polyuria.
d. expand blood volume.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Hyperglycemia
a. is caused by excess insulin.
b. causes glucosuria and polyuria.
c. causes hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
d. is characteristic of adrenal insufficiency.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Cushing’s syndrome
a. may be caused by steroid (prednisone) therapy.
b. is caused by adrenal insufficiency.
c. is characterized by hypoglycemia and low blood volume.
d. is treated with growth hormone.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Abrupt, sudden withdrawal of prednisone (cortisol) is most likely to cause
a. Cushing’s syndrome.
b. hypocalcemic tetany.
c. diabetes insipidus.
d. acute adrenal insufficiency.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Virilization is characterized by
a. hirsutism.
b. buffalo hump.
c. truncal obesity.
d. gonadal atrophy.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

 

Herlihy: The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4th Edition

 

Chapter 26: Reproductive Systems

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The seminiferous tubules
a. are located in the pelvic cavity.
b. are tightly coiled structures that produce sperm.
c. secrete testosterone.
d. are primarily concerned with ejaculation.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The scrotum
a. makes sperm.
b. is a sac located between the thighs and holds the testicles.
c. secretes androgens.
d. contains the prostate gland and urethra.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. What is the coiled structure that sits on top of the testes; it is a place where sperm mature?
a. Scrotum
b. Epididymis
c. Prostate gland
d. Prepuce

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which term refers to the penis and scrotum?
a. External genitals
b. Gonads
c. Gametes
d. Zygotes

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which piece of skin, also called the foreskin, is removed during circumcision?
a. Scrotum
b. Penis
c. Epididymis
d. Prepuce

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which structure carries both urine and semen?
a. Vagina
b. Urethra
c. Ejaculatory duct
d. Vas deferens

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. What is the male copulatory organ called?
a. Penis
b. Vas deferens
c. Prostate gland
d. Testes

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which cells secrete testosterone?
a. Prostate gland
b. Prepuce
c. Interstitial cells
d. Seminiferous tubules

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. What state is caused by the filling of erectile tissue with blood?
a. Impotence
b. Orgasm
c. Erection
d. Emission

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. What is the androgen that is necessary for sperm formation and for the development of the male secondary sex characteristics?
a. ACTH
b. Progesterone
c. Chorionic gonadotropin
d. Testosterone

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which term refers to the movement of sperm and glandular secretions from the testes and genital ducts into the urethra?
a. Ejaculation
b. Emission
c. Orgasm
d. Erection

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which hormone is also called interstitial cell–stimulating hormone and stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone?
a. FSH
b. Estrogen
c. Luteinizing hormone
d. Chorionic gonadotropin

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is the skin-covered muscular region located between the vaginal orifice and anus?
a. Hymen
b. Perineum
c. Fallopian tubes
d. Fimbriae

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Implantation of the pre-embryo occurs within which organ?
a. Ovaries
b. Fallopian tubes
c. Oviducts
d. Uterus

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The placenta forms in which organ?
a. Uterus
b. Fallopian tube
c. Vagina
d. Perineum

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The cervix is part of which organ?
a. Uterus
b. Fallopian tube
c. Vagina
d. Perineum

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The myometrium and the endometrium are layers of which structure?
a. Ovaries
b. Uterus
c. Fallopian tubes
d. Vagina

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following consists of a midpiece, head, and flagellum?
a. Zygote
b. Ovum
c. Corpus luteum
d. Sperm

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The fundus forms the upper part of which structure?
a. Vagina
b. Corpus luteum
c. Graafian follicle
d. Uterus

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. On what organ is the corpus luteum found?
a. Uterus
b. Fallopian tube
c. Ovary
d. Vagina

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. If implantation occurs within the fallopian tube, the pregnancy is described as
a. normal.
b. ectopic.
c. embryonic.
d. menstrual.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which of the following is referred to as external genitals?
a. Gonads
b. Vulva
c. Oviducts
d. Perineum

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. What is the target of FSH and LH?
a. Uterus
b. Vagina
c. Ovaries
d. Cervix

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which hormone promotes the maturation of the egg and helps develop the female characteristics?
a. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
b. Androgen
c. Estrogen
d. Interstitial cell–stimulating hormone

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is a “guy thing?”
a. Ovulation
b. Emission
c. Implantation
d. Midcycle surge of LH

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. What is the primary secretion of the corpus luteum?
a. FSH
b. hCG
c. Progesterone
d. Androgen

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. What is the midcycle event stimulated by a surge of LH?
a. Orgasm
b. Menstruation
c. Emission
d. Ovulation

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. What is the uterine lining called that is most responsive to the hormonal effects of estrogen and progesterone?
a. Perineum
b. Myometrium
c. Fundus
d. Endometrium

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the ovaries and the testes?
a. Secrete gonadotropins
b. Located in the pelvic cavity
c. Called gametes
d. Called gonads

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the ova and sperm?
a. Called gonads
b. Incapable of meiosis
c. Called gametes
d. Require androgens for maturation

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which structure is the major producer of testosterone?
a. Corpus luteum
b. Testes
c. Anterior pituitary gland
d. Adrenal medulla

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which structure contains 23 chromosomes?
a. A fertilized ovum
b. The corpus luteum
c. A sperm
d. The corpus albicans

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which structure secretes the gonadotropins?
a. Adrenal cortex
b. Testes
c. Anterior pituitary gland
d. The ovum

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Where are sperm produced?
a. Vas deferens
b. Ejaculatory duct
c. Urethra
d. Seminiferous tubules

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra?
a. Located in the scrotum
b. Located in the testes
c. Produce sperm
d. Carry sperm

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which structure surrounds the upper portion of the urethra and contributes to the formation of semen?
a. Cowper’s glands
b. Adenohypophysis
c. Seminal vesicles
d. Prostate gland

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which of the following can be detected by a rectal exam?
a. An enlarged prostate gland
b. Cystitis
c. Sterility
d. Gonorrhea

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is not located in or on the ovary?
a. Corpus luteum
b. Graafian follicle
c. Fertilized ovum
d. Corpus albicans

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The cervix, fundus, and body
a. are contents of the scrotum.
b. are parts of the ovary.
c. secrete estrogen and progesterone.
d. are parts of the uterus.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which structure is the primary secretor of estrogen and progesterone?
a. Corpus albicans
b. Endometrium
c. Ovaries
d. Anterior pituitary gland

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The broad ligament supports the
a. prostate gland.
b. testes.
c. breasts.
d. uterus.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The oviduct or fallopian tube
a. is located between the cervix and the vagina.
b. is the site of fertilization.
c. is an anatomical extension of the ovary.
d. connects the fundus with the cervix.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The acrosome
a. secretes testosterone.
b. is the tail of the sperm.
c. contains enzymes that assist the sperm to fertilize an ovum.
d. is an ovarian structure.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Semen
a. is formed and stored within the scrotum.
b. contains only testosterone.
c. means seed.
d. is made and stored within the prostate gland.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following always occurs during an erection?
a. Ejaculation
b. Secretion of testosterone
c. Spermatogenesis
d. Engorgement of the erectile tissue of the penis with blood

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
a. is secreted by the ovaries and testes.
b. is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
c. exerts its effects primarily on the endometrium.
d. stimulates the female and male gonads.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. What is detected by a Pap smear?
a. Cancer of the cervix
b. Cystitis
c. Genital warts
d. Genital herpes

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to cause sterility in the female?
a. Benign prostatic hypertrophy
b. Cystitis
c. Repeated bouts of gonorrhea
d. Torn hymen

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. A woman is likely to develop a vaginal yeast infection after taking antibiotics because they
a. weaken the hymen and allow pathogens to enter the vagina.
b. alter the normal flora of the vagina.
c. contain pathogens that migrate to the vagina from the blood.
d. cannot kill microorganisms that grow in the vagina.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Which hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone?
a. FSH
b. LH or ICSH
c. Estrogen
d. Human chorionic gonadotropin

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The interstitial cells
a. secrete testosterone.
b. are located within the prostate gland.
c. produce sperm.
d. line the ejaculatory ducts.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Severing the vas deferens
a. interferes with testosterone secretion and therefore causes feminization.
b. prevents erection.
c. prevents orgasm.
d. induces sterility.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Implantation
a. occurs within the fallopian tubes or the oviducts.
b. is achieved by the morula.
c. is a uterine event achieved by the blastocyst.
d. occurs within the ovaries.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The myometrium
a. is the layer that sloughs during menstruation.
b. is responsive to oxytocin.
c. thickens in response to estrogen and progesterone.
d. is the target of the gonadotropins.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Estrogen and progesterone are
a. gonadotropins.
b. secreted by the trophoblastic cells as they implant in the uterine wall.
c. secreted by the ovaries.
d. hormonal stimuli for the release of FSH and LH.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. In the nonpregnant state,
a. the corpus albicans becomes hormonally active, secreting estrogen and progesterone.
b. the endometrium secretes hCG.
c. hormonal secretion of the corpus luteum gradually declines.
d. the zygote becomes hormonally active.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The proliferative phase of the uterine cycle
a. immediately precedes the uterine secretory phase.
b. is caused primarily by hCG.
c. corresponds hormonally to the ovarian luteal phase.
d. is the stage during which implantation occurs.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The corpus luteum
a. is located within the uterus.
b. is a placental structure.
c. secretes gonadotropins.
d. secretes large amounts of progesterone.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. If implantation occurs within the fallopian tube, the
a. greatest concern is the placenta previa.
b. pregnancy is described as ectopic.
c. pregnancy is considered normal.
d. woman will continue to menstruate throughout the 9 months of fetal growth.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
a. promotes the maturation of the egg.
b. is responsible for female characteristics.
c. maintains the corpus luteum.
d. promotes the transformation of the corpus luteum into the corpus albicans.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. An elevation of plasma levels of estrogen and progesterone
a. stimulates the release of gonadotropins.
b. prevents the release of FSH and LH.
c. transforms the corpus luteum into the corpus albicans.
d. causes menstruation.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. Trophoblastic cells
a. secrete oxytocin.
b. are responsible for the milk let-down reflex.
c. assist with implantation.
d. are incorporated within the graafian follicle.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. In the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin,
a. the corpus albicans starts secreting progesterone.
b. the rate of placental development accelerates.
c. labor is initiated.
d. the corpus luteum deteriorates into the corpus albicans.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The luteal phase of the ovarian cycle
a. is responsible for menstruation.
b. is responsible for the uterine secretory phase.
c. elevates plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and hCG.
d. precedes the LH surge.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The endometrium
a. is the uterine lining that is most responsive to the hormonal effects of estrogen and progesterone.
b. is the target of FSH and LH.
c. forms the graafian follicle.
d. is responsive to oxytocin during labor.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The zygote
a. implants within the uterine lining.
b. matures into the graafian follicle.
c. is the fertilized ovum.
d. is formed within the uterus.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. The proliferative phase of the uterine cycle
a. describes the deterioration of the corpus luteum into the corpus albicans.
b. is primarily caused by the hormonal effects of progesterone.
c. is primarily caused by the hormonal effects of hCG.
d. refers to the estrogen-induced thickening of the endometrium.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. The graafian follicle
a. matures within the fallopian tube.
b. is the mature follicle.
c. secretes gonadotropins.
d. causes the midcycle surge of LH.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The secretory phase of the uterine cycle
a. is the endometrial response to progesterone.
b. immediately follows the menstrual phase.
c. refers to the hormonal response of the endometrium to the corpus albicans.
d. refers to the adenohypophyseal response to declining plasma levels of estrogen and progesterone.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. Menstruation occurs in response to
a. an LH surge.
b. diminished plasma levels of estrogen and progesterone.
c. elevated plasma levels of hCG.
d. elevation of plasma levels of FSH and LH.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  1. The embryo
a. refers to the baby-to-be from weeks 3 to 8.
b. is the single-cell fertilized ovum.
c. lives most of its life in the fallopian tube.
d. refers to the fetus during the second trimester.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  1. The morula
a. only occurs if there is an ectopic pregnancy.
b. is the unfertilized ovum that gets discharged with the menstrual blood.
c. refers to the adorable pre-embryonic cluster of cells.
d. spends its life embedded within the endometrium.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  1. Which of the following is least true of or least associated with the placenta?
a. The site at which baby-to-be breathes
b. A very vascular structure
c. Replaces the glandular secretion of the corpus luteum
d. Nourishes the zygote as it matures into the morula

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which group is incorrect?
a. Parts of a sperm: head, body, tail
b. Parts of the uterus: fundus, body, cervix
c. Layers of the uterus: perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
d. Genital ducts: epididymis, ejaculatory ducts, vas deferens, prostate gland

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which group is incorrect?
a. Phases of the ovarian cycle: follicular phase, luteal phase
b. Phases of the uterine cycle: menstrual phase, proliferative phase, secretory phase
c. Reproductive hormones: estrogen, progesterone, hCG, testosterone
d. External genitals: penis, scrotum, labia, mons pubis, cervix

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  1. Which group is incorrect?
a. Parts of a sperm: head, body, tail
b. Genital ducts: epididymis, ejaculatory ducts, vas deferens, urethra
c. Phases of the uterine cycle: menstrual phase, proliferative phase, secretory phase
d. Phases of the ovarian cycle: proliferative phase, luteal phase

 

 

ANS:  D

 

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