A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay – Test Bank




A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay – Test Bank

c2- Essay

Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



1. Describe some of the changes brought to Mesopotamian societies by the introduction of sustained agriculture.



2. Mesopotamia and Egypt were both sites of ancient civilizations. Describe each civilization in terms of its political structure, religion, society, and culture. How can we account for the similarities and differences between them?



3. Explain the differences and similarities between Phoenician, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian writing systems. Why was writing important to the development of each of these civilizations?



4. How did the worship of Yahweh by the Hebrews compare with how the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Persians worshiped their gods?



5. Explain the roles of women in Egyptian and Hebrew societies. Discuss similarities and differences.




Answer Key


1. Answer would ideally include:


· Sustained agriculture in Mesopotamia required the building of irrigation canals for the crops, and thus required people to settle and defend one location. A division of labor followed. The concentration of populations led to the development of cities, with defensive walls, marketplaces, and public gathering sites such as assembly areas and temples. The emergent class system privileged priests, and a writing system was created to keep accounts.

2. Answer would ideally include:


· For politics, this description should include governmental organization, political and geographic unity, the role of the military, and the role of the priesthood. For religion, it should include the role and power of the priesthood, types and attitudes of the gods, and view of the afterlife. For society, it should address social structure, slavery, family, and gender. The description of culture should include such things as art and folktales. The similarities and differences between each should be explained based on such factors as historical development and geography.

3. Answer would ideally include:


· Phoenician scribes produced the first completely phonetic (i.e., sound-based) system of writing. At the core of this system was the first alphabet, which served as a foundation for many Western writing systems, including Greek and Roman. Scribes in Mesopotamia and Egypt did incorporate some symbols that represented sounds, but these were always used as part of a much larger system of ideograms. Answers should include some information on each specific writing system and, in the second part of the question, information on the importance of writing to religion, commerce, laws, and government administration.

4. Answer would ideally include:


· The essay will probably start with the most obvious difference in how the four religions thought about gods—that the Hebrews are monotheistic and believe that Yahweh is the only god, whereas the other three religions are polytheistic and worship many different gods. Although all four religions incorporate animal sacrifice in worship, the Hebrews also worship their god through their treatment of one another, following a specified moral code.

5. Answer would ideally include:


· Good essays will find that women in both societies had domestic obligations and economic opportunities. Most will note that women were never viewed as being as important as men. Some will likely mention the unusual role of Hatshepsut. Good essays will also compare the importance of marriage and fertility. While women in Egypt were frequently portrayed as companions to men, women in Hebrew society had a particularly important role in educating their children.


c2- Matching

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:


Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.



  1. Iron Age
  2. Yahweh
  3. cuneiform
  4. Zoroastrianism
  5. epic poem
  6. Indo-European languages
  7. polytheism
  8. Phoenicians
  9. pharaoh
  10. Hammurabi’s law code



1. Sumerian form of writing; the term describes the wedge-shaped marks made by a stylus. _________________



2. An oral or written narration of the achievements and sometimes the failures of heroes that embodies peoples’ ideas about themselves. _________________



3. A proclamation issued by Babylonian king Hammurabi to establish laws regulating many aspects of life. _________________



4. The worship of many gods and goddesses. _________________



5. A large family of languages that includes English, most of the languages of modern Europe, ancient Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit, the sacred tongue of ancient India. _________________



6. Period beginning about 1100 B.C.E. when iron became the most important material for weapons and tools in some parts of the world. _________________



7. All-powerful god of the Hebrew people and the basis for the enduring religious traditions of Judaism. _________________



8. Religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster that emphasized the individual’s responsibility to choose between good and evil. _________________



9. People of the prosperous city-states in what is now Lebanon who traded and founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean and spread the phonetic alphabet. _________________



10. The title given to the king of Egypt in the New Kingdom, from a word that meant “great house.” _________________




Answer Key


1. c. cuneiform
2. e. epic poem
3. j. Hammurabi’s law code
4. g. polytheism
5. f. Indo-European languages
6. 1. Iron Age
7. b. Yahweh
8. d. Zoroastrianism
9. h. Phoenicians
10. i. pharaoh


c2- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. What material was used for writing in Mesopotamia?
  A) Animal bones
  B) Papyrus
  C) Soft clay
  D) Parchment



2. How did papyrus compare with clay tablets as a writing material?
  A) It was less prone to disintegration.
  B) It was more fragile and less likely to survive.
  C) It required a stylus to carve the symbols.
  D) It was more difficult to write on.



3. In general, how did residents of ancient cities tend to view residents of rural areas?
  A) City dwellers viewed themselves as more sophisticated.
  B) City dwellers saw themselves as equal to the farmers.
  C) City dwellers looked up to and envied those who lived in the country.
  D) City dwellers tried to imitate the people of the rural areas.



4. What method did early states use to control their populace?
  A) Exemption from taxation
  B) Promises of wealth
  C) Threats of violence
  D) Offers of free food



5. Social hierarchies in early states were usually heightened by the introduction of what state mechanism?
  A) Written laws
  B) Economic records
  C) Written religious texts
  D) Coinage



6. In what region did the first known states develop?
  A) Egypt
  B) India
  C) Persia
  D) Mesopotamia



7. What natural feature in Sumer helped settled agriculture develop there first?
  A) Naturally occurring irrigation ditches that helped water the crops
  B) Rivers that brought new soil with annual floods
  C) Constant annual rainfall that irrigated the fields
  D) An abundance of labor to work the fields



8. What role did the first rulers of Ur, Uruk, and other Sumerian city-states play?
  A) Priests
  B) Merchants
  C) Farmers
  D) Scribes



9. Where did Sumerians build their large ziggurat temples?
  A) On the outskirts of the cities
  B) In the middle of crop fields
  C) On man-made islands in the river
  D) In the center of the city



10. Which of the following best describes a ziggurat-style temple?
  A) Underground cavern
  B) Floating island
  C) Beehive-shaped dome
  D) Stepped pyramid



11. Why did Sumerians likely begin a system of taxation?
  A) To pay for establishing a public school system
  B) To pay for the construction of temples and the expenses of temple officials
  C) To pay for the construction of libraries to hold cuneiform tablets
  D) To encourage economic growth and the development of market squares for traders



12. To counter the temples’ power, military leaders who became kings began to build what kinds of structures?
  A) Rival temples to worship war gods
  B) Public cemeteries to honor war dead as heroes
  C) Palaces to demonstrate the king’s strength
  D) Marketplaces to highlight goods from conquered territories



13. Who were known as “clients” in Sumer?
  A) Free people who were dependent on the nobility
  B) Household slaves
  C) Destitute persons supported by the city temple
  D) Indentured servants who had contracts with local nobles



14. Who worked the land owned by the king, nobles, and temples in ancient Sumer?
  A) Hired laborers
  B) Priests in training
  C) Client farmers and slaves
  D) Scribes and soldiers



15. Why did older men have the most power in the Mesopotamian social system?
  A) Mesopotamian societies were patriarchal.
  B) The most important value in Mesopotamian society was reverence for elders.
  C) Older men tended to form political alliances with powerful priests.
  D) Older men presided over important ancestor-worship rituals.



16. Which of the following describes the earliest Sumerian writings?
  A) They were ideograms in which each sign symbolized an idea.
  B) They were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object.
  C) Each symbol represented a sound in the spoken language.
  D) They were written using the first known alphabet.



17. How did Sumerian scribes learn the cuneiform writing system?
  A) They were taught at special schools.
  B) Their fathers taught them at home.
  C) Priests were solely responsible for this important teaching.
  D) They were taught as part of their mandated training as members of the army.



18. Sumerian scribes were trained largely to do what?
  A) To record religious texts and ritual manuals
  B) To write tax documents and legal cases
  C) To write official histories of royal families
  D) To keep property and wealth records



19. What is the key theme of the Epic of Gilgamesh?
  A) The duty of a soldier to serve the king
  B) The constant battle between good and evil
  C) The idea that men and women were created by magic
  D) Humanity’s search for immortality



20. The Sumerian mathematical system was based on units of sixty, ten, and six and survives in what modern system?
  A) Calculus
  B) Musical notation
  C) Time measurement
  D) Square roots



21. Around 2300 B.C.E., what chieftain conquered Sumer and created an empire?
  A) Hammurabi
  B) Menes
  C) Akhenaten
  D) Sargon



22. How did Sargon reinforce his rule in Mesopotamia?
  A) He converted all the people to his Semitic religion.
  B) He tore down the defensive walls of major cities and appointed his own sons as rulers.
  C) He wrote the first law code.
  D) He claimed to be a descendant of the god Marduk.



23. How did religion contribute to Hammurabi’s political success?
  A) He demonstrated his strength by forcing the exile of all Sumerian priests.
  B) He partitioned all of Mesopotamia into small political units governed by priests.
  C) He destroyed all existing Mesopotamian religions and forced acceptance of his Babylonian faith.
  D) He claimed that divine authority stood behind the laws that he established.



24. What was the intended function of Hammurabi’s code?
  A) To regulate the relationships among his people and promote their welfare
  B) To intimidate the common people in order to prevent social upheaval
  C) To protect the position of nobles and priests at the expense of the commoners
  D) To increase the nobility’s power over the priesthood



25. According to Hammurabi’s code, who controlled a woman’s dowry after she married?
  A) A judge
  B) The woman’s husband
  C) The woman’s father
  D) The woman herself



26. What geographic feature had the largest impact on Egyptian culture and prosperity?
  A) The Sinai Desert
  B) The Nile River
  C) The Red Sea
  D) The Mediterranean Sea



27. How did Egyptians view the afterlife?
  A) As bleak and very frightening
  B) As pleasant
  C) As a place of punishment
  D) As a fictional realm that nonetheless inspired great wonder



28. According to Egyptian belief, the Nile’s rise and fall was dictated by
  A) tides.
  B) Ra.
  C) the pharaoh.
  D) priests.



29. One of the earliest deities Egyptians worshiped was Amon, god of
  A) the sky.
  B) the underworld.
  C) the dead.
  D) fertility.



30. For which of the following was a pharaoh believed to be responsible?
  A) Achieving integration between gods and humans
  B) Ruling over earth and sky
  C) Ensuring his people’s safe passage to the afterlife
  D) Organizing Egypt’s agricultural system



31. Egyptian hieroglyphs were recorded on papyrus sheets and on what else?
  A) Clay tablets
  B) Glass items
  C) Walls of tombs
  D) Clay pots



32. How did Egyptian and Mesopotamian women compare in terms of their ability to own and control property?
  A) Neither culture allowed women to own or control property independently.
  B) Mesopotamian women owned and controlled more property than Egyptian women.
  C) In both cultures, women were able to own and control property freely.
  D) Egyptian women owned and controlled more property than Mesopotamian women.



33. During what period did slavery become widespread in Egypt?
  A) Second Intermediate Period
  B) Old Kingdom
  C) New Kingdom
  D) First Intermediate Period



34. What important contribution did the Hyksos make to Egyptian society?
  A) They encouraged Egyptians to worship the god Amon.
  B) Their bronze technology and weaponry was adopted by Egyptians.
  C) As naval pioneers, they introduced the center-stern rudder to Egyptian ships.
  D) Their mathematicians introduced the abacus to Egypt.



35. How was the New Kingdom different from the previous Middle and Old Kingdoms?
  A) Pharaohs increasingly tried to ensure peace because they realized war was too expensive.
  B) In response to multiple social problems, pharaohs encouraged more religious activities.
  C) Egyptians now focused more on trade than on farming because the Nile became unpredictable.
  D) Egyptians now focused more on conquest of new territories and created the first Egyptian empire.



36. Which of the following contributed to the expansion of slavery in the New Kingdom period?
  A) Economic problems forced families to sell children into slavery to pay off debts.
  B) As the Egyptian population diminished, the agricultural system required more laborers to maintain farming efficiency.
  C) Power struggles within the royal family led to more people becoming slaves.
  D) Focus on the conquest of other peoples resulted in slaves being brought back to Egypt from conquered territories.



37. Why was Akhenaten’s interest in worship of a new sun-god Aten ultimately a failure?
  A) The elaborate worship rituals were too confusing.
  B) The hated and corrupt priesthood endorsed it.
  C) It was imposed from above and failed to find a place among the people.
  D) It attempted to do away with worship of the widely popular sun-god.



38. Why did the Hittites and Egyptians conclude a peace treaty in 1258 B.C.E.?
  A) Both sides were exhausted by war.
  B) The Egyptians signed to avoid a total defeat by the Hittites.
  C) The Hittites brutally conquered the Egyptians.
  D) Both sides recognized the impossibility of defeating the other.



39. Which civilization produced some of the best iron products in the world?
  A) India
  B) Sumer
  C) Meroë
  D) Persia



40. In 727 B.C.E., King Piye conquered and unified Egypt from his home kingdom of
  A) Kush.
  B) Phoenicia.
  C) Persia.
  D) Babylonia.



41. What was the Phoenicians’ greatest cultural achievement?
  A) They developed settled agriculture.
  B) They developed the first sun-based calendar.
  C) They created the first fully phonetic alphabet.
  D) They were responsible for the composition of The Iliad.



42. What remains our most important source of knowledge about ancient Jews?
  A) Archaeological excavations
  B) The Hebrew Bible
  C) Governmental records
  D) Oral epic histories



43. The Hebrews created a monarchy with Saul as leader by fighting what other Palestinian people in the eleventh century B.C.E.?
  A) Philistines
  B) Phoenicians
  C) Egyptians
  D) Assyrians



44. Which Hebrew leader captured the city of Jerusalem?
  A) Judah
  B) David
  C) Saul
  D) Solomon



45. What happened to the Hebrew kingdom after Solomon’s death?
  A) Its leaders continued to consolidate politically.
  B) Conflict led to its split into two separate kingdoms.
  C) The kingdom was largely destroyed by an internal power struggle.
  D) Leaders gained the military protection of the Assyrians.



46. How did the Hebrew religion change as a result of the Babylonian Captivity?
  A) It was redefined and established as the law of Yahweh.
  B) It almost disappeared.
  C) It was exposed to Zoroastrianism.
  D) It was adopted by the Chaldeans.



47. How were children educated in ancient Israel?
  A) Education was left up to the father.
  B) Education took place in organized schools.
  C) Boys and girls attended school at the local temple.
  D) Education was a responsibility of both parents.



48. Which of the following was true of the Assyrians?
  A) They were one of the most warlike people in history.
  B) They used shrewd diplomacy to carve out an empire.
  C) They united the small kingdoms of Phoenicia and the Jews to defeat Egypt.
  D) They were nomadic fighters who did not build or live in permanent towns.



49. In addition to his concept of empire, what was another characteristic that made Cyrus a remarkable warrior-king?
  A) His concern for economic development
  B) His effective assimilation of nomadic invaders into his kingdom
  C) His benevolence and humanity as a ruler
  D) His ability to coordinate an efficient bureaucracy over a vast region



50. Which of the following was an important teaching of Zoroaster?
  A) Human actions were the result of manipulation by the gods.
  B) People possessed free will and were accountable for their actions.
  C) People’s eternal fate was determined by the depth of their religious faith.
  D) All gods embodied good and truth, whereas only humans could be hateful or evil.




Answer Key


1. C
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. A
6. D
7. B
8. A
9. D
10. D
11. B
12. C
13. A
14. C
15. A
16. B
17. A
18. D
19. D
20. C
21. D
22. B
23. D
24. A
25. D
26. B
27. B
28. C
29. A
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. C
34. B
35. D
36. D
37. C
38. D
39. C
40. A
41. C
42. B
43. A
44. B
45. B
46. A
47. D
48. A
49. C
50. B



c32- Essay

Answer each of the following questions in an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.



1. How did the oil embargo and the policies of OPEC affect the economic development of the United States?



2. How did the Palestinian-Israeli conflict shape the development of Arab states, especially Egypt?



3. Why was there so much violence in Central America during the Cold War?



4. What led to the Four Modernizations movement of China? Were they all equally successful? Explain what was missing from this attempt at reform.



5. How has Pakistan developed politically and economically since the 1970s?




Answer Key


1. Answer would ideally include:


· In 1973 OPEC implemented a successful embargo of America and western Europe, and energy costs quadrupled. The United States was unable to break the cartel and lost influence globally. Oil prices remained high, and revolution in Iran caused a second oil shock in 1979. Prices increased, and energy costs slowed economic growth, triggering inflation and low wage growth (stagflation). Banks raised interest rates, slowing economic growth further and leading to a major recession. Reduced consumer demand lowered inflation but also damaged economies that sought to export to the United States. Rising debt combined with rising interest rates globally produced a global debt crisis. The debt crisis allowed the United States to gain economic leverage and impose neoliberal free-market reforms globally.

2. Answer would ideally include:


· OPEC organization, which was effective in response to the Yom Kippur War in 1973, left Israel feeling vulnerable and empowered oil-exporting Arab nations. The wealth of oil-producing Arab states changed power relations between Arab countries, as did the rise of Islamic militancy. Egypt and the United States engaged in a peace process with Israel in 1979 that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt and led to American aid to Egypt but also spread division as most Arab states did not support the process, and Islamic radicals assassinated Anwar Sadat in 1981. Tensions between Israel and other Arab states continued, and the peace between Egypt and Israel has been placed under considerable pressure by the rise of Hamas in Palestine, by the deteriorating conditions in the Gaza Strip and West Bank since the death of Yasir Arafat in 2004, and by the revolution in Egypt in 2011, which led to growing uncertainties in Egyptian politics.

3. Answer would ideally include:


· Central American economies were dominated in many cases by American interests. Movements arose during the Cold War era aimed at nationalism and reducing American influence, while peasants sought land reform and political rights. Marxist revolutionary movements and other radical social reformers gained strength in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, while the United States backed right-wing interests that included the military and powerful dictators. In Nicaragua, the U.S. backed right-wing insurgents in their struggle against the successful Sandinista revolutionary movement that overthrew dictator Anastasio Somoza. War and conflict were widespread until Costa Rican president Oscar Arias mediated peace talks in 1986 that led to open elections. These did not alleviate poverty and violence, which have persisted.

4. Answer would ideally include:


· Mao’s attempts to reform China along strict Marxist lines, with an emphasis on purging dissent and heavy labor on a small scale, had created greater social equality but destabilized the country in other ways. City dwellers in particular felt a sense of chaos, perhaps because the largest cultural changes occurred there. Intellectuals and technicians, who as a class had been purged in the Cultural Revolution, fought back to reclaim their influence. Ultimately, Mao’s Cultural Revolution had failed. In response, Deng Xiaoping, who assumed leadership of China after Mao’s death, instituted the Four Modernizations as part of an effort to remake China yet again, undoing some of the problems created by Mao. Deng singled out four areas of the economy and industry for some degree of modernization and experimentation, the opposite of Mao’s rigid policies. The four areas modernized were agriculture (large collectives were replaced with more traditional family farms and cash crops), industry (which remained state-owned, but foreign-owned factories were allowed to open and some private enterprise was allowed), science and technology, and national defense (which also remained in government hands). The agricultural reforms were the most successful and benefited the peasantry greatly. Industry and technology also did well. One area not addressed by Deng’s reforms was societal changes brought on by economic changes. China experienced dissent in 1989 as a result. The Communist Party retained a monopoly on political power and did not respond to the worldwide movement toward more democracy and political freedom. University students, however, did respond to that movement and the lack of political change in China and began a series of demonstrations and protests in 1989.

5. Answer would ideally include:


· Military rule in Pakistan led to a close alliance with the United States, and Pakistan received considerable U.S. assistance. Relations with both the United States and India worsened considerably as Pakistan developed nuclear weapons by 1998, which nearly precipitated war with India. Pakistani-based terrorist groups have attacked targets in India, and Pakistani support for the Taliban and others in Afghanistan in their struggle against Soviet occupation led to close connections between the Taliban and al-Qaeda, including their operation in parts of Northwest Pakistan. While Pakistan’s dictator Perez Musharraf renewed alliances with the United States after September 2001, he was forced to resign when his political rival Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007.


c32- Matching

Use the following to answer questions 1-14:


Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.



  1. African National Congress (ANC)
  2. perestroika
  3. Tiananmen Square
  4. intifada
  5. neoliberalism
  6. European Union (EU)
  7. petrodollars
  8. détente
  9. apartheid
  10. junta
  11. glasnost
  12. Washington Consensus
  13. “Japan, Inc.”
  14. Solidarity



1. The progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions. _________________



2. Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev’s popular campaign for openness in the government and the media. _________________



3. The main black nationalist organization in South Africa, led by Nelson Mandela. _________________



4. The global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil. _________________



5. A nickname from the 1980s used to describe the intricate relationship of Japan’s business world and government. _________________



6. A return to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national borders. _________________



7. The system of racial segregation and discrimination that was supported by the Afrikaner government in South Africa. _________________



8. A prolonged campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinian youth against Israeli soldiers; the Arabic word intifada means “shaking off.” _________________



9. Economic restructuring and reform implemented by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers. _________________



10. An economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 that has since grown to include twenty-seven European nations. _________________



11. workers and political reform.  _____________________



12. Policies restricting public spending, lowering import barriers, privatizing state enterprises, and deregulating markets. _________________



13. The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed martial law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students. _________________



14. A government headed by a council of commanders of the branches of the armed forces. _________________




Answer Key


1. h. détente
2. k. glasnost
3. a. African National Congress (ANC)
4. g. petrodollars
5. m. “Japan, Inc.”
6. e. neoliberalism
7. i. apartheid
8. d. intifada
9. b. perestroika
10. f. European Union (EU)
11. n. Solidarity
12. l. Washington Consensus
13. c. Tiananmen Square
14. j. junta


c32- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.



1. What enabled the OPEC cartel to control the price of oil in 1973?
  A) America’s support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War
  B) The death of Anwar Sadat, who had opposed the cartel
  C) The Iranian revolution
  D) Coordination with Britain, where oil had been discovered in the North Sea



2. How did the oil embargo affect America’s standing in the world?
  A) The embargo increased respect for America as American pressure finally broke the embargo, benefitting other Western economies.
  B) The embargo led other producers of raw materials to challenge American influence over the global economy.
  C) The embargo ended the importance of the U.S. dollar as a global currency.
  D) The embargo led to a widespread perception of declining American influence.



3. How did Brazil’s military leaders react to the embargo of 1973?
  A) Brazil remained a staunch American ally.
  B) Brazil resisted American pressure to continue supporting Israel.
  C) Brazil moved closer to the Soviet Union.
  D) Brazil switched to nuclear power as much as possible.



4. How did Europeans respond to the oil shocks of the 1970s?
  A) Increasing political radicalism
  B) Switching to a large degree to coal and natural gas
  C) Increasing bicycle and mass transit use
  D) Supporting an American invasion of Iraq



5. How did petrodollars change the world economy from the 1970s?
  A) They enriched developing countries.
  B) They ensured that the industrialized West did not suffer inflation.
  C) The ended the economic hegemony of the United States and western Europe.
  D) They increased the availability of loans for developing states.



6. How did the neoliberalism of the 1980s change the world economy?
  A) Neoliberalism contributed to a shift in economic power to the developing world.
  B) Neoliberalism increased the influence of free-market political ideals in the global economy.
  C) Neoliberalism encouraged more developing countries to align themselves with the Soviet Union.
  D) Neoliberalism undermined the “Washington Consensus.”



7. What characterized the global economy in the 1970s and 1980s?
  A) Deflation and recession
  B) Hyperinflation
  C) Stagflation and boom/bust cycles
  D) A credit crunch



8. What contributed to the discrediting of the PRI in Mexico after 1968?
  A) Corruption and failed neoliberal policies
  B) Close association with discredited Marxist ideas
  C) War with Central American states
  D) A failed attempt to establish a free trade agreement (NAFTA)



9. How did newfound oil wealth affect the development of Nigeria from the 1960s?
  A) Nigeria experienced steady economic development with a weak political system.
  B) The military became less influential over Nigerian politics.
  C) Religious differences became less central to political divisions.
  D) Political and cultural unity remained elusive as the economy endured boom and bust cycles.



10. What happened when Nigerian dictator General Sani Abacha died suddenly in 1998?
  A) Another military dictatorship quickly emerged.
  B) Nigerians established a new constitution and shifted to civilian rule.
  C) Nigeria dissolved as a nation-state.
  D) The country’s Muslim minority was disenfranchised.



11. What country was the recognized leader of the Arab world in the 1970s?
  A) Syria
  B) Iraq
  C) Egypt
  D) Libya



12. What goal of Hezbollah contributed to Middle East violence after the Camp David Accords of 1979?
  A) Their determination to attack the United States
  B) Their support of Soviet involvement in Afghanistan
  C) Their rejection of any notion of Palestinian statehood
  D) Their determination to destroy the state of Israel



13. What did Yasir Arafat agree to do in 1993?
  A) Attack Israel
  B) Renounce the use of violence
  C) Ally with China
  D) Surrender to Israel



14. What was the intifada of the 1980s?
  A) An Egyptian revolution
  B) An Israeli political party
  C) An Iranian uprising
  D) A civil disobedience campaign



15. What was a consequence of the Yom Kippur War in 1973?
  A) Israel was briefly conquered.
  B) Chemical weapons were used.
  C) The United States became more involved in peacemaking efforts.
  D) Arab states were seriously weakened.



16. The 1995 assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
  A) illustrated the divisions within Israeli society over the issue of peace with the Palestinians.
  B) was carried out by the Palestine Liberation Organization.
  C) underscored the extent of opposition Palestinians had toward Israel.
  D) led to the forced expulsion of the remaining Arabs in Palestine.



17. Hamas won a majority of seats in the Palestinian legislature, which led to
  A) immediate reopening of peace talks with Israel.
  B) Israel building a wall around the West Bank.
  C) the assassination of Yasir Arafat.
  D) Israel suspending aid to the Palestinian Authority.



18. U.S. President Jimmy Carter brokered a historic peace treaty between what two Middle East political entities at the 1979 Camp David Accords?
  A) The Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel
  B) Syria and the Palestine Liberation Organization
  C) Egypt and Israel
  D) Jordan and the Palestine Liberation Organization



19. What led many Arab leaders to denounce Egypt in 1977?
  A) Nasser lost the Six-Day War.
  B) Egypt signed a peace settlement with Israel.
  C) Sadat was assassinated.
  D) Mubarak was accused of embezzling Arab League funds.



20. Where did populist uprisings that occurred in North Africa and the Middle East begin in 2010–2011?
  A) Syria
  B) Libya
  C) Israel
  D) Tunisia



21. What contributed to the outbreak of war between Iran and Iraq in 1980?
  A) Missionary activity by Iranian Christians
  B) A Hezbollah takeover in Iraq
  C) Israeli support for the Iranian regime
  D) Shi’ite and Sunni tensions



22. What characterized American policy toward Latin America in the decades following the Cuban Revolution in 1959?
  A) The United States supported dictators with military aid in an effort to prevent the spread of communism.
  B) The United States focused on encouraging rapid development in hopes of isolating Cuba.
  C) The United States adopted a “new Marshall Plan” for Latin American nations.
  D) The United States endorsed the spread of some aspects of the new Cuban system.



23. Who deposed Guatemalan reformist president Jacobo Arbenz in 1954?
  A) The KGB
  B) The CIA
  C) The Guatemalan senate
  D) A Honduran invasion



24. What characterized the Chilean Junta of Augusto Pinochet established in 1973?
  A) Sympathy for Communist ideas
  B) A close working alliance with Salvador Allende
  C) Hostility to American activity in the region
  D) Radical neoliberal economic reforms



25. Why was Brazil especially vulnerable to the “oil shock” of 1979?
  A) It imported a particularly significant amount of oil.
  B) It had a democratic form of government.
  C) It had the largest foreign debt in the developing world.
  D) It paid especially high wages, contributing to inflation.



26. What role did the ANC and SWAPO play in the political development of South Africa in the 1970s?
  A) They led the military fight against the government of South Africa.
  B) They worked to suppress black militants.
  C) They assassinated F. W. de Klerck in 1989.
  D) They refused to accept seats in the South African parliament.



27. What led to Rhodesia’s declaration of independence in 1965?
  A) The unwillingness of blacks to share power
  B) The political ideas of Nelson Mandela
  C) Portuguese colonial policies
  D) White supremacist attitudes



28. Who took control of the South African government in the 1970s?
  A) A council of ANC and SWAPO members who dismantled the “total strategy” policy
  B) Nelson Mandela, who was elected president, and vice president Frederik W. de Klerk
  C) The “securocrats,” a group of military and intelligence officers who enforced apartheid
  D) Officials from neighboring countries who implemented policies to protect black citizens



29. How was apartheid ended in South Africa?
  A) Through a successful military campaign against the government
  B) Through dialogue forced by international pressure
  C) Through the death of F. W. de Klerck
  D) Through the personal intervention of Jimmy Carter



30. What was the objective of the Chinese Cultural Revolution?
  A) To mobilize the masses and create greater social equality
  B) To foster economic modernization by concentrating on heavy industry
  C) To foment a worldwide Communist revolution
  D) To overthrow Mao and the Red Guards



31. How did Chinese-American relations change after 1969?
  A) They improved in limited but lasting ways.
  B) They were transformed for the better.
  C) War broke out between the two countries over Korea.
  D) They soured as China grew closer to the Soviet Union.



32. Who was the leader of the moderates who came to power after Mao Zedong’s death in 1976?
  A) Zhao Ziyang
  B) Sun Yatsen
  C) Hu Shi
  D) Deng Xiaoping



33. What was an important component of Deng Xiaoping’s agricultural policies?
  A) Accelerating the pace of collectivization
  B) Allowing peasants to farm in small family units
  C) Importing massive amounts of Western technology
  D) Focusing his efforts on cash crops to enrich the overall economy



34. Who led the protests at Tiananmen Square in 1989?
  A) Soldiers
  B) Students
  C) Industrial workers
  D) Women



35. In the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square massacre, Deng and his government
  A) ended the program of economic liberalization.
  B) initiated a series of political reforms.
  C) collapsed and were replaced by new leadership.
  D) reaffirmed economic liberalization but suppressed calls for political liberalization.



36. Which of the following describes China’s economic situation in the 1990s?
  A) China’s policies coupled economic freedom with political repression.
  B) Economic policies rejected consumerism and returned to pure Marxist ideology.
  C) China returned to an agrarian lifestyle and demolished industry.
  D) China followed Russia’s lead and encouraged open debate about government policies.



37. What did China refuse to allow the dissident Liu Xiaobo to do in 2010?
  A) Emigrate to the United States
  B) Travel to accept the Noble Peace Prize
  C) Become the new Dalai Lama
  D) Publish a novel that criticized communism



38. Collectively, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea were known as what?
  A) The Asian Alliance
  B) Southeast Asia for Peace
  C) The “Asian Tigers”
  D) The Asian Economic Union



39. What was an important step in economic recovery after World War II for both South Korea and Taiwan?
  A) Rapid industrialization
  B) Creating national labor unions
  C) Nationalizing utilities
  D) Radical land reform



40. Which of the following became a Special Administrative Region in China?
  A) Hong Kong
  B) Tibet
  C) Mongolia
  D) Taiwan



41. What characterized the development of capitalism in postwar Japan?
  A) Cheap immigrant labor
  B) Free-trade arrangements and partnerships with China
  C) Dependency on American approaches to structuring state-industry relations
  D) Managed and protected



42. What happened to Benazir Bhutto in 2007 in Pakistan?
  A) She killed Osama bin Laden.
  B) She resigned as prime minister.
  C) She beat Perez Musharraf in an election.
  D) She was assassinated.



43. How did the BJP change Indian politics in 1998?
  A) They came to power, strengthening Hindu nationalism.
  B) They provoked a war with Pakistan.
  C) They urged India to strengthen Commonwealth ties.
  D) They demanded an end to Indian democracy.



44. What characterized the long rule of Indira Gandhi in India?
  A) She worked to unite Hindus and Muslims.
  B) She was a determined democrat.
  C) She alternately supported and then sought to undermine democratic rule.
  D) She opposed nearly all exercises of state power.



45. What did the government of Pakistan announce in 1998?
  A) They had captured Osama bin Laden.
  B) They had developed nuclear weapons.
  C) They were planning to invade Afghanistan.
  D) They were no longer a secular state.



46. Why did Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf go into exile in 2008?
  A) He feared assassination.
  B) He had been defeated in the polls and was certain he was going to be impeached.
  C) He knew he would be forced to make reforms that he did not want.
  D) He was forced out by a popular uprising.



47. What was Jimmy Carter’s reaction to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan?
  A) He called for understanding and détente.
  B) He urged the government in Afghanistan to cooperate with the Soviets.
  C) He mobilized the American military.
  D) He was alarmed and détente stalled.



48. Who argued in the 1980s that the Soviet Union was an “evil empire”?
  A) George H. W. Bush
  B) Jimmy Carter
  C) Ronald Reagan
  D) Margaret Thatcher



49. What did the Maastricht Treaty of 1992 change about the European Community?
  A) It established a single currency, the euro.
  B) It made the European Community an active military alliance.
  C) It committed the European Community to admitting Russia.
  D) It promised a complete political union of all European states.



50. What was similar about the approach to dictatorship taken by South Korea’s Park Chung Hee and Brazil’s Ernesto Geisel?
  A) Both men resigned to allow democratic elections.
  B) Both men went to war as a means of building support.
  C) Both men pursued aggressive industrialization.
  D) Both men rejected alliances with the United States.




Answer Key


1. A
2. D
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. B
7. C
8. A
9. D
10. B
11. C
12. D
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. A
17. D
18. C
19. B
20. D
21. D
22. A
23. B
24. D
25. C
26. A
27. D
28. C
29. B
30. A
31. A
32. D
33. B
34. B
35. D
36. A
37. B
38. C
39. D
40. A
41. D
42. D
43. A
44. C
45. B
46. B
47. D
48. C
49. A
50. C


c32- Short Answer

Answer each question with three or four sentences.



1. What led to the rise of OPEC as a global economic force in the 1970s?



2. When and why did China abandon its Communist form of economy in favor of capitalism?



3. How did Mikhail Gorbachev attempt to reform the Soviet economy?



4. Why did military dictatorship end in Argentina in the 1980s?



5. How did Portugal decolonize in Africa?



6. What factors have influenced the relationship between the United States and Pakistan?



7. How has Hindu nationalism changed the balance of power in India?



8. Why did Yasir Arafat and Israel agree to start a peace process in 1993?



9. Why did Egypt lose its status as the leader of the Arab world in the 1970s?



10. What were the consequences of Hamas’s electoral victory in January 2006 through 2010?




Answer Key


1. Answer would ideally include:


· Attempts to form an oil cartel failed until the Yom Kippur War and American support for Israel united Arab oil producers to embargo Europe and the United States for supporting Israel. Oil prices rose in response and remained high. The global economy was transformed by the new economic realities, as inflation rose and wages stagnated in the United States, and as petrodollars made credit and debt connected to development a new dynamic in the global economy.

2. Answer would ideally include:


· China’s move to a more capitalist economy began with the Four Modernizations movement of Deng Xiaoping. These reforms were expanded in the 1990s, with more private enterprise, more foreign investment, and a consumerist culture. The living standard rose even as China continued political repression. China is now the world’s second largest economy. It is possible that the economic successes have distracted the Chinese people from their cultural repressions.

3. Answer would ideally include:


· After he became premier in 1985, Gorbachev tried to “democratize” the Soviet system. Perestroika sought to add elements of the marketplace to the Soviet economy, while the bolder policy of glasnost sought to end censorship and allow significant free speech. Free elections were held, and independent parties began to operate from 1989. Soviet troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan, and no action was taken to restrict the rapid development of new political freedoms and movements in eastern Europe.

4. Answer would ideally include:


· After Juan Perón was deposed in 1955, military leaders controlled the Argentine government until he was briefly reinstated before his death. Threats from Marxists led to another military takeover in 1976, and the regime waged a “dirty war” against leftists and reformers. Flushed with success, the government attempted in 1982 to claim the Malvinas/Falkland islands off the southern coast, a British territory. In the conflict that ensued, the government was severely weakened by their defeat and a civilian president took office after elections in 1983.

5. Answer would ideally include:


· Portugal, poor after the Second World War, still had a large empire in Africa, and dictator António Salazar depended on revenue from Angolan diamond mining. Portugal also sponsored immigration to Africa and tried to resist decolonization. Violent campaigns for decolonization were launched in Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, and Mozambique. Portugal’s colonies become independent in 1974–1975. The movements that obtained independence were radicalized by the conflicts and made common cause with liberation struggles across southern Africa.

6. Answer would ideally include:


· The relationship has been shaped by each country’s political and military needs. The two countries were allies during the 1980s, when Pakistan supported Afghanistan against the Soviet invasion in 1979. When Pakistan pursued a nuclear program in the 1990s, the United States pulled back until Pakistan became an important ally again after 2001. The United States gave Pakistan money and military aid as long as Pakistan helped the United States fight al-Qaeda. The relationship between the countries has deteriorated since the U.S. commando raid into a Pakistani city, which resulted in the assassination of Osama bin Laden.

7. Answer would ideally include:


· Hindu nationalists have criticized the Congress Party that has ruled India since 1947 for being too Western, too secularist, and too accommodating to the Muslims of India. Hindu nationalists want India to be based on Hindu culture and religious tradition. The nationalist party briefly took over the government from 1998 to 2004.

8. Answer would ideally include:


· Yasir Arafat had led the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) since 1964; in 1987, however, young Palestinians rose up against Israel in a movement called the intifada. Because Arafat did not control the intifada, he felt it threatened his power in Palestine. Arafat’s PLO was a secular movement, while the intifada was an Islamist movement. Concern over the growing power of Islamic fundamentalism and loss of his political power led Arafat to seek a peace settlement with Israel. In exchange, Arafat promised to renounce terrorism and stop demanding that Israel withdraw from land it occupied in 1967.

9. Answer would ideally include:


· Until 1977, Egypt was the leader of the Arab world because of its strong military and support for pan-Arab unity. But in 1977 Egypt entered into a peace settlement with Israel. Egypt’s president, Anwar Sadat, also made an official visit to Israel. The rest of the Arab world felt that Egypt had betrayed Arab interests, and Egypt was suspended from the Arab League for a decade. Egypt has also received financial support from the United States, which has upset other Arab states.

10. Answer would ideally include:


· Hamas was a Sunni political party that Israel considered to be a terrorist organization. The United States and the EU suspended aid to the Palestinian Authority, which governed the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Economic and humanitarian conditions in those places deteriorated and poverty increased. A Turkish-sponsored freedom flotilla that tried to break the blockade in 2010 was prevented by Israel from doing so. The blockade ended in 2010 due to international pressure, but restrictions placed on the regions by Israel on the movement of peoples remain in place.



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