A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder – Test Bank

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A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder – Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 2: The Christian Church in the First Millenium

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire in the year
a. 70 C.E. d. 395 C.E.
b. 313 C.E. e. 476 C.E.
c. 392 C.E.  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   23

TOP:   The Diffusion of Christianity         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The main practice shared by early Judaism and early Christianity was
a. the chanting of psalms d. sacrificing a lamb
b. dancing e. the singing of hymns
c. living in monasteries  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   23–24            TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Judaic system of chanting sacred texts according to a system of melodic formulas matching phrase divisions is called
a. cantillation d. reciting tone
b. echoi e. tonoi
c. psalmody  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   24                  TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The focal point of the Christian Mass is a symbolic reenactment of
a. the birth of Christ d. the Last Supper
b. the choir of Levites singing psalms e. the ritual sacrifice of a lamb
c. the crucifixion of Christ  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   24                  TOP:   The Judaic Heritage

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The group of influential Christian writers known as the Church Fathers includes all of the following except
a. St. Augustine d. St. John Chrysostom
b. St. Basil e. St. Paul
c. St. Jerome  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Church Fathers advocated the singing of psalms because
a. it distanced Christian worship from pagan rituals
b. it made it easier to remember the words
c. it provoked devout thoughts and ideas of divine beauty
d. it reminded worshippers of Jesus of Nazareth’s Jewish heritage
e. it was enjoyable and gave pleasure

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. When did the Roman Empire split into the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire, centered in Constantinople, and the Western Empire, centered in Rome and Milan?
a. 70 C.E. d. 395 C.E.
b. 313 C.E. e. 476 C.E.
c. 392 C.E.  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   25

TOP:   Divisions of the Church and Dialects of Chant               MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Who is likely to have written this: “When the Holy Spirit saw that mankind was ill-inclined toward virtue and that we were heedless of the righteous life because of our inclination to pleasure, what did he do? He blended the delight of melody with doctrine on order that through the pleasantness and softness of sound we might unawares receive what was useful in the

words. . . . For this purpose these harmonious melodies of the Psalms have been designed for us.”

a. St. Ambrose d. St. Gregory
b. St. Basil e. St. Peter
c. St. Benedict  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   26

TOP:   Music in the Early Church | St. Basil on Psalms              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The schedule of days commemorating special events in the lives of Christ and the saints or times of year is called the
a. Christian Rite d. Mass
b. church calendar e. service
c. liturgy  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   27

TOP:   Divisions of the Church and Dialects of Chant               MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Byzantine chant spread from the Eastern Empire to
a. France d. Russia
b. Germany e. Spain
c. Italy  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   28                  TOP:   Byzantine Chant

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Frankish kings Pippin the Short and Charlemagne (Charles the Great) reigned
a. ca. 675–ca. 750 d. ca. 875–ca. 950
b. ca. 750–ca. 815 e. ca. 950–1025
c. ca. 815–ca. 875  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Popes and secular rulers from the eighth century on sought to standardize the Catholic liturgy in order to
a. centralize political and spiritual authority
b. create a sense of unity among congregants
c. identify and persecute non-believers
d. reunite the Eastern and Western Empires
e. revive the ideas of the Church Fathers

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   29                  TOP:   Western Dialects

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The Holy Roman Empire was established when
a. Emperor Theodosius declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
b. Frankish king Pippin the Short brought the Roman liturgy and chant to his domain
c. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, King of the Franks, emperor
d. the Roman Empire fell
e. the Roman Empire was partitioned into the Eastern and Western Empires

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which phrase best describes Old Roman chant?
a. a chant repertory preserved in twelfth and thirteenth centuries that may or may not be related to the original chant repertory of the Schola Cantorum
b. a chant repertory with origins in the early Christian church during the time of the Roman Empire
c. the fund of melodic formulas and conventions on which singers improvised chant during the era of oral transmission
d. modern editions of chant prepared by the monks of Solesmes in the early twentieth century adopted as the official chant by the Vatican in Rome
e. a term synonymous with Gregorian Chant

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   31

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The similarities and differences from phrase to phrase of this melody provide evidence that
a. chant melodies may have been composed using a pool of melodic contours and formulas
b. early notation was only an approximate way of preserving chant melodies
c. oral transmission was unreliable
d. the melody resulted from a blend of various chant dialects
e. the Schola Cantorum purposely taught the Franks incorrect melodies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   31–32            TOP:   Oral Transmission

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why did church musicians develop a system for notating chant?
a. it helped advance the goal of disseminating a unified liturgy
b. the vast repertory was too difficult to learn by rote memorization
c. they wanted congregants to be able to join in the singing
d. they wanted it to be a secret repertory, available only to the literate
e. they wanted to preserve the music for posterity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   32                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. When did chant notation evolve from unheightened neumes to staff notation?
a. ca. 500–600 d. ca. 850–1025
b. ca. 600–750 e. ca. 1025–1150
c. ca. 750–850  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   32–35            TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The idea of staff lines and clefs was suggested by
a. Boethius d. St. Gregory
b. Guido of Arezzo e. the Monks of Solesmes
c. Martianus Capella  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. F and C clefs were the most often used in chant notation because they are
a. a fifth apart
b. positioned just above the semitones in the diatonic scale
c. the finals of the most often used modes
d. the first notes of two of the hexachords
e. the reciting tones of the most often used modes

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is the correct transcription of this phrase?
a. d.
b. e.
c.  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   36–38            TOP:   Solesmes Chant Notation

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. This writer was one of the first to articulate the concept of the seven liberal arts, which include music.
a. Guido of Arezzo d. St. Augustine
b. Martianus Capella e. St. Gregory
c. Pippin the Short, King of the Franks  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   38

TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which mode is recognizable by its distinctive semitone interval above the final?
a. Dorian d. Mixolydian
b. Hypodorian e. Phrygian
c. Lydian  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   40                  TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A melody that occupies a range from a fourth or fifth below the final to a sixth above the final is called
a. authentic d. plagal
b. hard e. soft
c. natural  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   40–41            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is the mode of this chant?
a. Dorian
b. Phyrgian
c. Lydian
d. Mixolydian
e. the chant does not clearly conform to any mode

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   40–42            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a reciting tone?
a. the first note of a chant
b. the highest note of a chant
c. the last note of a chant
d. the lowest note of a chant
e. the most frequent or prominent note of a chant

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   42                  TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The early church leaders discouraged the use of music for pleasure.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The system of classifying Gregorian chants into eight church modes had its origins in Byzantine chant.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   28                  TOP:   Byzantine Chant

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Schola Cantorum was the institution musicians attended in order to learn Gregorian chant.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   29

TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most chant manuscripts from the Middle Ages were copied in monasteries.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   33

TOP:   Stages of Notation| Music In Context | In the Monastic Scriptorum

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Heightened neumes indicate the specific pitches of chant melodies.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Chant notation from the Middle Ages gives consistent indications of rhythmic values.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   36–37            TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the Middle Ages, music was considered a verbal art, along with grammar and rhetoric.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   38

TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The eight church modes (Dorian, Hypodorian, Phrygian, Hypophrygian, etc.) correspond to the ancient Greek modes.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   42–43            TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The Medieval solmization system had six notes.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   43                  TOP:   Solmization

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The three hexachord positions are called authentic, hard, and soft.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   43–44            TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Who issued the Edict of Milan, making it legal to practice Christianity in the Roman Empire?

 

ANS:

Emperor Constantine

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   23                  TOP:   The Diffusion of Christianity

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why did the church fathers disapprove of using musical instruments in church?

 

ANS:

They believed that only music that delivered Christian teaching and holy thoughts was worthy of hearing in church and that music without words could not do this. It also distanced them from pagan spectacles involving large choruses, instruments, and dancing.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   25                  TOP:   Music in the Early Church

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why did different dialects of chant develop in various regions of Western Europe in the fifth through ninth centuries?

 

ANS:

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was controlled by different groups of people in different regions, such as the Franks in Gaul (approximate modern-day France). They all had different local and regional rites with their own bodies of chants or dialects.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   28                  TOP:   Western Dialects

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. This painting illustrates what legend?

 

 

ANS:

It illustrates the legend that the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove to St. Gregory and dictated the repertory of Catholic chant to him.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   30–31            TOP:   The Creation of Gregorian Chant

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is a neume?

 

ANS:

A neume is an early notation sign that indicates the melodic gesture for each syllable, including the number of notes, the melodic contour, and whether notes are repeated. It might indicate rhythm or manner of performance.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   35                  TOP:   Stages of Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Today we think of music as an applied, practical, or performing art. Why did theorists in the Middle Ages consider it a liberal art, along with such disciplines as dialectic (logic) and arithmetic?

 

ANS:

Theorists in the Middle Ages thought more about the mathematical and philosophical aspects of music. They thought about how ratios and proportions create consonances, dissonances, and tuning. They also thought about how music can affect the body and soul, and would prepare the student for more advanced philosophical studies.  Music was an object of knowledge and inquiry.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   39                  TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. This music theorist divided music into three categories, musica mundana (music of the universe), musica humana (human music), and musica instrumentalis (instrumental music).

 

ANS:

Boethius

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   39                  TOP:   The Transmission of Greek Music Theory

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Some chants do not conform to the rules of modal theory. Why is this?

 

ANS:

Modal theory was first described in the later Middle Ages, for example in Musica enchiriadis and in the writings of Guido d’Arezzo (ca. 1025–28). However, many chants were composed before the system was codified. Many of these do not conform to the “rules.” Chants composed after the tenth century often conform very clearly.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   42 | 44–45     TOP:   The Church Modes

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why are the hexachords on G and F known as the hard and soft hexachords, respectively?

 

ANS:

The hexachord on G includes the pitch B-natural, represented as a square or “hard”  b sign. The hexachord on F includes a b-flat, represented as a round or “soft” b sign that looks like our modern flat sign.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   43–44            TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Identify this image. How was it used?

 

ANS:

This is the Guidonian Hand. It was used to teach music students how to find pitches of a melody on the system of hexachords. It shows the solmization syllables for each note.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   44                  TOP:   The Hexachord System

MSC:  Applied

 

MATCHING

 

Match the name of the chant dialect to the region in which it was cultivated.

a. Ambrosian d. Gallican
b. Beneventan e. Mozarabic
c. Byzantine  

 

 

  1. France

 

  1. Greece, Turkey, eastern Europe

 

  1. northern Italy

 

  1. southern Italy

 

  1. Spain

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

Match each author to the correct title.

a. Anonymous d. Martianus Capella
b. Boethius e. St. Augustine
c. Guido of Arezzo  

 

 

  1. Confessions

 

  1. De institutione musica (The Fundamentals of Music)

 

  1. The Marriage of Mercury and Philology

 

  1. Micrologus

 

  1. Musica enchiriadis (Music Handbook)

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

ESSAY

 

  1. In what ways is the history of Western music indebted to and intertwined with Christianity?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Discuss the role of memory and notation in the learning and performance of chant in the Middle Ages.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

CHAPTER 4: Song and Dance Music to 1300

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. From ca. 800 to ca. 1200, Europe experienced
a. aggregation of wealth among the nobility
b. economic, educational, and artistic growth
c. invasions by the Arabs
d. population decline due to disease and famine
e. territorial expansion

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   67–69            TOP:   European Society, 800–1300

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Charlemagne was a
a. Holy Roman Emperor d. pope
b. king of Spain e. trouvère
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   68                  TOP:   European Society, 800–1300

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Goliard songs are in what language?
a. English d. Italian
b. French e. Latin
c. German  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   70–71            TOP:   Latin and Vernacular Songss

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. An epic narrative poem describing the deeds of a heroic character is called a
a. carole d. pastourelle
b. chanson de geste e. rondeau
c. goliard song  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   71                  TOP:   Vernacular Song

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why do scholars believe that the surviving secular song and dance repertory represents mostly that of the upper classes of society?
a. music of the lower social classes was formulaic
b. music of the lower social classes was mostly improvised
c. only the music of the upper class was considered worthy of preserving
d. people in the lower social classes were not allowed to make music
e. the lower social classes were nonliterate and so they could not write down their music

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   72

TOP:   Vernacular Song| Minstrels and Other Professional Musicians

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The modern French language evolved from which Medieval vernacular language?
a. Frankish d. langue d’oïl
b. Galician e. Roman
c. langue d’oc  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   73–74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Eleanor of Aquitaine was all of the following except
a. Countess of Dia d. Queen of England
b. Duchess of Aquitaine e. Queen of France
c. Duchess of Normandy  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Bernart de Ventadorn was a
a. goliard d. troubadour
b. jongleur e. trouvère
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Bernart de Ventadorn worked for
a. Adam de la Halle d. Hildegard of Bingen
b. Charlemagne e. King Alfonso el Sabio
c. Eleanor of Aquitaine  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Because the same troubadour or trouvère song may appear in several manuscripts with slight variations in the text and music, scholars believe that
a. later musicians adapted the old songs to appeal to more modern tastes
b. the scribes were unfamiliar with the music
c. the songs were transmitted orally and later written down
d. the troubadours and trouvères could not read or write music
e. the troubadours and trouvères were not concerned about creating a single authoritative version of the song

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   74–75

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The theme of fin’ amors in trouvère songs concerns the topic of
a. the adoration of Mary
b. couples who cheat on each other
c. love of fine food and wine
d. respectful love toward an unattainable noble woman
e. sexually explicit love between peasants

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   75

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song | Poetry                          MSC:  Applied

 

  1. All of the following statements are true of troubadour and trouvère melodies except
a. the declamation is usually melismatic
b. the melodic range tends to be narrow
c. melodies move mostly by seconds and thirds
d. phrases are usually arch-shaped
e. they can often be analyzed according the Church modes

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   76

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song | Melodies                                MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Pastoral songs take place in what kind of setting?
a. a church or monastery d. a rural setting
b. a city street e. a tavern
c. a court castle  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Adam de la Halle composed which piece?
a. A chantar d. Jeu de Robin et de Marion
b. Cantigas de Santa Maria e. Le Manuscrit du roi
c. Chanson de Rolande  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Adam de la Halle’s Robins m’aime is in
a. bar form d. strophic form
b. cantiga form e. versus form
c. rondeau form  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. After the Norman Conquest, this language was used by the nobility in England.
a. English d. Latin
b. French e. Norse
c. German  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   79                  TOP:   English Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Walther von der Vogelweide was a famous
a. Crusader d. music theorist
b. Holy Roman Emperor e. troubadour
c. Minnesinger  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Stollen and Abgesang are parts of a song in
a. antiphonal form d. refrain form
b. bar form e. strophic form
c. conductus form  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Walther von der Vogelweide’s Palästinalied is a song about
a. Charlemagne d. penitence
b. the Crusades e. the rise of Islam
c. fin’amors  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   79                  TOP:   Minnesinger

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most laude originated in
a. the French countryside d. Italian monasteries
b. German courts e. Spanish cities
c. Italian cities  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   80                  TOP:   Laude

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What kind of a song is this text from?

O que a Santa María mais despraz,

é de quen ao séu Fillo pesar faz.

 

E daquest’ un gran miragre, vos quér’ éu óra contar,

que a Reínna do Céo, quis en Toledo mostrar

eno día que a Déus foi corõar,

na sa fésta que no mes d’ Agosto jaz.

 

O que a Santa María mais despraz.

é de quen ao séu Fillo pesar faz.

a. cantiga d. Minnelied
b. carole e. troubadour song
c. laude  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   80                  TOP:   Cantigas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which form best represents the musical/poetic structure of a cantiga?
a. AAB d. AB AB AB
b. AA BB CC e. A bba A
c. AB aab AB  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   77 | 80            TOP:   Cantigas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a shawm?
a. a brass instrument without values that can play only the partial series
b. a double-reed instrument similar to an oboe
c. a fiddle-like bowed string instrument
d. a small drum
e. a string instrument that sounds a drone by cranking a wheel

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   81                  TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which best describes a carole?
a. a French instrumental dance d. an Italian penitential song
b. a French love song e. a Latin Christmas song
c. a French satirical song  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   82                  TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of medieval dance?
a. cantiga d. estampie
b. conductus e. Stollen
c. contrafactum  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   82–83            TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The Arab world significantly influenced the development of European culture in the Middle Ages.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   67–68            TOP:   European Society, 800–1300

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Holy Roman Empire ca. 800 included most of modern-day France and Germany.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   68–69            TOP:   European Society, 800–1300

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Secular music could have a Latin text.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   70                  TOP:   Latin and Vernacular Songs

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jongleurs were itinerant musicians who came from middle and upper social classes.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   71

TOP:   Minstrels and Other Professional Musicians                              MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Troubadour songs are in the langue d’oc.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   73

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Troubadours are men and trouvères are women.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   73–74

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The original notation of medieval secular song clearly indicates the rhythmic duration of pitches.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   77

TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song | Melodies                                MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Vernacular songs could be about religious (sacred) subjects.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   80                  TOP:   Laude| Cantigas

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Instrumental dance tunes were likely performed with improvised accompaniments.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   82                  TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The songs of Adam de la Halle were rediscovered in the 1900s.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   83                  TOP:   The Lover’s Complaint

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the social structure of medieval France.

 

ANS:

Society was divided into three estates. The nobles and warriors were in the highest, wealthiest class. The clergy (priests, monks, and nuns), whose job was to pray, were in the middle. The peasants, who farmed the land that the nobles owned, and everyone else who served the nobles, like craftsmen and butchers, were at the bottom of the social hierarchy.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   69                  TOP:   European Society, 800–1300

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is meant by a text that is in a “vernacular”?

 

ANS:

It means a text that is in the local language, not Latin. Spanish, German, Old French, and langue d’oc are all examples of vernacular languages.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   71                  TOP:   Vernacular Song

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What was a guild? What was its purpose?

 

ANS:

Guilds were organizations of professional artisans, craftspeople, or tradespeople. They served to protect the quality of the art or workmanship. They created rules for employment and competition, and created a system of apprenticeships to train the younger generation. They were similar to today’s labor unions.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   71–73            TOP:   Minstrels and Other Professional Musicians

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is a chansonnier?

 

ANS:

A chansonnier is an anthology of songs.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   74                  TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Describe the process called contrafactum. Can you think of an example of this process being used nowadays?

 

ANS:

A contrafactum is when you substitute new words to an existing melody. There are lots of examples of this in television commercials, where a well-known pop song is outfitted with new words to sell the product. [examples may vary]

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   74                  TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How did the music of the troubadours, centered in southern France, spread to other regions of Europe?

 

ANS:

One way was through the travels of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who patronized Bernart de Ventadorn. Her power spread to northern France and England through marriage and Bernart travelled with her. Later the Albigensian Crusade caused the centers of power in southern France to collapse and the troubadours dispersed, spreading their influence.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   74 | 78           TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song| Dissemination

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is meant by a “musical rhyme”?

 

ANS:

A musical rhyme is when two different sections of music end with the same musical phrase.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   77                  TOP:   Troubadour and Trouvère Song | Melodies

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Who was the first vernacular poet-composer whose complete works were collected in a manuscript?

 

ANS:

Adam de la Halle

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   78                  TOP:   Musical Plays

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Who was King Alfonso el Sabio (the Wise) and why is he important for the history of music?

 

ANS:

King Alfonso ruled the regions of northwestern Spain in the late 1200s. Under his supervision the manuscripts of the Cantigas de Santa Maria were prepared. He may have written some of the music and texts.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   80                  TOP:   Cantigas         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What are open (ouvert) and closed (clos) endings and in what context are they used?

 

ANS:

Open endings are incomplete cadences at the end of phrases. Closed endings are full cadences. They are used in estampies. These have several sections, each of which is repeated, first with an open ending and then with a closed ending.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   82–83            TOP:   Dance Music

MSC:  Applied

 

MATCHING

 

Match each instrument to the correct name below.

a. d.
b. e.
c.  

 

 

  1. harp

 

  1. hurdy-gurdy

 

  1. portative organ

 

  1. psaltery

 

  1. vielle

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

Match each type of song to the language in which it is written.

a. cantiga d. troubadour song
b. laude e. versus
c. Minnelied  

 

 

  1. Galician-Portuguese

 

  1. German

 

  1. Italian

 

  1. langue d’oïl

 

  1. Latin

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the rise of professional musicians in the period ca. 1000–1300.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Modern performances of secular song from ca. 1000 to 1300 can vary widely. Why is this so? What historical information can performers use to inform their choices?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

CHAPTER 13: New Styles in the Seventeenth Century

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The term baroque was first applied to art and music by
a. critics in the early 1600s who preferred the new style
b. critics in the mid-1700s who disliked the style
c. composers in the 1600s who created new genres and styles
d. patrons who supported seventeenth-century composers
e. musicians and actors who performed avant-garde works

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292        TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How did Baroque artists, poets, and musicians evoke theatricality in their works?
a. by following Greek models and forms in sculpture, poetry, and music
b. by using contrasts and motion to arouse feelings
c. by stressing balance, proportion, straight lines and columns
d. by emphasizing stillness, contemplation, and extended moments with few changes
e. by including audience members and viewers in the entertainment in a convivial and conversational manner

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   292–295        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. You find a music manuscript that sets a poem’s vivid words with unprepared dissonances.  Who is a probable composer?
a. Giovanni Maria Artusi d. Claudio Monteverdi
b. Giulio Caccini e. Gioseffo Zarlino
c. René Descartes  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–300        TOP:   The Second Practice

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The practice of basso continuo reflects what trend that occurred around 1600?
a. a preference for polyphony
b. composers’ interest in theatricality and dramatic expression
c. increased word painting
d. increased dissonance and chromaticism
e. increased emphasis on the melody and bass lines

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300–301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

The excerpt above shows an early form of

a. music written specifically for harpsichord
b. a concerto
c. ground bass
d. figured bass
e. tablature

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Figured bass           MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The primary purpose of the basso continuo part is to
a. illustrate the text d. foster cadenzas
b. control dissonances e. emphasize the meter
c. accompany  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which of the following was not a common continuo instrument during the 1600s?
a. harpsichord d. piano
b. lute e. theorbo
c. organ  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which of the following does not follow concertato medium or concertato style?
a. one or two voices, plus harpsichord and organ
b. multiple voices and multiple instruments
c. multiple voices, plus harpsichord or lute with viola da gamba
d. multiple voices in a sacred vocal work with organ
e. solo harpsichord

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   301

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Concertato   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How did changes in instrumentation affect tuning and performance practice during the 1600s?
a. chromaticism was viewed as detrimental to ensemble tuning and was used less often for expressive purposes
b. performers no longer needed to compromise; all could employ just intonation
c. increased reliance on fretted instruments prompted a move to mean-tone temperament
d. increased reliance on harpsichord and organ caused mean-tone temperament to predominate
e. dissonances became more obvious, causing composers and performers to avoid them in vocal and instrumental compositions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. During the Baroque era, chromaticism was used to
a. express intense emotion in vocal works and suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
b. express indecisiveness in vocal works and suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
c. express intense emotion in vocal works, suggest harmonic exploration in instrumental works, and create distinctive subjects in contrapuntal ones
d. express sensuality in vocal works and return to harmonic stability in instrumental works; it was avoided in contrapuntal ones
e. express sensuality in vocal works, return to harmonic stability in instrumental works, and create distinctive subjects in contrapuntal ones

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   302–303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Chromaticism

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In music, the word idiomatic refers to
a. an instrument that you shake or strike
b. music composed for dancing
c. a type of ornamentation
d. music composed for a specific instrument or instrument family
e. nationalistic or regional styles

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Idiomatic     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The prevalence of dance rhythms in Baroque music fostered the use of
a. barlines in scores d. the violin family
b. basso continuo e. the harpsichord
c. ornamentation  

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Regular and Flexible Rhythm

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Composers in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries would describe their works as
a. diatonic and tonal
b. operating within the tonal system, although to modern listeners they sound modal
c. operating within the modal system, although to modern listeners they sound tonal
d. using major or minor keys
e. using the traditional eight church modes, not Glareanus’s system of twelve modes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   306                TOP:   Modal to Tonal

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. By the end of the 1600s, which country was the dominant political and artistic power in Europe?
a. Spain d. Italy
b. England e. France
c. Germany  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   291

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Factual

 

  1. The illustration below shows how Baroque architecture often used ________, similar to that found in music.
a. straight lines d. columns
b. intricate embellishments e. homogeneous forms
c. multi-tiered structures  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   292

TOP:   The Baroque as  Term and Period  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In music, the Baroque period lasted from approximately
a. 1550–1650 d. 1650–1750
b. 1600–1700 e. 1650–1775
c. 1600–1750  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   292

TOP:   The Baroque as  Term and Period  MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The bottom two staves of the following example are
a. cello, viola, and violin lines d. the basso continuo part
b. the harpsichord part e. the basso ostinato
c. the ground bass  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   300–304

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The top line of the following excerpt is the original melody.  It and the line immediately below it show what?
a. the composer’s rough draft and the fully notated score
b. how some performers added extended embellishments
c. the principal violin part
d. how to turn this song into a duet
e. how to create a vocal exercise based on this melody

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300–304

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. By the end of the Baroque period, counterpoint became
a. more complex d. more reliant on augmentation
b. less harmonically driven e. less reliant on augmentation
c. more harmonically driven  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Harmonically driven counterpoint

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following did not contribute to the evolution of tonality?
a. standard cadential progressions
b. bass movement by fourth or by fifth
c. long-standing and consistent use of certain musical techniques
d. use of suspensions to create forward momentum
e. sudden rejection of past musical practices

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   306

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. This is an early Baroque composition that sparked controversy.
a. The Passions of the Soul d. Cruda Amarilli
b. The Five Senses e. Sweet Amaryllis
c. Treatise on Harmony  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–299        TOP:   Second Practice

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Early Baroque composers’ emphasis on drama and theatricality led to more of this type of performer.
a. child d. eccentric
b. professional e. loud
c. amateur  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   295–296        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. “The invidious enemy, Love, circles

The fortress of my heart.

Hurry up, for he is not far away.

Arm yourselves!”

 

The excerpt above reflects how Baroque poets

a. did not use rhyme
b. preferred short lines
c. focused on military subjects
d. used words to suggest action or a theatrical performance
e. preferred imperatives

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   293–294

TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque| The Dramatization of Poetry      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The following excerpts show

A

B

 

a. two contrasting renderings of a continuo part
b. the first edition vs. the second edition of a piece
c. the use of smaller note heads for the accompaniment
d. the keyboard vs. the lute version of a piece
e. the organ vs. the harpsichord version of a piece

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Basso Continuo

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ________ helped stimulate music publications, opera houses, and public concerts.
a. Colonization d. The Thirty Years’ War
b. Capitalism e. Scientists
c. The Counter-Reformation  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   291

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Conceptual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The term Baroque was used by people living in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to describe the period in which they lived.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292        TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The term Baroque was originally a compliment.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   292                TOP:   Baroque as term and period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. During the 1600s, rulers, cities, and aristocratic families supported music and the arts often as a way of competing for prestige.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   290

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century           MSC:              Factual

 

  1. Composers of instrumental music in the 1600s sought to portray their personal feelings rather than general emotional states.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   296                TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. During the early Baroque era, many people believed experiencing a range of emotions through music could improve one’s physical and psychological health.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   296                TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The dominant texture in early Baroque music is polyphony.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   300

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Performers who realized the figured bass could improvise and vary the piece according to personal taste and ability.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   301–302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music                                 MSC:   Factual

 

  1. During the Baroque, the musical score was regarded as an outline that could be adapted, added to, or altered.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303–305

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Ornamentation and Alteration

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Rhythms during the Baroque became increasingly free and flexible and therefore pieces did not require barlines.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music |  Regular and Flexible Rhythms

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Musicians working in the early 1600s knew they were creating music in new ways.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   288

TOP:   New Styles in the Seventeenth Century                           MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Although the term ________ originally meant abnormal, bizarre, and exaggerated, it now has a more positive meaning.

 

ANS:

Baroque

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   288 | 292       TOP:   The Baroque as Term and Period

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The ________ relied on mathematics, observation, practical experiments, and perceived effects, rather than on tradition and received wisdom.

 

ANS:

Scientific Revolution

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   289–290

TOP:   Europe in the Seventeenth Century | The scientific revolution

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the early 1600s, new styles in art, architecture, and music began in which country?

 

ANS:

Italy

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   292                TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The two statues below reflect the shift in artistic values from the ________ era to the ________.   How does the one on the right reflect emerging values?

 

 

ANS:

Renaissance/Baroque

It depicts motion and change; it suggests dramatic action and evokes an emotional response.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   292–293        TOP:   The Dramatic Baroque

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Baroque era initiated many musical developments that endure today.  Name and describe at least three of these.

 

ANS:

[Answers will vary.] The development of opera, concerto, oratorio, cantata, solo sonata, fugue; first public concerts; development of professional performers and more passive listeners; development of the orchestra; transition to tonal system; emphasis on melody; idiomatic writing; rule-breaking as an expressive device.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   287 | 295 | 299 | 302–306

TOP:   The Seventeenth Century, The Dramatic Baroque, and Enduring Conventions

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to René Descartes and other seventeenth-century thinkers, the ________ were relatively stable states of the soul.  Another more modern term for these states is ________.

 

ANS:

affections/emotions or passions

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   296–297        TOP:   The Affections

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The soprano line in this excerpt creates two ________ with the bass part.

 

ANS:

unprepared dissonances

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   297–298        TOP:   Second Practice

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The basso continuo gradually caused composers and theorists to think of consonant sounds as ________ rather than as a set of intervals over the bass.

 

ANS:

chords or triads

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   302

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Chords and dissonances

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Baroque composers often juxtaposed or paired very ________ rhythms with very ________ ones.  Recitative and aria pairs and fugues preceded by toccatas reflect this practice.

 

ANS:

free, flexible, or fluid/metric; regular, or strictly metered

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Regular and Flexible Rhythms

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Baroque musicians used ________ as a means of moving the emotions. Examples include trills, appoggiaturas, and mordents.

 

ANS:

ornamentation or ornaments

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   303

TOP:   General Characteristics of Baroque Music | Ornamentation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. basso continuo or thoroughbass d. seconda pratica or second practice
b. concertato medium or style e. theorbo
c. prima pratica or first practice  

 

 

  1. a large lute with extra bass strings

 

  1. a style of polyphony

 

  1. from the Italian “to reach agreement,” combining instruments and voices

 

  1. broke voice-leading rules to express the text

 

  1. melody and bass line are notated; inner parts are not

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. cadenza d. realization
b. figured bass e. tonality
c. division or figuration  

 

 

  1. playing the basso continuo part

 

  1. an extended embellishment

 

  1. decorating an important cadence

 

  1. harmonic system that uses major and minor keys

 

  1. composers add flat or sharp signs or numbers over the staff

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the dispute between Artusi and Monteverdi concerning the new style of music. What does Artusi object to about the new style and why? How does Monteverdi defend himself against Artusi’s attack? What is the primary difference between the first practice (prima pratica) and the second practice (seconda pratica), according to Monteverdi?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. There are varying opinions on how seventeenth- and eighteenth-century music should be performed. Why is this?  What kinds of evidence and what arguments do scholars use when discussing this topic?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

CHAPTER 21: Opera and Vocal Music in the Early Classic Period

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. If you were to attend a dramatic performance at a public theatre in the early 1700s that was sung throughout, had six or more singing characters, and had a contemporary plot centered around ordinary people, it would be an
a. improvisation in commedia dell’arte style
b. opera seria
c. opera rusticana
d. opera buffa
e. intermezzo

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. This example appears to be
a. a recitative from an opera buffa d. a chorus from an opera seria
b. an aria from an opera buffa e. an ensemble from an intermezzo
c. an ensemble from an opera seria  

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   478–479        TOP:   Opera Buffa | Aria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ____________ is one of the most famous and successful intermezzi.
a. The Beggar’s Opera d. Orfeo ed Euridice
b. Cleofide e. La serva padrona
c. Le devin du village  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   480                TOP:   Intermezzo

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which aspect of intermezzi differs from opere serie?
a. the action progressed through alternating recitatives and arias
b. they were performed exclusively at court theaters
c. they employed spoken dialogue and familiar tunes
d. they often had heroic characters and plots that reinforced social hierarchies
e. they often parodied heroic characters and questioned social hierarchies

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   480 | 482–483

TOP:   Intermezzo and Opera Seria           MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In La serva padrona, why does Pergolesi use orchestrally accompanied recitative while Uberto debates whether to marry Serpina?
a. using a convention normally reserved for high drama increases the comic effect
b. it avoids contrasting elements and shows the character’s genuine anguish
c. it suggests Uberto’s somber and pensive self-examination
d. it allows for increased development of a single motive throughout the aria that follows
e. it allows Pergolesi to avoid writing an extended da capo aria

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   481                TOP:   Intermezzo

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In a comic opera in the late 1700s, an act would most likely end with
a. a moral to the story sung by the main character
b. a sung thank-you to the audience for attending
c. an elegant aria sung by the lead female character
d. all characters onstage, singing together
e. a love duet between the leading characters

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   482                TOP:   Later Comic Opera

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of Italian comic opera in the mid-1700s?
a. periodic phrasing
b. tuneful melodies
c. sparse accompaniment, often with continuo
d. complex harmonies
e. stylistic contrasts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   482                TOP:   Later Comic Opera

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In an opera seria, action progresses through
a. arias and duets
b. choruses that comment upon the drama
c. orchestral interludes
d. large ensembles that include all the characters
e. recitative, either simple or accompanied

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   483                TOP:   Opera Seria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The musical example shown here demonstrates that
a. Hasse wrote the ornamentation that he wanted singers to use
b. Hasse used unsteady rhythms in the bass to highlight the melody
c. Hasse wrote violin and flute parts that embellish the melody
d. Hasse preferred that each phrase have a distinctive opening motive
e. Hasse wrote elegant melodies that allow singers to add a variety of ornaments

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   484 | 486–487

TOP:   The Aria         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why did Jean-Jacques Rousseau praise Italian composers’ emphasis on melody?
a. he chose to write his operas in the Italian style and wanted his compositions to receive positive reviews from critics
b. he thought that layering melodies (counterpoint) was truer to nature because it expressed multiple ideas and emotions
c. he believed that melody aroused sentiments in the soul
d. he felt that captivating melodies provided the best foundation for complex accompaniments
e. he believed that the Italian tradition’s equal emphasis on melody and harmony allowed for greater text expression

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   485

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France | The Merits of Italian Opera

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Beginning in the 1720s and 1730s, composers of Italian operas began to use contrasting musical ideas within A and B sections of arias to
a. surprise audiences d. express a succession of moods
b. depict waning emotions e. keep performers satisfied
c. construct through-composed arias  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   481 | 483

TOP:   Intermezzo and Opera Seria | The Aria                            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why were serious plots more common in the opéra comique in France in the later part of the eighteenth century?
a. they were in vogue with the aristocracy, and became important at the Théâtre de l’Opéra Comique in Paris
b. audiences tired of Italian and English comic operas
c. they touched on social issues that arose during the years before and during the French Revolution
d. serious operas were less likely to be freshly composed, and contained well-known arias
e. in serious opera, the ariettes offered more opportunity for Italianate ornamentation, which had grown popular in France

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   488

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. If you were to hear an aria from a ballad opera, it probably would
a. use da capo form
b. use a familiar tune from a folk or popular song
c. contain mostly original, through-composed music
d. have sections sung in other languages
e. use speechlike vocal lines

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   488

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | England                                          MSC:   Applied

 

  1. What is one reason that Singspiel became an important genre in Germany?
a. it was a vehicle for singers to perform ornamentation and other vocal pyrotechnics
b. composers adapted imported elements, recitatives for dialogue in particular
c. it was unfamiliar and new, which created new audiences for the genre
d. German playwrights translated and adapted English Ballad operas into German
e. it achieved great renown in musical circles and was played by professional musicians in concerts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   489–490

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | Germany and Austria           MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of reform opera?
a. composers sought to make it more “natural” with more varied structures and less ornamentation
b. composers alternated recitative and arias more flexibly to move action forward more quickly and realistically
c. composers used accompanied recitative and ensembles less frequently
d. composers made the orchestra more important, particularly for depicting scenes and evoking moods
e. composers reinstated the use of chorus

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   491                TOP:   Opera Reform

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Gluck supervised the production of his operas and wanted singers, both soloists and the chorus, to
a. move more realistically and think of themselves as actors
b. draw attention to the text by standing still while singing
c. express the text through colorful and extensive ornamentation
d. draw attention to the orchestral material through coordinated gestures
e. display the agility of their voices

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   492                TOP:   Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The preface to the score of ____________explains the goals of operatic reformers in the mid-1700s.
a. Orfeo ed Euridice d. Alceste
b. Iphigénie en Tauride e. Armide
c. Iphigénie en Aulide  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   493

TOP:   Source Reading | Principles of Reform Opera                 MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Composers published many songs for home performance in different countries, reflecting the
a. rise of professional pianists
b. increased use of guitar for accompaniment
c. change in quality and quantity of professional performers who sang at people’s homes
d. growing presence of composers who were unable or unwilling to write opera or large- scale church works
e. growing interest in amateur music-making

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of German Lieder in the 1700s?
a. opportunity for virtuosic display
b. strophic, lyric poetry
c. melodies that were easy, even for untrained singers
d. accompaniment that was subordinate to vocal line
e. composition style that aimed to please the performer and the listener

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Songs of the late eighteenth century are infrequently performed today, yet they embody the ideals of the Enlightenment because they
a. feature clear, direct melodies
b. frequently use word-painting
c. express feelings indirectly
d. match the accents and moods of each stanza of the text
e. feature difficult and virtuosic accompaniments

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   490 | 494        TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. ____________ church musicians employed the musical idioms of opera, such as orchestral accompaniments, da capo arias, accompanied recitatives, and choruses, to express the text and inspire listeners in worship services.
a. Pietist d. Methodist
b. Anglican e. Mennonite
c. Catholic  

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Stabat Mater by ____________ became one of the most popular and frequently printed musical works of the century.
a. J. S. Bach d. G. B. Pergolesi
b. C. H. Graun e. Leonardo Vinci
c. C. W. Gluck  

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Congregations in New England were encouraged to read music, which led to the development of
a. singing schools
b. music classes in public schools
c. private piano lessons
d. church choir directors who taught their choirs to read music
e. books that let people teach themselves musical notation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most of William Billings’s compositions were “plain tunes,” but later collections included ____________, pieces that open with a syllabic and homophonic section, feature a passage in free imitation, and close with voices again in homophony.
a. fancy tunes d. anthems
b. psalm-singer tunes e. fuging tunes
c. continental harmonies  

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. William Billings declared independence from normal rules of counterpoint, and wrote that he had devised a better set of rules. He often used
a. parallel octaves and fifths and open chords without thirds
b. chromaticism
c. dissonances that were resolved unconventionally
d. tritones and other problematic intervals
e. unusual rhythms, including syncopations

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Opera buffa both entertained and served a moral purpose by poking fun at human foibles.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Arias in comic Italian operas typically have long, difficult phrases with little repetition, and are accompanied by complex orchestration.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   478                TOP:   Opera Buffa

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opera seria plots often focus on human conflicts resolved by heroic deeds.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   482–483        TOP:   Opera Seria

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the late 1700s, composers of Italian opera wrote arias that expressed a succession of moods, were dominated by melody, and combined short units to create longer phrases.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   483                TOP:   Opera Seria | The Aria

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most vehement voices arguing against including Italian opera elements in French opera.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   485

TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opera reformers in Italy stressed the predominance of the music and the talents of the solo singers.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   491                TOP:   Opera Reform

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In France, solo songs such as the romance were simple, strophic, only lightly ornamented, and set sentimental texts.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   494                TOP:   Song

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Few Italian composers wrote both opera and church music.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   495                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Metrical psalm-singing was one of the central musical elements in Calvinist worship in New England.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The Moravians imported current musical styles from Europe and used a variety of instruments in their church services.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   497                TOP:   Church Music | Moravians

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. The accompaniment and the vocal line of this example open with two-measure phrases that form a(n) ________________________ pair.

 

ANS:

antecedent-consequent

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   478–479        TOP:   Opera Buffa | Aria

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. By the mid-1700s, melodies in vocal works tended to use ________________________ -measure phrases.

 

ANS:

two to four

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   478 | 483       TOP:   Aria                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The opera libretti written by ________________________ were set hundreds of times by leading composers.

 

ANS:

Pietro Metastasio

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   482                TOP:   Opera Seria    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The focus of the audience’s attention in an opera seria was on ____________________________ such as Faustina Bordoni, rather than the composer, the story, or the scenery.

 

ANS:

star singers

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   486                TOP:   Faustina Bordoni and the Art of Embellishment

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Opéra comique and ballad opera use ____________________________ rather than recitative.

 

ANS:

spoken dialogue

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   488                TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France and England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. ________________________ began around 1710 as popular entertainment comprised of vaudevilles, but developed throughout the century to have newly-composed ariettes.

 

ANS:

Opéra comique

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   487–488        TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | France and England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. One of the most successful and famous ballad operas is ____________________________.

 

ANS:

The Beggar’s Opera

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   489                TOP:   Opera in Other Languages | England

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Composers of reform operas, such as Jommelli, Traetta and Gluck, brought together the operatic traditions of what two countries?

 

ANS:

France and Italy

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   491–492        TOP:   Opera Reform | Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Gluck believed that the ________________________ should “apprise the spectators of the nature of the action that is to be represented.”

 

ANS:

overture

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   492–493        TOP:   Opera Reform | Christoph Willibald Gluck

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. William Billings’s ____________________________ was the first published collection of music composed entirely in North America and the first music book published in North America by a single composer.

 

ANS:

New England Psalm-Singer

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   496                TOP:   Church Music

MSC:  Factual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. querelle des bouffons d. fuging tunes
b. Lied e. Singspiel
c. ballad opera  

 

 

  1. a song that sets lyric poetry; originally intended for home performance

 

  1. a work with spoken dialogue and musical numbers; usually has a comic plot

 

  1. opens with a syllabic and homophonic section, then features a passage in free imitation, then returns to another homophonic section

 

  1. a written disagreement over the merits of Italian comic opera

 

  1. includes spoken dialogue and songs, many of which feature new words set to well-known tunes

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

Match each item to the correct description below.

a. opera seria d. The Bay Psalm Book
b. opéra comique e. intermezzo
c. opera buffa  

 

 

  1. a full-length comic work that employed recitative

 

  1. the first book to be published in North America

 

  1. performed in two to three segments between the acts of a serious opera or play

 

  1. a full-length dramatic work without comic scenes or characters

 

  1. a French form of opera

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss reform opera. What did reformers seek to change and why? How did Gluck do so in his compositions and what was the effect on later composers?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Compare and contrast opera buffa and opera seria. How do they differ? How are they similar? Address plots, types of characters, and the music they contain.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

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