A History Of Psychology Ideas and Context 4th Edition by King – Test Bank



A History Of Psychology Ideas and Context 4th Edition by King – Test Bank

Chapter 5
The Renaissance
1. The term Renaissance means
a. stagnation.
* b. the rebirth.
c. a middle period.
d. discovery.
[p. 95]
2. According to the text, the Renaissance covers a period of time that includes
* a. the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries.
b. the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries.
c. the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
d. the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
[p. 94]
3. As the plague swept Europe, were often blamed and persecuted as scapegoats.
* a. Jews
b. Muslims
c. Christians
d. racial minorities
[p. 96]
4. The plague contributed to doubts about the adequacy of authorities and institutions because
* a. institutions were powerless to protect people from the plague.
b. authorities were relatively untouched by the plague.
c. only those who devoutly followed the directives of authorities remained safe.
d. all of the above.
[p. 97]
5. All of the following were true of the Renaissance period EXCEPT
a. expansion of geographic boundaries
* b. tremendous improvement in the social status of women
c. rediscovery of the Greek classics
d. growth of empirical studies
[pp. 97-103]
6. The key figure in the initiation of the Reformation was
a. Leonardo da Vinci.
b. Michael Servetus.
* c. Martin Luther.
d. Andreas Vesalius.
[p. 98]
7. Which of the following, best captures the conclusion in the text regarding the effects of the Reformation on the
development of science?
a. Science gained nothing from the Reformation, the Protestants were as intoxicated on authority as the
b. Science gained much because the Protestant dogma of the individual priesthood of the believer was
consistent with the spirit of empiricism which was to investigate for oneself.
* c. The role of the Reformation in Renaissance science remains subject to interpretation.
d. Science was fueled by the Reformation. It was the key factor in the development of modern science.
[p. 99]
Test Bank
8. Mathematics during the Renaissance
a. was largely derivative from other periods and thus unimaginative.
b. was regarded as relatively unimportant.
c. was almost nonexistent.
* d. was original and distinctive and a subject of great interest.
[pp. 99]
9. Development of the geocentric cosmology is attributed to , while the development of the
heliocentric cosmology is attributed to .
a. Ptolemy . . . Luther
b. Copernicus . . . Kepler
c. Kepler . . . Galileo
* d. Ptolemy . . . Copernicus.
[p 100]
10. was the Polish astronomer often regarded as the founder of heliocentric theory and the author of On
the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres.
* a. Nicolaus Copernicus
b. Johannes Kepler
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Leonardo da Vinci
[p. 100]
11. was the German astronomer and mathematician who added to heliocentric theory with his discovery
that the planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun.
a. Nicolaus Copernicus
* b. Johannes Kepler
c. Galileo Galilei
d. Petrarch
[p. 101]
12. was the astronomer who was the first to systematically employ the telescope in the study of
astronomy. With the telescope he discovered imperfections on the moon, rings of Saturn, moons of Jupiter,
and sunspots.
a. Nicolaus Copernicus
b. Johannes Kepler
* c. Galileo Galilei
d. Leonardo da Vinci
[p. 101]
13. Astronomers’ challenges of geocentric cosmology helped introduce empirical knowledge into a culture whose
primary source of knowledge was
* a. authority.
b. reason.
c. science.
d. aesthetics.
[p. 103]
14. found Medieval scholasticism to be limited and brought forward Greek and Roman concerns with
the immediate quality of this life.
a. Leonardo da Vinci
* b. Francesco Petrarch
c. Juan Luis Vives
d. Julius Caesar Scaliger
[p. 103]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
15. was one of the first to emphasize a purely descriptive and objective social science that rejected
moralistic approaches to human behavior.
a. Leonardo da Vinci
* b. Niccolo Machiavelli
c. Juan Luis Vives
d. Julius Caesar Scaliger
[pp. 103-105]
16. One could reasonably argue, that in terms of methods employed and problems investigated, _____ is the true
originator of modern psychology.
* a. Juan Luis Vives
b. Paracelsus
c. Martin Luther
d. Andreas Vesalius
[p. 105]
17. was deeply interested in the functions and workings of memory; he also investigated such topics as
association and forgetting.
a. Francesco Petrarch
* b. Juan Luis Vives
c. Girolamo Savanarola
d. Paracelsus
[pp. 106-107]
18. gained a place in the history of psychology predominantly due to his contributions to knowledge of the
senses, particularly the anatomical, physiological, physical, geometrical, and psychological properties of
a. Paracelsus
* b. Leonardo da Vinci
c. Juan Luis Vives
d. Julius Caesar Scaliger
[p. 108]
19. made his greatest contributions in medicine and the application of chemistry to medicine, but he also
argued against demonology and for harmony with nature.
* a. Paracelsus
b. Leonardo da Vinci
c. Juan Luis Vives
d. Julius Caesar Scaliger
[p. 109]
20. The expression Renaissance Person is used to describe
a. any person who has had a religious or political rebirth.
b. any person who displays old fashioned attitudes.
* c. a versatile person with knowledge in many areas.
d. a thinker with a narrow perspective.
[p. 109]
21. believed that muscles play a key role in the support of habit, a position compatible with twentieth
century behavioral psychologies.
a. Paracelsus
b. Leonardo da Vinci
c. Juan Luis Vives
* d. Julius Caesar Scaliger
[p. 110]
Test Bank
22. The expression Renaissance Humanism refers to
a. the denial that God plays any role at all in the world.
* b. new interest in human anatomy, human problems, secular music, etc.
c. the denial of the existence of God.
d. agnosticism.
[p. 110]
23. The founder of modern skepticism was
* a. Montaigne.
b. Descartes.
c. Bacon.
d. Hobbes.
[p. 110]
24. The original human malady according to Montaigne is
a. original sin or the obsession with sexuality.
b. original sin interpreted as the quest for knowledge .
c. timidity.
* d. presumption, arrogance, or unjustified vanity.
[p. 111]
25. When comparing humans and animals, Montaigne argued that
a. humans are intellectually, but not morally superior to animals.
b. humans are intellectually and morally superior to animals.
c. humans are superior to animals in all ways.
* d. there are no grounds for our claims that we are superior to the animals.
[p. 111]
26. Which of the following is true of the claims of the text regarding Montaigne’s influence?
* a. his influence pervaded three centuries and four continents and he had extensive influence on subsequent
b. he had almost no influence during his life, but 100 years after his death his works were rediscovered
c. He was influential in Protestant but not Catholic countries
d. He was influential during his life, but his ideas quickly lost favor after he died
[p. 113]
27. Oliva Sabuco, a Renaissance Spanish scholar and apparent author of New Philosophy on the Nature of Man,
emphasized the importance of
a. unconscious processes.
* b. equilibrium or balance as a key to health.
c. challenging authority.
d. history as a theory of progress.
[p. 113]
28. This Renaissance scholar was one of the first to write on individual differences, aptitude and temperament. He
a. Thomas Aquinas.
b. Paracelsus.
* c. Juan Huarte.
d. Machiavelli.
[p. 114]

Chapter 7
1. The term rationalism was derived from the Latin which means to
a. ration …. conserve.
* b. ratio …. reason or think.
c. ratus …. to define.
d. rapidus …. to snatch.
[p. 143]
2. Rationalism is to empiricism as is to .
* a. deduction …. induction
b. induction …. deduction
c. a posteriori knowledge …. a priori knowledge
d. passive mind …. active mind
[pp. 143-144]
3. Descartes’ philosophy of science was motivated partly by
* a. his wish to challenge the skepticism of Montaigne.
b. his wish to repudiate every detail of Baconian empiricism.
c. his love of the inductive method and the hope it offered to the world.
d. his wish to expose the absurdities of belief in a priori knowledge.
[pp. 145-146]
4. Descartes’ method was modeled after that of the
a. Greek philosopher Aristotle.
b. Greek philosopher Socrates.
c. Galen, the Roman physician.
* d. the work of mathematicians.
[p. 146]
5. The most important building block in the Cartesian method is
* a. the discovery of clear and distinct ideas or ideas that are immune to doubt.
b. to throw out theories and begin with the facts.
c. to place experimental results always in highest priority.
d. to state all conclusions in terms of probabilities.
[p. 146]
6. Descartes reject the results of experiments that ran counter to common-sense.
* a. was quick to
b. would almost never
c. was slow to
d. simply did not
[p. 147]
7. argued against the metaphysical basis of demonology and thus figured in humanitarian reform in the
treatment of the mentally ill.
a. Immanuel Kant
b. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
* c. Benedict Spinoza
d. René Descartes
[p. 149]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
8. Spinoza argued for a mind-brain position know as
a. idealism.
b. materialism.
* c. double-aspect monism.
d. psychophysical parallelism.
[p. 149]
9. If we develop a hatred for something that was once loved, our hatred may be greater than if we had never loved
the thing in the first place. Spinoza argued that the greater hatred in such cases is fueled by
a. the selfish nature of the original love.
b. jealousy that the loved object might someday be possessed by another.
* c. sorrow over the loss of love.
d. clear-cut psychopathology
[p. 150]
10. The term monad from (monas) was probably adopted by Leibniz from Lady Anne Conway and F. M. Von
Helmont. The term refers to
* a. a principle of existence.
b. the identity of mind and brain.
c. a principle of beauty.
d. an ideal mental state.
[p. 151]
11. The mental realm is always parallel with the physical (neurophysiological) realm. Leibniz explained the perfect
correspondence of the two realms in terms
a. of their perfect coordination in the pineal gland.
* b. of the creation of the universe such that there is a pre-established harmony of its individual parts.
c. of the harmony of the spheres.
d. of the idea that the mental realm is an epiphenomenon and thus not truly independent.
[p. 151]
12. Many petite perceptions or “small perceptions” in concert form the basis of perception. Thus, the sound of the
waterfall consists of thousands of drops of water in concert. The idea of petites perceptions suggests the
importance of unconscious processes. This idea was advanced by
a. Benedict Spinoza.
* b. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
c. Christian von Wolff.
d. Johann Friedrich Herbart.
[p. 152]
13. “Nature never takes leaps.” This view that change follows a gradual and incremental developmental course led
to a deemphasis on miracles. All change, from the healing of a broken bone, to the learning of a new skill
follows lawful developmental patterns. This view, advocated by Leibniz, came to be known as
* a. uniformitarianism.
b. unitarianism.
c. continuity theory.
d. punctuated equilibrium theory.
[p. 153]
Test Bank
14. Christian von Wolff was one of the first to use the term psychology in a major publication. In 1732 he wrote a
book called Empirical Psychology and in 1734 he published Rational Psychology. He believed that
a. empirical psychology clearly occupies a more important place in the scheme of things than rational
* b. rational psychology is clearly superior to empirical psychology.
c. once we collect enough data we can do away with rational psychology.
d. the two psychology’s are co-equal partners.
[p. 153]
15. A tautology is an expression that
a. reflects a profound truth.
b. is highly insightful.
c. is filled with information.
* d. is redundant or trivial.
[p. 154]
16. According to Kant, synthetic a priori truths are
* a. informative about the world.
b. redundant or trivial.
c. uninformative in themselves, but important in formal logic.
d. not necessary to the work of empirical science.
[p. 154]
17. According to Immanuel Kant, the so-called categories of understanding
a. are always products of learning.
* b. are ordering principles such as intuition of time and causality.
c. are dependent upon cultural influence.
d. are products of formal logic.
[p. 155]
18. Which of the following was most devoted to finding a middle way between the extremes of rationalism and
a. David Hume
b. George Berkeley
* c. Immanuel Kant
d. Claude-Adrien Helvétius
[p. 155]
19. The term Heteronomy as used by Immanuel Kant refers to
a. self-government.
b. the capacity to act freely and independently.
* c. government from the outside.
d. a neurosis marked by an overemphasis on independence.
[p. 155]
20. The task of individuals according to Kant is to grow into moral
a. heteronomy.
* b. autonomy.
c. certitude.
d. conservatism.
[p. 155]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
21. According to Kant, truly moral actions will be based on our capacity to regard other people as
* a. ends rather than means.
b. means rather than ends.
c. heteronomously determined.
d. products of conditioning.
[p. 155]
22. Which of the following is the most monistic?
* a. Benedict Spinoza
b. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
c. René Descartes
d. Immanuel Kant
[pp. 144-156]
23. According to Herbart, the central goal of education should be
a. mastery of technical concepts.
b. mastery of reading, writing, and arithmetic.
* c. moral development.
d. to instill common sense in students.
[p. 156]
24. Herbart believed that a major goal of education should be to
* a. build what he called the apperceptive mass.
b. focus on drills in order to instill discipline.
c. emphasize pure science and pure knowledge and de-emphasize practical applications.
d. focus always on concrete facts.
[p. 156]
25. The philosopher most clearly associated with so-called common-sense philosophy was
a. David Hume.
* b. Thomas Reid.
c. Johann Friedrich Herbart.
d. George Berkeley.
[p. 156]
26. The expression common-sense as used by philosophers typically refers to
a. those beliefs accepted by the masses of people.
b. beliefs that derive out of a combination of sensory components.
c. unreflective or naive opinions.
* d. any deeply felt opposition to beliefs that are counterintuitive.
[pp. 156-157]
27. Reid argued for a number of propositions he called “first principles.” Which of the following is an example?
a. To be is to be perceived.
* b. Those things do really exist which we distinctly perceive by our senses.
c. I think, therefore I am.
d. Education should build the apperceptive mass.
[p. 157]
28. was a direct realist believed that common sense was a good enough reason to believe in the
existence of the physical world and that any philosopher who denied the physical world was simply ridiculous
* a. Thomas Reid
b. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
c. Johann Friedrich Herbart
d. Pierre Gassendi


Chapter 17
Humanistic Psychologies
1. The doctrine of learned ignorance applied to theology refers to
a. the importance of humility.
b. purposeful forgetting.
c. refusal to study anything that goes against dogma.
* d. the discipline of knowing how not to talk and think of God.
[p. 410]
2. The belief that humans need to know how to NOT create psychological theories is
* a. negative psychology.
b. negative theology.
c. behaviorism.
d. the act of embracing psychological models.
[p. 410]
3. Humanistic psychologists were particularly vocal in their criticisms
* a. of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
b. of structuralism and functionalism.
c. of behaviorism and Gestalt psychology.
d. of Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis.
[p. 410]
4. The humanistic viewpoint in psychology gained momentum in the
a. later 1970s.
b. late 1980s.
c. early 1930s.
* d. 1960s.
[p. 410]
5. The philosophical orientation marked by concerns for the emotional, social, and intellectual issues of life is
* a. existentialism.
b. rationalism.
c. political science.
d. psychoanalysis.
[p. 411-412]
6. The Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno believed that science fails when it
a. remains too general or fails to specialize.
b. does not adopt a coherent and rigorous methodology.
c. emphasizes emotion at the expense of reason.
* d. allows specialization to block the larger vision.
[p. 412]
7. According to the Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno, the neglect of affect in a philosophy
a. should guide the larger vision of a philosophy.
b. limits a philosophy to the use of models to explain behavior.
c. is a requirement of any coherent system of philosophy.
* d. dooms a philosophy to failure.
[p. 412]
Test Bank
8. According to Kierkegaard, we remain in the mode of the herd when we
a. reject rational and systematic conceptual schemes.
b. fail to study history.
c. reject truths imposed by the intellect.
* d. fail to appropriate truth.
[p. 413]
9. According to Kierkegaard, the aesthetic mode of existence ultimately leads to
a. optimism and a sense of well-being.
b. the terror of having known wee have done wrong.
* c. indifference, boredom, emptiness, and despair.
d. a profound sense of the irony of life.
[pp. 413-414]
10. The ethical mode of existence, according to Kierkegaard, may collapse into
a. indifference, boredom, and despair.
b. a self-righteous attitude.
c. religious or political fanaticism.
* d. a profound sense of irony.
[p. 414]
11. According to Kierkegaard, is marked by a sensitivity to one’s contingency and complete dependence
on God.
a. the aesthetic mode of existence
b. the ethical mode of existence
* c. the religious mode of existence
d. the neurotic mode of existence
[p. 414]
12. Heidegger used the term _______ to refer to those conditions or forces that do not yield easily to human effort.
a. factuality
* b. throwness
c. Dasein
d. Mitwelt
[p. 415]
13. Heidegger referred to his method of understanding the way we exist or our being in the world as
a. psychoanalysis.
b. logotherapy.
c. analytic anthroponomy.
* d. daseinsanalysis.
[p. 415]
14. Phenomenology as a philosophical movement refers to
a. appearance.
* b. a method for discovering what is given in experience.
c. the study of common human errors.
d. the study of illusions.
[p. 416]
15. _______ is commonly regarded as the founder of phenomenology.
* a. Edmund Husserl
b. William James
c. Martin Heidegger
d. Soren Kierkegaard
[p. 416]
Test Bank
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
16. Which of the following best describes the position of phenomenology regarding the use of models in
a. Animal models are acceptable because animals can feel, machine models, however, are unacceptable.
b. All models are regarded as helpful in one way or another.
c. Computer models are especially valuable because such models may give us insight into the nature of
cognitive processes.
* d. Since the phenomena of consciousness are not like anything else, models are only approximations and
can be dehumanizing.
[p. 416]
17. Which of the following best describes the position of phenomenology regarding reductionism in psychology?
a. Reduction is necessary in every field of psychological study.
b. What is given in experience should be broken down into component parts for study.
* c. What is given in experience should be studied exactly as it appears.
d. Reduction is an effective research strategy that should be employed when possible.
[p. 416]
18. According to Maslow, a psychology emphasizes methodology, techniques, orthodoxy, and
measurement, while a psychology would be open to a variety of methods.
a. behavioristic . . . psychoanalytic
* b. means-centered . . . problem-centered
c. problem-centered . . . means-centered
d. methodological . . . goal-oriented
[p. 418]
19. Which of the following is the correct order in Maslow’s need hierarchy?
* a. physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization
b. safety needs, biological needs, needs for erotic love, needs for acceptance, self-actualization
c. dominance needs, erotic needs, hunger and thirst, religious needs, self-actualization
d. religious needs, physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness, procreation, self-actualization
[p. 419]
20. Along with the cultural anthropologist Ruth Fulton Benedict, who provided the inspiration for Abraham
Maslow’s idea of a self-actualizing personality?
a. Albert Einstein
b. William James
* c. Max Wertheimer
d. Elenore Roosevelt
[p. 420]
21. According to Maslow, “B-love” is
a. essentially erotic.
* b. joyful and non possessive.
c. neurotic.
d. possessive or even selfish.
[p. 420]
22. Maslow argued the psychology should study
a. neurotic individuals.
* b. healthy and successful people.
c. biological and computer models.
d. rigidly empirical data.
[pp. 420-421]
Test Bank
23. The Leibnizian tradition, according to Allport, is marked by
* a. an emphasis on an active intellect.
b. belief in the so-called “blank slate” hypothesis.
c. its similarities with S-R psychologies.
d. a strong deterministic bias.
[p. 422]
24. The Lockean tradition in psychology is most consistent with
a. Gestalt psychology.
* b. S-R behavioristic psychologies.
c. existentialism.
d. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
[p. 422]
25. The idiographic orientation in psychology emphasizes
a. statistical abstractions.
* b. individual experience.
c. abnormal behavior.
d. paranormal phenomena.
[p. 422]
26. The nomothetic orientation in psychology emphasizes
* a. statistical abstractions.
b. individual experience.
c. abnormal behavior.
d. paranormal phenomena.
27. The founder of the person-centered approach to therapy is
a. Viktor Frankl.
* b. Carl Rogers.
c. Abraham Maslow.
d. Soren Kierkegaard.
28. According to Carl Rogers, the greater the congruence between the and the , the greater the health.
a. superego . . . ego
b. umwelt . . . mitwelt
* c. self . . . ideal self
d. social conditions . . . expectations
[p. 424]
29. Unconditional positive regard, according to Carl Rogers, is
a. another term for “love at first sight.”
* b. is marked by a belief in the intrinsic worth of the individual.
c. another term for conditional love.
d. an orientation that emphasizes the idea that love must be earned.
[p. 424]
30. Carl Rogers’s view of human nature was
a. highly pessimistic.
b. moderately pessimistic.
c. neutral.
* d. highly optimistic.
[p. 424]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
31. The term logotherapy is associated with the work of
a. Carl Rogers.
b. Abraham Maslow.
* c. Viktor Frankl.
d. Gordon Allport.
[p. 424]
32. Name the person described in the following biography: “I was born in 1905 in Vienna and earned an MD and
a PhD from the University of Vienna. Several members of my family were brutally murdered in Nazi
concentration camps, but I managed to survive. The experience inspired me to write my most famous book,
Man’s Search for Meaning.”
a. Abraham Maslow
b. Alfred Adler
* c. Viktor Frankl
d. Carl Rogers
[pp. 424-426]
33. A noogenic neurosis results from
a. the frustration of any basic drive.
* b. the failure to find a sense of worth in life.
c. the frustration of the sex drive.
d. deficiency in vitamin B12.
[p. 425]
34. Frankl argues that
a. life is without meaning.
b. there is a universal meaning of life that humans can discover.
c. there is a universal meaning of life, but humans cannot discover it.
* d. individuals must find the meaning in their own life in their own circumstances.
[pp. 425-426]
35. According to psychologist Joseph F. Rychlak, psychology should be built on a model of causality that
a. emphasizes correlation alone.
b. material and efficient causes exclusively.
* c. includes material, efficient, formal, and final causes.
d. includes none of the above, Rychlak believes that causality is a philosophical term and, as such, has no
place in science.
[pp. 426-427]
36. Basic human nature, according to third-force psychologies, is
a. self-serving and animal-like.
b. morally neutral.
* c. naturally growth oriented.
d. sinful.
[p. 427]
37. Which of the following is NOT a legitimate criticism of humanistic psychology?
a. neglect of the hard work of systematic observation
b. some strands of humanistic psychology are affiliated with various countercultures and spiritual-mystical
c. therapeutic procedures are suspect in terms of effecting real change
* d. overly reductionistic
[p. 428]
Test Bank
Late Twentieth Century Developments
1. According to the text, three classic schools of psychology continue to remain prominent today. The three
schools are
a. functionalism; neobehaviorism; psychoanalysis.
b. psychoanalysis; Gestalt psychology; neobehaviorism.
c. functionalism; Gestalt psychology; humanistic psychology.
* d. psychoanalysis; neobehaviorism; humanistic psychology.
[p. 432]
2. Psychoanalysis was seriously damaged by which historical event?
a. World War I
* b. World War II
c. the Great Depression
d. the Korean War
[p. 433]
3. In 1988, the American Psychoanalytic Association officially recognized the right of therapists with a Ph.D. to
undergo training in psychoanalysis. This landmark decision was considered to be a significant blow against
the traditional psychoanalytic tenet of
a. institutional psychotherapy.
* b. medical orthodoxy.
c. group therapy.
d. lay analysis.
[p. 433]
4. Which major psychological movement has undergone significant growth from the 1960’s through the 1990’s?
a. psychoanalysis
b. neobehaviorism
* c. humanistic psychology
d. classical behaviorism
[p. 433]
5. The Wisconsin General Test Apparatus, invented by , made it possible to objectively
study form discrimination and learning sets in monkeys. This pioneering researcher also contributed to
advances in the study of attachment and social isolation in primates.
a. Albert Bandura
b. Robert Rescorla
c. Martin Seligman
* d. Harry F. Harlow
[p. 435]
6. advanced a social learning theory that emphasized observational learning.
* a. Albert Bandura
b. Robert Rescorla
c. Martin Seligman
d. Harry F. Harlow
[p. 435]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
7. applied laboratory studies of learned helplessness to the clinical study of depression.
a. Albert Bandura
b. Robert Rescorla
* c. Martin Seligman
d. Harry F. Harlow
[p. 435]
8. The contemporary school of psychology that stresses the importance of such psychological processes as
memory, attention, reasoning, problem solving and language is known as
a. phenomenological psychology.
b. transpersonal psychology.
c. epigenetic psychology.
* d. cognitive psychology.
[p. 435]
9. In the last century, many notable psychologists have laid the groundwork for the contemporary study of
cognition. Each of the following thinkers influenced the development of cognitive psychology EXCEPT
a. Frederick C. Bartlett
b. Edward Chace Tolman
* c. B. F. Skinner
d. Max Wertheimer
[p. 436]
10. His work was criticized for overemphasizing associationism, artificiality, and reductionism. Despite these
criticisms, __________ conducted the first quantitative study of memory and inspired generations of future
a. Frederick C. Bartlett
b. Edward Chace Tolman
c. B. F. Skinner
* d. Hermann Ebbinghaus
[p. 436]
11. Which of the following statements is most representative of Frederick C. Bartlett’s research on cognition?
a. learning and memory are largely the result of the mechanical laws of association.
* b. our memories are reconstructed based on abstract schemas.
c. the phenomenon of cognition can be reduced to biochemical processes.
d. past experience has little impact on our ability to recall information.
[p. 436]
12. This French epistemologist argued that cognition evolved in a series of progressive stages based on the
activation of schemas. In doing so, he revolutionized the study of cognitive development and became its most
visible figure. He is
a. John Mark Baldwin.
b. Kurt Koffka.
c. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky.
* d. Jean Piaget.
[p. 437]
13. Gestalt interests in thinking and problem solving combined with the purposive behaviorism of __________ to
establish foundations for the emergence of cognitive psychology.
a. Frederick C. Bartlett
* b. Edward Chace Tolman
c. B. F. Skinner
d. Hermann Ebbinghaus
[p. 438]
Test Bank
14. Verbal learning theory refers to
a. cognitive psychology’s explanation of speech production.
b. the process by which people use linguistic symbols to adapt to their surroundings.
* c. a branch of psychology concerned with the role of associations in memory and forgetting.
d. a term used to describe Jean Piaget’s theory of language acquisition.
[p. 438]
15. Cognitive psychology formally came into existence
a. in the 1940’s.
* b. in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s.
c. in the 1970’s
d. in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s.
[p. 438]
16. Some cognitive psychologist have embraced the computer model and used terms such as “input,” “output,” and
“storage” to describe human functions. These cognitive psychologists best reflect
a. the influence of behaviorism.
* b. the information processing metaphor.
c. the humanistic approach.
d. the contemporary relevance of William James.
[p. 439]
17. Unlike the neobehaviorist, the cognitive psychologist views the human participant as
a. a complex, irrational organism with little free will.
* b. a dynamic organizer of information.
c. a relatively mindless, passive receiver of information.
d. both a. and c.
[p. 439]
18. The term ecological validity refers to
a. the need for people to live in harmony with the Earth.
b. a sophisticated test of accuracy for intelligence scores.
* c. the argument that psychology should focus on everyday, real world problems that impact the lives of all
d. the responsibility that each individual must assume for their personal lifestyle.
[p. 441]
19. Hippocrates, Galen, Dorthea Lind Dix, Emil Kraepelin, and Lightner Witmer contributed to the intellectual
traditions of
a. psychology and the law.
* b. cognitive psychology.
c. industrial and organizational psychology.
d. clinical psychology.
[pp. 442-443]
20. The Boulder Model recommended that doctoral programs train clinical psychologists to
a. earn Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology) degrees.
* b. become research-practitioners.
c. emphasize research to the exclusion of therapy.
d. to emphasize cognitive behavioral therapy.
[p. 444]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
21. The use of systematic desensitization in behavior therapy was pioneered by
a. Aaron T. Beck.
b. Marsha M. Linehan.
c. Jean Piaget.
* d. Joseph Wolpe.
[p. 445]
22. Cognitive therapy, a second wave of post-WWII psychotherapy was developed by
* a. Aaron T. Beck.
b. Marsha M. Linehan.
c. Jean Piaget.
d. Joseph Wolpe.
[pp. 445-446]
23. Albert Ellis developed a therapeutic approach called
a. Cognitive Therapy.
b. Dialectical Behavior Therapy.
c. Systematic Desensitization.
* d. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.
[p. 446]
24. The third wave of influential psychotherapies blended Eastern mindfulness with Western behavioral therapy.
This approach is called
a. Cognitive Therapy.
* b. Dialectical Behavior Therapy.
c. Systematic Desensitization.
d. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy.
[p. 446]
25. Based on his experiments with lesions of rat brains, ________ argued that memories are distributed across the
brain. He challenged the work of ________, a neurosurgeon who argued that individual memories are stored
in specific locations in the brain.
a. Roger W. Sperry; Wilder Penfield.
b. Donald O. Hebb; Roger W. Sperry.
c. Wilder Penfield; Karl Lashley.
* d. Karl Lashley; Wilder Penfield.
[p. 448]
26. _______ studied the effects of learning on neural connections and provided a testable explanation of
associationistic learning.
a. Roger W. Sperry
* b. Donald O. Hebb
c. Wilder Penfield
d. Karl Lashley
[p. 448]
27. _______ investigated epilepsy and did extensive research on humans with surgically split brains.
* a. Roger W. Sperry
b. Donald O. Hebb
c. Wilder Penfield
d. Karl Lashley
[p. 448]
Test Bank
28. _______ was an early cognitive and behavioral neuroscientist who helped launch the use of the EEG in
a. Roger W. Sperry
b. Donald O. Hebb
* c. Donald B. Lindsley
d. Eric R. Kandel
[p. 448]
29. _______ led the movement toward reductionistic physiological and genetic research on memory. He
pioneered the use of Aplysia (a giant marine snail) as a model for the basic neurobiology of memory.
a. Roger W. Sperry
b. Donald O. Hebb
c. Donald B. Lindsley
* d. Eric R. Kandel
[p. 449]
30. Discoveries of the methods by which neurons communicate (i.e., via neurotransmitters) laid the ground work
for the emergence of ________ as a field of psychology.
* a. psychopharmacology.
b. cognitive psychology.
c. psychology and the law.
d. behavior therapy.
[p. 450]
31. _______ is the study of the role of genes in cognition and behavior, and researchers in this subfield have
investigated topics such as intelligence, altruism, jealousy, and psychopathology.
a. Psychopharmacology.
b. Cognitive psychology.
* c. Behavioral genetics.
d. Psychoneuroimmunology.
[pp. 451-452]
32. _______ is the study of the interactions between the brain, behavior, the immune system, and social and
physical environments.
a. Psychopharmacology.
b. Cognitive psychology.
c. Behavioral genetics.
* d. Psychoneuroimmunology.
[p. 452]
33. _______ is an early social psychologist whose experiences as a political prisoner helped to inspire his interests
and research into prejudice and conformity.
* a. Muzafer Sherif.
b. Solomon Asch.
c. Stanley Milgram.
d. Phillip Zimbardo.
[p. 453]
34. _______ is a social psychologist whose best-known research program investigated obedience and instigated
extensive debate about ethical treatment of participants.
a. Muzafer Sherif.
b. Solomon Asch.
* c. Stanley Milgram.
d. Phillip Zimbardo.
[p. 453]
A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context, Fourth Edition
35. Due to her work in political psychology, crowd psychology, corporate issues, and management, _________
helped lay the foundations for industrial-organizational psychology.
* a. Mary Parker Follett
b. Lillian Gilbreth
c. Marion Almira Bills
d. Elizabeth Loftus
[p. 456]
36. _______ is viewed as the “Father of Applied Psychology” for his application of psychology to a wide variety
of business problems such as motivation, argument, persuasion, and suggestions for improving workers’
* a. Walter Dill Scott
b. Frank Gilbreth
c. Franz von Liszt
d. Hugo Münsterberg
[p. 457]
37. ________ is viewed as the founder of industrial-organizational psychology, even though this person’s work
extended beyond traditional boundaries of psychology into ergonomics, safety, and efficient workplace design
in industrial settings as well as the home.
a. Mary Parker Follett
* b. Lillian Gilbreth
c. Walter Dill Scott
d. Hugo Münsterberg
[p. 456]
38. This central figure in early applied psychology helped inspire the extension of applied psychology into both
business arenas and the legal system. He or she was
a. Mary Parker Follett
b. Lillian Gilbreth
c. Walter Dill Scott
* d. Hugo Münsterberg
[pp. 456, 461]
39. Which of the following events did NOT play a significant role in the extension of psychology to the legal
a. the trial of Daniel M’Naughton.
b. the use of psychological science by Louis D. Brandeis to argue for better working conditions for women.
c. the use of psychological science in the desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
* d. Theodore Roosevelt’s recognition of the work of Mary Parker Follett
[pp. 460-461]
40. Due to this person’s rigorous experimental study of eyewitness testimony, the field of psychology and the law
grew in size and surged in prominence. This person is
a. Hugo Münsterberg
b. Walter Dill Scott
c. Marion Almira Bills
* d. Elizabeth Loftus
[p. 462
41. The American Psychological Society was largely founded as a result of the
* a. tension between professional and scientific psychology.
b. demand for more specialized research in industrial settings.
c. strain among cognitive researchers and humanistic psychologists.
d. need for increased governmental funding for clinical research.
[p. 463]
Test Bank
42. Which of the following is NOT representative of contemporary psychology?
a. a substantial increase in the number of fields of applied psychology
b. a proliferation of interest in clinical psychology
* c. general movement toward a more unified discipline
d. an increase in professionalism and specialization
[p. 463]


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