A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

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A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

 

  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

1, 10, 15, 20, 29, 42, 44, 48

 

 

  1. Chapter 2 opens with the Ebbinghaus quote about psychology having a short past but a long history. What did Ebbinghaus mean?
  2. he meant that it was important for psychology to break completely with philosophy in order

to become scientific

  1. he meant that the issues of interest to psychologists could be traced to ancient times
  2. he meant that psychology really has a lengthy history, but most people don’t remember any

of it so they believe that psychology has just a short history

  1. he meant that most psychologists don’t appreciate the importance of studying psychology’s

history

 

  1. Which of the following true about a heliocentric view of the universe?
  2. it was rejected by Galileo on the basis of his telescopic observations
  3. it assumes that the earth is at the center of the universe
  4. it was the official view of the Church in the 17th century
  5. it eventually replaced the geocentric view

 

  1. Copernicus published his heliocentric view of the universe in 1543. Another event occurred that year, which led one historian to consider 1543 to be the year when modern science was born. What was the other event?
  2. Vesalius published his treatise on anatomy
  3. Gutenberg invented the printing press
  4. Harvey discovered that the heart acted like a pump
  5. Galileo invented a telescope

 

  1. Sir Francis Bacon, who became a hero to B. F. Skinner, is known for advocating
  2. submission to the legitimate authority of the Church
  3. an inductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles are derived from

numerous observations

  1. the idea that humans are mere machines
  2. a deductive approach to knowledge, in which general principles based on Aristotle’s

authority would be used to deduce specific laws about how the world worked

 

  1. Which of the following pairs is inappropriately matched?
  2. Galileo—heliocentric
  3. Bacon—inductive
  4. Copernicus—geocentric
  5. Harvey—circulatory system

 

  1. In addition to his faith in an inductive approach to science, Bacon also believed that
  2. science should play a role in controlling nature
  3. basic science was good, but applied science was bad
  4. scientists should conform to the wisdom of Aristotle
  5. a thorough understanding of the universe could only be known theologically

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following was not a part of the historical context of Descartes’ time?
  2. there was the beginning of a gradual erosion of the authority of the Church
  3. intellectuals were becoming disillusioned with the so-called progress resulting from

science and technology

  1. there was a spirit of “mechanism,” exemplified by Harvey’s mechanical theory of the

circulatory system

  1. there was growing faith in the value of observational methods as a way to understand

the world

 

  1. What did Galileo and Descartes have in common?
  2. they both questioned traditional authorities when arriving at a decision about the truth

of something

  1. they both relied exclusively on inductive methods
  2. both made their primary contributions to astronomy rather than psychology
  3. their nearly simultaneous discovery of the reflex counts as a multiple

 

  1. Descartes believed in which of the following statements?
  2. the mind and the body are separate, but they operate in parallel (i.e., they do not

directly influence each other)

  1. such ideas as “extension” are learned through the experiences of early childhood
  2. the way to truth is through the use of one’s innate reasoning powers
  3. the mind at birth is best described as a blank slate

 

  1. On the mind-body question, Descartes believed that
  2. mind and body were two aspects of the same essence
  3. mind and body were two distinct, noninteracting essences
  4. mind and body were two distinct essences that interacted directly with each other
  5. mind could be reduced to body (i.e., brain)—thus, he rejected dualism

 

  1. Descartes’ first rule of method, as outlined in Discourse on Method, was to
  2. recognize the important value of sensory information when seeking after truth
  3. analyze problems into sub problems
  4. collect as much inductive evidence as possible
  5. recognize as truth only that which could not be rationally doubted

 

  1. Descartes could be characterized as all of the following except
  2. dualist
  3. rationalist
  4. nativist
  5. materialist

 

  1. Descartes is accurately described as all of the following except
  2. a believer in mind-body interactionism
  3. a rationalist
  4. a believer in innate ideas
  5. interested in the mind but not in the body

 

  1. According to Descartes,
  2. the mind can influence the body, but the body cannot directly influence the mind
  3. the senses are faulty as mechanisms for acquiring knowledge
  4. the nervous system acts essentially as an electrical system and its nerves “vibrate”
  5. there are no innate ideas

 

 

 

 

  1. According to Descartes,
  2. mind and body interact at a place in the body that is not duplicated anywhere else,

namely, in the area of the heart

  1. animals are pure machines; humans have bodies that are machines, but they also have

rational minds

  1. the sensory and motor components of the reflex occur in two different sets of nerves
  2. the ideas of self and God are learned through the experiences of early childhood

 

  1. Descartes would consider knowledge of the concept of extension a(n) _____ idea, and the knowledge of how long a candle would burn a(n) ______ idea.
  2. innate; derived
  3. simple; complex
  4. unassociated; associated
  5. derived; innate

 

  1. Descartes believed that
  2. truth could be achieved only through the proper use of reason
  3. mind and body are just two parallel ways of looking at the same fundamental essence
  4. animals have minds; they just aren’t as advanced as ours
  5. because he needed to satisfy basic physiological urges, he therefore believed he existed

(I drink, therefore I am)

 

  1. The post-Renaissance model of the universe as a giant machine directly influenced
  2. Harvey’s idea of how the heart worked
  3. Descartes’ idea about how animals worked
  4. Newton’s idea about how the planets worked
  5. all of these

 

  1. According to the British Empiricist John Locke,
  2. all our ideas derive from sensation and reflection
  3. the mind is like veined marble at birth
  4. simple ideas are innate; complex ideas derive from our experiences
  5. a person blind from birth who had sight restored later in life would have no trouble

identifying and distinguishing (visually) a cube from a sphere

 

  1. John Locke was the first major British Empiricist. He is associated with all of the following ideas except
  2. the only important principles of association are spatial and temporal contiguity
  3. the only reality we can be sure of is our perception
  4. there are two sources of ideas: sensation and reflection
  5. the mind at birth is like a white paper

 

  1. How would Locke explain why children are afraid of the dark?
  2. they learn to be afraid, perhaps after being frightened by a maid
  3. it is a “natural” fear that derives from our poor night vision
  4. it is an innate idea that cannot be changed
  5. they fail to use their reason to arrive at the truth about the dark

 

  1. In his letters about educating the son of a friend, Locke recommended that
  2. a sound mind requires a sound body—therefore keep the child safe, dry, and warm

and avoid having him get his feet wet

  1. intelligence is innate, so only educate the child if he shows early signs of being bright
  2. reinforcement should take a concrete form (e.g., candy)—mere commendation is not

enough

  1. physical punishment should be avoided, especially in young children

 

  1. With which of the following statements would John Locke agree?
  2. just because children have a concept of God early in life, that does not constitute

evidence that “God” is an innate idea

  1. the primary qualities of matter (e.g., color) do not belong to the objects themselves,

but depend on perception

  1. spare the rod and spoil the child
  2. ideas that are universal from one culture to another (e.g., God) can be considered

innate ideas, but that is the only situation that produces innate ideas

 

  1. John Locke would be least accurately described by which of the following terms?
  2. atomist
  3. empiricist
  4. associationist
  5. rationalist

 

  1. The concept of atomism is reflected in which of the following statements?
  2. association is to psychology as gravity is to physics
  3. complex ideas can be reduced to simple ideas
  4. primary qualities of matter have independent existence
  5. nothing is in the mind that was not first in the senses

 

  1. Berkeley extended Locke’s philosophy into a system that has been called subjective idealism or immaterialism. According to Berkeley’s system,
  2. there are no secondary qualities of matter; everything is a primary quality
  3. the greatest human value is to strive for a “subjectively ideal” world
  4. we cannot be sure that matter exists when we aren’t perceiving it, except through our faith

in the Permanent Perceiver

  1. our perception of the world results from the innate characteristics of the visual system;

learning isn’t involved very much

 

  1. Newton’s concept of gravity is analogous to the British Empiricist concept of
  2. sensation
  3. a simple idea
  4. a blank slate
  5. an association

 

  1. In An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision, Bishop George Berkeley argued that
  2. the visual senses were unreliable as objective sources of knowledge; true knowledge

derives from reason

  1. our visual system is designed to perceive depth and distance automatically (i.e., it is

mostly innate)

  1. depth perception is purely and simply the result of our experiences with objects that

are at different distances from us

  1. everything we perceive has a primary quality to it (i.e., it truly exists)

 

  1. Berkeley’s philosophy has come to be called “subjective idealism” or immaterialism. He believed that
  2. all knowledge is innate but dormant; we have to use our reason to get at the knowledge
  3. the uncertainty of the physical world meant that God probably didn’t exist
  4. our belief in the existence of the external world depends on our perception of it
  5. we learn mostly through experience, but visual phenomena like depth perception are innate

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The idea that all things could be described in physical terms and could be understood in light of the physical properties of matter and energy is called
  2. rationalism
  3. associationism
  4. empiricism
  5. materialism

 

  1. According to Berkeley, our ability to perceive depth is partly the result of the manner in which the lens of the eye alters its shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. This lens-altering process is called
  2. accommodation
  3. a binocular depth cue
  4. convergence
  5. spatial contiguity

 

  1. Berkeley would agree with all of the following statements except
  2. we can have faith in the reality of objects through our faith in God, the Permanent

Perceiver

  1. we can never come to believe that objects in the world have physical reality
  2. we don’t see objects directly; we make judgments based on visual information and

experience

  1. the binocular cue of convergence is one of the ways in which experience leads us to

experience distance

 

  1. David Hume proposed that ideas combine according to three laws of association. They were
  2. spatial contiguity, temporal contiguity, resemblance
  3. resemblance, cause-and-effect relations, contiguity
  4. temporal contiguity, cause-and-effect relations, spatial contiguity
  5. contiguity, contiguity, and contiguity (i.e., he only believed in one basic law of

association)

 

  1. Hume said that ideas were faint copies of impressions. Hartley said essentially the same thing when he distinguished between
  2. miniature vibrations and vibrations
  3. vibrations and sensation
  4. spatial and temporal contiguity
  5. primary and secondary qualities of matter

 

  1. Ed sees a picture of the Grand Canyon and immediately recalls his visit there. This is an example of which of Hume’s principles of association?
  2. spatial contiguity
  3. temporal contiguity
  4. resemblance
  5. cause and effect

 

  1. In Hartley’s parallelist system, sensation is to idea as ______ is to ______.
  2. perception; thought
  3. simple idea; complex idea
  4. vibration; miniature vibration
  5. temporal contiguity; spatial contiguity

 

  1. Jane flinches when she sees lightning, anticipating the loud noise. This has come about as a result of
  2. temporal contiguity
  3. cause-and-effect
  4. spatial contiguity
  5. resemblance
  6. On the dimension of atomism-holism, which of the British philosophers was most on the holism side?
  7. James Mill (Dad)
  8. John Stuart Mill (Son)
  9. David Hartley
  10. John Locke

 

  1. The James Mill quote about brick, mortar, walls, and houses illustrates which of the following concepts?
  2. materialism
  3. holism
  4. atomism
  5. innate ideas

 

  1. John Stuart Mill was a child prodigy. With which of the following statements about his early ability would he be least likely to agree?
  2.       some have it, some don’t (i.e., I was born smart)
  3. if you work hard enough, you can accomplish a lot
  4. I would not have accomplished anything if I had not been pushed by my father
  5. experience is everything

 

  1. How did John Stuart Mill’s (JSM) philosophy differ from that of James Mill (JM), his father?
  2. JSM replaced his father’s mechanical metaphor with a chemical one
  3. JSM reduced all association to contiguity; JM had a long list of laws of association
  4. JSM believed in innate genius (after all, wasn’t he one?), while JM believed in the

conventional empiricism that held that knowledge results from experience

  1. none of these—JSM elaborated on Dad’s ideas and wrote more coherently, but he                                                didn’t change any of his father’s ideas

 

  1. James Mill’s model of the mind (exemplified by the quote about complex and duplex ideas in houses) could be described as _____; his son’s model was more of _______.
  2. traditional empiricism; a rationalist system
  3. mental chemistry; a mental mechanics
  4. mental mechanics; a mental chemistry
  5. rationalism; an empiricist system

 

  1. The logic of the modern correlational method is essentially the same as Mill’s method of
  2. agreement
  3. difference
  4. concomitant variation
  5. cause and effect

 

  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of agreement, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these

 

  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill’s method of difference, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these

 

  1. Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Combining Mill’s methods of agreement and difference, you would hope to find that
  2. everyone with a garden has low stress levels
  3. everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  4. both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
  5. none of these

 

  1. The gestalt psychologists argued that the whole was greater than the sum of its parts. The British philosopher closest in spirit to this idea was
  2. John Locke
  3. David Hume
  4. David Hartley
  5. John Stuart Mill

 

  1. The French philosopher Leibniz argued that
  2. animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth)
  3. the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing

our innate predispositions

  1. both animals are true “empirics” (blank slate at birth) and the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing our innate predispositions
  2. none of these

 

  1. The French philosopher Leibniz responded to Locke’s white paper metaphor by saying that the mind was more like veined marble. Leibniz was arguing that
  2. humans are true “empirics”
  3. the mind has innate properties that help shape experience
  4. all basic human properties are fixed (i.e., innate) at birth
  5. everyone has flaws

 

  1. All of the following concepts are associated with the French philosopher Leibniz except
  2. mind and body act in parallel with each other
  3. the mind is like veined marble
  4. animals are pure empirics
  5. we have a priori knowledge of space and time

 

  1. For Leibniz, the highest level of awareness was known as
  2. sensation
  3. apperception
  4. perception
  5. petite perception

 

  1. What did Leibniz mean by the concept of a petite perception?
  2. it was the same as a monad
  3. it was a perception below the level of awareness
  4. it was the perception of any small object
  5. it was the perception of any object that was available for perception for just a brief

period of time

 

  1. Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
  2. Hartley—contiguity
  3. Leibniz—monad
  4. Hume—veined marble
  5. Berkeley—depth perception

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is appropriately paired?
  2. Descartes—mind-body interactionism
  3. Kant—levels of awareness from apperception through petite perception
  4. Locke—mind is veined marble
  5. Hume—all association is contiguity

 

  1. What do Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant all have in common?
  2. none were British philosophers
  3. all were primarily rationalist philosophers
  4. both alternatives a. none were British philosophers and all were primarily rationalist philosophers
  5. none of these

 

Answers

 

  1. B 29. C
  2. D 30. D
  3. A 31. A
  4. B 32. B
  5. C 33. B
  6. A 34. A
  7. B 35. C
  8. A 36. C
  9. C 37. A
  10. C 38. B
  11. D 39. C
  12. D 40. A
  13. D 41. A
  14. B 42. C
  15. B 43. C
  16. A 44. A
  17. A 45. B
  18. D 46. C
  19. A 47. D
  20. B 48. C
  21. A 49. B
  22. D 50. D
  23. A 51. B
  24. D 52. B
  25. B 53. C
  26. C 54. A
  27. D 55. C
  28. C

 


  1. Short Answer

 

 

  1. Distinguish between a heliocentric and a geocentric view of the universe.
  2. What does it mean to say that Descartes was a dualist and an interactionist?
  3. Descartes was taught in the scholastic tradition. What does this mean?
  4. According to Descartes, how do humans differ from animals?
  5. Distinguish between sensation and reflection as sources of ideas, according to Locke.
  6. Most of the British empiricists are said to be atomistic. What does this mean?
  7. What was the distinction made by Locke between primary and secondary qualities of matter?
  8. As it affects perception, distinguish between convergence and accommodation.
  9. What was Hume’s distinction between impressions and ideas?
  10. What was Hume’s position on causality?
  11. On the mind-body question, what is a parallelist position?
  12. Identify and give examples of the two main forms of contiguity, according to Hartley.
  13. Distinguish between Dad Mill’s mental mechanics and Son Mill’s mental chemistry.
  14. Use the example of a wave to illustrate Leibniz’s concept of apperception and petite perception.

 

 

 


III. Essay

 

 

  1. Describe the historical context that helped to shape Descartes’ ideas about mind and body.
  2. Descartes’ rules of method, outlined in his Discourse on Method, seem straightforward and obvious to us today, but were revolutionary in his day. Explain, and show how the first sentence of this question could be considered an example of presentism.
  3. Describe Descartes’ concept of the reflex and how he thought bodily movement was influenced by the mind. Show how these ideas were influenced by the contemporary zeitgeist.
  4. With his model of nervous system functioning, how did Descartes explain memory?
  5. Describe Locke’s rationale for rejecting the concept of innate ideas.
  6. Describe Locke’s views on the education of children and show how they were consistent with his empiricism and similar to 20th century behaviorism.
  7. Describe Berkeley’s subjective idealism and explain why he saw this philosophy as an assault on materialism.
  8. Show how Berkeley’s subjective idealism is consistent with his ideas about how vision (e.g., distance perception) works.
  9. Describe how experience would be expected to produce depth and distance perception, according to Berkeley.
  10. Hume proposed three main principles of association. Use examples to describe each.
  11. Modern psychology’s general concept of causality has been strongly influenced by Hume. Explain.
  12. Hartley believed there was one basic principle of association. Give an example to show that you know what he meant by it. Distinguish between temporal and spatial versions of this principle.
  13. Use a research example to relate Mill’s methods of agreement and difference to a modern experiment in psychology.
  14. Contrast Locke and Leibniz on the nature-nurture issue.
  15. Describe the Leibniz theory about levels of awareness.
  16. Briefly describe Kant’s epistemology.

 

 

  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

8, 11, 16, 19, 26, 38, 48, 53

 

 

  1. In the 19th century the German system of higher education developed a philosophy that came to be known as Wissenschaft. It featured
  2. an emphasis on scholarly and scientific research
  3. a strictly prescribed set of course requirements to earn the doctorate
  4. fairly severe restrictions on academic freedom
  5. more emphasis on undergraduate teaching than on research

 

  1. Johan Herbart was an important predecessor to experimental psychophysics. He believed that
  2. the mind should be studied using laboratory experiments, not pure mathematics
  3. ideas with different strengths could be assigned different mathematical weights
  4. ideas had measurable “strength,” and these strengths were constant (unchangeable)
  5. psychology, in order to be scientific, had to be closely tied to physiology

 

  1. If your total cognitive focus is on this multiple choice item, then Herbart would say the item is part of your
  2. apperceptive mass
  3. repressed awareness
  4. above-threshold awareness
  5. just noticeable difference

 

  1. According to Weber’s Law, if a person notices a difference between 30 and 33 grams, that person will also notice a difference between
  2. 60 and 63 grams
  3. 90 and 93 grams
  4. 10 and 13 grams
  5. all of these

 

  1. In a weight-judging study, Sally just barely notices a difference between two weights of 30 and 33 grams. Weber’s Law predicts that she will also notice the difference between
  2. 60 and 63 grams
  3. 90 and 93 grams
  4. both 60 and 63 grams and 90 and 93 grams
  5. none of these

 

  1. If someone cannot detect a difference in weight between 30 grams and 32 grams, but can tell the difference between 30 grams and 33 grams, the discrimination between 30 and 33 grams is called
  2. a two-point threshold
  3. a limits threshold
  4. a jnd
  5. a limit

 

  1. While studying visual afterimages, I inadvertently looked too long at the sun and seriously damaged my eyes, to the extent that I had to take a medical leave from work. Who am I?
  2. Johan Herbart
  3. Hermann Ebbinghaus
  4. Oswald Külpe
  5. Gustav Fechner

 

 

  1. Hearing tests, which present sequences of tones that steadily decrease in loudness, are using a method closest to which of the following developed by Fechner?
  2. adjustment
  3. limits
  4. constant stimuli
  5. fractionation

 

  1. The subject has the greatest degree of control over stimulus presentation in which of the following methods of psychophysics?
  2. method of limits
  3. method of constant stimuli
  4. method of apperception
  5. method of adjustment

 

  1. Boring referred to Fechner as the “inadvertent founder of psychophysics.” What did he mean by that?
  2. Fechner stumbled on psychophysics by accident (he happened to read Weber’s work)
  3. Fechner deliberately downplayed Weber’s work in order to gain all the credit himself
  4. Fechner was more interested in destroying materialism than in establishing a science
  5. when Fechner first started studying thresholds, he didn’t realize the later applications of his

work (e.g., vision testing)

 

  1. Wundt is considered the founder of experimental psychology because he
  2. was the first to be doing experimental research on psychological phenomena
  3. established the most popular laboratory in Europe
  4. explicitly set out to identify and establish a “new” science
  5. wrote the first book that dealt with research topics of interest to psychologists

 

  1. Why is Wundt considered the founder of experimental psychology, and not Fechner?
  2. Wundt did better research
  3. Wundt’s research preceded Fechner’s
  4. establishing an experimental psychology was Wundt’s explicit goal
  5. none of these—Fechner is generally recognized as the founder of experimental

psychology

 

  1. For six years, from 1858 to 1864, Wundt was the assistant in a major laboratory. Who was the director of this lab?
  2. Helmholtz
  3. Weber
  4. Fechner
  5. Herbart

 

  1. According to Wundt, laboratory psychology was to be the study of
  2. mediate conscious experience
  3. immediate conscious experience
  4. individual differences in conscious experience
  5. higher mental processes

 

  1. What did Wundt believe about laboratory work in psychology?
  2. it must be confined to the study of mediate conscious experience through the use of

self observation

  1. it must be confined to the study of mediate conscious experience through the use of

internal perception

  1. it must be confined to the study of immediate conscious experience through the use of

self observation

  1. it must be confined to the study of immediate conscious experience through the use of

internal perception

 

  1. How did Wundt propose to study immediate conscious experience?
  2. through the use of a form of introspection that he called internal perception
  3. through the use of a form of introspection that he called self observation
  4. through the use of inductive observational techniques and case study
  5. by avoiding introspection completely and relying on physiological measures

 

  1. How did Wundt propose to study such higher mental processes as thinking and language?
  2. in the lab, using purely objective physiological measures
  3. outside of the lab, using observational procedures and cross-cultural comparisons
  4. in the lab, using the form of introspection called internal perception
  5. none of these—he did not believe these processes could be studied in psychology

 

  1. In Wundt’s laboratory, the majority of research concerned the topic of
  2. attention
  3. association
  4. reaction time (mental chronometry)
  5. sensation/perception

 

  1. If discrimination reaction time takes .30 seconds and simple reaction time takes .21 seconds, then
  2. the mental event of discrimination takes .09 seconds
  3. the mental event of discrimination takes .51 seconds
  4. the sensory component has taken .21 seconds and the motor component has taken .09

seconds

  1. an imageless thought has occurred during the lost .09 seconds

 

  1. Choice RT takes .48 seconds, discrimination RT takes .37 seconds, and simple RT takes .25 seconds. How long did it take for the mental event of “choice” to occur?
  2. .12 seconds
  3. .48 seconds
  4. .11 seconds
  5. .23 seconds

 

  1. What was the essential flaw in the complication experiment?
  2. the assumption that mental events could simply be added together
  3. the apparatus lacked precision, so the times were unreliable
  4. the subjectivity of introspection
  5. some people are just faster than others—no general conclusions could be drawn

 

  1. In the reaction time research completed in Wundt’s lab by James McKeen Cattell,
  2. large numbers of subjects were needed to get stable mean RT scores
  3. Cattell served as both experimenter and subject
  4. data from the different subjects were reported as average reaction times
  5. the task was stressful enough to temporarily damage Cattell’s health

 

  1. Which of the following was true about Cattell’s experience in Wundt’s laboratory?
  2. a major source of frustration involved keeping the apparatus running properly and precisely
  3. he wrote to his parents that the research was mentally exhausting and he didn’t know how long

he could keep it up

  1. he was very impressed by the quality of the research done in Wundt’s laboratory
  2. he told his parents that the whole research area involved with reaction time was largely a

waste of time—nothing important would come of it

 

 

 

 

  1. Much of what we know about Wundt was once thought to be correct, but is now known to be wrong. Which of the following was indeed correct about Wundt?
  2. Titchener’s system is about the same as Wundt’s system
  3. Wundt was the founder of a “school” of psychology known as structuralism
  4. Wundt was not really interested in cultural psychology; it was just a fad with him
  5. Wundt believed that the study of higher mental processes was important, but could not be

studied in the laboratory

 

  1. Which of the following choices would have been scored as “true” on a history and systems exam 30 years ago, but would be scored as “false” today?
  2. Wundt established his laboratory at Leipzig in the late 1870s
  3. Wundt established the school of psychology called structuralism
  4. most of the research in Wundt’s laboratory dealt with sensation/perception
  5. Wundt used a highly controlled form of introspection in some of his experiments

 

  1. Wundt’s influence has been reevaluated recently, in part because of his psychology has shifted interests in the late 20th century. In particular, Wundt’s research was similar to the work completed by modern-day ______ psychologists.
  2. physiological
  3. social
  4. cognitive
  5. behavioral

 

  1. Wundt’s system is sometimes called voluntarism because Wundt
  2. used volunteers as subjects in his research
  3. placed special emphasis on the analysis of voluntary acts into their basic elements
  4. emphasized the mind’s ability to willfully and actively organize the contents of consciousness
  5. believed that only voluntary, higher mental processes could be studied experimentally

 

  1. According to Wundt, mental contents that are unclear, indistinct, or in the periphery are said to be
  2. apprehended
  3. apperceived
  4. mediate rather than immediate
  5. associated

 

  1. Wundt used the term ___________ to refer to a process that brought mental contents into the focus of attention.
  2. apprehension
  3. perception
  4. voluntarism
  5. apperception

 

  1. What was the term used by Wundt to identify the mental process that makes mental contents meaningful and brings them into the center of attention?
  2. sensation
  3. apperception
  4. apprehension
  5. selective attention

 

  1. One of Wundt’s best-known students was Emil Kraepelin, a person familiar to students taking abnormal psychology. Kraepelin found that
  2. alcohol reduces our ability to focus attention
  3. those who are insane have faster reaction times than those who are sane
  4. schizophrenics suffer from impaired attention and inadequate apperception processes
  5. those who are insane actually have a heightened ability to apperceive (that’s why creative

artists are sometimes nuts)

  1. In his laboratory research, Wundt and his students identified two basic elements of mental life. They were
  2. sensations and perceptions
  3. simple and complex ideas
  4. perceptions and apperceptions
  5. sensations and feelings

 

  1. Emil Kraepelin, one of Wundt’s best-known students, applied Wundt’s ideas about attention to
  2. the thinking processes of schizophrenics
  3. the imagination of children
  4. the interpretation of the complication experiment
  5. the study of animal behavior (comparative psychology)

 

  1. When studying higher mental processes, Wundt believed that
  2. laboratory control was absolutely essential
  3. cross-cultural studies would be needed
  4. introspection as internal perception would be the essential method
  5. none of these—he didn’t think higher mental processes could be studied systematically

 

  1. If Ebbinghaus was correct about the time course of forgetting, then
  2. by this time tomorrow you will have zero memory of the information for this test
  3. you will have difficulty recalling almost half of the material for this exam within an hour or two
  4. you will remember almost all of the material for this exam over the next week or so, but then

your memory will deteriorate rapidly

  1. because you found this material so unbelievably fascinating, you won’t forget any of it

 

  1. In creating nonsense syllables, what was Ebbinghaus trying to do?
  2. he wanted to study the initial formation of associations
  3. he wanted to study the nature of already-formed associations
  4. he wanted to create stimuli that would be meaningful to the memorizer
  5. he wanted to create a test that would evaluate fatigue levels in German school children

at different times of the day

 

  1. Pretend you’re Ebbinghaus. On Monday you take 20 minutes to learn a list of nonsense syllables. On Tuesday, you take 5 minutes to relearn the list. What is your saving score?
  2. 15 minutes
  3. 25%
  4. 25%
  5. 50%

 

  1. Why did Ebbinghaus use CVCs in his research?
  2. he was trying to examine the how associations were initially created
  3. he wanted simple materials that he could learn more quickly than prose
  4. he was only interested in short-term memory, not long-term memory
  5. there was no way he could measure recall if he used meaningful materials

 

  1. An important implication of the savings methods used by Ebbinghaus was that
  2. forgetting occurred more quickly than previously thought
  3. even if some information cannot be recalled, it does not mean the information has disappeared

completely

  1. learning is more difficult if the materials to be studied are meaningless
  2. short-term memory has a very limited capacity

 

 

 

 

  1. Alice takes 20 minutes to learn a list of nonsense syllables. The next day she is asked to relearn the list and earns a savings score of 25%. How much time did she need to relearn the list?
  2. 5 minutes
  3. 10 minutes
  4. 15 minutes
  5. 25 minutes

 

  1. All of the following characterized the Ebbinghaus memory research except
  2. he tried to make the syllables meaningful as he memorized them, by using various mnemonic

devices

  1. he was the only subject
  2. he took steps to ensure that the syllables were read at a constant rate
  3. he completed the research over two separate 1-year periods, with the second period serving

the purpose of replication

 

  1. In his memory research, Ebbinghaus found that
  2. for the first 24 hours, the rate of forgetting is very slow; then it speeds up
  3. if there were seven or fewer syllables in a list, they could be learned in just a single repetition
  4. surprisingly, varying the number of original repetitions when studying the lists had no significant

effect on recall

  1. studying a list by massing the practice all at one time produced better recall than spreading out

the studying of the list

 

  1. In his memory research, Ebbinghaus reported a number of important results. Which of the following was not one of them?
  2. distributing practice over several sessions was better than cramming it all in at once
  3. he noticed that memory performance was better in the morning than in the evening
  4. if there were seven or fewer syllables in a list, they could be learned in just a single repetition
  5. forgetting occurs at a very rapid rate at first, then slows down

 

  1. Ebbinghaus studied all of the following except
  2. the use of memory aids (mnemonics)
  3. the time course of forgetting
  4. massed versus distributed practice
  5. serial learning

 

  1. What is ecological memory?
  2. it’s a term that sums up what Ebbinghaus did
  3. it’s a term that sums up what G. E. Müller did
  4. it refers to any laboratory memory research using good experimental control
  5. it’s the study of memory for everyday events

 

  1. A good example of presentist thinking can be found in Chapter 4. It involves
  2. showing that Wundt’s work has not been properly understood in the past
  3. the case of Cattell criticizing Wundt’s laboratory
  4. Külpe’s rejection of the assumptions underlying the complication experiment
  5. the modern criticism of the Ebbinghaus tradition for failing to shed light on everyday memory

 

  1. How did the memory work of G. E. Müller differ from that of Ebbinghaus?
  2. Müller believed that the learner was more actively involved in the memory process than

Ebbinghaus

  1. Ebbinghaus added introspection to his research; Müller refused to introspect
  2. Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables, but Müller’s research studied ecological memory
  3. Ebbinghaus had the benefit of technology (i.e., memory drum); Müller did not

 

 

  1. All of the following are associated with G. E. Müller except
  2. helped invent the memory drum
  3. with Pilzecker, studied retroactive inhibition
  4. made the initial discovery of imageless thought
  5. most of his work involved replicating and (significantly) extending the work of others

 

  1. Which of the following are properly paired?
  2. Wundt—systematic experimental introspection
  3. G. E. Müller—memory drum
  4. Ebbinghaus—imageless thoughts
  5. Külpe—serial learning

 

  1. A fair assessment of G. E. Müller would be to describe him as
  2. more of a physiologist than an experimental psychologist
  3. more interested in theory development than in research
  4. remarkably successful as a researcher despite his inability to develop research apparatus for

his lab

  1. happiest when doing laboratory research

 

  1. In Ach’s dissertation with Külpe, he gave subjects pairs of numbers after first telling them that they would be performing some operation on these numbers. He found that subjects responded with very fast (and equal) reaction times regardless of the type of operation, because the prior instructions had created
  2. some uncertainty in the minds of subjects
  3. a mental set to respond in a certain way
  4. the conscious attitudes of hesitation and doubt
  5. imageless thoughts

 

  1. One of Külpe’s students, Watt, developed the technique of “fractionating” the four stages of a word association procedure into four steps. Which of the following was not one of those steps?
  2. a preparatory period, when the subject prepares for stimulus presentation
  3. the response itself
  4. “striving” for the response, just prior to the response itself
  5. a phase in which imageless thoughts appeared

 

  1. In Külpe’s Würzburg lab, Marbe did a study in which subjects compared weights. His introspectors found that at the moment when the judgment was made, all of the following were experienced except
  2. hesitation
  3. images
  4. doubts
  5. searching

 

  1. Which of the following was true about systematic experimental introspection?
  2. it was more like Wundt’s internal perception than Wundt’s self-observation
  3. Külpe tried it in his lab, but quickly rejected it
  4. the procedure of fractionation was devised to solve the problem of the length of the

introspective accounts

  1. it was designed for the study of immediate consciousness and useless for studying higher

mental processes like word association

 


Answers

 

  1. A 28. A
  2. B 29. D
  3. A 30. B
  4. C 31. C
  5. D 32. D
  6. C 33. A
  7. D 34. B
  8. B 35. B
  9. D 36. A
  10. C 37. C
  11. C 38. A
  12. C 39. A
  13. A 40. C
  14. B 41. A
  15. D 42. B
  16. A 43. B
  17. B 44. A
  18. D 45. D
  19. A 46. D
  20. C 47. A
  21. A 48. C
  22. B 49. B
  23. A 50. D
  24. D 51. B
  25. B 52. D
  26. C 53. B
  27. C 54. C


  1. Short Answer

 

 

  1. In the 19th century the German system of higher education developed a philosophy that came to be known as Wissenschaft. What was the essence of this philosophy?
  2. What did Herbart mean by the concept of apperceptive mass?
  3. With the two-point threshold as a task, how would you demonstrate the method of limits?
  4. Use the chapter’s temperature example to distinguish between immediate and mediate conscious experience.
  5. What was the difference between internal perception and self observation, according to Wundt?
  6. Make up some numbers to show that you understand how Donders’ subtraction method was used in the reaction time research in Wundt’s lab.
  7. What was the difference between apperception and apprehension, according to Wundt?
  8. What did Wundt mean by a creative synthesis?
  9. Make up some numbers to show that you understand how Ebbinghaus used the method of savings in his memory research.
  10. How did G. E. Müller’s approach to the study of memory differ from that of Ebbinghaus?
  11. In a nonsense syllable study, describe how you would study retroactive inhibition.
  12. In Külpe’s lab, what was meant by a conscious attitude?

 


III. Essay

 

 

  1. In the context of a two-point threshold experiment, describe the three methods of psychophysics outlined by Fechner.
  2. Describe Weber’s Law and illustrate it with Weber’s weight lifting experiment.
  3. Fechner might have become the “founder” of experimental psychology, but that label goes to Wundt instead. Explain.
  4. Describe Fechner’s purpose in developing psychophysics, and in so doing, explain why he is not considered the “founder” of modern experimental psychology.
  5. Wundt distinguished between the study of immediate conscious experience and the study of higher mental processes. Describe how he proposed to study each.
  6. Describe the logic of the complication experiment and create some data to illustrate how it worked to demonstrate times for (a) discrimination, and (b) choice.
  7. Describe the traditional view of Wundt’s psychology and compare it to what we now know. How did the misinterpretation come about?
  8. Consider the Ebbinghaus memory research. What was he trying to accomplish, why did he use CVCs, and what was the advantage of using his savings method to measure performance?
  9. Describe the research in Külpe’s lab that demonstrated the existence of mental sets, while at the same time questioning the validity of the complication experiments.
  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:       The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

4, 8, 24, 27, 30, 36, 44, 52

 

 

  1. The observation that patients with epilepsy seldom had schizophrenia led directly to the creation of
  2. fever therapy
  3. insulin coma therapy
  4. metrazol shock therapy
  5. electroshock therapy

 

  1. What did insulin coma therapy and metrazol shock therapy have in common?
  2. they proved to be effective long-term cures for schizophrenia
  3. they became the treatment of choice for those suffering from general paresis
  4. they quickly replaced electroshock as a treatment of choice for severe depression
  5. they alleviated psychiatric symptoms, but their effects were just temporary

 

  1. Of the medical therapies developed in the early years of the 20th century, which is still in widespread use today?
  2. prefrontal lobotomy
  3. fever therapy
  4. electroshock therapy
  5. none of these– all disappeared with the development of effective drug therapies

 

  1. Which of the following is true about shell shock?
  2. it resulted from physical damage to the nervous system, the result of exploding artillery shells
  3. it was most effectively treated by delivering electric shocks to soldiers suffering from it
  4. Myers argued that it resulted from the repression of the horrific memories of traumatic warfare
  5. in the vast majority of cases, soldiers showing shell shock symptoms were faking them to

avoid duty

 

  1. After learning about successful animal research, I developed a procedure called the lobotomy and won a Nobel Prize for my efforts. Who was I?
  2. António Egas Moniz
  3. Julius Wagner-Jauregg
  4. Walter Freeman
  5. Carlyle Jacobsen

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the Moniz lobotomy procedure?
  2. its purpose was to cure what Kraepelin had labeled dementia praecox
  3. it involved inserting an instrument similar to an ice pick into the eye socket
  4. it fell out of favor with the introduction of antipsychotic drugs in the 1950s
  5. it is widely used today for the treatment of excessively violent mental patients

 

  1. In what way did Freeman and Watts “improve” upon the Moniz lobotomy procedure?
  2. they entered through the eye socket instead of the temple
  3. they added precision, cutting fewer fibers, resulting in fewer adverse side effects
  4. they used greater care in surgery, making it an inpatient procedure (Moniz had completed

his lobotomies on an outpatient basis)

  1. they followed up the procedure with an effective form of psychotherapy

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Lightner Witmer
  2. coined the term “school psychology”
  3. was trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst but eventually rejected Freud’s emphasis on the

unconscious

  1. was a Wundtian PhD but developed part of his lab into American psychology’s first clinic
  2. was an industrial psychologist best known for his Hawthorne studies

 

  1. Considering the kind of problem most likely to be encountered in Witmer’s clinic, it is not surprising that the APA’s division for ________ gives an annual “Lightner Witmer Award.”
  2. clinical psychology
  3. counseling psychology
  4. developmental psychology
  5. school psychology

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the early years of Witmer’s clinic?
  2. it dealt primarily with the kinds of problems encountered by school psychologists today
  3. it treated hysterics mostly (Witmer was a loyal follower of Freud)
  4. Witmer relied heavily on intelligence testing and he believed strongly in the value of IQ scores
  5. like his contemporaries, he believed that feeblemindedness was hereditary, and that little

could be done to correct children’s learning problems

 

  1. Witmer introduced the term orthogenics to refer to
  2. his belief that feeblemindness was mostly hereditary
  3. his notion that all problems in school could be traced to physical malfunction (e.g., poor

eyesight)

  1. his methods for restoring his clients to a “normal” condition
  2. his belief that clinics could assess quite well, but treatment was more or less hopeless

 

  1. In Witmer’s clinic, the diagnostic strategy included several features. Which of the following was least relied upon by Witmer?
  2. the Binet-Simon intelligence tests
  3. tests of memory and attention
  4. a complete physical by a medical doctor
  5. a social worker report of conditions in the home

 

  1. How would you characterize clinical psychology in America prior to the end of World War II?
  2. clinical psychology didn’t exist until the end of World War II
  3. clinicians had low status, often doing little more than administering tests
  4. clinical psychology was still in the Witmer model—it was more like school psychology
  5. clinicians had control of the APA, and by 1930, had professional status equal to that of

psychiatrists

 

  1. Prior to World War II,
  2. clinical psychologists did not have any professional organization they could join
  3. academicians dominated the power structure of the APA
  4. academicians and practitioners held equal power in APA—it was only after the war that a

split occurred

  1. practitioners badly outnumbered academicians

 

  1. Which of the following was true about clinical psychology in America prior to World War II?
  2. clinicians followed the Boulder model before the war and the Vail model after the war
  3. clinicians usually worked in industry, helping to select workers
  4. the term clinical psychology did not exist until after the war
  5. clinicians had no generally-agreed upon training model

 

 

  1. What happened when APA was reorganized in the mid-1940s?
  2. clinicians left the group and formed their own organization (the AAAP)
  3. two main divisions were formed—one for clinicians and one for scientists
  4. “advancement as a profession” was added to “advancement as a science” in the statement

of the APA’s goals

  1. academic psychologists left to form their own organization—since 1945, the APA has been

primarily for clinicians

 

  1. Compared to a clinical psychologist working in 1935, what was it like to work as a clinical psychologist in 1950?
  2. more likely to be prescribing drugs
  3. more likely to be limited to psychological testing
  4. more likely to be doing psychotherapy
  5. more likely to be a member of the AAAP

 

  1. Which of the following was true about psychotherapy in the 1950s?
  2. psychoanalytic-based therapies came under fire after Eysenck’s article questioned their

effectiveness

  1. medical therapy predominated and clinical psychologists spent most of their time writing

prescriptions

  1. because it ignored the unconscious, behavior therapy was shown to be ineffective
  2. the report by Eysenck showed that virtually all forms of therapy were more effective than

no therapy at all—so psychotherapy blossomed

 

  1. Who is the person most responsible for creating the training approach to clinical psychology known as the Boulder model?
  2. Lightner Witmer
  3. David Shakow
  4. Joseph Wolpe
  5. Carl Rogers

 

  1. David Shakow believed that clinical psychologists should be competent in three general areas. Which of the following was not one of them?
  2. diagnosing mental disorders
  3. completing effective research
  4. conducting competent psychotherapy
  5. recommending appropriate medication

 

  1. Which of the following best sums up the relationship between clinical psychology and psychiatry since World War II?
  2. clinical psychology has gradually become licensed to do the things that were once the

exclusive domain of psychiatry

  1. clinical psychology has declined in status, while psychiatry has increased in status
  2. psychiatrists now recognize that clinicians are better trained at diagnosis and treatment
  3. psychiatry is no longer a specialty in medical school

 

  1. Clinicians trained via the Boulder model
  2. earn a PsyD
  3. complete a major research project to earn a PhD
  4. receive training in diagnosis of mental illness, but not in treatment
  5. consider themselves to be practitioner-scientists more than scientist-practitioners

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Eysenck’s 1952 study on psychotherapy
  2. did not collect original data—it was a compilation and summary of other studies that had

been completed

  1. demonstrated that behavior therapy was more effective than humanistic therapy
  2. showed that although traditional psychotherapy was better than no therapy, it wasn’t highly

effective overall

  1. all of these

 

  1. What did Eysenck find in his study of therapy effectiveness?
  2. therapy was effective if the therapist had certain skills—the type of therapy did not matter
  3. although neither therapy fared well, Freudian psychoanalysis was found to be more

effective than eclectic therapy

  1. improvement was actually better without therapy than with either Freudian or eclectic therapy
  2. the only therapy found to be better than the absence of therapy was “eclectic” therapy

 

  1. Which of the following not an example of behavior therapy?
  2. Mowrer and Mowrer’s strategy for curing enuresis (bed wetting)
  3. the effort by Mary Cover Jones to eliminate a boy’s fear of rabbits
  4. the attempt by Carl Rogers to change the behavior and ways of thinking of those with

schizophrenic disorders

  1. Wolpe’s systematic desensitization procedure

 

  1. All of the following are true about systematic desensitization except
  2. in principle, it was very similar to the procedure developed in the 1920s by Mary Cover

Jones as a means of eliminating fear responses

  1. in the 1950s, it derived from research by Wolpe using cats
  2. it included training in Jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique
  3. it is one of several varieties of humanistic therapy that developed after World War II

 

  1. Systematic desensitization is based on the principle that
  2. relaxation responses were innate and just needed to be recognized by those with anxiety

disorders

  1. relaxation responses could be conditioned to replace fear responses
  2. the causes of phobic disorders are buried in the unconscious
  3. medication is better than “talk” therapy when it comes to anxiety disorder

 

  1. The Mowrer’s device for helping children overcome bedwetting was based on
  2. Freudian psychoanalytic principles
  3. humanistic psychology principles
  4. conditioning principles
  5. an “eclectic” model of therapy

 

  1. Humanistic psychology has been referred to as psychology’s “Third Force.” What were the other two forces?
  2. clinical psychology and academic psychology
  3. biological psychology and behaviorism
  4. functionalism and structuralism
  5. psychoanalysis and behaviorism

 

  1. Humanistic psychologists argued that
  2. our past shapes our present and future
  3. self-actualization results from insight into the unconscious
  4. it is important to recognize that we are responsible for our behavior
  5. all of these

 

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the humanistic psychology principle of self-actualization?
  2. it was a lofty goal to reach, and it was understood that nobody could ever become an

“actualizer”

  1. it could only be reached by those who had not been damaged (psychologically) in

childhood

  1. it was assumed that everyone was self actualized from birth, but that life tended to

gradually remove us from actualization

  1. it was believed that we have an innate tendency to strive to reach our full potential

 

  1. One of psychology’s most famous persons was one of Maslow’s models of self-actualization. Who was this person?
  2. Max Wertheimer
  3. William James
  4. John Watson
  5. Edward Tolman

 

  1. Which of the following was not necessarily an attribute of a self-actualizer, according to Maslow’s?
  2. creative
  3. independent
  4. highly intelligent
  5. strong moral code

 

  1. Carl Rogers was very interested in therapy outcome research, an interest that probably traces to his
  2. relationship with Maslow, an experimental psychologist by training
  3. graduate school training at the Institute of Child Guidance
  4. training as an experimental psychologist, studying dominance patterns in primates
  5. childhood experiences with “scientific agriculture”

 

  1. Which of the following characterized the career of Carl Rogers?
  2. he developed client-centered therapy within humanistic psychology because he did not

believe in science

  1. he was not a psychoanalyst, but he did believe the therapist’s role was to actively influence

the client’s way of thinking and behaving

  1. early in his career, he had some training in psychoanalysis, but he later rejected that approach
  2. his client-centered therapy was found to be quite effective, even with those suffering from

schizophrenic disorders

 

  1. With which of the following statements would Carl Rogers agree?
  2. successful therapy requires that the clinician dig deeply into the client’s unconscious
  3. scientific methods can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy
  4. ultimately, the only thing that matters in therapy is that people change their behavior
  5. the therapist must take an active role in guiding the client

 

  1. According to the Rogerian approach to therapy, effectiveness results from
  2. creating an effective therapeutic atmosphere
  3. finding the right therapy technique to match the problem at hand
  4. effectively delving into the client’s past, giving clients some insight into the origins of

their problems

  1. an effective combination of medication and psychotherapy

 

  1. Showing empathy was an important component of client-centered therapy. What was the technique that Rogers developed as a way of demonstrating empathy?
  2. acceptance
  3. free association
  4. reflection
  5. desensitization

 

  1. For Rogers, the effective therapeutic relationship included being able to
  2. demonstrate empathy
  3. demonstrate professional competence
  4. convince clients to take the right path to recovery
  5. support them, but only conditionally (i.e., based on how positive their attitudes were)

 

  1. The purpose of the Rogerian technique of reflection was to demonstrate
  2. empathy
  3. unconditional positive regard
  4. sympathy
  5. genuineness

 

  1. According to Rogers, what was the source of a client’s motivation to change?
  2. a deeply ingrained tendency to move forward to maturity (self-actualization)
  3. a sense of desperation (people entering therapy have hit rock bottom and there is no

way to go but up)

  1. money—therapy isn’t cheap
  2. none of these—Rogers believed that the therapist had to provide the motivation

 

  1. As a movement, humanistic psychology
  2. was consistent with the self-centeredness found in the 1970s
  3. is the dominant approach to psychotherapy today
  4. was important in the 1950s, because of the work of Maslow and Rogers, but died quickly

in the 1960s

  1. overemphasized community at the expense of the self

 

  1. What characterizes the training in clinical psychology of those who earn a PsyD?
  2. their training includes an equal emphasis on research and practice
  3. their training is sometimes referred to as the scientist-practitioner model
  4. the way in which they are trained was first outlined at a conference at Vail
  5. they are generally recognized as having higher status than those earning a PhD

 

  1. Boulder model is to Vail model as
  2. clinical psychology is to counseling psychology
  3. therapy is to research
  4. PsyD is to PhD
  5. science emphasis is to practice emphasis

 

  1. The “scientist-practitioner” model of clinical training results in
  2. an MD
  3. a PhD
  4. a PsyD
  5. an MSW

 

  1. The PsyD model developed, in part, because of problems with the Boulder model. Which of the following was a criticism of the Boulder model?
  2. there was too much emphasis on biological causes and prescriptions as the cure
  3. there was too much training emphasis on treatment and not enough on diagnosis
  4. there was too much training emphasis on practice and not enough on research
  5. there was too much training emphasis on research and not enough on practice

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What was the first company created by psychologists to provide psychological consulting services?
  2. Cattell’s Psychological Corporation
  3. Bingham’s Division of Applied Psychology
  4. Scott’s Scott Company
  5. Hawthorne’s Lighting Company

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the Psychological Corporation?
  2. it filled a need for psychological consultation and it was immediately successful, thanks to

the leadership of Cattell

  1. it only became successful when Bingham replaced Cattell as director
  2. it was designed to provide psychologists to give public lectures (to promote psychology)
  3. it was the first publishing house specializing in psychology books

 

  1. In its early years, what was the primary consulting work done by the Psychological Corporation?
  2. testing and assessment
  3. psychotherapy
  4. public lectures
  5. textbook writing

 

  1. Industrial psychology received a boost in perceived professional legitimacy with
  2. the publication of the Hawthorne studies
  3. the promulgation of the Boulder model
  4. the publication of Morris Vitales’s textbook in 1932
  5. Cattell’s creation of the Psychological Corporation

 

  1. Morris Viteles was an important pioneer in industrial/organizational psychology. His contributions included all of the following except
  2. his 1932 text (Industrial Psychology) gave the field a generally agreed-upon name
  3. he was the first director of an extension of Witmer’s clinic, the Vocational Guidance Clinic
  4. he developed effective safety programs for the Yellow Cab Company
  5. he was the lead researcher in the famous Hawthorne studies

 

  1. The Hawthorne studies
  2. were methodologically flawless, which is very hard to accomplish in a non-lab environment
  3. helped support unionizing movements
  4. suggested that physical factors (e.g. lighting) were more important to productivity than

human factors

  1. helped establish the human relations movement in industry

 

  1. What happened in the “lighting room” studies at Hawthorne?
  2. they were sponsored by the lighting industry, which was not happy with the outcome
  3. productivity increased when lighting conditions improved and decreased when conditions

worsened

  1. the workers went on strike, believing that they were being studied without proper informed

consent

  1. both they were sponsored by the lighting industry, which was not happy with the outcome and productivity increased when lighting conditions improved and decreased when conditions worsened are true

 

  1. Which of the following was true about the Relay Assembly Test Room part of the Hawthorne studies?
  2. because of several methodological and statistical flaws, the results are uninterpretable
  3. because they felt special, the workers were highly productive, regardless of changes in the

working conditions

  1. even when working conditions deteriorated (e.g., more hours per week), workers steadily

improved their productivity

  1. management manipulation led to worker apathy—productivity plummeted

 

 

  1. In the Relay Assembly Test Room part of the Hawthorne studies,
  2. productivity was high throughout the study, because all five of the original workers felt

“special”

  1. two nonproductive workers were replaced by more productive and cooperative workers
  2. productivity actually increased when the workweek went from 40 to 48 hours
  3. productivity was directly related to how well the workroom was lit

 

  1. In research methodology courses, how is the Hawthorne effect typically defined?
  2. research participants are easily fooled about the true purpose of a study
  3. participants will only do their best if they are given concrete incentives
  4. performance will be influenced by participants’ knowledge that they are in an experiment
  5. research participants are typically suspicious about the experimenter’s motives

 

 

Answers

 

  1. C 29. D
  2. D 30. C
  3. C 31. D
  4. C 32. A
  5. A 33. C
  6. C 34. D
  7. A 35. C
  8. C 36. B
  9. D 37. A
  10. A 38. C
  11. C 39. A
  12. A 40. A
  13. B 41. A
  14. B 42. A
  15. D 43. C
  16. C 44. D
  17. C 45. B
  18. A 46. D
  19. B 47. C
  20. D 48. B
  21. A 49. A
  22. B 50. C
  23. A 51. D
  24. C 52. D
  25. C 53. A
  26. D 54. A
  27. B 55. B
  28. C 56.C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


  1. Short Answer

 

 

  1. What were the origins of fever therapy and for which disorder was it usually prescribed?
  2. What do insulin coma therapy and metrazol shock therapy have in common?
  3. What is electroshock therapy and when is it most likely to be used?
  4. What was the clinical purpose of the Moniz lobotomy procedure?
  5. How was the prefrontal leucotomy different from the transorbital lobotomy?
  6. Why is there a Witmer award given today in the area of school psychology?
  7. What did Witmer mean by the term orthogenics?
  8. Prior to World War II, the AAAP existed. What was it and what was its purpose?
  9. According to Shakow, what were three skills that all clinicians ought to have?
  10. Compare the Boulder model of clinical training with the Vail model.
  11. In a sentence, what was the outcome of the Eysenck study of therapy effectiveness?
  12. Describe how Jacobson’s relaxation procedure operates in systematic desensitization.
  13. What is meant by self-actualization?
  14. What did Rogers mean by the concept unconditional positive regard? Why was it important?
  15. Describe the technique that Rogers used to show empathy.
  16. In research courses today, how is the Hawthorne effect defined?
  17. What is engineering psychology?
  18. How does the APA differ from the APS?


III. Essay

 

 

  1. Describe the two medical approaches to therapy, developed in the first half of the 20th century, that led to Nobel prizes for their creators.
  2. Describe the origins (Moniz), evolution (Freeman), and ultimate fate of the lobotomy as a treatment for mental illness.
  3. Describe the history of the phenomenon that came to be known as shell shock.
  4. Describe the activites of Witmer’s clinic. Be sure to work the term orthogenics into your answer
  5. Describe the ways in which World War II and its aftermath affected the status and the activities of clinical psychologists?
  6. Describe Wolpe’s contribution to the behavioral approach to psychotherapy.
  7. Explain why humanistic psychology has been called psychology’s Third Force. How does it differ from the other two “forces?”
  8. What did Maslow mean by self-actualization, how did he study it, and what did he conclude about the nature of “self-actualizers?”
  9. Describe the approach to psychotherapy taken by Carl Rogers. In what fundamental ways did it differ from behavior therapy and psychoanalysis?
  10. According to Rogers, the client will change if the therapeutic atmosphere is just right. What constitutes a proper therapy atmosphere?
  11. Rogers believed that his approach to therapy was appropriate for all relationships. Explain.
  12. Evaluate the contribution of humanistic psychology and its current status in psychology.
  13. Describe the purpose of the Psychological Corporation and the typical activities of its members. Evaluate its early history.
  14. Describe the traditional interpretation of the Hawthorne and explain what really happened. Use both the illumination studies and the Relay Assembly test Room studies to illustrate.
  15. Describe the history of tensions between scientists and practitioners that eventually led to the creation of the APS in 1988.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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