A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank

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A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz – Test Bank

 

1. Define mechanism and describe how the idea of mechanism affected and was affected by physics, concepts of God, and the methods and findings of science. How was the concept of mechanism applied to human beings?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

2. Define determinism and reductionism and describe their relationship to the development of clocks and automata. Why was the mechanical clock the ideal metaphor for the spirit of mechanism?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

3. Describe Descartes’ views of the mind-body problem and his major contributions to the beginnings of modern science, particularly psychology.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

4. Define positivism, materialism, and empiricism and discuss the contributions of each to the emerging science of psychology.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

5. Describe the general contributions of empiricism to psychology, supporting your selection of each contribution with specific examples from the thought of Locke, Hartley, James Mill, and John Stuart Mill.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

6. The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____.​

  a. ​reductionism
  b. ​materialism
  c. ​mechanism
  d. ​empiricism
  e. ​positivism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism
NOTES:   WWW

 

7. According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____.​

  a. ​Zeitgeist
  b. ​entertainment
  c. ​water
  d. ​mechanism
  e. ​making it to the 18th century

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

8. The Zeitgeist of 17th- to 19th-century Europe and of the United States was marked by ____.​

  a. ​scientific revolution
  b. ​political revolution
  c. ​determinism
  d. ​humanism
  e. ​mechanism

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

9. The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____.​

  a. ​Locke and Berkeley
  b. ​La Mettrie and Condillac
  c. ​Newton and Hume
  d. ​Newton and Galileo
  e. ​Galileo and Copernicus

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

10. Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?​

  a. ​effects are predictable and measurable
  b. ​the nature of human beings is basically good, moving toward self-actualization
  c. ​the paradigm of the source or identity of “cause”
  d. ​the laws of association
  e. ​the deductive method of logic

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism
NOTES:   WWW

 

11. What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?​

  a. ​automobile
  b. pneumatic pressure​
  c. ​metronome
  d. ​clock
  e. ​computer

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

12. The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is ____.​

  a. ​reductionism
  b. ​determinism
  c. ​mechanism
  d. ​materialism
  e. ​positivism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

13. The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____.​

  a. ​reductionism
  b. ​determinism
  c. ​mechanism
  d. ​positivism
  e. ​materialism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

14. Seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe, ____ are regular, predictable, observable and measurable.​

  a. ​God and/or other deities
  b. ​nonconscious processes
  c. ​human beings
  d. ​cognitive processes
  e. ​characteristics of self-actualization

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

15. ____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.​

  a. ​Elements
  b. ​Automata
  c. ​Psychomata
  d. ​Mannequins
  e. ​Robots

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

16. Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that ____.​

  a. ​psychology must be an independent science
  b. ​there is both an unconscious and a nonconscious
  c. ​human functioning and behavior are governed by mechanical laws
  d. ​experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature
  e. ​the dictates of religious figures about human behavior had to be countered and/or refuted

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe
NOTES:   WWW

 

17. ____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence.​

  a. ​Galileo’s telescope
  b. ​Babbage’s calculating machine
  c. ​La Mettrie’s self-winding watch
  d. ​Descartes’s automata
  e. ​Newton’s clocks

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

18. Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant of ____.​

  a. ​Babbage’s calculating machine
  b. ​La Mettrie’s self-winding watch
  c. ​Descartes’s automata
  d. ​Newton’s clocks
  e. ​Bessel’s personal equations

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

19. Who published a clear explanation of how the calculating machine functioned and pointed out its potential use and implications?​

  a. ​Babbage
  b. ​La Mettrie
  c. ​Lovelace
  d. ​Descartes
  e. ​Locke

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

20. The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is ____.​

  a. ​mentalism
  b. ​empiricism
  c. ​positivism
  d. ​materialism
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

21. Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____.​

  a. ​experience
  b. ​objectivity in methods
  c. ​overt behavior
  d. ​environmental influences
  e. ​reinforcement schedules

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science
NOTES:   WWW

 

22. Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberate ____.​

  a. ​science from the stranglehold of theology
  b. ​science from the grasp of philosophy
  c. ​philosophy from the clutches of theology
  d. ​science from the dictates of government
  e. ​psychology from the dictates of science

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

23. Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?​

  a. ​Babbage
  b. ​Descartes
  c. ​La Mettrie
  d. ​Locke
  e. ​Comte

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

24. In the 20th century, Carl Jung based important decisions on his dreams. A 17th-century predecessor in this practice was ____.​

  a. ​Newton
  b. ​Galileo
  c. ​Freud
  d. ​Descartes
  e. ​Spinoza

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

25. For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce ____.​

  a. ​theorems of human nature
  b. ​laws of physics
  c. ​principles
  d. ​religious conviction
  e. ​certainty of knowledge

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

26. In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?​

  a. ​Kepler’s
  b. ​Descartes’s
  c. ​Berkeley’s
  d. ​Locke’s
  e. ​John Stuart Mill’s

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science
NOTES:   WWW

 

27. The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to ____.​

  a. ​the bipartisan problem
  b. ​the freethinking problem
  c. ​the mind-body problem
  d. ​positivism
  e. ​theology

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

28. Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that ____.​

  a. ​the body influenced the mind
  b. ​the mind influenced the body
  c. ​the soul influenced both the body and mind
  d. ​the mind and body influenced each other
  e. ​the vital force influenced both the mind and the body

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

29. Descartes’s dualism was novel in its emphasis on the ____.​

  a. ​interaction between mind and spirit
  b. ​influence of the mind on the body
  c. ​influence of the body on the mind
  d. ​parallel but non-interacting functioning of the mind and body
  e. ​predominance of unconscious mental forces

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

30. Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except ____.​

  a. ​reflexes
  b. ​will
  c. ​perception
  d. ​sensation
  e. ​thought

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

31. Descartes changed the focus from the study of ____ to the study of ____.​

  a. ​conscious processes; the unconscious
  b. ​the unconscious; conscious processes
  c. ​the nonconscious; the unconscious
  d. ​the soul; the mind
  e. ​science; theology

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

32. ​Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply.

  a. ​materialism
  b. ​biology
  c. ​mechanics
  d. ​reflexes
  e. ​mathematics

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

33. The body will respond without any internal conscious intent to some external stimulus. This fact illustrates Descartes’ principle of ____.​

  a. undulatio reflexa
  b. Einfall
  c. cogito ergo sum
  d. esse est percipi
  e. ​spring action

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

34. In modern terminology, Descartes would argue that if the inputs are known, the behavioral outputs can be predicted. Thus, he is an intellectual ancestor of ____.​

  a. ​behaviorism
  b. ​functionalism
  c. ​structuralism
  d. ​the French materialists
  e. ​S-R psychology

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

35. The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes’ ____.​

  a. ​reflex action theory
  b. ​theory of respondent behavior
  c. ​theory of operant behavior
  d. cogito ergo sum theory
  e. Einfall theory

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

36. Under Descartes’s reflex action theory, an external stimulus can bring about a(n)____ physical response.​

  a. ​theoretical
  b. ​involuntary
  c. ​intense
  d. ​painful
  e. ​conscious

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

37. Which of the following statements best describes Descartes’ dualistic theory of human nature?​

  a. ​The mind directs all the activities of the body.
  b. ​The body directly controls the activities of the mind.
  c. ​The brain contains derived ideas; the mind contains innate ideas.
  d. ​The mind and body mutually influence each other’s actions.
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

38. Descartes’s term for the site of body-mind interaction was the ____, because it is ____.​

  a. conarium; duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  b. conarium; not duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  c. undulatio reflexa; duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  d. undulatio reflexa; not duplicated in both brain hemispheres
  e. ​pineal gland; located near the heart

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

39. Which of the following is an example of a derived idea?​

  a. ​Solving an algebra equation.
  b. ​Memorizing a history lesson.
  c. ​Philosophy.
  d. ​Playing the guitar.
  e. ​Seeing a forest.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

40. Descartes posited that the mind-body interaction occurred in the ____.​

  a. ​heart
  b. ​brain as a whole
  c. ​pineal body
  d. ​frontal lobes
  e. ​corpus callosum

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

41. According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain ____.​

  a. ​where innate ideas are stored
  b. ​where derived ideas are stored
  c. ​that controlled the activities of the mind
  d. ​where the mind and body interact
  e. ​where all ideas are stored

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

42. Descartes proposed that the mind produces two kinds of ideas, ____ and ____.​

  a. ​derived; innate
  b. ​body; mind
  c. ​reasonable; wacky
  d. ​right; wrong
  e. ​abstract; pseudo-abstract

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

43. Derived ideas ____.​

  a. ​come from God
  b. ​are part of our genetic makeup when we are born
  c. ​arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
  d. ​come into being as a consequence of being socialized into society
  e. ​are taken from innate ideas

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

44. Which of the following is an example of an innate idea?​

  a. ​flowers
  b. ​sweetness
  c. ​tone
  d. ​machines
  e. ​infinity

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

45. Which of the following is a contribution of Rene Descartes to modern psychology?​

  a. ​a mechanistic conception of the body.
  b. ​the theory of reflex action.
  c. ​mind-body interaction.
  d. ​localization of mental function in the brain.
  e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

46. The idea of a house is an example of Descartes’ notion of ____.​

  a. ​innate ideas
  b. undulatio reflexa
  c. ​derived ideas
  d. ​simple ideas
  e. ​complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

47. Descartes theorized that we are born with knowledge of the axioms of geometry. Thus, these axioms are ____ ideas.​

  a. ​innate
  b. ​derived
  c. ​synthetic
  d. ​simple
  e. ​complex

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

48. The doctrine of ____ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists.​

  a. ​derived ideas
  b. ​innate ideas
  c. ​idea principles
  d. ​simple ideas

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

49. Descartes’ notion that we are born with certain perceptual processes is also a principle of which modern school of psychology?​

  a. ​behavioristic
  b. ​psychoanalytic
  c. ​Gestalt
  d. ​phenomenological
  e. ​humanistic

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

50. The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable is ____.​

  a. ​materialism
  b. ​empiricism
  c. ​positivism
  d. ​mechanism
  e. ​reductionism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

51. Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____.​

  a. ​Descartes
  b. ​Comte
  c. ​Locke
  d. ​Berkeley
  e. ​Mill

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

52. The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called ____.​

  a. ​factualism
  b. ​materialism
  c. ​absolutism
  d. ​positivism
  e. ​observation

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

53. In eyewitness testimony, one swears that what one has observed accurately depicts reality. Because this “fact” has not been determined through the methods of science, it does not meet Comtes’ strictest application of ____.​

  a. ​positivism
  b. ​determinism
  c. ​complex ideas
  d. ​materialism
  e. ​mechanism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

54. The doctrine that considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter is ____.​

  a. ​positivism
  b. ​materialism
  c. ​mentalism
  d. ​immaterialism
  e. ​reductionism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

55. Those who argue today that behavior is no more than the action of chemicals and electrical events in the brain might be labeled “modern ____.”​

  a. ​empiricists
  b. ​positivists
  c. ​materialists
  d. ​associationists
  e. ​determinists

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism
NOTES:   WWW

 

56. Materialism is the belief that ____.​

  a. ​speculation and inference are acceptable
  b. ​consciousness exists beyond physics and chemistry
  c. ​the mental world exists on a plane of its own
  d. ​all things can be described in physical terms
  e. ​ideas exist only in Descartes’ mind

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

57. Locke’s ____ marks the formal beginning of British empiricism.​

  a. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  b. A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  c. An Essay Toward a New Theory of Vision
  d. A Treatise of Human Nature
  e. Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

58. A fundamental difference between Descartes’s psychology and that of Locke was their position about the existence of ____.​

  a. ​innate ideas
  b. ​derived ideas
  c. ​idea doctrines
  d. ​simple ideas
  e. ​complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

59. John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, ____.​

  a. ​innate ideas once existed in the human mind, but modern humans do not have them
  b. ​innate ideas only exist in the most intelligent human beings; most people do not have innate ideas
  c. ​innate ideas stay in the unconscious mind and never reach the level of consciousness
  d. ​the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas
  e. ​There was no disagreement between Locke and Descartes

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

60. Aristotle held that the mind was a wax slate upon which impressions are made. Locke invoked the metaphor of the ____ to illustrate the same phenomenon.​

  a. undulatio reflexa
  b. tabula rasa
  c. ​cogito
  d. ​complex idea
  e. ​reflection

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

61. What position did Locke take on the origin of ideas?​

  a. ​Some innate ideas exist, such as self, God, and time.
  b. ​The only acquired ideas are verbal ideas; all other ideas are innate.
  c. ​​Innate ideas don’t change; derived ideas are malleable.
  d. ​All ideas are innate; experience just makes us aware of their presence.
  e. ​All ideas are acquired from experience; no ideas are innate.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

62. Locke argued that ideas seem to us to be innate because ____.​

  a. ​they were classically conditioned
  b. ​they are simple ideas
  c. ​they are complex ideas
  d. ​we don’t recollect having learned them
  e. ​we can’t identify their component elemental ideas

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

63. For Locke, ideas are the result of ____.​

  a. ​reflection and sensations
  b. ​reasoning about sensations
  c. ​primary sensations and secondary sensations
  d. ​experience and cognition
  e. ​primary qualities and secondary qualities

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

64. According to Locke, in human development, what kind of ideas appears first?​

  a. ​sensation
  b. ​reflection
  c. ​simple
  d. ​complex
  e. ​innate

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

65. “Why should I have to read what Locke wrote over 300 years ago? Schultz and Schultz and the instructor get paid to summarize that for me.” What answer would the textbook authors give you?​

  a. ​”Full understanding comes from reading the original data of history from the theorists themselves.”
  b. ​”To see how even a good idea can be badly written.”
  c. ​”Because you are expected to do so.”
  d. ​”Don’t worry if you do not have time to read the original source material; authors and teachers provide accurate versions.”
  e. ​”Actually, you shouldn’t have to.”

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

66. According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of ____.​

  a. ​association
  b. ​deductive logic
  c. ​sensing primary qualities
  d. ​reflection
  e. ​recombination

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

67. According to Locke, the idea of an army or a navy would be an example of ____.​

  a. ​a complex idea
  b. ​an innate idea
  c. ​a simple idea
  d. ​a derived idea
  e. ​a primary quality

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

68. For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea ____.​

  a. ​contains more premises
  b. ​is the result of inductive logic
  c. ​is the result of deductive logic
  d. ​is contiguous
  e. ​cannot be reduced

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

69. If a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, then the fall makes no sound. Using Locke’s distinctions, this conclusion assumes that the sound is a(n) ____.​

  a. ​primary quality
  b. ​secondary quality
  c. ​association
  d. simple idea​
  e. ​complex idea

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

70. According to Locke, the tickle of a feather would be a(n) ____.​

  a. ​complex idea
  b. ​primary quality
  c. ​secondary quality
  d. ​tertiary quality
  e. ​essential quality

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

71. The notion of secondary qualities was proposed by Locke to explain ____.​

  a. ​the distinction between the physical world and one’s experience of it
  b. ​the need for objectivity in psychology
  c. ​the role of positivism in the new science of psychology
  d. ​Descartes’s dualism
  e. ​the difference between simple ideas and complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

72. “If a tree falls in the forest and no one is present to hear it, a sound will still occur because God is the permanent perceiver of all objects in the universe.” This argument illustrates the position of ____.​

  a. ​Berkeley
  b. ​Locke
  c. ​Hume
  d. ​Hartley
  e. ​the Mills

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

73. Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived?​

  a. ​Rene Descartes
  b. ​John Locke
  c. ​David Hartley
  d. ​James Mill
  e. ​George Berkeley

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

74. The doctrine that all knowledge is a function of mental phenomena and is dependent on the perceiving or experiencing person is an illustration of ____.​

  a. ​Locke’s associationism
  b. ​Locke’s mentalism
  c. ​Berkeley’s mentalism
  d. ​Berkeley’s associationism
  e. ​Comte’s positivism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

75. Which of the following slogans could be attributed to Berkeley?​

  a. ​I think, therefore I am.
  b. ​To think is to perceive.
  c. ​To be is to perceive.
  d. ​Whatever exists must have a cause of existence.
  e. ​Go west, young man.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

76. Berkeley’s basic difference with Locke was the former’s argument that ____.​

  a. ​there are no primary qualities
  b. ​there is a one-to-one correspondence between physical objects and subjective perceptions
  c. an object is the association of consecutive perceptions​
  d. ​there are only complex ideas
  e. ​there are only primary qualities

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

77. The phenomenology of the humanistic school focuses on the individual’s unique experiences as they define the person’s reality. This idea is a direct descendant of ____.​

  a. ​Locke’s empiricism
  b. ​Berkeley’s mentalism
  c. Hume’s law of resemblance​
  d. ​James Mill’s mechanical associationism
  e. ​J. S. Mill’s mental chemistry hypothesis

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

78. For Berkeley, depth perception is the result of ____.​

  a. ​concurrent mechanical associations
  b. ​innate ideas
  c. ​the association of primary qualities and complex ideas
  d. ​the association of ideas that must be learned
  e. ​contiguity and repetition

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

79. What was the significance of the defecating duck?​

  a. ​It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time.
  b. ​It was widely popular and well-known.
  c. ​It was described as the “glory of France.”
  d. ​It was one example of the spirit of mechanism.
  e. ​All of the above.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Defecating Duck and the Glory of France

 

80. Why was the mechanical clock a revolutionary invention?​

  a. ​Clocks brought precision, regularity, and predictability to everyday life, which was later developed into a model for science.
  b. ​Clocks were used only by the elite to control the masses.
  c. ​Because of the varying sizes and shapes, clocks helped stimulate the European economy like never before.
  d. ​Clocks were used for religious practices.
  e. ​Clocks were built to look like people and animals.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

81. Which of the following types of automata are NOT described in the book?​

  a. A defecating duck​
  b. ​A life-sized animated flute player
  c. ​A “Lady-Musician” that played the harpsichord
  d. ​A 16-inch mechanical monk
  e. ​A singing mouse

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

82. Which theorist believed that people are similar to machines?​

  a. ​Descartes
  b. ​Berkeley
  c. ​Galileo
  d. ​Locke
  e. ​Comte

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

83. What was the basis for Babbage’s calculating machine?​

  a. ​The spirit of mechanism
  b. Automata and clocks​
  c. ​The mechanical nature of human mental actions
  d. ​None of the above
  e. ​All of the above

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

84. What was the most influential doctrine to modern psychology?​

  a. ​History
  b. ​Materialism
  c. ​Empiricism
  d. ​Chemistry
  e. ​Positivism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

85. While Hartley’s fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed.​

  a. resemblance; contiguity​
  b. ​contiguity; repetition
  c. ​resemblance; repetition
  d. ​temporal contiguity; spatial contiguity
  e. ​contiguity; similarity

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

86. Hartley was the first to apply the theory of association to explain ____.​

  a. ​all mental activity
  b. ​rote learning
  c. ​memory
  d. ​the difference between recall and recognition
  e. ​the difference between sensations and perceptions

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

87. Hartley argued that the human brain and nervous system transmitted impulses ____.​

  a. with electricity​
  b. ​with chemicals
  c. ​using capillary impulses
  d. ​with changes in neurochemical intensities
  e. ​with nerve vibrations

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

88. James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) ___.​

  a. ​crucible
  b. ​machine
  c. ​association
  d. ​calculator
  e. ​tool

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

89. ____, the most radically mechanistic of the British empiricists, claimed that the mind is a machine and that there is no freedom of the will, believing instead that the mind is totally a passive entity and all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations.​

  a. John Stuart Mill​
  b. ​David Hume
  c. ​John Locke
  d. ​James Mill
  e. ​George Berkeley

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

90. Mind is Machine would be a good book title for ____.​

  a. ​Berkeley
  b. ​Hume
  c. ​Hartley
  d. ​James Mill
  e. ​J. S. Mill

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

91. James Mill’s model says that all knowledge ____.​

  a. ​begins with sensations, and associations create complex ideas
  b. ​is innate, and combined to form complex ideas
  c. ​comes from ideas
  d. ​requires an actively engaged mind
  e. ​More than one of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

92. James Mill: ____; John Stuart Mill: ____.​

  a. ​mechanical; chemical
  b. ​dualistic; monistic
  c. ​active mind; passive mind
  d. ​passive mind; active mind
  e. ​mechanical; chemical and dualistic; monistic

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

93. Which British empiricist championed women’s rights and condemned the unequal status of women?​

  a. ​David Hartley
  b. ​John Stuart Mill
  c. ​James Mill
  d. ​David Hume
  e. ​John Locke

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

94. The idea that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts” was the position of ____.​

  a. ​Berkeley
  b. ​Hume
  c. ​Hartley
  d. ​James Mill
  e. ​John Stuart Mill

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

95. John Stuart Mill (JSM) differed from his father’s view of the mind by proposing: “Complex ideas emerge from combinations of simple ideas and possess characteristics not found in those elements.” JSM was concerned with mental ____.​

  a. ​magic
  b. ​coordination
  c. ​mechanics
  d. ​hospitals
  e. ​chemistry

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

96. Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of ____.​

  a. ​James Mill’s creative synthesis
  b. ​Hartley’s creative synthesis
  c. ​James Mill’s active mind theory
  d. ​Hume’s creative synthesis
  e. ​John Stuart Mill’s creative synthesis

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

97. ​John Stuart Mill’s metaphor of mental chemistry came to be known as ____.

  a. ​association
  b. ​the law of contiguity
  c. ​classical conditioning
  d. ​operant conditioning
  e. ​creative synthesis

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

98. Which of the following was not a contribution of British empiricism to the development of psychology?​

  a. ​the role of sensation in consciousness
  b. ​the analysis of conscious experience into elements
  c. ​the claim that almost all human knowledge is derived from experience. However, the principles of mathematics are innate ideas.
  d. ​the focus on conscious experiences
  e. ​through association, synthesizing elements into complex mental experiences

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Contributions of Empiricism to Psychology

 

99. The idea of mechanism was a result of the initial work of Newton.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

100. A basic principle of 17th century physics was that every physical effect is predictable and measurable.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   REF: The Spirit of Mechanism
NOTES:   WWW

 

101. The aspect of technology that 17th century science adopted was precise measurement.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

 

102. Determinism is the belief that every act is brought about by past events.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

103. Babbage was the first in modern America to create and market software.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

 

104. The doctrine that challenged theological authority as a source of knowledge was determinism.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe
NOTES:   WWW

 

105. Wundt inaugurated the era of modern psychology.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

 

106. For Descartes, certainty of knowledge was the result of mathematical principles.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

107. A major contribution of Descartes to psychology was to deflect attention from the study of the mind in general to the study of consciousness in particular.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

108. For Descartes, the functions of the body operate according to mechanical principles.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

109. For Descartes, the unique function of the mind is thought.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

110. At the heart of Descartes’ notion of the undulatio reflexa is the role of the conscious mind in determining behavior​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

 

111. Descartes’ contemporaries believed that neither humans nor animals had souls.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem
NOTES:   WWW

 

112. Comte’s main contribution to psychology was the doctrine of materialism.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism
NOTES:   WWW

 

113. Comte would argue that because God perceives the world, objects in it remain constant.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

114. The materialists argued that consciousness could be understood in accordance with the principles of physics and chemistry.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

115. The nativistic theory of perception holds that certain ideas and mental functions are learned through experience.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

116. The best-known opponents of nativism were the British empiricists.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

117. Locke argued that we believe ideas are innate if or when we cannot recall having learned them.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

118. The first idea of the tabula rasa was John Locke’s.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism
NOTES:   WWW

 

119. “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,” reflects Locke’s notion of primary qualities.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

120. The notion in modern psychology that knowledge depends on the experiencing person is essentially a restatement of Berkeley’s position.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

121. Berkeley used the phenomenon of depth perception to illustrate the presence of innate ideas.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

122. Locke used simple and complex ideas to describe his theory of association, now commonly known as learning.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

123. There was little difference between James Mill and son John Stuart Mill in their interpretations of human mental functioning.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

124. Rote learning has at its core Hartley’s law of repetition.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

125. Hartley attempted to explain psychological and physiological processes in terms of mechanical principles.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

126. James Mill denied that people had free will.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Philosophical Foundations of the New Psychology: Positivism, Materialism, and Empiricism

 

1. Describe the process of founding a school of thought. Using the criteria involved in this process, explain why Wundt, not Fechner, is judged to be the “founding father of modern psychology.”​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

2. Toward the end of his career, Wundt wrote a 10- volume work, Cultural Psychology. What did cultural psychology include? What implications did it have for psychology in terms of areas of study? Why was American psychology so little affected by Wundt’s visions for the field of cultural psychology?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

3. What was the subject matter of Wundt’s psychology? Why did he label his system “voluntarism”? How did this approach differ from that of most British empiricists in terms of the elements of consciousness?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

4. How did Wundt define and differentiate between mediate and immediate experience? Which did he view as forming the elements of the mind? Describe Wundt’s method of introspection, including his rationale and rules for using it and his differentiation between internal and external perception.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

5. What were Wundt’s three goals for psychology? Describe and give examples of the experimental conditions he used in his research related to the first goal.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

6. Define apperception and briefly describe the process of apperception (also called the law of psychic resultants). Expand your discussion by drawing upon Wundt’s explanation in the Original Source Material on the Law of Psychic Resultants and the Principle of Creative Synthesis.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

7. Describe how Wundt was able to exclude philosophical questions about the soul from his new, experimental psychology.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

8. Some of Ebbinghaus’s findings, such as the fact that it takes more time to learn long as opposed by short pieces of material, were not new. What, then, was the significance of his research, both at the time he completed it and now?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

9. Describe Brentano’s act psychology. What are the similarities and differences between it and Wundt’s psychology?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

10. Discuss the differences between Wundt and Külpe, and describe some ramifications of those differences on contemporary psychology.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

11. In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could ____.​

  a. ​pay attention to two things at once
  b. ​not pay attention to two things at once
  c. ​pay attention to two things at once, but not three
  d. ​pay attention to three things at once, but not four
  e. ​sustain his attention on one thing for a little less than 12 minutes at a time

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   No Multitasking Allowed

 

12. Wilhelm Wundt is the ____ of psychology as a discipline.​

  a. ​originator
  b. ​antecedent
  c. ​forerunner
  d. ​founder
  e. ​originator and founder

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Founding Father of Modern Psychology

 

13. What book marks the “literary birth” of the new science of psychology?​

  a. ​Müller’s Handbook of Physiology of Mankind (1833-1840)
  b. ​Helmholtz’s Handbook of Physiological Optics (1856-1866)
  c. ​Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics (1860)
  d. ​Wundt’s Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception (1858-1862)
  e. ​Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics (1860) and Wundt’s Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception (1858-1862)

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

14. ​In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in ____.

  a. ​psychophysics
  b. ​physiological psychology
  c. ​social psychology
  d. ​volkerpsychologie
  e. ​introspection

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

15. Wundt’s system is most accurately called ____.​

  a. ​structural psychology
  b. ​experimental psychology
  c. ​physiological psychology
  d. ​psychophysics
  e. ​reductionism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

16. Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its ____.​

  a. ​subject matter
  b. ​emphasis on physiology
  c. ​use of the experimental method
  d. ​use of the deduction and induction
  e. ​focus on behavior

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

17. Wundt’s influence was so widely felt that, as a tribute, his lab was later replicated in ____.​

  a. ​the United States and Sweden
  b. ​Italy and Japan
  c. ​Russia and the United States
  d. ​Sweden and Italy
  e. ​Japan and Russia

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

18. Which of the following statements is true of Wundt’s cultural psychology?​

  a. ​It was the same thing as folk psychology.
  b. ​It became the discipline known as anthropology.
  c. ​It was never published, although some lectures and articles remain.
  d. ​It was the study of socioeconomic strata in society.
  e. ​It dealt with various stages of human mental development.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

19. The cultural psychology of Wundt examined evidence from ____.​

  a. ​studies of children and their thinking
  b. ​examination of language, myths, customs, law, and morals
  c. ​philosophy
  d. ​experimentation
  e. ​a content analysis of contemporary newspapers

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

20. Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because ____.​

  a. ​they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
  b. ​he considered them to be lower lever cognitive processes
  c. ​one cannot control the relevant factors
  d. ​one cannot objectively observe the behavioral manifestations of these phenomena
  e. ​they are not the proper subject matter of psychology, regardless of the methodology one uses

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

21. Wundt’s productivity as a writer can be quantified by his output, which averaged ____.​

  a. ​5 pages a day for over 50 years
  b. ​2.2 pages a day for over 50 years
  c. ​1.5 pages a day for approximately 25 years
  d. ​4.7 pages a day for approximately 15 years
  e. ​just about 1 page a day for his working life

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

22. For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was ____.​

  a. ​sensations
  b. ​perceptions
  c. ​consciousness
  d. ​associations
  e. ​introspection

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

23. The first system or school of thought in psychology was called ____.​

  a. ​cultural psychology by Wundt
  b. ​voluntarism by Wundt
  c. ​structuralism by Wundt’s student, Titchener
  d. ​structuralism in Germany and functionalism in the United States
  e. ​volkerpsychologie by Wundt

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

24. ​Wundt’s term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the ____.

  a. ​elements of consciousness
  b. ​individual’s choice to apply his/her knowledge base to a situation
  c. ​idea that a stimulus in the environment can force us to pay attention
  d. ​power of the will to organize the contents of the mind
  e. ​ability of the individual to “make the nonconscious conscious”

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

25. In Wundt’s laboratory, introspection was used to assess ____.​

  a. ​immediate experience
  b. ​mediate experience
  c. ​sensations
  d. ​feelings
  e. ​stimulus intensities

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

26. According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of ____.​

  a. ​mediate experience
  b. ​the time required for sensory organs to transmit impulses to consciousness
  c. ​conscious experience
  d. ​the different stages of childhood development
  e. ​immediate experience

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

27. If you look at a rose and observe, “The rose is red,” you are observing the ____.​

  a. ​mediate experience
  b. ​immediate experience
  c. ​basic human experience
  d. ​stimulus error
  e. ​elements of experience

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

28. Introspection as used by Wundt is also called ____.​

  a. ​internal perception
  b. ​internal observation
  c. ​retrospection
  d. ​the method of limits
  e. ​the method of constant stimuli

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

29. Wundt’s modification of introspection was the ____.​

  a. ​use of experimental controls
  b. ​quantification of the sensations in accord with Fechner’s Law
  c. ​analysis of mediate experience into immediate experience and its confounds
  d. ​use of children as observers (subjects)
  e. ​comparison of normal subjects’ reports of elements of consciousness with reports. of hallucinations by psychiatric patients and by those using drugs such as cocaine

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

30. Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s experimental conditions?​

  a. ​Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
  b. ​Observers must be able to determine when the process is to begin.
  c. ​Observers must be in a state of readiness.
  d. ​The observations must be repeatable.
  e. ​It must be possible to control and manipulate the stimuli.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

31. Wundt’s observers used introspection to report ____.​

  a. ​judgments about the size and intensity of physical stimuli
  b. ​their reaction times
  c. ​the processes of sensing and perceiving
  d. ​retrospective accounts of their experiences
  e. ​All of the above choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

32. Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt’s goals for his psychology?​

  a. ​To analyze conscious processes
  b. ​To identify the basic elements of consciousness
  c. ​To determine how the elements of consciousness are synthesized
  d. ​To determine the principles of the linking that occurs in the organization of the elements
  e. ​To identify the principles that govern the synthesis of those elements into higher cognitive processes such as learning

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

33. According to Wundt, the stimulation of a sense organ sufficiently to have the nerve impulse reach the brain defines a(n) ____.​

  a. ​reflex
  b. ​afferent response
  c. ​sensation
  d. ​perception
  e. ​cognition

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

34. Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics?​

  a. ​intensity and extensity
  b. ​intensity, duration, and sense modality
  c. ​clearness, quality, and duration
  d. ​sense modality, clearness, and quality
  e. ​reaction time and intensity

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

35. For Wundt, the difference between sensations and images was ____.​

  a. ​nonexistent
  b. ​that images are weaker than sensations
  c. ​that images have a longer duration than sensations
  d. ​that images are what today we call perceptions
  e. ​that sensations last for microseconds, whereas images can be retained in memory for indeterminate periods of time

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

36. According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely ____.​

  a. ​sensation and perception
  b. ​sensation and feelings
  c. ​images and feelings
  d. ​sensation and images
  e. ​immediate experience and mediate experience

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

37. For Wundt, feelings are ____.​

  a. ​the same as sensations
  b. ​based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure
  c. ​derived directly from a sense organ
  d. ​complex compounds of elementary emotions
  e. ​a complex idea

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

38. Wundt’s theory of feelings was based on ____.​

  a. ​Weber’s earlier work on emotions
  b. ​retrospective reports of trained observers
  c. ​his own introspections
  d. ​Fechner’s discovery of the pleasure principle
  e. ​Fechner’s Law (S = k log R)

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

39. Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings?​

  a. ​pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression.
  b. ​clarity/opaqueness; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression.
  c. ​tension/ relaxation; pleasure/depression; clarity/opaqueness.
  d. ​pleasure/pain; tension/relief; mania/depression.
  e. ​intensity/extensity; immediacy/delay; pleasure/displeasure.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

40. Wundt’s doctrine of apperception refers to ____.​

  a. ​the breaking down of mental elements
  b. ​perception
  c. ​the process of training introspective observers over 10,000 observations
  d. ​the process of organizing mental elements into a whole
  e. ​None of the choices are correct

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

41. Wundt’s doctrine of apperception was also known as the ____.​

  a. ​principle of creative synthesis
  b. ​law of psychic resultants
  c. ​principle of psychic compounding
  d. ​law of Gestalt resultants
  e. ​law of creative resultants

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

42. The law of psychic resultants governs ____.​

  a. ​the organization of mental elements
  b. ​perception
  c. ​the production of images and their retention
  d. ​the mechanical linking (association) of mental elements into simple idea
  e. ​the mechanical linking (association) of mental elements into complex ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

43. ​The Gestalt psychologists’ best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt’s principle of ____.

  a. ​sensations
  b. ​feelings
  c. ​emotions
  d. ​the tridimensional theory of feelings
  e. ​apperception

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

44. As Wundt stated in the Original Source Material on the Law of Psychic Resultants and the Principle of Creative Synthesis from the Outline of Psychology (1896), the ____ “finds its expression in the fact that every psychical compound shows attributes which may…be understood from the attributes of its elements…but which are by no means to be looked upon as the mere sum of the attributes of these elements.

  a. ​principle of creative synthesis
  b. ​use of physical measurements
  c. ​use of psychic measurement
  d. ​concept of habit
  e. ​law of psychic resultants

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

45. ​Which statement best describes the basic content of the Original Source Material by Wundt?

  a. ​Psychology studies how the mind comes to have innate knowledge.
  b. ​Psychology is concerned with the study of how the brain controls mental processes.
  c. ​Psychology studies how the conscious mind uses mental elements to conceal unconsciousness processes.
  d. ​Psychology is concerned with the complete listing of mental elements and how these mental elements combine according to the principles of association to form states of consciousness.
  e. ​Psychology is concerned with how the active powers of the mind synthesize mental elements into states of consciousness.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

46. In the Original Source Material from the Outline of Psychology, Wundt states “The law of psychical resultants…expresses a principle which we may designate, in view of its results as a ____.”​

  a. ​periodic chart of the elements of the mind
  b. ​principle of creative synthesis
  c. ​tridimensional theory of feelings
  d. ​catalog of all possible sensations and feelings
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

47. According to Wundt, ____ has/have “to do with objective masses, forces, and energies” while ____ has/have “to do with subjective values and ends.”​

  a. ​psychical measurements; physical measurements
  b. ​creative synthesis; the law of psychic resultants
  c. ​the law of psychic resultants; creative synthesis
  d. ​physical measurements; psychical measurements
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

48. Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because ____.​

  a. ​Germans were resistant to introspection
  b. ​experimentation was not valued
  c. ​it was not seen as having practical value
  d. ​there were not enough journals and textbooks
  e. ​Wundt could not adequately distinguish between feelings and sensations

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

49. Which of the following is not a reason for decline of Wundt’s approach to psychology?​

  a. ​Wundt’s approach represented a pure science of psychology with little opportunity for practical application.
  b. ​German universities did not have the economic resources to support scientific psychology.
  c. ​Wundt’s theories were difficult to understand. Therefore, he attracted very few students to his work.
  d. ​Wundt’s approach was overshadowed by the development of Gestalt psychology in Germany and psychoanalysis in Austria.
  e. ​The pragmatic culture of the United States precluded Wundt’s system.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

50. The ultimate fate of Wundt’s laboratory at Leipzig was that it ____.

  a. ​was destroyed by the Gestapo in World War II
  b. ​is still in existence but serves solely as a historical attraction
  c. ​is still a productive research facility
  d. ​was destroyed by allied bombing raids in World War II
  e. ​was destroyed in World War II but rebuilt as a historical museum

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

51. Research suggests that many psychology historians consider ____ to be the most important psychologist of all​ time.

  a. ​Wundt
  b. ​Freud
  c. ​Fechner
  d. ​Titchener
  e. ​Ebbinghaus

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

52. Wundt’s most important contribution to psychology was ____.​

  a. ​“selling” psychology to the scientific community
  b. ​describing psychology as an experimental science
  c. ​beginning the first psychological journal
  d. ​his publications, which are still widely read today
  e. ​All of the above

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

53. While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong?​

  a. ​Titchener
  b. ​Ebbinghaus
  c. ​Külpe
  d. ​Brentano
  e. ​Galton

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
NOTES:   WWW

 

54. Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he ____.​

  a. ​used reaction times to measure the speed of recalling information from memory
  b. ​wrote the first definitive work on child psychology
  c. ​successfully challenged Wundt’s claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
  d. ​united with Gestalt psychology to oppose the spread of Wundt’s psychology in Germany
  e. ​taught Freud and influenced humanism and Gestalt psychology

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

55. This person was influenced by Fechner’s rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes.​

  a. ​Georg Elias Müller
  b. ​Hermann von Helmholtz
  c. ​Carl Stumpf
  d. ​Hermann Ebbinghaus
  e. ​Oswald Külpe

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

56. Ebbinghaus’s focus of study was on the ____.​

  a. ​examination of associations that were already formed
  b. ​initial formation of associations
  c. ​work of Helmholtz
  d. ​nature of the mind/body problem
  e. ​evolutionary theory as it applied to the mind

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

57. ____ work on ____ was the first “venture into a truly psychological problem area” rather than on physiology.​

  a. ​Wundt’s; sensation
  b. ​Ebbinghaus’; learning
  c. ​Fechner’s; psychophysics
  d. ​Brentano’s; mental activity
  e. ​none of the other choices

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

58. ​While conducting his research, Ebbinghaus used ____.

  a. ​a single subject
  b. ​fewer than 10 subjects at a time
  c. ​a method to “erase” memories
  d. ​over 1,000 subjects
  e. ​a laboratory to systematically test 20 subjects at a time

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

59. As his measure of learning, Ebbinghaus adapted a method from ____.​

  a. ​the psychophysicists
  b. ​Wundt’s lab
  c. ​the early mentalists
  d. ​the Cartesian dualists
  e. ​the associationists

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

60. ​Ebbinghaus measured the rate of human learning by ____.

  a. ​counting associations that had already been formed
  b. ​using an a priori method
  c. ​looking at the relationship between a behavior and its consequence
  d. ​making it more objective
  e. ​counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
NOTES:   WWW

 

61. Titchener noted that the first significant advance in the study of learning since Aristotle was ____.​

  a. ​Wundt’s experimental methods
  b. ​the use of introspection
  c. ​the influence of the basic elements of sensation and feeling on the rate of learning
  d. ​the development of the nonsense syllable
  e. ​the conceptualization of imageless thought

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

62. ​The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables is to ____.

  a. ​control for previous learning
  b. ​be able to replicate the research in all languages that use the same alphabet
  c. ​assess word associations that are not influenced by unconscious material
  d. ​offset the influence of past reinforcements and punishments that one may associate with certain words
  e. ​control for apperception

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

63. What was “meaningless” for Ebbinghaus?​

  a. ​The use of introspection
  b. ​A mathematical approach to psychological phenomena
  c. ​Each syllable created for his research
  d. ​Each series of syllables created for his research
  e. ​Having a specific criterion to identify when learning had occurred

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

64. ​When Ebbinghaus compared the speed of memorizing lists of nonsense syllables versus stanzas of a poem he found that ____.

  a. ​meaningless material is nine times harder to learn than meaningful material
  b. ​Byron’s poem, “Don Juan,” was so uninteresting that stanzas from took longer to learn than did lists of syllables
  c. ​each stanza had 80 syllables, requiring 80 repetitions while it required 9 readings to memorize 80 syllables from the meaningless list
  d. ​it is possible to construct an association-free syllable
  e. ​it is not possible to construct an association-free syllable

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

65. What may be “the most brilliant single investigation in the history of experimental psychology”?​

  a. ​Ebbinghaus’s On Memory
  b. ​Titchener’s On Memory
  c. ​Wundt’s On Forgetting
  d. ​Ebbinghaus’s On Forgetting
  e. ​Titchener’s A Summary of Psychology

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

66. The significance of Ebbinghaus’s work is in his ____.​

  a. ​finding that longer material takes more time to learn
  b. ​rigorous use of experimental control and his quantitative analysis of data
  c. ​tolerance for boredom
  d. ​use of large numbers of subjects to replicate his experiments
  e. ​ability to further the approach and findings of Wundt

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

67. Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting shows that ____.​

  a. ​material is forgotten slowly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting speeds up
  b. ​the decay theory of forgetting is essentially correct
  c. ​material learned first is forgotten last
  d. ​material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
  e. ​forgetting occurs at a gradual, even rate across time

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

68. ​Ebbinghaus and König argued that psychology and physiology ____.

  a. ​must be separated if the new science was to flourish
  b. ​are inseparable halves of a new great double science
  c. ​must each address classic problems from philosophy
  d. ​must remain parallel and together but not intersect while studying the mind-body problem
  e. ​must unite to remove introspection and replace it with experimentation in the new science

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

69. ​Ebbinghaus developed a(n) ____ considered by some to be the first successful test of higher mental process and used today, in modified form, in cognitive ability tests.

  a. ​problem-solving template
  b. ​ability test of memorization
  c. ​sentence-completion exercise
  d. ​tolerance of boredom
  e. ​memory and retention exercis

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

70. Ebbinghaus dedicated The Principles of Psychology to ____.​

  a. ​Titchener
  b. ​Wundt
  c. ​Fechner
  d. ​Brentano
  e. ​Külpe

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

71. Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, ____ can be seen as more influential than ____.​

  a. ​Ebbinghaus; Wundt
  b. ​Wundt; Ebbinghaus
  c. ​König; Brentano
  d. ​Wundt; Brentano
  e. ​Brentano; König

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

72. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (1874) was the major contribution to psychology from ____.​

  a. ​Wundt
  b. ​Brentano
  c. ​Ebbinghaus
  d. ​Titchener
  e. ​Stumpf

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

73. This popular lecturer at the University of Vienna influenced many students including von Ehrenfels and Freud and was the intellectual antecedent of Gestalt psychology and humanistic psychology.​

  a. ​Edward Titchener
  b. ​Hermann Ebbinghaus
  c. ​Franz Brentano
  d. ​Oswald Külpe
  e. ​Carl Stumpf

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

74. For Brentano, the primary research method was ____.​

  a. ​experimentation
  b. ​observation
  c. ​factor analysis
  d. ​functional analysis
  e. ​psychoanalysis

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

75. The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to ____.​

  a. ​Wundt
  b. ​Ebbinhaus
  c. ​Brentano
  d. ​Stumpf
  e. ​Titchener

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

76. Brentano’s system of psychology was called ____ psychology.​

  a. ​Act
  b. ​Cognitive
  c. ​Sense
  d. ​Content
  e. ​Memory

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

77. Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt’s approach, claimed that psychology should ____.​

  a. ​try to analyze consciousness into discrete mental states called “moments”
  b. ​actively fight for its place in the academic world
  c. ​be concerned with the development of rigorous methods of scientific research in the laboratory
  d. ​incorporate the study of music into laboratory research
  e. ​study mental processes or functions and not mental structure

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

78. Act psychologists argued that the two ways of systematically studying mental acts were ____.​

  a. ​introspection and retrospection
  b. ​learning and memory
  c. ​learning and imagination
  d. ​memory and imagination
  e. ​experimentation and empiricism

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

79. ​Other than Stumpf’s research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ____.

  a. ​educating the founders of Gestalt psychology
  b. ​the legitimization of music as a therapy for mentally ill and developmentally disabled persons
  c. ​the legitimization of introspection as an experimental technique
  d. ​the legitimization of untrained observers to do introspection in experimental research
  e. ​the discovery of imageless thought and the ensuing debate with Wundt

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)
NOTES:   WWW

 

80. ​The psychological study of music was pioneered by ____.

  a. ​Helmholtz
  b. ​Fechner
  c. ​Wundt
  d. ​Stumpf
  e. ​Külpe

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

 

81. Stumpf’s method of observation was ____.​

  a. ​phenomenology
  b. ​retrospection
  c. ​introspection
  d. ​systematic experimental introspection
  e. ​insight

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

 

82. Which of the following methods is defined as “the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.”​

  a. ​Epiphenomenology
  b. ​Phenomenology
  c. ​Voluntarism
  d. ​Introspection
  e. ​Imageless thought

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

 

83. Stumpf and Wundt engaged in a bitter fight over the topic of ____.​

  a. ​phenomenology
  b. ​the introspection of tones
  c. ​music as mediate experience
  d. ​imageless thought
  e. ​classical music

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

 

84. .”Psychology is the science of the facts of experience as dependent on the experiencing person,” according to whom?​

  a. ​Wundt
  b. ​Brentano
  c. ​Stumpf
  d. ​Külpe
  e. ​Ebbinghaus

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

85. Systematic experimental introspection involves ____.​

  a. ​retrospection
  b. ​introspection
  c. ​the presentation of sensory stimuli
  d. ​the performance of a complex task
  e. ​retrospection and the performance of a complex task

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)
NOTES:   WWW

 

86. ​Külpe’s method emphasized all of the following except ____.

  a. ​subjective reports
  b. ​qualitative reports
  c. ​after-the-fact questions to direct observers’ attention
  d. ​investigating unconscious processes
  e. ​having subjects perform a complex task

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

87. ​Külpe’s identification of nonsensory aspects or contents of consciousness refuted Wundt’s ____.

  a. ​contention that the sole mental elements were sensations or images
  b. ​contention that emotions are composed of simple feelings and can be reduced to them
  c. ​contention that feelings are the subjective complements of sensations
  d. ​research on sensations
  e. ​findings on voluntarism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

88. Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe’s view is known as ____.​

  a. ​intentionality
  b. ​act psychology
  c. ​imageless thought
  d. ​retrospection
  e. ​systematic experimental realism

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

89. Marbe and Watt extended the work and influence of the Würzburg school with their ____.​

  a. ​discovery of imageless thought
  b. ​discovery of the influence of the unconscious mind
  c. ​reduction of imageless thoughts to nonconscious memories of sensations
  d. ​identification of a method to retrieve unconscious material
  e. ​experimental work on nonconscious learning (subliminal perception)

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

90. Fechner is the founder of psychology as a formal discipline.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Founding Father of Modern Psychology

 

91. Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics was the “first conquest” of experimental psychology.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Founding Father of Modern Psychology

 

92. Psychology was established as an independent discipline with Wundt’s Principles of Physiological Psychology.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Founding Father of Modern Psychology

 

93. Wilhelm Wundt started the first journal of experimental psychology, Philosophical Studies.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

94. Wundt’s Cultural Psychology was an attempt to investigate the effects of group membership on decision making.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

95. For Wundt, the subject matter of experimental psychology was consciousness.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

96. If you look at a rose and report “The rose is red” then you are describing immediate experience.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

97. Among Wundt’s rules for introspection was that the subject/observer was not to be forewarned because a preparatory set (expectation) would interfere with the immediate experience.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

98. Wundt’s data were objective measures.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

99. For Wundt, the elements of the mind are sensations and feelings.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

100. The components of the tridimensional theory are pleasantness, brightness, and contrast.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

101. In the Original Source Material, Wundt states that ,”the law of psychical resultants expresses a principle that is the opposite of the principle of creative synthesis”.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

102. For Wundt, as stated in the Original Source Material, physical measurements and psychical measurements essentially have to do with the same thing.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

103. Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology immediately and completely transformed the nature of academic psychology in Germany.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

104. Wundt’s cultural psychology gained acclaim by distinguishing itself from philosophy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

105. Paramount among the factors that contributed to the demise of Wundtian psychology was World War I and the economic crisis that followed it.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

106. Wundt debated questions about “soul,” vehemently arguing that such was the subject matter of philosophy and religion.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

107. In terms of the Zeitgeist of 19th-century German universities, the time was right for Wundtian psychology.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
NOTES:   WWW

 

108. Wundt  is regarded by many modern psychology historians as the most important psychologist of all time.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

 

109. Schultz and Schultz compare Ebbinghaus’s conception of memory with the process of association espoused by the British empiricists.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

110. Ebbinghaus’s work on learning and forgetting has been judged one of the great instances of original genius in experimental psychology.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

 

111. The book, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, was a defining work for the British laws of association.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

112. The basic distinction between Wundt’s and Brentano’s systems was that the former’s was experimental and the latter’s was empirical.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

113. Brentano argued that mental acts could be studied by memory and imagination.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

 

114. Phenomenology was the type of observation of experience preferred by Stumpf.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

 

115. The method of systematic experimental introspection was developed by Wundt.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

116. Külpe emphasized qualitative reports from his observers.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

 

117. Watt’s work was important for its identification of unconscious determining tendencies that subjects manifested.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)
1. What were the central tenets of behaviorism as set forth by Watson? How did they differ from the principles and approaches of Wundt and Titchener? Why was the method of introspection unacceptable to Watson?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

2. Identify and describe the three major forces that formed Watson’s system of behavioral psychology. What was Watson’s position and that of his contemporaries on positivism?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

3. ​Describe the evolution of animal psychology from Romanes and Morgan to Pavlov and Bekhterev. Why was it difficult to be an animal psychologist in the United States before behaviorism was well established?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

4. What were the specific contributions of Loeb, Washburn, Small, and Turner to animal psychology?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

5. Tell the story of Clever Hans, the clever horse. Who are the main characters and what are their roles? Explain how experimentation was used to determine the source of Hans’ cleverness. Who served as the experimenter and what were his/her conclusions?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

6. Describe Thorndike’s work with cats in the puzzle box, including the nature of the box, what he observed, and the link between the results and his laws of learning.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1

 

7. Compare and contrast Thorndike’s law of effect and Pavlov’s law of reinforcement.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.
POINTS:   1
NOTES:   WWW

 

8. What was Twitmyer’s contribution to modern psychology? Why is his work so often overlooked?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

9. Describe Pavlov’s work on conditioning, including his experimental method and the extent to which he attempted to control irrelevant variables.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

10. Compare and contrast the work of Pavlov on conditioned reflexes and that of Bekhterev on associated reflexes. How did their work influence Watsonian behaviorism?

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

11. ​Discuss the ways in which functional psychology influenced behaviorism.

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​
POINTS:   1

 

12. By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the ____.​

  a. ​value of introspection
  b. ​existence of mental elements
  c. ​need for psychology to be a pure science
  d. ​replacement of structuralism by functionalism
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

13. Watson’s approach to structuralism and functionalism was ____.​

  a. ​conciliatory
  b. ​to reject structuralism but retain aspects of functionalism
  c. ​to demand a return to pure science
  d. ​an overreaction to the quick popularity of psychoanalysis
  e. ​a revolt

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior
NOTES:   WWW

 

14. Which of the following terms should be banned from psychology according to behaviorism?​

  a. ​image
  b. ​mind
  c. ​consciousness
  d. ​All of the choices are correct.
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

15. For Watson, such subject matter as mind, consciousness, and images was ____.​

  a. ​meaningless for a science of psychology
  b. ​necessary for human thought
  c. ​best dealt with by psychoanalysis
  d. ​the necessary starting point for the study of behavior
  e. ​regulated by Pavlov’s law of reinforcement

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

16. Who argued that consciousness, as a concept, was as unprovable as the concept of the soul?​

  a. ​Loeb
  b. ​Watson
  c. ​Pavlov
  d. ​Thorndike
  e. ​Angell

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

17. For Watson, introspection was ____.​

  a. ​irrelevant
  b. ​appropriate only for research with normal humans
  c. ​acceptable as used by Wundt, i.e., with systematic observation, controls, and replication
  d. ​acceptable only if performed by exceptionally well-trained observers
  e. ​necessary to the understanding of behavior

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

18. ​For Comte, valid knowledge is that which is ____.

  a. ​objectively observable
  b. ​social in nature
  c. ​reliable
  d. ​truthful, as defined by internal observation
  e. ​objectively observable and social in nature

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

19. ​The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by ____.

  a. ​behaviorism
  b. ​positivism
  c. ​functionalism
  d. ​experimentation
  e. ​nihilism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

20. The most important antecedent of Watson’s behaviorism was ____.​

  a. ​evolutionary theory
  b. ​functionalism
  c. ​positivism
  d. ​animal psychology
  e. ​the anecdotal method

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

21. Who had a theory of tropisms?​

  a. ​Bekhterev
  b. ​Watson
  c. ​Loeb
  d. ​Morgan
  e. ​Twitmyer

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

22. For Loeb, a tropism is a(n) ____.​

  a. ​involuntary forced movement
  b. ​reflex arc
  c. ​indication of consciousness
  d. ​reflex
  e. ​toucan

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

23. For Loeb, if an animal’s response is forced by a stimulus, the ____.​

  a. ​behavior does not need explanation
  b. ​behavior is positivist
  c. ​behavior requires no inferences about consciousness
  d. ​animal is unable to perceive and discriminate between objects
  e. ​animal is unable to display purposive behavior

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

24. The white rat and the rat maze became staples of research in psychology in 1900 with the work of ____.

  a. Jacques Loeb
  b. C. Lloyd Morgan
  c. Willard S. Small
  d. Carl Lashley
  e. John B. Watson

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

25. Watson’s dissertation was on ____.​

  a. ​the conscious experience of rats
  b. ​the conscious experience of toddlers
  c. ​the latent learning of rats
  d. ​fear conditioning in rats
  e. ​fear conditioning in toddlers

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

26. An early African American researcher in comparative psychology was ____.​

  a. ​Loeb
  b. ​Bond
  c. ​Turner
  d. ​James
  e. ​Twitmyer

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

27. The Animal Mind, the first textbook on comparative psychology, was written by ____.​

  a. ​Mary Calkins
  b. ​Margaret Washburn
  c. ​Mary Cover Jones
  d. ​Rosalie Rayner
  e. ​Maude Merrill

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

28. Who wrote a paper on ant behavior that was highly praised by Watson?​

  a. ​Turner
  b. ​Loeb
  c. ​Washburn
  d. ​Twitmyer
  e. ​Yerkes

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

29. The “last stand” of mentalistic interpretations of animal behavior was the text ____ written by ____.​

  a. Animal Intelligence; Thorndike
  b. The Animal Mind; Yerkes
  c. The Animal Mind; Washburn
  d. Animal Education; Turner
  e. Objective Psychology; Bekhterev

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

30. After The Animal Mind, textbooks on comparative psychology focused on ____.​

  a. ​reflex behavior
  b. ​respondent conditioning
  c. ​operant conditioning
  d. ​learning
  e. ​physiology

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

31. Which of the following statements best describes the change that took place in animal psychology following the work of Romanes and Morgan?​

  a. ​The field became more subjective as methods to study animal consciousness were perfected.
  b. ​The field became more objective as mentalistic terms were dropped from the descriptions of behavior.
  c. ​The field stopped growing after Angell’s 1906 presidential address describing functionalism.
  d. ​The field was growing in popularity in Russia but was never a major part of psychology in the United States.
  e. ​There was no change, the methods of Romanes and Morgan are still widely used today.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

32. According to Schultz and Schultz, “Whether dealing with mind or with behavior, it was not easy to be ____.”

  a. a functionalist
  b. an experimentalist
  c. a beginning psychologist
  d. an animal psychologist
  e. a mechanist

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

33. The particular contribution of Pavlov’s work to Watson’s behaviorism was Pavlov’s ____.​

  a. ​objective methodology
  b. evidence of the feasibility of an objective psychology​
  c. ​refutation of Dewey’s criticisms of the reflex arc concept
  d. ​refutation of the laboratory animal
  e. ​refutation of Thorndike’s law of effect

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

34. ​Pfungst demonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans was really due to the animal’s ability to respond to ____.

  a. ​voice commands
  b. ​head movements
  c. ​touches
  d. ​odors
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

35. The case of Clever Hans served to ____.​

  a. ​illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions
  b. ​demonstrate transference between animals and humans
  c. ​refute Lashley’s equipotentiality principle
  d. ​focus public attention on introspection by analogy
  e. ​demonstrate the importance of studying both human and animal subjects

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

36. ​Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect is similar to ____.

  a. ​Pavlov’s law of reinforcement
  b. ​Tolman’s purposive behaviorism
  c. ​Guthrie’s one-trial learning
  d. Jones’s behavior modification
  e. ​Wundt’s tridimensional feelings

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

37. ​The first doctoral dissertation in psychology to use animal subjects was that of ____.

  a. ​Washburn
  b. ​Turner
  c. ​Watson
  d. ​Thorndike
  e. ​Yerkes

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

38. ​In Thorndike’s early research, he worked with all of the following except ____.

  a. ​chicks
  b. ​cats
  c. ​dogs
  d. ​children
  e. ​None of the above.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

39. Thorndike earned his Ph.D. in 1898 and after 1899 studied ____.

  a. ​human learning
  b. ​mental testing
  c. ​educational psychology
  d. ​All of the choices are correct.
  e. ​human learning and mental testing only

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   p. 277

 

40. ​An approach to learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.

  a. ​associationism
  b. ​reflexology
  c. ​instrumental conditioning
  d. ​connectionism
  e. ​reinforcement

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

41. ​For Thorndike, learning is ____

  a. ​simple associations
  b. ​complex associations
  c. ​making connections
  d. ​a stimulus-response unit
  e. ​”satisfaction”

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

42. The influence of Romanes and Morgan on Thorndike was shown in Thorndike’s ____.​

  a. ​use of mentalistic processes
  b. ​freely granting high levels of consciousness to animals
  c. ​use of introspection as an additional methodology
  d. ​All of the choices are correct.
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

43. Thorndike’s approach was similar to that of structuralism in his focus on ____.​

  a. ​mechanism
  b. ​introspection
  c. ​mentalism
  d. ​positivism
  e. ​phenomenalism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

44. ​Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?

  a. ​Washburn
  b. ​Turner
  c. ​Watson
  d. ​Thorndike
  e. ​Yerkes

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)
NOTES:   WWW

 

45. The puzzle box is traditionally associated with the work of ____.​

  a. ​Thorndike
  b. ​Watson
  c. ​Skinner
  d. ​Köhler
  e. ​Tolman

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

46. ​Thorndike used ____ measures of learning to record his data.

  a. ​qualitative
  b. ​quantitative
  c. ​qualitative as well as quantitative
  d. ​no
  e. ​outdated

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

47. ​Thorndike’s “trial and accidental success” learning is more commonly known as ____ learning.​

  a. ​respondent
  b. ​stamping in
  c. ​trial-and-error
  d. ​one-trial
  e. ​latent

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

48. Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of ____.​

  a. ​Thorndike’s law of effect
  b. Thorndike’s law of exercise​
  c. ​Pavlov’s law of reinforcement
  d. ​Skinner’s principle of the extinction of competing responses
  e. ​vicarious learning

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

49. Thorndike’s ideas about the stamping in or stamping out of a response tendency led to his statement of ____.​

  a. ​the S-R connection
  b. ​reinforcement
  c. ​the law of satisfaction
  d. ​the law of exercise
  e. ​the law of effect

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

50. Who first demonstrated that reward had a stronger effect than punishment?​

  a. ​Pavlov
  b. ​Watson
  c. ​Thorndike
  d. ​Tolman
  e. ​Skinner

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

51. ​Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that ____.

  a. ​rewards are unrelated to the strength of connection between stimuli and responses
  b. ​stimuli that satisfy physiological needs are most effective as rewards
  c. ​punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection
  d. ​the law of exercise was unrelated to it
  e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

52. The “original” law of effect states that ____.​

  a. ​punishment always weakens a response
  b. ​reward strengthens a response, but punishment does not always weaken a response
  c. ​any act that produces satisfaction is more likely to occur again; any act that produces discomfort is less likely to occur again
  d. ​any act that produces reward will always be extinguished
  e. ​rewards stamp in connections, and punishments stamp out connections

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)
NOTES:   WWW

 

53. Thorndike’s particular contribution to behaviorism was his focus on ____.​

  a. ​animal research
  b. ​objective observation
  c. ​the experimental method
  d. ​principles of association
  e. ​S-R units

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

54. ​Pavlov’s work effected a change in focus from ____ to observable physiological events.

  a. ​introspection
  b. ​subjective speculation about associationism
  c. connectionism​
  d. ​determinism
  e. ​mechanism

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

55. ​Whose work has been described as “a shift from speculation to experimentation?”

  a. ​Pavlov
  b. ​Thorndike
  c. ​Bekhterev
  d. ​Watson
  e. ​Yerkes

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

56. What led Pavlov to shift from a study of theology to that of animal psychology?​

  a. ​becoming familiar with the psychology of Wundt
  b. ​the work of Thorndike
  c. ​Darwin’s theory
  d. ​the case of Clever Hans

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

57. Who could be described as an absent-minded genius?​

  a. ​Bekhterev
  b. Thorndike​
  c. ​Pavlov
  d. ​Watson
  e. ​Twitmyer

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

58. The term psychic reflexes reflects ____.​

  a. ​Pavlov’s early inclination to use mentalistic terms
  b. Pavlov’s familiarity with Watson’s dissertation on the psychic development of the white rat​
  c. ​the distortion of the data of history by an error in translation
  d. ​Pavlov’s training as a neurologist
  e. ​Pavlov’s early identification with the new science of psychology

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

59. ​Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.

  a. ​reinforcement
  b. ​knowledge
  c. ​two or more unconditioned responses
  d. ​S-R connections
  e. ​reinforcements and S-R connections

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

60. More than any other researcher in psychology before him, Pavlov attempted to ____.​

  a. ​eliminate sources of error from his studies.
  b. ​implement the experimental method.
  c. ​reject all responses that were not objectively observable.
  d. ​analyze S-R units into their component elements.
  e. ​eliminate sources of error from his studies and implement the experimental method.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

61. ​In the typical conditioning experiment done by Pavlov, the food placed in the dog’s mouth is called the ____.

  a. ​conditioned stimulus
  b. ​unconditioned stimulus
  c. ​conditioned response
  d. ​unconditioned response
  e. ​conditional response

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

62. For Pavlov, ____ is necessary for learning to take place.​

  a. ​punishment
  b. ​reinforcement
  c. ​emission of a voluntary behavior
  d. ​clean dogs
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)
NOTES:   WWW

 

63. Pavlov conducted research on ____​

  a. ​reinforcement
  b. ​extinction
  c. ​generalization
  d. ​discrimination
  e. ​All of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

64. According to Pavlov in the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), his starting point in research was ____.​

  a. ​his previous work in physiology
  b. ​careful observation of dogs salivating
  c. ​Darwin’s theory of evolution
  d. ​Washburn’s book on the animal mind
  e. ​Descartes idea of the nervous reflex

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

65. In the last half of the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), Pavlov discussed ____.​

  a. ​his work on higher order conditioning
  b. ​many of his experimental variations
  c. ​Darwin’s theory of evolution
  d. ​Washburn’s book on the animal mind
  e. ​the building of what became known as the “Tower of Silence”

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

66. While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.​

  a. ​Walter Pillsbury
  b. ​John Watson
  c. ​Edward Thorndike
  d. ​Edwin Burket Twitmyer
  e. ​Willard Small

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)
NOTES:   WWW

 

67. If the 1904 APA attendees been more attentive, we might today speak of ____.​

  a. ​canine introspection
  b. ​Twitmyer’s dogs
  c. ​Bekhterev’s knees
  d. ​Twitmyerian conditioning
  e. Bekhterev’s dogs

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

68. ​Which of the following is (are) true?

  a. ​Pavlov argued that higher mental processes in animals could be described in physiological terms.
  b. ​Pavlovian methods have had practical applications.
  c. ​Pavlov published extensively with his lifelong friend Bekhterev.
  d. ​Both a and b.
  e. ​None of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

69. Pavlov’s work illustrated the study of higher mental processes in ____.​

  a. ​psychical terms
  b. ​physical terms
  c. ​physiological terms
  d. ​reinforcement

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

70. For Pavlov, humans and animals were ____.​

  a. ​machines
  b. ​allies
  c. ​enemies
  d. ​incompatible
  e. ​essentially different, needing different research methods

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

71. ​Consistent with James’s views, Pavlov argued that ____.

  a. ​psychology was not yet a science
  b. ​psychology was in the preparadigmatic phase
  c. ​classical conditioning was the paradigm needed for psychology to become a science
  d. ​psychology was a mentalistic interpretation of physiology
  e. ​psychology was still in the realm of philosophy

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

72. Pavlov’s view of psychology was ____.​

  a. ​initially favorable, then somewhat negative
  b. ​always negative
  c. ​always favorable
  d. ​initially negative, then somewhat favorable
  e. ​uncertain; he never said one way or the other

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

73. Which of the following statements is not true regarding Bekhterev?​

  a. ​Bekhterev was a physiologist, neurologist, and psychiatrist.
  b. ​Bekhterev had a cordial relationship with Pavlov.
  c. ​Bekhterev hypothesized that high-level behaviors were compounded from simpler reflexive behaviors.
  d. ​Bekhterev argued for a completely objective approach for psychology.
  e. ​Bekhterev was probably assassinated by Stalin

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

74. Bekhterev discovered ____.​

  a. ​the associated reflexes
  b. ​the reflex arc
  c. ​the knee-jerk response
  d. ​one-trial learning
  e. ​that punishment is not effective

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

75. Bekhterev ____.​

  a. ​never used reinforcement for his conditioning
  b. ​applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles
  c. ​was a close friend of Pavlov
  d. ​had a research program that blossomed when he emigrated to the U.S.
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

76. Objective Psychology was authored by ____.​

  a. ​Thorndike
  b. ​Comte
  c. ​Watson
  d. ​Pavlov
  e. ​Bekhterev

 

ANSWER:   e
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)
NOTES:   WWW

 

77. Bekhterev ___.​

  a. ​argued that thought processes depended upon muscle responses of the speech
  b. ​did work on glandular conditioning
  c. ​influenced Freud
  d. ​All of the choices are correct.
  e. ​None of the choices are correct.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

78. Watson was not the first to demand an objective psychology and, according to one historian, ____ is considered the grandfather of Watson’s behaviorism.​

  a. ​Fechner
  b. ​Cattell
  c. ​Thorndike
  d. ​Pavlov
  e. ​Bekhterev

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

79. Who first defined psychology as the study of behavior?​

  a. ​Watson
  b. ​Cattell
  c. ​Pillsbury
  d. ​Pavlov
  e. ​Washburn

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism

 

80. Angell proposed that the term consciousness had about the same life expectancy in psychology as the term ____.​

  a. mind
  b. psychic
  c. soul
  d. respondent
  e. mental element

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism

 

81. Behaviorism was a protest against structuralism, not functionalism.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

82. ​The founder of positivism was Comte.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior
NOTES:   WWW

 

83. One criterion of positivism is that knowledge must be private in nature.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

84. According to positivism, introspective knowledge cannot be considered valid knowledge.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Toward a Science of Behavior

 

85. Animal psychology was an outcome of evolutionary theory.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

86. The notion that single-celled organisms engage in purposive behavior was given by Wundt.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

87. The advantage of Loeb’s concept of tropism was that consciousness was irrelevant.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

88. For Loeb, if an S-R association is formed, then the organism has consciousness.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

89. ​The rat maze was introduced in the research of Willard S. Small.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

90. The author of “Animal Education: The Psychical Development of the White Rat” was Washburn.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

91. The first text on comparative psychology was by Margaret Washburn.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

92. In the early years, animal psychology was discouraged because it appeared to lack pragmatic value.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

93. The work of Skinner on intermittent reinforcement was anticipated by the conditioning of Clever Hans.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Animal Psychology on Behaviorism

 

94. Thorndike argued that psychology should study behavior as well as conscious experience.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

95. Most of Thorndike’s career was concerned with animal learning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

96. Thorndike posited that “The mind is man’s connection-system.”

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

97. Thorndike used the phrase “trial and accidental success.”

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

98. In his mechanistic approach to psychology, Thorndike discarded concepts of satisfaction and discomfort.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

99. In anticipation of Skinner’s work on reinforcement schedules, Thorndike concluded that reward is as important as repetition of a response.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

 

100. ​Pavlov was constantly conducting experiments as he insisted on his own hands-on involvement.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

101. A revolution with fighting in the streets was no excuse for being late if you were one of Pavlov’s lab assistants.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

102. Pavlov’s Nobel Prize was for his work on conditioning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

103. Pavlov’s original term for learned responses was “psychic reflexes.”

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)
NOTES:   WWW

 

104. In Pavlov’s terms, the conditional reflex is dependent on the formation of an association.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

105. Pavlov changed his terminology for a learned response from “psychic reflex” to “conditioned reflex.”

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

106. While the cartoon character Superman had his Tower of Silence, Pavlov had his laboratory called the Fortress of Solitude.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

107. In Pavlovian conditioning, reinforcement is not essential

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

108. E. B. Twitmyer was the first to describe classical conditioning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

109. The crux of Pavlov’s work on conditioning was that higher mental processes could be studied in physiological terms.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)
NOTES:   WWW

 

110. The element of Pavlov’s work most readily appropriated by Watson was the conditioned reflex.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

 

111. Bekhterev’s work is distinct from Pavlov’s in the former’s focus on voluntary motor responses.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

112. Bekhterev’s discoveries concerned associated reflexes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

113. V. M. Bekhterev wrote Objective Psychology.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

 

114. ​Watson was the sole proponent of a “science of behavior” prior to his 1913 paper on the subject.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism

 

115. By 1910, it was expected that mind would soon become as irrelevant to psychology as the concept of soul.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   The Influence of Functional Psychology on Behaviorism
NOTES:   WWW

 

 

 

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