Government in America 2014 Elections And Updates Edition 16th Ed By Edwards -Test Bank

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Government in America 2014 Elections And Updates Edition 16th Ed By Edwards -Test Bank

2

 

The Constitution

 

 

p Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. At the Constitutional Convention, the delegates agreed that slaves would be counted as __________ of a person for determining population for representation in the House of Representatives.

 

  1. one-third
  2. three-fifths
  3. two-thirds
  4. four-fifths

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.1

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 44

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the name given to the rights that are inherent in all human beings and not dependent on government?

 

  1. inherent rights
  2. repatriations
  3. natural law
  4. Constitutional law

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.2

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In what year was the Declaration of Independence signed?

 

  1. 1776
  2. 1787
  3. 1789
  4. 1805

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.3

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 34

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How many constitutions has the United States had in its history?

 

  1. one
  2. two
  3. three
  4. four

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.4

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787; Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure; LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 37, 41

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The U.S. Constitution was adopted in response to the weaknesses of which document?

 

  1. Shays’s Rebellion
  2. the Constitution of the United Kingdom
  3. the Declaration of Independence
  4. the Articles of Confederation

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.5

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The colonists rebelled against the imposition by the British government of which of the following?

 

  1. taxes
  2. a military draft
  3. curfews
  4. religious laws

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.6

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 33

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence?

 

  1. James Madison
  2. Benjamin Franklin
  3. Thomas Jefferson
  4. John Adams

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.7

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 34

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following debated and drafted the Declaration of Independence?

 

  1. the Common Sense Committee
  2. the Continental Congress
  3. the Committees of Correspondence
  4. the Constitutional Convention

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.8

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 33 – 34

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. While working on the Constitution, what aspect of the new government most concerned James Madison?

 

  1. democratic institutions
  2. political parties
  3. elitist control
  4. tyranny of the majority

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.9

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 47

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following generally favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution?

 

  1. Daniel Shays
  2. Federalists
  3. Anti-Federalists
  4. Constitutionalists

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.10

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How many amendments have been made to the Constitution since its ratification?

 

  1. 10
  2. 15
  3. 27
  4. 36

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.11

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 59

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In what year was the U.S. Constitution ratified?

 

  1. 1776
  2. 1788
  3. 1791
  4. 1797

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.12

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws?

 

  1. republic
  2. monarchy
  3. theocracy
  4. oligarchy

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.13

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 49

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a branch of the U.S. government?

 

  1. House of Representatives
  2. Supreme Court
  3. presidency
  4. legislative

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.14

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 48, 50

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Burning the flag is generally considered to be __________ that is protected by the Constitution.

 

  1. free speech
  2. a private action
  3. a form of due process
  4. a commercial act

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.0.15

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 32

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following philosophers greatly influenced the colonists’ views on the role of government?

 

  1. Daniel Shays
  2. John Locke
  3. John Boehner
  4. Gramm Rudman

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.16

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In Federalist 10, who wrote, “The most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property”?

 

  1. Alexander Hamilton
  2. Thomas Jefferson
  3. John Jay
  4. James Madison

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.17

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In what year was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

 

  1. 1776
  2. 1781
  3. 1786
  4. 1791

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.18

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Constitution limits the government’s ability to suspend writs of habeas corpus. What does this protect individuals against?

 

  1. free speech infringement
  2. taxation of private property
  3. unlawful incarceration
  4. infringement of religious freedom

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.19

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 46

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What did the Connecticut Compromise help to establish?

 

  1. the Senate and the House of Representatives
  2. the federalist system
  3. an independent judiciary
  4. universal male suffrage

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.20

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. __________ was a protest by Massachusetts farmers to stop foreclosures by state courts.

 

  1. The Committee of Correspondence
  2. The Federalist Papers
  3. Mercantilism
  4. Shays’s Rebellion

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.21

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 39 – 40

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Articles of Confederation required __________ consent from the states for ratification.

 

  1. majority

b three-fifths

  1. two-thirds
  2. unanimous

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.22

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What type of legislature did the United States have under the Articles of Confederation?

 

  1. one with membership based on a state’s population
  2. one comprised of a single chamber
  3. one that is appointed directly by the president
  4. a bicameral one

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.23

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 37

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Under the Constitution, the president is elected by which of the following?

 

  1. King Caucus
  2. People’s Plebiscite
  3. electoral college
  4. direct popular election

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.24

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43, 48

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the feature of the Constitution that allows each branch of government to limit the power of the other branches?

 

  1. weights and measures
  2. checks and balances
  3. oversight and influence
  4. privileges and immunities

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.25

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 49 – 50

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following specifies the procedure for amending the Constitution?

 

  1. Article I
  2. Article III
  3. Article V
  4. Article VI

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.26

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 54

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following concepts most directly helps to make American government legitimate?

 

  1. tradition
  2. the divine right
  3. consent of the governed
  4. executive privilege

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.27

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How did the Constitution differ from the Articles of Confederation?

 

  1. The Constitution was based on democratic principles; the Articles of Confederation was based on tyrannical principles.
  2. The Constitution contained strong protections for individual rights; the Articles of Confederation contained strong protections for collective rights.
  3. The Constitution created a stronger federal government than did the Articles of Confederation.
  4. The Constitution contained stronger safeguards for states’ rights than did the Articles of Confederation.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.28

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 51 – 52

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following most directly protects individuals’ civil liberties?

 

  1. Second Treatise of Civil Government
  2. The Federalist Papers
  3. the Bill of Rights
  4. the Declaration of Independence

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.29

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which constitutional plan called for representation in Congress to be based on state population?

 

  1. Republican Plan
  2. Democratic Plan
  3. Virginia Plan
  4. New Jersey Plan

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.30

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What was the subject of the Connecticut Compromise?

 

  1. the legality of slavery
  2. the form of the legislative branch
  3. the number of Supreme Court justices
  4. the form of the executive branch

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.31

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. __________ was/were most likely to support a strong state government and a weak national government.

 

  1. James Madison
  2. John Jay
  3. The Federalists
  4. The Anti-Federalists

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.32

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51 – 52

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following urged for the colonies to become independent from Britain?

 

  1. Common Sense
  2. Revolution
  3. Federalist 10
  4. Our American Cousin

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.33

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 33

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following was a problem under the Articles of Confederation?

 

  1. The national government was too strong compared to the states.
  2. Amendments were too easy to ratify.
  3. Congress imposed excessive taxes.
  4. Congress lacked the authority to regulate commerce.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.34

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 37 – 38

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following accurately describes the Constitutional Convention?

 

  1. The delegates spent more of their time trying to figure out how to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  2. A disproportionate number of delegates were economic elites.
  3. The Convention was free of significant disagreement.
  4. The Convention lasted only one week.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.35

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. John Locke’s belief that government derives its authority from the people influenced the Declaration of Independence, which says, “Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from __________.”

 

  1. the consent of the governed
  2. the right to revolt
  3. the laws of Nature and Nature’s God
  4. government itself

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.36

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How is eligibility for voting determined under the Constitution?

 

  1. Congress determines eligibility.
  2. States determine eligibility.
  3. Counties determine eligibility.
  4. The Constitution establishes universal suffrage.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.8.37

Topic: Understanding the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.8: Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government.

Page Reference: 60

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is a reason for the separation of powers?

 

  1. to ensure the power of the executive
  2. to promote the general welfare
  3. to prevent tyranny by any one branch
  4. to prevent gridlock in government

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.38

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 42

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following was part of both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution?

 

  1. a congress
  2. the presidency
  3. the federal judiciary
  4. the effective collection of taxes by the federal government

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.39

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution; Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution; LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 37, 43

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. The Federalists preferred __________ than did the Anti-Federalists.

 

  1. stronger state governments
  2. a stronger national government
  3. stronger protections of individual liberties
  4. shorter terms of office

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.40

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How is a constitutional amendment ratified?

 

  1. either by a majority of state legislatures or by special state conventions in a majority of the states
  2. either by three-fourths of state legislatures or by special state conventions in three-fourths of the states
  3. either by a majority of state governors or by a majority of the U.S. Senate
  4. either by three-fourths of state governors or by three-fourths of the U.S. Senate

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.41

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 54

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Constitution prohibits having __________ qualifications for holding public office.

 

  1. residency
  2. competency
  3. religious
  4. citizenship

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.42

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 46

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following were most likely to oppose the proposed Constitution?

 

  1. lawyers
  2. merchants
  3. small farmers
  4. large landowners

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.43

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following was written to encourage passage of the Constitution and remains a compelling source for determining the intent of the Framers?

 

  1. the Declaration of Independence
  2. The Federalist Papers
  3. Common Sense
  4. Two Treatises on Government

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.44

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What was a fear of the Anti-Federalists during the Constitutional Convention and subsequent debate?

 

  1. that a weak national government would undermine the survival of the United States
  2. that a strong national government would infringe on the rights of the states
  3. that a powerful judiciary would restrict freedom of religion
  4. that powerful state governments would infringe on individual liberties

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.45

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is a method for proposing constitutional amendments?

 

  1. by a majority of voting-age citizens
  2. by a majority of state governors
  3. by a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress
  4. by a two-thirds vote in a special election called for the purpose of voting on the amendment

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.46

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 54

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The meaning of the Constitution can change through __________.

 

  1. judicial interpretation
  2. presidential decree
  3. congressional inaction
  4. natural law

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.47

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 57

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p True-False Questions

 

 

  1. The Constitution was ratified in 1776.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.48

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 53

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government had broad power to levy taxes.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.49

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 37 – 38

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The New Jersey Plan proposed a one-house legislature with one vote for each state.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.50

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Many of the Framers were skeptical of democratic government in the sense that we understand it today.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.8.51

Topic: Understanding the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.8: Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government.

Page Reference: 60

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The three-fifths compromise specified that only three-fifths of slaves could vote.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.52

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 44

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most of the Framers believed that the principal objective of government is to protect the right of individuals to acquire and hold property.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.53

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 42

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Declaration of Independence asserts that the people have a right to revolt against an oppressive government.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.54

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Framers implemented a strong executive after being influenced by Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.55

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The main weakness of the Articles of Confederation was a weak national government.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.56

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 38

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A constitution is a nation’s basic law; it creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.0.57

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 32

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The New Jersey Plan proposed a powerful central government with three branches.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.58

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. After the Revolutionary War, power in the state legislatures shifted from the wealthy to a broader, more democratic group.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.59

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 39

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. None of the 13 states would ratify the Constitution until after the Bill of Rights was added.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.60

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 53

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Anti-Federalists strongly supported the Bill of Rights.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.61

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Federalist Papers are a valuable resource for those who want to reflect on the thinking of the Framers.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.62

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. All of the amendments to the U.S. Constitution were ratified by a supermajority vote in the state legislature.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.63

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 54 – 56

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

p Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

 

  1. John Locke argued that __________ included life, liberty, and property.

 

Answer: natural law

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.64

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 35

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The __________ was added to the Constitution to protect personal freedoms.

 

Answer: Bill of Rights

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.65

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 52

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Constitution has been amended __________ times.

 

Answer: 27

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.66

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 59

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The body whose delegates signed the Declaration of Independence was the __________.

 

Answer: Continental Congress

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.67

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 33 – 34

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Continental Congress adopted the __________ in 1777.

 

Answer: Articles of Confederation

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.68

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 37

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under a __________ system, power is shared among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Each of these three branches is relatively independent so that one cannot control the others.

 

Answer: separation of powers

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.69

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 48 – 49

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In Texas v. Gregory Lee Johnson, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that anti-flag-burning laws were an unconstitutional violation of __________.

 

Answer: freedom of speech or freedom of expression

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.0.70

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 30

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. __________ of indebted farmers exposed the problems under the Articles of Confederation.

 

Answer: Shays’s Rebellion

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.71

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 40

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The __________ favored a weak national government and strong state governments.

 

Answer: Anti-Federalists

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.72

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay authored the __________.

 

Answer: Federalist Papers

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.73

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The __________ Amendment attempted to give former slaves the right to vote.

 

Answer: Fifteenth

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.8.74

Topic: Understanding the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.8: Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government.

Page Reference: 60

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. At least __________ states had to ratify the proposed Constitution for it to become law.

 

Answer: nine

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.75

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

p Short Answer Questions

 

 

  1. Explain the processes for amending the Constitution. Which process have most amendments followed?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the two processes for proposing an amendment—two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress or national constitutional convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the states.
  2. Identify the two processes for ratifying an amendment—by legislatures in three-fourths of the states or by ratifying conventions in three-fourths of the states.
  3. Explain that all 27 amendments were proposed by Congress and 26 of them were ratified by state legislatures.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.76

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 54 – 55

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Who were the Federalists and what did they want?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the Federalists as landowners, wealthy merchants, and professionals.
  2. Explain that the Federalists wanted to create a constitution with a stronger central government and weaker state governments.
  3. Note that the Federalists wrote the Constitution and urged for its ratification.
  4. Explain that an additional goal of the Federalists was to protect the wealth and property of the elite from the tyranny of the majority.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.77

Topic: The Madisonian System; Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests; LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 47 – 51, 51 – 53

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Describe the system of checks and balances created by the Framers. Why is this system important?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Indicate that the powers of the government were divided into three branches.
  2. Identify the ways in which the Constitution allocates the power to make, interpret, and enforce laws among the three branches.
  3. Explain the ways in which each branch has a role in the actions of the others.
  4. Explain how checks and balances are used to prevent tyranny and corruption.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.78

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 48 – 50

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. The Federalists were a minority. How did they get the Constitution ratified?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that Federalists may not have had the support of the majority, but they made up for it in shrewd politicking. To get around unfriendly state legislatures, they called for ratification by special conventions in at least nine of the states.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.79

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51 – 53

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Explain judicial review.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Recognize that the Constitution does not explicitly reference the power of judicial review, but that the Supreme Court claimed this power for itself in Marbury v. Madison.
  2. Describe judicial review as the power of the judiciary to decide whether laws and other governmental actions were constitutional.
  3. Explain that judicial review allows a court to strike down federal and state laws determined to be unconstitutional.
  4. Note that judicial review allows the Supreme Court to interpret (or reinterpret) the Constitution, making it one of the informal ways that the Constitution changes.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.80

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 57

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Compare and contrast the legislatures established by the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Describe the unicameral legislature under the Articles of Confederation in which each state had a vote.
  2. Explain the changes to the legislature under the Constitution, including the creation of a bicameral legislature composed of one house to represent the people (House of Representatives) and another house to represent the states (Senate).

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.81

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787; Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure; LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 37 – 40, 43 – 45

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How was Madison’s desire to set power against power (or ambition against ambition) within the federal government realized?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify checks and balances of the three branches as the culmination of Madison’s desire.
  2. Discuss how each branch of government checks and balances the powers of the others.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.5.82

Topic: The Madisonian System

Learning Objective: LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.

Page Reference: 47 – 51

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Describe Shays’s Rebellion and its importance.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that after that Revolutionary War, a depression left many small farmers unable to pay their debts.
  2. Explain that Shays’s Rebellion was a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
  3. Acknowledge that neither Congress nor the state could raise a militia to stop Shays and his followers, so elites assembled a privately paid force to do the job.
  4. Explain how these events fueled dissatisfaction with the weakness of the Articles of Confederation system and spurred efforts to improve it.
  5. Note that these efforts gave birth to the Constitution.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.83

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 39 – 40

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Why was flag burning determined to be a constitutionally protected act?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Recall Gregory Lee Johnson’s burning of the flag as a protest.
  2. Discuss the evolution of thought surrounding flag burning.
  3. Explain that the Supreme Court determined that burning the flag is an exercise of free speech.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.0.84

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 30 – 32

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Describe the views of the Anti-Federalists.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that the Anti-Federalists were deeply suspicious of a strong national government.
  2. Explain that the Anti-Federalists broadly opposed many portions of the new Constitution, including the powers of the executive and the creation of a Supreme Court.
  3. Discuss the Anti-Federalists’ concerns that the Constitution provided inadequate protections for individual liberties.
  4. Describe the Anti-Federalists’ desire to have a bill of rights added to the Constitution.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.85

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51 – 52

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Compare the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey Plan, and the Connecticut Compromise as they relate to proposed representation in Congress. Which plan was ultimately adopted?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that the Virginia Plan called for giving each state representation in Congress based on a state’s population.
  2. Contrast this with the New Jersey Plan, which called for equal representation for all states regardless of population.
  3. Relate that the Connecticut Compromise incorporated both ideas. It proposed a bicameral legislature with one chamber based on population (the House) and the other with an even share for each state (the Senate).
  4. Note that the Constitution incorporates the Connecticut Compromise.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.4.86

Topic: Critical Issues at the Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.

Page Reference: 43, 45

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Describe the Equal Rights Amendment.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss the content of the proposed amendment—that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied on the basis of sex.
  2. Explain that the amendment was approved overwhelmingly by both houses of Congress.
  3. Note that the amendment failed to gain approval in three-quarters of the state legislatures. Therefore, it is not part of the Constitution.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.7.87

Topic: Changing the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.

Page Reference: 55

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Explain Madison’s idea of factions in Federalist 10.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the central question of Federalist 10, which is how to deal with the problem of factions.
  2. Discuss Madison’s definition of factions and their threat to society. “The most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property.”

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.88

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41 – 42

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Essay Questions

 

 

  1. Discuss the developments that led to the American Revolution.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that the colonies were relatively independent from Great Britain.
  2. Discuss the series of taxes levied against the colonies by the British crown.
  3. Recognize that taxation without representation in Parliament was deeply offensive to the colonists.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.1.89

Topic: The Origins of the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.

Page Reference: 32 – 37

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Explain what inspired the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Detail the problems under the Articles of Confederation, including the inability of the national government to levy taxes or to fund Revolutionary War debt, monetary problems, and problems with interstate commerce.
  2. Discuss the role of Shays’s Rebellion.
  3. Recognize that the original purpose of the Convention was to strengthen the Articles of Confederation.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.2.90

Topic: The Government That Failed: 1776–1787

Learning Objective: LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.

Page Reference: 37 – 40

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the key participants of the Philadelphia convention and the philosophical ideas that influenced them most. They were certainly an elite group of economic and political notables. They were mostly wealthy planters, successful (or once-successful) lawyers and merchants, and men of independent wealth. Many were college graduates, and most had practical political experience. Most were coastal residents rather than residents of the expanding western frontiers, and a significant number were urbanites rather than part of the primarily rural American population.
  2. Acknowledge that the group agreed on questions of (1) human nature, (2) the causes of political conflict, (3) the objects of government, and (4) the nature of a republican government. Give further detail on each of these points of agreement.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.3.91

Topic: Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention

Learning Objective: LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.

Page Reference: 41 – 42

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Discuss the impact of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists on the Constitution.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Recognize that the Federalists wrote the Constitution and therefore had a profound impact on it.
  2. Explain how the Anti-Federalists succeeded in adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution to more fully protect individual liberties.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.6.92

Topic: Ratifying the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.

Page Reference: 51 – 53

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Describe voter eligibility at the time the Constitution was adopted and assess how democratic this new government was. Describe the amendments to the U.S. Constitution that have made the United States more democratic and that are not part of the Bill of Rights.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that the states determine voter eligibility.
  2. Describe the franchise at the time the Constitution was ratified as being restricted to white, male landowners.
  3. Explain how five post-Bill of Rights amendments have expanded suffrage, thereby making the United States more democratic. Specifically, the Fifteenth Amendment (1870) prohibited race-based voter discrimination, the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) guaranteed women the right to vote, the Twenty-third Amendment (1961) expanded the right to vote in presidential elections to the residents of the District of Columbia, the Twenty-fourth Amendment expanded the franchise to the poor by eliminating poll taxes, and the Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971) lowered the voting age to 18.
  4. Note that the Seventeenth Amendment also made the United States more democratic by allowing for the direct election of U.S. senators.

 

Test Bank Item Number: TB_Q2.8.93

Topic: Understanding the Constitution

Learning Objective: LO 2.8: Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government.

Page Reference: 60 – 63

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

18

 

National Security Policymaking

 

 

p Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. The war in Iraq began under __________ and ended under __________.

 

  1. Bill Clinton; George H. W. Bush
  2. Bill Clinton; George W. Bush
  3. George H. W. Bush; Barack Obama
  4. George W. Bush; Barack Obama

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.1

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 598 – 599

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One of the primary purposes of the war in Afghanistan was to __________.

 

  1. prevent the spread of communism
  2. remove the Taliban regime
  3. protect Iraq from Afghani military attacks
  4. retaliate for the bombing of the USS Cole

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.2

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 598

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. During which of the following events did U.S. military spending comprise the highest percentage of total spending?

 

  1. the Vietnam War
  2. the Reagan administration
  3. the war in Iraq
  4. the war in Afghanistan

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.4.3

Topic: Defense Policy

Learning Objective: LO 18.4: Identify the major elements of U.S. defense policy.

Page Reference: 600

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the primary responsibility of the secretary of defense?

 

  1. homeland security
  2. military policy
  3. domestic security
  4. commander in chief of the armed forces

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.4

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Who serves on the Joint Chiefs of Staff?

 

  1. the cabinet secretaries
  2. the commanding officers of each of the services
  3. the president’s foreign policy advisers
  4. the secretary of defense, the secretary of homeland security, and the director of the Central Intelligence Agency

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.5

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who is the president’s chief adviser on intelligence matters?

 

  1. the director of the Central Intelligence Agency
  2. the director of national intelligence
  3. the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  4. the National Security Agency

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.6

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which international organization is composed of nearly 200 member nations and was created after World War II for peacekeeping and other functions?

 

  1. the League of Nations
  2. the United Nations
  3. the World Trade Organization
  4. the Marshall Plan

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.7

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes U.S. foreign aid?

 

  1. Americans greatly overestimate the amount that is spent on foreign aid.
  2. Most foreign aid programs are aimed at providing medical care and other services in less-developed nations.
  3. Foreign aid primarily consists of various loan programs that provide favorable interest rates and preferential trade agreements for nations that lower trade barriers.
  4. Foreign aid primarily consists of advice from the U.S. government to less-developed nations in Africa and Asia.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.8

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 610

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following constrained Pakistan’s efforts to fight terrorists who have emerged in some areas of Pakistan?

 

  1. Pakistan is a poor nation and lacked international assistance to fight the terrorists.
  2. There was substantial sympathy for the Taliban among many Pakistani military and intelligence officials.
  3. The terrorists took over large cities and were beyond the government’s control.
  4. The terrorists had shown no sign of being dangerous, so the Pakistani government was not concerned about them.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.9

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 599

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following countries is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council?

 

  1. Germany
  2. India
  3. Spain
  4. the United States

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.10

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following countries is a member of NATO?

 

  1. Russia
  2. China
  3. Japan
  4. Canada

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.11

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 586

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who won the Vietnam War?

 

  1. the United States
  2. NATO
  3. communists
  4. South Korea

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.12

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 594

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Who instituted the Marshall Plan and who benefited directly from it?

 

  1. The Soviet Union instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Germany.
  2. Germany instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit itself.
  3. The United Nations instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Germany, Italy, and Japan.
  4. The United States instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Europe.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.13

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What event marked the end of the Cold War?

 

  1. the resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis
  2. the collapse of the Soviet Union
  3. the signing of the SALT II Treaty
  4. the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.14

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 597

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following tactics has Al Qaeda used effectively?

 

  1. détente
  2. mutually assured destruction
  3. nuclear proliferation
  4. terrorism

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.15

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 597 – 598

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What was Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative envisioned to accomplish?

 

  1. protect the United States from nuclear weapons
  2. promote democracy by fostering economic development
  3. reduce the number of nuclear warheads held by both the United States and the Soviet Union
  4. refocus the military on nonconventional warfare

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.16

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 596

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What was the foreign policy of containment designed to prevent?

 

  1. nuclear proliferation
  2. the spread of Soviet influence
  3. terrorism
  4. the Cold War

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.17

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed?

 

  1. to provide mutual defense for the United States and Western Europe
  2. to promote free trade between the United States and Western Europe
  3. to help rebuild war-torn Europe after World War II
  4. to enhance democratic government in newly industrializing countries

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.18

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 586

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Who is the main force behind U.S. foreign policy?

 

  1. Congress
  2. the president
  3. the State Department
  4. the National Security Council

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.19

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 584

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The United States engaged in which of the following military conflicts in order to fight against communist forces?

 

  1. World War I
  2. World War II
  3. the Vietnam War
  4. the war on terrorism

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.20

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 594

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the arms race?

 

  1. the rapid movements of world governments to arm and thereby protect Eastern European countries from attack by the Soviet Union in the wake of World War II
  2. a tense relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s during which each side was striving to procure more weapons than the other
  3. the U.S. race in the early twenty-first century to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction to unstable governments
  4. the efforts to rapidly reduce the number of nuclear weapons held by the United States and the Soviet Union

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.21

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following accurately describes the United Nations?

 

  1. The UN is an international organization formed immediately after World War I in an effort to avoid another world war and consistently renounces war and respects human and economic freedoms.
  2. The UN was created in 1945 as an international peacekeeping organization and has not always been capable of making and keeping peace.
  3. The UN was formed in the late 1930s as an international peacekeeping organization and has remained isolationist from the start.
  4. The UN is composed of fewer than 100 member nations and focuses exclusively on peacekeeping operations.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.22

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is a responsibility of the State Department?

 

  1. command of the military
  2. space exploration
  3. protecting the president
  4. diplomacy

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.23

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 588

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the main foreign or defense policy threat posed by Iran?

 

  1. civil unrest
  2. nuclear capabilities
  3. economic collapse
  4. trade disagreements

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.24

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 605

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the world’s superpowers since the end of World War II?

 

  1. The United States has been the sole superpower since the end of World War II.
  2. The United States and the Soviet Union were rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when the United States became the sole superpower.
  3. The United States and the Soviet Union were rival superpowers until the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the United States and Russia became rival superpowers.
  4. The United States and the Soviet Union were the only two rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when China also became a rival superpower.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.25

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 604

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following was a fundamental part of the justification for the 2003 war in Iraq?

 

  1. Iraq attacked Israel in 2002 with SCUD missiles and was threatening to do so again.
  2. Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
  3. Saddam Hussein had provided considerable funding to Osama bin Laden.
  4. Saddam Hussein had permitted Osama bin Laden to use Iraq for training terrorists.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.26

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 590

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following countries would have been most opposed to the policy of containment?

 

  1. United Kingdom
  2. France
  3. Soviet Union
  4. United States

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.27

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of using soft power to achieve foreign policy objectives?

 

  1. Soft power takes full advantage of U.S. military prowess.
  2. Soft power is particularly adept at dealing with rogue nations.
  3. Resolutions reached through the use of soft power are more durable.
  4. Soft power does not rely on military coercion to accomplish foreign policy goals.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.28

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 604

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Congress can exercise influence over foreign policy through its power to __________.

 

  1. command the armed forces
  2. receive diplomats
  3. ratify treaties
  4. recognize the sovereignty of foreign countries

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.29

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is composed of a broad array of the president’s foreign policy advisers including the secretary of defense, the secretary of state, the chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the director of national intelligence?

 

  1. the Department of Homeland Security
  2. NATO
  3. the National Security Council
  4. the Central Intelligence Agency

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.30

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589 – 590

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following engages in a global surveillance operation that was unmasked by Edward Snowden in 2013?

 

  1. the Department of Defense
  2. the secretary of state
  3. the Central Intelligence Agency
  4. the National Security Agency

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.31

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How are tourists most likely to benefit international relations?

 

  1. Tourists are the largest carriers of diseases in the world.
  2. Tourists help build goodwill between countries.
  3. Tourists confirm negative stereotypes about foreign countries.
  4. Tourists typically increase the trade deficit.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.32

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following helps to explain why a country’s economy may be negatively affected by an economic crisis in another country?

 

  1. a negative balance of trade
  2. a positive balance of trade
  3. isolationism
  4. interdependency

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.33

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 606

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is most consistent with the foreign policy of isolationism?

 

  1. a country’s refusal to intervene in an armed conflict between two other countries
  2. a country’s willingness to use diplomatic sanctions to pressure another country to address human rights violations
  3. the George W. Bush administration’s policy of actively rooting out terrorism before a threat has fully developed
  4. multilateral trade agreements

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.34

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 592

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the conflict that has sometimes existed between the National Security Council (NSC) and others within the national security establishment?

 

  1. Because the NCS always integrates advice from other cabinet departments, most advisers in national security see the council as having little independent value.
  2. The NSC has sometimes conspired with the State and Defense departments in covert operations, such as the Iran-Contra affair.
  3. Because the NCS was created after September 11, 2001, many in the departments of State and Defense do not respect the limited experience of this newcomer.
  4. The NSC has sometimes competed with, rather than integrated advice from, cabinet departments such as State and Defense, and it also has become involved in covert operations such as the Iran-Contra affair.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.35

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 590

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What can Congress do to influence foreign policy if it is not satisfied with the way the president has handled foreign policy?

 

  1. Congress can fire ambassadors who are not executing foreign policy according to Congress’s wishes.
  2. Congress can reduce appropriations for executing the president’s foreign policy.
  3. Congress can command the military to execute foreign policy according to Congress’s wishes.
  4. Congress can replace the secretary of state with someone who will implement foreign policy according to Congress’s wishes.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.36

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is most consistent with the concept of diplomacy?

 

  1. counterintelligence
  2. military threats
  3. negotiation
  4. confrontation

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.37

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a situation in which economic sanctions accomplished the intended goal?

 

  1. sanctions levied against South Africa in the mid-1980s to protest apartheid
  2. the grain embargo on the Soviet Union in 1980 in retaliation for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  3. the sanctions against Cuba to oust the Marxist dictator
  4. sanctions imposed on Iran to prevent it from seeking to build nuclear weapons

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.38

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 605

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following could result from a balance-of-trade deficit?

 

  1. The value of the dollar increases, so Americans can buy more goods from other countries for the same amount of money.
  2. The value of the dollar declines, so Americans have to pay more for goods from other nations.
  3. The value of the dollar increases, making American products cheaper abroad, thereby increasing our exports.
  4. The value of the dollar declines, which makes American products more expensive abroad, thereby decreasing our exports.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.39

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 609

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is a reason why the United States is considered to be predominant in terms of military capabilities?

 

  1. The United States spends less on defense than does any other industrialized democracy.
  2. The United States has underwhelming nuclear superiority.
  3. The United States has the world’s dominant air force and the only navy with worldwide operations.
  4. The United States has the unique capability to project power around the nation.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.4.40

Topic: Defense Policy

Learning Objective: LO 18.4: Identify the major elements of U.S. defense policy.

Page Reference: 601

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of foreign aid?

 

  1. the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  2. the International Monetary Fund
  3. the North American Free Trade Agreement
  4. the Marshall Plan

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.41

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. With which of the following is the president most likely to consult for advice about how to best take advantage of the strengths of the various service branches when conducting a military operation?

 

  1. the Central Intelligence Agency
  2. the director of national intelligence
  3. the secretary of homeland security
  4. the Joint Chiefs of Staff

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.42

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. During the height of the Cold War, what would the United States likely have done if it had discovered that the Soviet Union had previously unknown stockpiles of nuclear weapons?

 

  1. negotiate a bilateral nuclear nonproliferation agreement
  2. engage in a military conflict with the Soviet Union
  3. stockpile additional nuclear weapons in the United States
  4. extend diplomatic immunity to the Soviet Union

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.43

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593 – 594

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)?

 

  1. The CIA is explicitly mentioned in the Constitution as being exempt from federal law as long as it is acting in the name of national security.
  2. The CIA is in charge of the various other agencies in the intelligence community.
  3. The CIA has sometimes become involved in other nations’ internal affairs.
  4. The primary mission of the CIA is to gather intelligence on American citizens.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.44

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 590

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How has U.S. foreign policy in Iran and North Korea been similar for much of the past decade?

 

  1. It has been largely focused on economic development.
  2. It has been largely driven by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
  3. It has been largely determined by the wealth of natural resources the countries possess.
  4. It has been largely driven by concerns over nuclear weapons.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.45

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 605

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following statements about terrorism is accurate?

 

  1. Terrorism usually involves military personnel and military targets.
  2. Terrorism is often designed to demoralize and frighten the general public.
  3. Terrorism is usually financed by the government.
  4. Only nongovernmental political actors engage in terrorism.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.46

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 597

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How did the Cold War get started?

 

  1. It began after World War II when there was a shortage of coal and heating fuel in Europe.
  2. It started when the United States established the Truman Doctrine at the end of World War II, which left Eastern European countries “in the cold” by declaring that they would have to defend themselves without U.S. help.
  3. It began after all of Eastern Europe fell under Soviet domination at the end of World War II, which prompted fears that the Soviets would spread communism around the globe.
  4. It started when the Truman Doctrine froze all military alliances into their pre-World War II configurations.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.47

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Why did the United States join the North American Free Trade Agreement?

 

  1. to lower trade barriers
  2. to relocate manufacturing jobs to Mexico to take advantage of cheaper labor
  3. to slow down the pace of globalization
  4. to make it harder for Japanese cars to compete in the American marketplace

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.48

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 608

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Why have multinational corporations become forces to be reckoned with in nearly all nations?

 

  1. They frequently use their money to buy government officials’ votes in nearly any country at nearly any time.
  2. They better understand the dangers of globalization than do most elected officials.
  3. They encourage isolationist policies in order to get complete control of governments and markets in various countries.
  4. They account for a large portion of the global economy and have voiced strong opinions about government and economics.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.49

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Why has the United States tried to deal with the threat from Iran with diplomacy, rather than military options?

 

  1. Diplomacy is likely to succeed since the Islamic world trusts and respects the United States.
  2. Diplomacy is likely to lead Iran to isolationism, thereby removing the threat.
  3. Military action would be more likely to lead to further radicalization of Muslims and terrorist retaliation.
  4. Military action would be less likely to succeed, and could harm the cooperative approach taken by Iran toward the United States and its allies.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.50

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 607

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. In 2004, Congress created a director of national intelligence. Why did Congress do this?

 

  1. to help the director of the Central Intelligence Agency combat the growing threat posed by weapons of mass destruction
  2. to better coordinate the large number of people working in diverse intelligence agencies
  3. to decentralize authority within the intelligence community to prevent competition between agencies
  4. because the previous organizational structure of the intelligence community encouraged the various agencies to do too much of their work collaboratively, which led to groupthink

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.51

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to have the greatest influence over U.S. foreign policy?

 

  1. secretary of state
  2. director of the Central Intelligence Agency
  3. chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  4. director of national intelligence

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.52

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 588

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

 

p True-False Questions

 

 

  1. The president traditionally has more influence over foreign policy than does Congress.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.53

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Import quotas can protect U.S. jobs but also can increase the cost of imported goods.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.54

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 609

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The United States and the Soviet Union were the main adversaries in the Cold War.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.55

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The National Security Agency operates an electronic eavesdropping operation that some have criticized as violating Americans’ civil liberties.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.56

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as an adviser to the president on military policy.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.57

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Diplomacy is more dangerous now than it used to be.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.58

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 588

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. As a percentage of gross national income, the United States spends more money on foreign aid to needy countries than does any other industrialized country.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.59

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 611

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) resulted in a treaty that significantly reduced the number of nuclear arms held by both the United States and the Soviet Union.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.60

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 595

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The primary responsibility of the National Security Council is to advise Congress about national and defense policy.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.61

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589 – 590

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The United States has successfully reduced the threat of a nuclear Iran through diplomacy.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.62

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 605

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Terrorism is the use of violence to demoralize and frighten a country’s population or government.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.63

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 597

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The 2003 war in Iraq was the United States’ most immediate and direct response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.64

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 598

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq were quick and decisive military and diplomatic victories for the United States.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.65

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 598 – 599

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Barack Obama’s approach to U.S. foreign policy is best described as isolationist.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.66

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 592

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If Congress does not like the way the president is executing foreign policy, Congress can refuse to appropriate money for the president’s policies.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.67

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

 

  1. After World War II, the United States, Canada, and Western Europe formed a peacetime alliance known as the __________.

 

Answer: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.68

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 586

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The secretary of __________ is the president’s main civilian adviser on national defense matters.

 

Answer: defense

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.69

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ was the U.S. effort to help Western Europe after World War II.

 

Answer: Marshall Plan

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.70

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the early 1970s, fuel shortages and long lines at gas stations resulted from an oil embargo imposed by __________ in response to American support of Israel in its war against Egypt.

 

Answer: the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.71

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 610

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ is the international organization created after World War II to promote global peace and economic development, health, education, and welfare.

 

Answer: United Nations

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.72

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ has primary responsibility for foreign, military, and defense policy in the United States.

 

Answer: president

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.73

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the early 1970s, the policy of __________ sought a relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security.

 

Answer: détente

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.74

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 595

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ is a transnational government that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies so that its member nations have become one economic unit with a common currency known as the euro.

 

Answer: European Union (EU)

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.75

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 586

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The belief that free trade is especially important in a global economy was the impetus for the __________ among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

 

Answer: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.76

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 608

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Groups such as churches, labor unions, and environmental groups that are not connected with governments but which have international interests and activities and, therefore, an influence on foreign policy are known as __________.

 

Answer: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.77

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The U.S. proclamation that it would aid countries in their efforts to ward off communism is known as the __________. The Soviet response to this proclamation was the Berlin Blockade that closed off land access to West Berlin (which was surrounded by communist East Germany).

 

Answer: Truman Doctrine

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.78

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The __________ can influence foreign policy by approving (or refusing to approve) treaties negotiated by the president.

 

Answer: Senate

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.79

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 591

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If the president wishes to address a foreign policy crisis without using the military, the president may instead opt for the use of __________ as orchestrated by the Department of State.

 

Answer: diplomacy

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.80

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Short Answer Questions

 

 

  1. How is terrorism fundamentally different from traditional military action?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Indicate that terrorism is usually waged by nongovernmental actors while traditional military action is used by governments.
  2. Describe how terrorism is designed to effect public policy change through violence aimed to intimidate and frighten, while traditional military action is designed to effect change through the use of force.
  3. Note how terrorism tends to target civilians while traditional military action tends to target soldiers.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.81

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 597

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What roles do the Department of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff play in advising the president on military policy? Describe how these advisers provide the president with different perspectives.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the Department of Defense as the executive branch department responsible for developing and implementing military policy.
  2. Identify the Joint Chiefs of Staff as key presidential advisers on military issues.
  3. Explain that the Department of Defense provides a civilian perspective whereas the Joint Chiefs of Staff provides the military officers’ perspectives.
  4. Outline how the Joint Chiefs of Staff provides perspective from the various service branches.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.82

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 589

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What was the U.S. foreign policy of containment? Explain when and why it developed and how it led to the Vietnam War.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Describe the policy of containment as a strategy to prevent the spread of Soviet influence, including communism.
  2. Discuss how it was developed at the end of World War II after Eastern Europe fell under Soviet domination, and how it led to the Cold War.
  3. Reveal how containment led the United States to send troops into South Vietnam in an effort to prevent the spread of communism from the North.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.83

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 593

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What authority does the president have in regard to foreign policy, and which of these powers requires congressional approval? What specific foreign policy powers are given to Congress?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that the president is the main force behind foreign policy as the chief diplomat in negotiating treaties and the commander in chief of the armed forces.
  2. Note that while the president is given the power to negotiate treaties and nominate ambassadors and other foreign policy advisers, the Senate determines whether the treaties will be ratified and the nominations confirmed.
  3. Outline that Congress has sole authority to declare war, raise and organize the armed forces, and appropriate funds for national security activities.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.84

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587 – 588, 591

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is foreign aid, and why does the United States provide it? Give some examples of foreign aid programs, and discuss whether such aid is popular with Americans.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define foreign aid as assistance that is given to another country.
  2. Discuss how foreign aid has been provided for humanitarian reasons (e.g., medical care, food programs), trade reasons (e.g., grants and loans, preferential trade agreements), and political reasons (e.g., military assistance to stabilize a country that is friendly to the United States or possesses supplies of vital raw materials).
  3. Note that foreign aid has never been very popular with Americans, who tend to overestimate the extent of it.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.85

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 610 – 611

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Outline some possible foreign policy approaches for dealing with Iran’s nuclear program. What kinds of difficulties are involved with each approach?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that diplomacy, which would entail negotiating with Iran to achieve an outcome that is acceptable to both the United States and Iran, is not likely to work, since it has been tried and has not worked.
  2. Discuss the possible economic sanction of an embargo on Iran’s main export, oil, and how that approach would be unlikely to receive international support, since it would drive up energy prices everywhere.
  3. Outline the potential solution of a CIA-sponsored overthrow of Iran’s government, noting that the chances of succeeding in that venture are small.
  4. Discuss the option of military action. This would not be a good choice because it would lead Iran to retaliate against the United States and Israel by engaging in terrorist attacks.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.86

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 605, 607

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What general trends are found in U.S. defense spending in the last half-century? How has defense spending become entangled with ideological disputes?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that defense spending was high during the Cold War and has generally decreased since then, with a few upward trends during the Vietnam War, the Reagan rearmament, and since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.
  2. Indicate that liberals argue that money spent on defense is money taken away from social needs such as health and education. Thus, the decrease in military spending at the end of the Cold War was a “peace dividend” to be used for important social programs.
  3. Discuss how conservatives advocate increases in defense spending to keep America safe.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.4.87

Topic: Defense Policy

Learning Objective: LO 18.4: Identify the major elements of U.S. defense policy.

Page Reference: 600 – 601

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the United Nations? Describe some of the challenges in international relations that this organization faces.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Describe the UN as an international organization with a central peacekeeping mission and programs in areas such as economic development, health, education, and welfare.
  2. Note that some of the challenges the UN faces in international relations include peacekeeping, controlling weapons of mass destruction, protecting the environment, and maintaining stable trade and financial networks.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.88

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 585 – 586

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is foreign policy and how does it differ from domestic policy? What tools are used in foreign policy and how are they used?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define foreign policy as a country’s choices about its relations with the rest of the world, as opposed to domestic policy which involves choices made about issues within the country.
  2. List the instruments of foreign policy: (1) military; (2) economic; and (3) diplomacy.
  3. Explain that military tools involve war or force, or the threat of it, used to influence actions in other countries; economic tools include trade regulations, tariff policies, monetary policies, and economic sanctions; and diplomacy is the process through which nations carry on relations and negotiators work out treaties to formalize those relations.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.89

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 584 – 585

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What was Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative? Do you think the U.S. government should implement such an initiative today? Why or why not?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as a proposed program that would create a space-based “umbrella” that would automatically protect the United States from nuclear weapons.
  2. Argue for or against implementing an SDI-like program. Those in favor of such a program may note the importance of protecting the United States from nuclear weapons. Those opposed to such a program may note that such a program would be expensive, may not work (with potentially catastrophic consequences), and is not as necessary given the end of the Cold War.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.90

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 596

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. To what extent has recent U.S. foreign policy been isolationist? Illustrate your answer with two recent foreign policy examples.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define isolationism as the belief that the United States should stay out of the affairs of other countries.
  2. Argue that recent U.S. foreign policies have not been isolationist.
  3. Provide two examples of nonisolationist foreign policies, such as the heavy U.S. involvement in Iraq, Afghanistan, or Libya.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.91

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.

Page Reference: 592

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How was the Cold War fundamentally different from the war in Afghanistan?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the Cold War as a period of intense hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union over communism that did not involve direct military combat.
  2. Explain how the war in Afghanistan was about fighting terrorism and involved direct military combat.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.92

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War; American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War; LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 593, 598 – 599

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Compare and contrast the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. How successful was the United States in these conflicts?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss how both wars were part of the broader fight against terrorism.
  2. Explain how the war in Afghanistan was a direct response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, whereas the war in Iraq was about preventing a future terrorist attack before the threat had fully developed.
  3. Analyze how successful these two wars were. Students might note that the wars lasted longer than expected and were not always popular, but that the wars also had considerable successes, such as the elimination of Saddam Hussein and the Taliban. Students might also note that there has not been another major terrorist attack since September 11, 2001, indicating that the wars have been successful.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.3.93

Topic: American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 597 – 599

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is a tariff? Why has the world economy moved from high tariffs and protectionism to lower tariffs and nontariff barriers?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define a tariff as a tax added to the cost of imported goods that is designed to raise their price and thereby protect the country’s businesses and workers from foreign competition.
  2. Describe the increasingly interdependent nature of the global economy, and how tariffs erect a barrier to free trade between countries.
  3. Discuss how agreements such as NAFTA and GATT have lowered barriers to trade and how countries now resort to nontariff barriers such as quotas, subsidies, and quality specifications to limit imports.
  4. Observe how the global world economy is making concepts such as imports and exports increasingly difficult to define. For example, many businesses have companies in multiple countries.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.94

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 606 – 609

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

 

p Essay Questions

 

 

  1. How were the Cold War conflicts fundamentally different from more recent conflicts involving terrorism? What were the principal Cold War conflicts, and who were the principal combatants? How have recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan differed from the Cold War conflicts? What changes in the approach to national security have been required because of terrorism?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify the main Cold War combatants as the United States and the Soviet Union.
  2. Describe the fundamental differences between the Cold War and conflicts involving terrorism, including the types of combatants, the types of warfare, the goals, and the weapons used.
  3. List the main characteristics of the Cold War, which included a period of increased tensions (but not live combat) between the United States and the Soviet Union, the desire to contain Soviet influence (and the accompanying spread of communism), and heavy buildup of nuclear weapons.
  4. Detail the principal Cold War confrontations that involved strengthening those trying to ward off communist influence, such as in Greece, South Korea, and Berlin.
  5. Describe the Vietnam War as a direct military conflict driven by the Cold War mentality about the need to stop the spread of communism in Asia.
  6. Identify détente as the beginning point of transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy.
  7. Reveal how the Cold War conflict was finally resolved with the collapse of the Soviet Union, although the tensions had somewhat subsided during the détente.
  8. Discuss recent terrorist attacks and show how they reveal the main characteristics of terrorism, which include attacks by nongovernmental actors on civilian targets in order to demoralize populations and governments, the use of stealth and surprise, and the decentralized nature of the terrorist threat.
  9. Review how the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were seen as efforts to prevent future terrorist attacks before they had fully developed.
  10. Discuss how the wars had mixed results, with reconstruction in Iraq straining America’s defense resources and the war in Afghanistan prompting Al Qaeda to transform itself into an umbrella organization that provides a focal point for loosely affiliated terrorist groups in various countries.
  11. Conclude that the fight against terrorism will continue, that military force alone is not likely to suffice, and that political changes that erode and undermine support for the ideology and strategy of terrorists will be required.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.2.95

Topic: American Foreign Policy Through the Cold War; American Foreign Policy and the War on Terrorism

Learning Objective: LO 18.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War; LO 18.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.

Page Reference: 591 – 599

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is diplomacy? Under what circumstances is the president’s foreign policy most likely to rely on diplomacy? Under what circumstances is the president most likely to rely on military action instead of diplomacy? Give an example of when the United States has relied on diplomacy and when it has relied on military action. What role does diplomacy play in the war on terror? What forms might it take?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define diplomacy as exercising influence in relations with other nations through negotiations.
  2. Outline when the president will rely on diplomacy to conduct foreign policy, such as when dealing with countries that are U.S. allies, when dealing with issues that do not need to be resolved quickly, or when avoiding a military confrontation that is in the long-term best interest of the United States.
  3. Outline when the president will rely on military action, such as when there is a direct and immediate threat to the United States, when dealing with a rogue leader who is not interested in diplomacy, or when a military strike can be effective without jeopardizing long-term U.S. interests.
  4. Provide an example of the U.S. use of diplomacy, such as SALT, SALT II, the establishment of diplomatic relations with China, etc.
  5. Provide an example of the U.S. use of direct military action, such as the wars in Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
  6. Make a case for the importance of using diplomacy in the war on terror whenever possible, as military actions tend to inflame anti-American sentiment and cause terrorist groups to gain new recruits.
  7. Propose that although direct negotiations with terrorists might fail, other forms of diplomacy, such as foreign aid to build national security in other countries, as well as other alternatives such as economic sanctions, might be used in the war on terror.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.96

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers; The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy; LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 585, 588, 605, 607

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. The president has many executive branch advisers to assist with making foreign and defense policies. To what extent is the president’s foreign policy strength related to this large cadre of advisers? In what situations would the president be most likely to consult with each of the following: the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Security Council, the National Security Agency, and the director of national intelligence?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain how the president’s strength comes in large part from the president’s large cadre of advisers. With so many advisers, the president has much information and expertise available at all times of the day or night.
  2. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the vice president, such as when the president needs a loyal confidant who can help address the political implications of a foreign policy action.
  3. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the secretary of state, such as when the president wants to know the status of diplomatic negotiations.
  4. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the secretary of defense, such as when the president wants military advice from the perspective of a civilian official.
  5. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, such as when the president needs to fully understand the different capabilities of the different service branches of the U.S. military.
  6. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the National Security Council, such as when there is a rapidly developing foreign policy crisis that needs immediate attention.
  7. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the National Security Agency, such as when the president needs information about monitoring foreign communications or protecting sensitive and classified information.
  8. Provide a situation in which the president might consult with the director of national intelligence, such as when the president needs intelligence about the military or nuclear capabilities of a foreign government.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.97

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587 – 591

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What are the president’s foreign policy powers? What are Congress’s foreign policy powers? Who has more foreign policy powers and why? Is the existing balance of power between Congress and the president appropriate, or would the United States be better off if one branch’s powers were to increase and the other branch’s powers were to decrease? Provide a justification for your answer.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. List the president’s foreign policy powers, including command over the armed forces, the nomination of U.S. diplomats and the recognition of foreign countries, the negotiation and signature of treaties, and a cadre of hand-selected executive branch advisers.
  2. Identify Congress’s foreign policy powers, including appropriation of funds for foreign policy (or the refusal to appropriate funds), the confirmation of the president’s advisers, the ratification of treaties, and the authority to declare war.
  3. Draw a conclusion about who has more power: the president or Congress. The most compelling arguments will claim that the president has more foreign policy powers than does Congress. This conclusion is reached by examining the formal foreign policy powers the president has, along with the fact that the president’s foreign policy authority is seldom seriously challenged by Congress.
  4. Make and justify arguments for whether the balance of the power should remain with the president, or whether Congress should have increased foreign policy power. Most would argue that it is important for the president to be able to make quick and decisive foreign and defense policy decisions to safeguard U.S. interests and that Congress typically acts too slowly for such situations. Some, however, would argue that Congress should take a stronger role because it is the more democratic branch of government and foreign policy decisions should not be concentrated in the hands of a single individual.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.1.98

Topic: American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers

Learning Objective: LO 18.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.

Page Reference: 587 – 588, 591

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is interdependency and how is it related to globalization? What do citizens around the world think about globalization? How do these attitudes differ between younger and older citizens in the United States and Western Europe? What explains this difference? How does this manifest in different attitudes about immigration among the young and the old? Overall, do you think that globalization is good or bad for the United States? Why?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define interdependency as a situation in which the economic conditions in one nation impact the economic situations in other nations.
  2. Indicate that interdependency is one of several different aspects of globalization.
  3. Reveal public opinion about globalization, which is that large majorities of people in countries around the world believe that increased globalization is a good thing.
  4. Identify the significant difference in public opinion between younger and older citizens, which is that younger citizens are significantly more supportive of globalization than are older citizens.
  5. List the reasons for differences in attitudes between younger and older citizens. Specifically, older voters have greater pride in their cultures and are more worried about protecting their way of life.
  6. Discuss how these differences affect attitudes about immigration, such as helping to explain why older voters are less supportive of immigration.
  7. Argue that globalization overall is good for the United States or argue that it is bad. Those who argue that it is bad may point to decreasing pride and a loss of their way of life. Those who argue that it is good may argue that it results in lower costs and a better understanding of other cultures.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q18.5.99

Topic: The New National Security Agenda

Learning Objective: LO 18.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.

Page Reference: 606 – 608

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

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