Fundamentals of Human Physiology 1st Edition by Stuart Ira Fox – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Fundamentals of Human Physiology 1st Edition by Stuart Ira Fox – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

2
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit in the body.
True False
2. The _____________ is the liquid portion of the cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus.
A. Cytoskeleton
B. Peroxisome
C. Cytosol
D. Phospholipid
3. Carbohydrates are primarily associated with the outer surface of the cell membrane.
True False
4. The plasma membrane is referred to as a mosaic because of the presence of
A. Proteins
B. Carbohydrates
C. Phospholipids
D. All of these choices are correct
5. How are the phospholipids arranged to form the plasma membrane?
A. Single layer with hydrophilic heads outward
B. Double layer with hydrophobic tails facing inward toward each other
C. Double layer with hydrophilic heads facing inward toward each other
D. Double layer with phospholipids on the outside and proteins on the inside
6. The only flagellated cells in humans are
A. Ova
B. Sperm
C. Goblet cells
D. Tumor cells
7. Folds of the plasma membrane that increase surface area are called
A. Cilia
B. Microvilli
C. Flagella
D. Vesicles
8. The cytoskeleton of a cell can serve as a railway that can transport organelles and molecules to different
intracellular destinations.
True False
9. Microtubules and microfilaments are the primary components of the
A. Cytosol
B. Nucleus
C. Cytoskeleton
D. Plasma membrane
10. Tay-Sach’s disease is caused by a genetic defect which affects the activity of _______ enzymes.
A. Mitochondrial
B. Lysosomal
C. Centrosomal
D. Ribosomal
11. The organelle involved in the production of energy is the
A. Mitochondria
B. Ribosome
C. Cytoskeleton
D. Centriole
12. Mitochondria contain their own DNA.
True False
13. Individuals using anabolic steroids would have increased amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in
their liver cells.
True False
14. The granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum is characterized by a lack of ribosomes.
True False
15. Cells actively involved in secreting proteins would contain large numbers or quantities of
A. Lysosomes
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
16. Proteins and mRNA exit the nucleus via
A. Nuclear pores
B. Endoplasmic reticulum
C. Vesicles
D. Centromeres
17. It seems that humans have about this number of genes:
A. 25,000
B. 100,000
C. 3 million
D. 3 billion
18. The term proteome refers to all of the genes in a particular individual.
True False
19. Chromatin is comprised of _____________ and _____________.
A. Phospholipids; DNA
B. DNA; protein
C. RNA; protein
D. DNA; RNA
20. Genetic translation occurs in ribosomes located in the _____________ of the cell.
A. Nucleus
B. Plasma membrane
C. Cytoplasm
D. Golgi apparatus
21. _____________ RNA has the function of bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
A. Transfer
B. Messenger
C. Ribosomal
D. Nuclear
22. The _____________ of the messenger RNA is recognized by the _____________ of the transfer
RNA.
A. Triplet; codon
B. Codon; anticodon
C. Anticodon; codon
D. Anticodon; triplet
23. Anticodons found in mRNA allow for base pairing with the codons in tRNA.
True False
24. A cell lacking a Golgi apparatus would not be able to add _____________ to proteins.
A. Lipids
B. Proteins
C. Carbohydrates
D. Acids
25. The Golgi apparatus is involved in
A. Intracellular calcium storage
B. Adding carbohydrates to proteins
C. Degradation of organelles
D. Mitotic chromosomal movement
26. DNA replication is
A. Conservative
B. Semi conservative
C. Dispersive
D. Both semi conservative and dispersive
27. Apoptosis involves the activation of enzymes called ______________, which are the cell “executioners”
that activate other enzymes in the nucleus that fragment the DNA.
A. Neutrophils
B. Lysosomes
C. Caspases
D. Peroxisomes
28. The family of enzymes in cells activated during apoptosis are
A. Necrotic enzymes
B. Chromatids
C. Caspases
D. Centromeres
29. Chromosomes are lined up at the equator of the cell during this stage of mitosis:
A. Prophase
B. Anaphase
C. Metaphase
D. Telophase
30. Chromosomes move to opposite poles in
A. Anaphase
B. Metaphase
C. Prophase
D. Telophase
31. Centrioles replicate during
A. Anaphase
B. Cytokinesis
C. Interphase
D. Telophase
32. Enzymes ______________ the rate of a specific chemical reaction.
A. Decrease
B. Increase
C. Have no effect on
33. A ______________ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one cubic centimeter of
water one degree on the Celsius scale.
A. Ligand
B. Meter
C. Boiling point
D. Calorie
34. ______________ is the universal energy carrier.
A. Glucose
B. ATP
C. ADP
D. GTP
35. In glycolysis, glucose is converted to glycogen.
True False
36. Glycolysis converts glucose into two ______________ molecules.
A. Glycogen
B. Lactic acid
C. Acetyl CoA
D. Pyruvic acid
37. To go through glycolysis, _________ ATP per glucose molecule must be “invested” in order to activate
the glucose molecule.
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four
38. Lactic acid fermentation is also known as aerobic respiration.
True False
39. ________ muscle is better adapted to anaerobic conditions than cardiac muscle.
A. Smooth
B. Skeletal
40. ______________ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration.
A. Red blood
B. White blood
C. Skin
D. Nerve
41. Blood glucose concentrations can be maintained by hydrolysis of glycogen in the
A. Liver
B. Skeletal muscle
C. Smooth muscle
D. Kidneys
42. During the conversion of one pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A, ______________ molecule(s) of carbon
dioxide is/are produced.
A. No
B. One
C. Two
D. Four
43. Aerobic respiration
A. Uses glucose
B. Generates water
C. Uses both glucose and generates water
D. Generates oxygen
44. Each turn of the Krebs cycle directly produces ______________ molecule(s) of ATP.
A. One
B. Two
C. Four
D. No
45. The electron transport chain is responsible for the production of the majority of cellular ATP.
True False
46. Energy lost during the process of aerobic cell respiration is given off as
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Water
C. Oxygen
D. Metabolic heat
47. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is ______________.
A. NAD
B. Hydrogen
C. Oxygen
D. ATP
48. The electron transport chain functions to create a proton gradient across the outer mitochondrial
membrane.
True False
49. Cyanide is lethal because it blocks the oxidation of oxygen in the electron transport chain.
True False
50. Theoretically, complete catabolism of glucose generates a maximum of 32 ATP.
True False
51. Which of the following can undergo metabolic conversion to acetyl CoA and enter the Krebs cycle?
A. Glucose
B. Fatty acids
C. Protein
D. All of these choices are correct
52. The majority of energy within the body is stored as triglycerides.
True False
53. Tissues are groups of cells that have similar functions.
True False
54. Organs involved in carrying out related functions are grouped into systems.
True False
55. Organs are comprised of a minimum of two primary tissues.
True False
56. Which of the following is NOT a primary tissue of the body?
A. Nervous tissue
B. Epithelial tissue
C. Muscle tissue
D. Liver tissue
57. Intercalated discs are found in muscles attached to the skeleton.
True False
58. All skeletal muscles cause movement of the skeleton.
True False
59. Contraction of ____________ muscle can be consciously controlled.
A. Cardiac
B. Smooth
C. Skeletal
60. These muscle cells do NOT have a striated appearance:
A. Skeletal muscle cells
B. Smooth muscle cells
C. Cardiac muscle cells
D. Both smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells
61. Which of the following is a characteristic of smooth muscle cells?
A. The cells are branched
B. These cells are attached to skeletal bones by tendons
C. Intercalated discs connect adjacent cells
D. These cells are found in the digestive tract
62. Nervous tissue is specialized to produce and conduct electrical impulses.
True False
63. Which of the following is NOT one of the three main parts of a neuron?
A. Dendrites
B. Cell body
C. Neurofibrils
D. Axon
64. Neuroglial cells are supporting cells present in the
A. Brain
B. Spinal cord
C. Effector organs
D. Both brain and spinal cord
65. Epithelial membranes cover body surfaces and line the cavity of organs.
True False
66. Stratified epithelial membranes provide little protection but transport substances between the internal and
external environments.
True False
67. Membranes are formed by ____________ tissue.
A. Nervous
B. Muscular
C. Neuroglial
D. Epithelial
68. Cells that are as wide as they are tall have a(n) ____________ shape.
A. Squamous
B. Cuboidal
C. Columnar
D. Rectangular
69. The ____________ is the polysaccharide layer attaching an epithelial tissue to the underlying connective
tissue.
A. Goblet cell
B. Epidermis
C. Basement membrane
D. Plasma membrane
70. Epithelial membranes that are more than one layer thick are called
A. Simple
B. Stratified
C. Squamous
D. Ciliated
71. Histological examination of a membrane shows several layers of keratinized flattened cells. This sample
most likely came from
A. The epidermis of the skin
B. The lining of the oral cavity
C. The lining of the urinary bladder
D. The lining of the digestive tract
72. _______________ glands secrete chemicals through a duct that leads to the outside of a membrane.
A. Endocrine
B. Exocrine
73. All glands that secrete into the digestive tract are
A. Endocrine
B. Exocrine
C. Both endocrine and exocrine
D. Sebaceous glands
74. Osteocytes are found within
A. Canaliculi
B. Dentin
C. Lamellae
D. Lacunae
75. Which type of connective tissue is characterized by a liquid extra cellular matrix?
A. Bone
B. Blood
C. Adipose
D. Irregular dense connective tissue
2 Key
1. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit in the body.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #1
2. The _____________ is the liquid portion of the cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus.
A. Cytoskeleton
B. Peroxisome
C. Cytosol
D. Phospholipid
Fox – Chapter 02 #2
3. Carbohydrates are primarily associated with the outer surface of the cell membrane.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #3
4. The plasma membrane is referred to as a mosaic because of the presence of
A. Proteins
B. Carbohydrates
C. Phospholipids
D. All of these choices are correct
Fox – Chapter 02 #4
5. How are the phospholipids arranged to form the plasma membrane?
A. Single layer with hydrophilic heads outward
B. Double layer with hydrophobic tails facing inward toward each other
C. Double layer with hydrophilic heads facing inward toward each other
D. Double layer with phospholipids on the outside and proteins on the inside
Fox – Chapter 02 #5
6. The only flagellated cells in humans are
A. Ova
B. Sperm
C. Goblet cells
D. Tumor cells
Fox – Chapter 02 #6
7. Folds of the plasma membrane that increase surface area are called
A. Cilia
B. Microvilli
C. Flagella
D. Vesicles
Fox – Chapter 02 #7
8. The cytoskeleton of a cell can serve as a railway that can transport organelles and molecules to
different intracellular destinations.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #8
9. Microtubules and microfilaments are the primary components of the
A. Cytosol
B. Nucleus
C. Cytoskeleton
D. Plasma membrane
Fox – Chapter 02 #9
10. Tay-Sach’s disease is caused by a genetic defect which affects the activity of _______ enzymes.
A. Mitochondrial
B. Lysosomal
C. Centrosomal
D. Ribosomal
Fox – Chapter 02 #10
11. The organelle involved in the production of energy is the
A. Mitochondria
B. Ribosome
C. Cytoskeleton
D. Centriole
Fox – Chapter 02 #11
12. Mitochondria contain their own DNA.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #12
13. Individuals using anabolic steroids would have increased amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
in their liver cells.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #13
14. The granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum is characterized by a lack of ribosomes.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #14
15. Cells actively involved in secreting proteins would contain large numbers or quantities of
A. Lysosomes
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Fox – Chapter 02 #15
16. Proteins and mRNA exit the nucleus via
A. Nuclear pores
B. Endoplasmic reticulum
C. Vesicles
D. Centromeres
Fox – Chapter 02 #16
17. It seems that humans have about this number of genes:
A. 25,000
B. 100,000
C. 3 million
D. 3 billion
Fox – Chapter 02 #17
18. The term proteome refers to all of the genes in a particular individual.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #18
19. Chromatin is comprised of _____________ and _____________.
A. Phospholipids; DNA
B. DNA; protein
C. RNA; protein
D. DNA; RNA
Fox – Chapter 02 #19
20. Genetic translation occurs in ribosomes located in the _____________ of the cell.
A. Nucleus
B. Plasma membrane
C. Cytoplasm
D. Golgi apparatus
Fox – Chapter 02 #20
21. _____________ RNA has the function of bringing amino acids to the ribosome during translation.
A. Transfer
B. Messenger
C. Ribosomal
D. Nuclear
Fox – Chapter 02 #21
22. The _____________ of the messenger RNA is recognized by the _____________ of the transfer
RNA.
A. Triplet; codon
B. Codon; anticodon
C. Anticodon; codon
D. Anticodon; triplet
Fox – Chapter 02 #22
23. Anticodons found in mRNA allow for base pairing with the codons in tRNA.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #23
24. A cell lacking a Golgi apparatus would not be able to add _____________ to proteins.
A. Lipids
B. Proteins
C. Carbohydrates
D. Acids
Fox – Chapter 02 #24
25. The Golgi apparatus is involved in
A. Intracellular calcium storage
B. Adding carbohydrates to proteins
C. Degradation of organelles
D. Mitotic chromosomal movement
Fox – Chapter 02 #25
26. DNA replication is
A. Conservative
B. Semi conservative
C. Dispersive
D. Both semi conservative and dispersive
Fox – Chapter 02 #26
27. Apoptosis involves the activation of enzymes called ______________, which are the
cell “executioners” that activate other enzymes in the nucleus that fragment the DNA.
A. Neutrophils
B. Lysosomes
C. Caspases
D. Peroxisomes
Fox – Chapter 02 #27
28. The family of enzymes in cells activated during apoptosis are
A. Necrotic enzymes
B. Chromatids
C. Caspases
D. Centromeres
Fox – Chapter 02 #28
29. Chromosomes are lined up at the equator of the cell during this stage of mitosis:
A. Prophase
B. Anaphase
C. Metaphase
D. Telophase
Fox – Chapter 02 #29
30. Chromosomes move to opposite poles in
A. Anaphase
B. Metaphase
C. Prophase
D. Telophase
Fox – Chapter 02 #30
31. Centrioles replicate during
A. Anaphase
B. Cytokinesis
C. Interphase
D. Telophase
Fox – Chapter 02 #31
32. Enzymes ______________ the rate of a specific chemical reaction.
A. Decrease
B. Increase
C. Have no effect on
Fox – Chapter 02 #32
33. A ______________ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one cubic centimeter of
water one degree on the Celsius scale.
A. Ligand
B. Meter
C. Boiling point
D. Calorie
Fox – Chapter 02 #33
34. ______________ is the universal energy carrier.
A. Glucose
B. ATP
C. ADP
D. GTP
Fox – Chapter 02 #34
35. In glycolysis, glucose is converted to glycogen.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #35
36. Glycolysis converts glucose into two ______________ molecules.
A. Glycogen
B. Lactic acid
C. Acetyl CoA
D. Pyruvic acid
Fox – Chapter 02 #36
37. To go through glycolysis, _________ ATP per glucose molecule must be “invested” in order to
activate the glucose molecule.
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four
Fox – Chapter 02 #37
38. Lactic acid fermentation is also known as aerobic respiration.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #38
39. ________ muscle is better adapted to anaerobic conditions than cardiac muscle.
A. Smooth
B. Skeletal
Fox – Chapter 02 #39
40. ______________ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration.
A. Red blood
B. White blood
C. Skin
D. Nerve
Fox – Chapter 02 #40
41. Blood glucose concentrations can be maintained by hydrolysis of glycogen in the
A. Liver
B. Skeletal muscle
C. Smooth muscle
D. Kidneys
Fox – Chapter 02 #41
42. During the conversion of one pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A, ______________ molecule(s) of
carbon dioxide is/are produced.
A. No
B. One
C. Two
D. Four
Fox – Chapter 02 #42
43. Aerobic respiration
A. Uses glucose
B. Generates water
C. Uses both glucose and generates water
D. Generates oxygen
Fox – Chapter 02 #43
44. Each turn of the Krebs cycle directly produces ______________ molecule(s) of ATP.
A. One
B. Two
C. Four
D. No
Fox – Chapter 02 #44
45. The electron transport chain is responsible for the production of the majority of cellular ATP.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #45
46. Energy lost during the process of aerobic cell respiration is given off as
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Water
C. Oxygen
D. Metabolic heat
Fox – Chapter 02 #46
47. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is ______________.
A. NAD
B. Hydrogen
C. Oxygen
D. ATP
Fox – Chapter 02 #47
48. The electron transport chain functions to create a proton gradient across the outer mitochondrial
membrane.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #48
49. Cyanide is lethal because it blocks the oxidation of oxygen in the electron transport chain.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #49
50. Theoretically, complete catabolism of glucose generates a maximum of 32 ATP.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #50
51. Which of the following can undergo metabolic conversion to acetyl CoA and enter the Krebs cycle?
A. Glucose
B. Fatty acids
C. Protein
D. All of these choices are correct
Fox – Chapter 02 #51
52. The majority of energy within the body is stored as triglycerides.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #52
53. Tissues are groups of cells that have similar functions.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #53
54. Organs involved in carrying out related functions are grouped into systems.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #54
55. Organs are comprised of a minimum of two primary tissues.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #55
56. Which of the following is NOT a primary tissue of the body?
A. Nervous tissue
B. Epithelial tissue
C. Muscle tissue
D. Liver tissue
Fox – Chapter 02 #56
57. Intercalated discs are found in muscles attached to the skeleton.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #57
58. All skeletal muscles cause movement of the skeleton.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #58
59. Contraction of ____________ muscle can be consciously controlled.
A. Cardiac
B. Smooth
C. Skeletal
Fox – Chapter 02 #59
60. These muscle cells do NOT have a striated appearance:
A. Skeletal muscle cells
B. Smooth muscle cells
C. Cardiac muscle cells
D. Both smooth muscle cells and cardiac muscle cells
Fox – Chapter 02 #60
61. Which of the following is a characteristic of smooth muscle cells?
A. The cells are branched
B. These cells are attached to skeletal bones by tendons
C. Intercalated discs connect adjacent cells
D. These cells are found in the digestive tract
Fox – Chapter 02 #61
62. Nervous tissue is specialized to produce and conduct electrical impulses.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #62
63. Which of the following is NOT one of the three main parts of a neuron?
A. Dendrites
B. Cell body
C. Neurofibrils
D. Axon
Fox – Chapter 02 #63
64. Neuroglial cells are supporting cells present in the
A. Brain
B. Spinal cord
C. Effector organs
D. Both brain and spinal cord
Fox – Chapter 02 #64
65. Epithelial membranes cover body surfaces and line the cavity of organs.
TRUE
Fox – Chapter 02 #65
66. Stratified epithelial membranes provide little protection but transport substances between the internal
and external environments.
FALSE
Fox – Chapter 02 #66
67. Membranes are formed by ____________ tissue.
A. Nervous
B. Muscular
C. Neuroglial
D. Epithelial
Fox – Chapter 02 #67
68. Cells that are as wide as they are tall have a(n) ____________ shape.
A. Squamous
B. Cuboidal
C. Columnar
D. Rectangular
Fox – Chapter 02 #68
69. The ____________ is the polysaccharide layer attaching an epithelial tissue to the underlying
connective tissue.
A. Goblet cell
B. Epidermis
C. Basement membrane
D. Plasma membrane
Fox – Chapter 02 #69
70. Epithelial membranes that are more than one layer thick are called
A. Simple
B. Stratified
C. Squamous
D. Ciliated
Fox – Chapter 02 #70
71. Histological examination of a membrane shows several layers of keratinized flattened cells. This
sample most likely came from
A. The epidermis of the skin
B. The lining of the oral cavity
C. The lining of the urinary bladder
D. The lining of the digestive tract
Fox – Chapter 02 #71
72. _______________ glands secrete chemicals through a duct that leads to the outside of a
membrane.
A. Endocrine
B. Exocrine
Fox – Chapter 02 #72
73. All glands that secrete into the digestive tract are
A. Endocrine
B. Exocrine
C. Both endocrine and exocrine
D. Sebaceous glands
Fox – Chapter 02 #73
74. Osteocytes are found within
A. Canaliculi
B. Dentin
C. Lamellae
D. Lacunae
Fox – Chapter 02 #74
75. Which type of connective tissue is characterized by a liquid extra cellular matrix?
A. Bone
B. Blood
C. Adipose
D. Irregular dense connective tissue
Fox – Chapter 02 #75
2 Summary
Category # of Questions
Fox – Chapter 02 75

 

 

4
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The nerve is the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
True False
2. The brain and spinal cord comprise the
A. Central nervous system
B. Peripheral nervous system
C. Peripheral ganglia
D. Spinal nerves
3. Ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the periphery.
True False
4. Sensory nerves regulate muscle contraction.
True False
5. Most motor neurons are multipolar.
True False
6. Sensory neurons
A. Are multipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS
B. Are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS
C. Are bipolar and carry impulses away from the CNS
D. Are multipolar and carry impulses away from the CNS
7. Which of the following is NOT a structural classification of neurons?
A. Motor neuron
B. Bipolar neuron
C. Multipolar neuron
D. Pseudomultipolar neuron
8. Which of the following is NOT a functional classification of neurons?
A. Motor or efferent
B. Interneuron or association
C. Multipolar
D. Sensory or afferent
9. A nerve is a bundle of axons in the CNS.
True False
10. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes have similar functions.
True False
11. The myelin sheaths of CNS neurons are produced by
A. Schwann cells
B. Oligodendrocytes
C. Ependymal cells
D. Leukocytes
12. Cells supporting neuron cell bodies in ganglia are termed
A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Satellite cells
D. Schwann cells
13. Recent evidence indicates that ____________ cells which line the ventricles may function as neural stem
cells.
A. Ependymal
B. Microglial
C. Astrocyte
D. Schwann
14. Destruction of astrocytes would decrease the rate at which action potentials are transmitted.
True False
15. Myelinated axons transmit action potentials more rapidly than unmyelinated axons.
True False
16. Action potential transmission in the PNS is decreased if which cells are damaged?
A. Astrocytes
B. Microglia
C. Oligodendrocytes
D. Schwann cells
17. White matter is
A. Myelinated axons in the CNS
B. Myelinated axons in the PNS
C. Nonmyelinated cell bodies and dendrites in the CNS
D. Nonmyelinated axons in the CNS
18. The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is the
A. Neurilemma
B. Node of Ranvier
C. Sheath of Schwann
D. White matter
19. The disease ______________ is characterized by destruction of CNS myelin sheaths and the formation of
hardened scars.
A. Parkinson’s
B. Alzheimer’s
C. Multiple sclerosis
D. Myasthenia gravis
20. Excitable cells are incapable of maintaining a constant resting membrane potential.
True False
21. Cells become more negative during hyper polarization.
True False
22. The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ____________ ions than ____________
ions.
A. Sodium; potassium
B. Calcium; potassium
C. Potassium; sodium
D. Chloride; potassium
23. Nerve cells depolarize due to the influx of K+.
True False
24. Blocking ____________ channels would prevent neuronal depolarization.
A. K+
B. Cl–
C. Na+
D. Mg2+
25. During an action potential
A. Na+ efflux causes depolarization
B. K+ influx causes repolarization
C. Na+ influx causes depolarization
D. K+ influx causes after-hyper polarization
26. Action potential frequency encodes stimulus intensity.
True False
27. During the absolute refractory period a supramaximal stimulus can bring the cell to threshold.
True False
28. The period of time when Na+ channels are recovering from their inactive state and K+ channels are still
open is the
A. Repolarization
B. Absolute refractory period
C. Relative refractory period
D. Both repolarization and relative refractory period are correct
29. Conduction without decrement means that action potentials transmitted down an axon will not decrease in
amplitude.
True False
30. Conduction of an action potential in a myelinated axon is called
A. Point to point conduction
B. Saltatory conduction
C. Refractory conduction
D. Cable conduction
31. Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called
A. Hormones
B. Enzymes
C. Neurotransmitters
D. Neurotrophins
32. Local anesthetics block conduction of action potentials in sensory neurons by
A. Inhibiting the release of acetylcholine
B. Binding to potassium channels
C. Binding to sodium channels
D. Binding to calcium channels
33. Botulism toxin prevents release of Ach, causing
A. Flaccid paralysis
B. Hemiplegia
C. Spastic paralysis
D. None of these choices are correct
34. Hyper polarization in the postsynaptic cell is caused by
A. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials
B. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
C. Movement of K+ out of the cell
D. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and movement of K+ out of the cell are correct
35. Neurotransmitters
A. Are released by endocytosis
B. All bind to the same receptor
C. Usually regulate ion channels
D. Are actively transported across the synaptic cleft
36. The binding of an NT to its receptor protein causes ion channels to open in the post-synaptic membrane.
What type of gates are these?
A. Chemically-regulated gates
B. Voltage-regulated gates
C. Ligand-regulated gates
D. Both chemically-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates are correct
37. Acetylcholine
A. Is always an excitatory neurotransmitter
B. Can bind to adrenergic receptors
C. Is an inhibitory neurotransmitter released by motor neurons
D. Can bind to nicotinic receptors
38. Muscarinic Ach receptors are found in all of the following locations except
A. Skeletal muscle
B. Smooth muscle
C. Cardiac muscle
D. Glands
39. Which affect(s) Ach synaptic transmission?
A. Curare
B. Botulinum toxin
C. Strychnine
D. Both curare and botulinum toxin are correct
40. Which of the following is NOT true of EPSPs?
A. They are graded responses
B. They are capable of summation
C. They have a refractory period
D. They are initiated by neurotransmitters
41. Ligand-gated channels, when activated, allow only Na+ to move into the neuron.
True False
42. The nicotinic Ach receptor is a ligand-gated channel.
True False
43. Ion channels directly involved in neurotransmitter production are regulated by neurotransmitters.
True False
44. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential would be produced by a neurotransmitter opening Cl- channels.
True False
45. Nicotinic receptors utilize G-proteins to regulate the opening of ion channels.
True False
46. Parkinson’s disease is associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
True False
47. Neuroleptics, which are used to treat schizophrenia, are
A. Dopamine agonists
B. Ach antagonists
C. Dopamine antagonists
D. Glutamate agonists
48. Benzodiazepines act by increasing ________ activity.
A. GABA
B. Glutamate
C. Ach
D. Enkephalin
49. The most common neurotransmitter in the brain is
A. Glycine
B. Acetylcholine
C. Serotonin
D. GABA
50. Spatial summation
A. Occurs when a single neuron releases neurotransmitters rapidly
B. Occurs because of the convergence of many neurons on a single postsynaptic cell
C. Only involves excitatory postsynaptic potentials
D. Only involves inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
51. Both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo summation.
True False

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