Test Bank For Experiencing the Worlds Religions Tradition, Challenge, and Change – 5e TB

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Experiencing the Worlds Religions Tradition, Challenge, and Change – 5Th ed 

Chapter 1 – Test Bank

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Literally, the word religion means
  2. meditate on.
  3. worship.
  4. connect again.
  5. rise above.

Answer: c

Page: 6

 

 

  1. The prophetic orientation in religion emphasizes
  2. ceremonies.
  3. feelings of oneness with the universe.
  4. traditions.
  5. beliefs and moral codes.

Answer: d

Page: 17

 

  1. The early anthropologist who saw religion as rooted in a belief in spirits and the worship of them was
  2. E. B. Tylor.
  3. James Frazer.
  4. Sigmund Freud.
  5. Carl Jung.

Answer: b

Page: 11

 

  1. Sigmund Freud, when analyzing the origin of religion, emphasized
  2. the human need for psychological security.
  3. the certainty of an afterlife.
  4. his belief that religions were essential to psychological health.
  5. the valuable role that religions play in helping people find meaning in their lives.

Answer: a

Page: 11

 

  1. The disciple of Freud who ultimately rebelled against him was
  2. Carl Jung.
  3. Wilhelm Schmidt.
  4. Rudolf Otto.
  5. Clifford Geertz.

Answer: a

Page: 12

 

  1. Wilhelm Schmidt, an Austrian philologist, argued that human beings originally believed in
  2. one God.
  3. two gods of equal importance.
  4. multiple gods of nature.
  5. no God.

Answer: a

Page: 13

 

  1. Belief in many gods is called
  2. polytheism.
  3. monotheism.
  4. agnosticism.
  5. atheism.

Answer: a

Page: 8

 

  1. Belief in one God is called
  2. monotheism.
  3. polytheism.
  4. atheism.
  5. agnosticism.

Answer: a

Page: 8

 

  1. A mystical orientation in religion is characterized by
  2. an emphasis on mysterious happenings.
  3. the seeking of a union with something greater than oneself.
  4. the extensive use of holy water and statues.
  5. a belief in alien origins of life forms.

Answer: b

Page: 17

 

  1. A sacramental orientation in religion is characterized by
  2. daily prayer.
  3. the use of silent meditation.
  4. the extensive use of bells and powders.
  5. a belief that certain rituals and ceremonies help one achieve salvation.

Answer: d

Page: 16

 

  1. Anthropology typically studies religions as
  2. cultural creations with multiple aspects.
  3. clusters of sacred buildings, rivers, and mountains.
  4. systems of philosophical explanation of the universe.
  5. artifacts of superior beings.

Answer: a

Page: 21

 

  1. A universal religious symbol that is circular, or that blends a circle and a square, is called a
  2. mandala.
  3. mudra.
  4. mantra.
  5. megalith.

Answer: a

Page: 12

 

  1. The prophetic orientation in religion is particularly strong in
  2. Protestant Christianity.
  3. Tibetan Buddhism.
  4. Vedic Hinduism.
  5. Taoism.

Answer: a

Page: 17

 

  1. Pantheism is the belief
  2. that all reality is divine.
  3. in the ancient Greek religion that believed the god Pan was the source of cosmic order.
  4. in endless reincarnation.
  5. in a timeless realm of happiness at the top of the universe.

Answer: a

Page: 8

 

  1. One religion that particularly values and makes use of silence is
  2. Shinto.
  3. Judaism.
  4. Zen Buddhism.
  5. Islam.

Answer: c

Page: 15

 

  1. One name of an early female deity was
  2. Wotan.
  3. Mercury.
  4. Astarte.
  5. Izanagi.

Answer: c

Page: 18

 

  1. In religious studies, the word myth means
  2. a story that is historically true.
  3. a story that is historically untrue.
  4. a story that is psychologically meaningful and may be either historically true or not.
  5. a story that is found in similar form in many religions.

Answer: c

Page: 7

 

  1. Literally, philosophy in Greek means
  2. great system.
  3. world study.
  4. careful analysis.
  5. love of wisdom.

Answer: d

Page: 20

 

  1. A Dutch Reformed Church clergyman left his religious calling for painting. The artist’s name was
  2. Pierre Bonnard.
  3. Vincent van Gogh.
  4. Rosa Bonheur.
  5. Claude Monet.

Answer: b

Page: 4

 

  1. Among many reasons for the existence of religions, religions exist to help people
  2. deal with the certainty of death.
  3. find ways to express themselves in art.
  4. select careers that are socially redeeming.
  5. have valuable texts to study.

Answer: a

Page: 10

 

  1. The Scottish anthropologist who was the author of the multivolume study of mythology called The Golden Bough was
  2. James Frazer.
  3. C. G. Jung.
  4. Sigmund Freud.
  5. E. B. Tylor.

Answer: a

Page: 11

 

  1. The German theologian who held that religions originate in human response to the mysterious side of reality was
  2. Rudolf Otto.
  3. Carl Jung.
  4. Karl Rahner.
  5. Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

Answer: a

Page: 12

 

  1. The social scientist who argued that religion brought a new vitality to people’s lives was
  2. James Frazer.
  3. William James.
  4. E. B. Tylor.
  5. Carl Jung.

Answer: b

Page: 12

 

  1. Literally, psychology means
  2. study of nature.
  3. internal structure.
  4. study of the soul.
  5. procession of images.

Answer: c

Page: 20

 

  1. What psychologist saw religion as a way for people to find their fulfillment as unique individuals, a process he called “individuation”?
  2. Rudolf Otto
  3. E. B. Tylor
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. Carl Jung

Answer: d

Page: 12

 

  1. Female imagery in religions may be seen in
  2. lightning bolts.
  3. spirals and eggs.
  4. rocks.
  5. mountains.

Answer: b

Page: 18

 

  1. The approach that especially makes use of reason to find answers to religious questions is
  2. psychology.
  3. mythology.
  4. philosophy.
  5. anthropology.

Answer: c

Page: 20

 

  1. The conception of time that is found in religions that emphasize a creation and a cosmic purpose is usually
  2. cyclical.
  3. linear.
  4. repetitive
  5. psychological.

Answer: b

Page: 15

 

  1. That area of investigation that looks for and interprets religious evidence in ancient sites, buildings, and objects is
  2. anthropology.
  3. mythology.
  4. sociology.
  5. archeology.

Answer: d

Page: 21

 

  1. Literally, “theology” means
  2. discovery of the soul.
  3. structure of society.
  4. logic of pattern.
  5. study of the divine.

Answer: d

Page: 21

 

  1. The sociologist who emphasized that individual religions arise from and express the values of their societies was
  2. Geertz.
  3. Durkheim.
  4. Malinowski.
  5. Firth.

Answer: b

Page: 23

 

  1. The anthropologist who lived in the Sudan among the Nuer and Azande peoples was
  2. Boas.
  3. Geertz.
  4. Evans-Pritchard.
  5. Durkheim.

Answer: c

Page: 24

 

  1. The French thinker who recognized extraordinary structural similarities in stories told by tribal peoples of the Americas was
  2. Foucault.
  3. Sartre.
  4. Derrida.
  5. Lévi-Strauss.

Answer: d

Page: 24

 

  1. The French thinker who sought to go behind and beyond ordinary interpretations, to in essence “deconstruct” texts and other phenomena in search of fresh ways of seeing, was
  2. Foucault.
  3. Derrida.
  4. Lévi-Strauss.
  5. Durkheim.

Answer: b

Page: 24

 

  1. The French thinker who explored types of power in social and religious institutions and systems of thought that oppressed minority and other marginalized groups was
  2. Durkheim.
  3. Derrida.
  4. Foucault.
  5. Lévi-Strauss.

Answer: c

Page: 24

 

 

 

  1. The analytical approach that carefully investigates individual elements in cultural phenomena, rejecting the quest for universal structures that might under-gird language or religion, is
  2. structuralism.
  3. existentialism.
  4. post-structuralism.
  5. linguistics.

Answer: c

Page: 24

 

  1. The analytical approach to language, religions, and mythology that searches for universal underlying frameworks is
  2. post-structuralism.
  3. linguistics.
  4. structuralism.
  5. literary theory.

Answer: c

Page: 24

 

  1. The analytical approach that studies written texts of religion and even non-written material as reflections of the cultural values and assumptions that produced them is
  2. structuralism.
  3. literary theory.
  4. linguistics.
  5. post-structuralism.

Answer: b

Page: 22

 

 

Essay Topics

 

  1. Why do religions exist? Give at least three possible reasons, and defend them with good arguments (and, when appropriate, references to others who offer similar reasons).

 

  1. List, and briefly describe, five characteristics that are typically associated with a “religion.”

 

  1. Explain the difference between transcendent and immanent notions of sacredness. What emphases might we expect in a religion that acknowledges a transcendent god or gods? What emphases might we expect in a religion that emphasizes sacredness that is immanent?

 

  1. Could we use the term religion for a belief system of only one person? Explain your answer.

 

  1. Religions often speak of the sacred or treat people or places as sacred. Is there anything objectively “sacred,” or is this just an imaginative human projection? Defend your answer.

 

  1. List four symbols typically thought of as religious and explain meanings with which each is typically associated.

 

  1. Explain the distinctions among sacramental, prophetic, and mystical orientations of religions.

 

  1. Describe the range of attitudes among religions toward words and special texts.

 

  1. Explain how a continuum with “exclusivity” at one end and “inclusivity” at the other can be used to describe religious views.

 

  1. How do we typically distinguish between religion and philosophy?

 

  1. Offer, with evidence, an explanation for why males and male imagery came to dominate many of the religions of the past few thousand years.

 

  1. Describe at least three contemporary examples of religious devotion to female deities or religious use of female imagery.

 

  1. Describe three different discipline-based approaches to the study of religions, and explain the particular emphasis of each.

 

  1. The term religion seems literally to mean “connect again.” What elements do you see being connected by a religion?

 

Chapter 3 – Test Bank

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. The word that means “liberation” is
  2. moksha.
  3. karma.
  4. ahimsa.
  5. maya.

Answer: a

Page: 85

 

  1. The word Vedas is related to the English word
  2. visit.
  3. vision.
  4. vex.
  5. vertical.

Answer: b

Page: 79

 

  1. Vedic worship primarily involved
  2. offerings to nature gods at fire altars.
  3. solemn circular dances.
  4. fasting for a month, beginning at the new moon.
  5. silent meditation.

Answer: a

Page: 79

 

  1. A characteristic symbolic object associated with Krishna, indicative of the attractive power of the divine, is a
  2. shell.
  3. flame.
  4. flute.
  5. flower.

Answer: c

Page: 97

 

  1. A mantra is a
  2. sacred painting.
  3. form of meditation.
  4. breath exercise.
  5. short chant.

Answer: d

Page: 93

 

  1. What animal is treated with special devotion and care by Hindus?
  2. snake
  3. monkey
  4. elephant
  5. cow

Answer: d

Page: 103

 

  1. The term for the divine nature of each person is
  2. atman.
  3. jnana.
  4. moksha.
  5. maya.

Answer: a

Page: 83

 

  1. The Vedic god of fire was
  2. Soma.
  3. Indra.
  4. Agni.
  5. Varuna.

Answer: c

Page: 79

 

  1. The hallucinatory drink used in Vedic worship was called
  2. soma.
  3. mantra.
  4. moksha.
  5. maya.

Answer: a

Page: 79

 

  1. The oldest and most important of the Vedas is
  2. Sama Veda.
  3. Yajur Veda.
  4. Atharva Veda.
  5. Rig Veda.

Answer: d

Page: 80

 

  1. The Upanishads are
  2. about 100 written works that discuss the nature of spiritual reality.
  3. sacred diagrams used in meditation.
  4. the seven centers of spiritual energy in the body.
  5. poems by Rabindranath Tagore.

Answer: a

Page: 81

 

  1. When was the Bhagavad Gita written?
  2. 2000-1500 B.C.E.
  3. 1000-800 B.C.E.
  4. 400 B.C.E.-400 C.E.
  5. 700-900 C.E.

Answer: c

Page: 86

 

  1. The Bhagavad Gita is part of a long Indian epic poem called
  2. Iliad.
  3. Purana.
  4. Gita Govinda.
  5. Mahabharata.

Answer: d

Page: 86

 

  1. The prince who is counseled by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita is
  2. Arjuna.
  3. Ganesha.
  4. Lakshmi.
  5. Hanuman.

Answer: a

Page: 86

 

  1. The term maya may be translated as
  2. liberation.
  3. nonharm.
  4. bliss.
  5. illusion.

Answer: d

Page: 83

 

  1. Bhakti means
  2. freedom from suffering.
  3. studying the sacred texts.
  4. devotion to a god.
  5. working for the good of others.

Answer: c

Page: 94

 

  1. The god Rama is frequently paired with
  2. Devi.
  3. Sita.
  4. Lakshmi.
  5. Ganesha.

Answer: b

Page: 96

 

  1. The Vedic god of storm and war was
  2. Soma.
  3. Surya.
  4. Indra.
  5. Agni.

Answer: c

Page: 79

 

  1. What god—ordinarily shown with the face of a monkey—helped return Sita after her abduction to Sri Lanka?
  2. Hanuman
  3. Ganesha
  4. Ganga
  5. Lakshmi

Answer: a

Page: 96

 

  1. The ideal of causing no harm to anything that can suffer is
  2. karma.
  3. moksha.
  4. jnana.
  5. ahimsa.

Answer: d

Page: 92

 

  1. The modern Indian who used nonviolent means to help lead India to independence in 1947 was
  2. Mohandas Gandhi.
  3. Ram Mohan Roy.
  4. Rabindranath Tagore.
  5. Ramakrishna.

Answer: a

Page: 109

 

  1. The religious practice of ordinary Hindus is primarily
  2. devotion to deities.
  3. the practice of meditation.
  4. breathing exercises.
  5. the study of ancient religious texts.

Answer: a

Page: 94

 

  1. The law of moral cause-and-effect is called the law of
  2. moksha.
  3. jnana.
  4. karma.
  5. ahimsa.

Answer: c

Page: 84

 

  1. A Hindu social class, sanctioned by religion, is called a
  2. mantra.
  3. caste.
  4. ahimsa.
  5. stratum.

Answer: b

Page: 87

 

  1. Raja yoga is the yoga of
  2. knowledge.
  3. physical exercise.
  4. meditation.
  5. devotion.

Answer: c

Page: 92

 

  1. A brahmin is a
  2. priest.
  3. warrior-noble.
  4. peasant.
  5. merchant.

Answer: a

Page: 88

 

  1. This god is associated with destruction and rebirth.
  2. Vishnu
  3. Shiva
  4. Rama
  5. Krishna

Answer: b

Page: 97

 

  1. A major city of the pre-Vedic culture of the Indus River Valley was
  2. Harappa.
  3. Benares.
  4. Madras.
  5. Pataliputra.

Answer: a

Page: 77

 

  1. Om is a well-known example of a
  2. jiva.
  3. mandala.
  4. mantra.
  5. yoga.

Answer: c

Page: 93

 

  1. What deity is often shown with dark blue skin?
  2. Lakshmi
  3. Hanuman
  4. Shiva
  5. Krishna

Answer: d

Page: 97

 

  1. A guru is a
  2. religious teacher.
  3. tree spirit.
  4. drink used in Vedic ritual.
  5. trance state.

Answer: a

Page: 102

 

  1. An important symbol of Shiva is the
  2. stupa.
  3. lingam.
  4. banyan tree.
  5. candle.

Answer: b

Page: 98

 

  1. In Hinduism, dharma refers to
  2. postures used in meditation.
  3. one’s social duty.
  4. a style of drumming.
  5. faith in a teacher.

Answer: b

Page: 90

 

  1. The absolute or divine reality is known as
  2. Brahman.
  3. Brahma.
  4. Brahmin.
  5. Bhagavad Gita.

Answer: a

Page: 81

 

  1. A sannyasin is a
  2. craftsman or merchant.
  3. nature spirit.
  4. warrior-noble.
  5. wandering holy man.

Answer: d

Page: 90

 

 

  1. The river that lies northwest of India is
  2. Jumna.
  3. Indus.
  4. Brahmaputra.
  5. Irrawaddy.

Answer: b

Page: 76

 

  1. Hinduism is the majority religion of
  2. Myanmar (Burma).
  3. Bangladesh.
  4. Nepal.
  5. Sri Lanka.

Answer: c

Page: 114

 

  1. The goal of ultimate liberation from egotism and from rebirth is called
  2. moksha.
  3. samsara.
  4. bhakti.
  5. jnana.

Answer: a

Page: 85

 

  1. Puja is
  2. an object held in the hand when worshiping the goddess Durga.
  3. devotional ritual.
  4. a sacred dance.
  5. a special powder placed on the images of deities.

Answer: b

Page: 94

 

  1. Krishna is considered an incarnation of
  2. Shiva.
  3. Durga.
  4. Vishnu.
  5. Kali.

Answer: c

Page: 96

 

  1. Krishna is often portrayed holding a
  2. flute.
  3. flower.
  4. seashell.
  5. peacock-feather fan.

Answer: a

Page: 106

 

42.The elephant-headed god who is a symbol of abundance is

  1. Saraswati.
  2. Kali.
  3. Rama.
  4. Ganesha.

Answer: d

Page: 99

 

  1. The goddess of good luck is
  2. Durga.
  3. Lakshmi.
  4. Saraswati.
  5. Kali.

Answer: b

Page: 100

 

  1. Transcendentalism is the name for
  2. an American movement in literature that was influenced by Hinduism.
  3. a type of Hindu metal sculpture design that specializes in statues of Shiva.
  4. a movement in Hinduism that emphasizes the use of the body for spiritual purposes.
  5. a political movement, begun by Gandhi, that emphasizes nonviolence.

Answer: a

Page: 115

 

  1. Facts lending support to the “Aryan invasion theory” include
  2. the advanced ancient civilization discovered in the ruins found in the Indus River valley.
  3. ancient seals showing someone seated in a yogic meditation posture.
  4. ancient Sanskrit’s relation to Greek and Latin.
  5. important concepts found in the Upanishads.

Answer: c

Page: 78

 

  1. Critics of the “Aryan invasion theory” and “Aryan migration theory” often maintain that these are
  2. not substantiated in the Vedas.
  3. contradicted in the Upanishads.
  4. used to justify the caste system.
  5. a continued relic of Western cultural imperialism.

Answer: d

Page: 78

 

  1. Archeological discoveries showing Harappa civilization was not destroyed by outsiders led to
  2. the rise of Hindu fundamentalism.
  3. the development of the “Aryan migration theory.”
  4. puzzlement concerning Aryan origins.
  5. rethinking the dating of the Upanishads.

Answer: b

Page: 78

 

  1. The yoga path that involves striving to do all useful work unselfishly without a desire for reward is
  2. raja.
  3. karma.
  4. kundalini
  5. hatha.

Answer: b

Page: 91

 

  1. The yoga path focused on meditation is
  2. raja.
  3. karma.
  4. kundalini.
  5. jnana.

Answer: a

Page: 92

 

  1. The yoga path focused on doing various stretching postures and balancing is
  2. jnana.
  3. karma.
  4. bhakti.
  5. hatha.

Answer: d

Page: 93

 

 

Essay Topics

 

  1. Describe three geographical features of India that relate to Hindu devotional practice, and explain the connection.

 

  1. Explain the different theories that account for the emergence of the Vedic period. Include evidence scholars have used to substantiate their views or challenge the other theories. Which is most plausible to you and why?

 

  1. What are the four Vedas about? Please describe them.

 

  1. Describe the roles of the river Ganges in Hindu practice.

 

  1. Define the concept of Atman, and describe how it is similar to yet different from the typical Western concept of self.

 

  1. Define the concept of maya, and describe the impact of this concept on the Hindu understanding of death.

 

  1. Describe the categories of the caste system and explain how they function within Hindu thought and practice.

 

  1. What are the four stages of life and what are the obligations associated with each?

 

  1. Describe three of the yogas and explain how they function within Hindu practice.

 

  1. Name the three gods of the Trimurti. Describe the basic identities and roles of each of the gods.

 

  1. Identify two Hindu deities usually portrayed in feminine forms. Describe a key characteristic of each.

 

  1. Explain the concept of the guru. Offer two or three reasons why the concept has attained popularity in the capitalist Western world.

 

  1. Explain the Hindu veneration of the cow in a way that would allow a Westerner to understand the basic Hindu belief behind the practice.

 

  1. Describe two well-known examples of Hindu sculpture.

 

  1. Describe how Hinduism of the past and present shapes the roles of women.

 

  1. List three ways in which Gandhi has contributed to contemporary social issues. Describe how one of those contributions has resulted in political action beyond the traditional Hindu realm of influence.

 

  1. Describe three areas of Hindu influence outside of India.

 

  1. Assume that you have been asked to arrange a tour of the three most significant Hindu sites. What would they be? Why would you choose those sites?

 

  1. Have you ever encountered someone in your culture who could be considered a sannyasin? Describe the characteristics that would allow you to make such an identification.

 

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