Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank





Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition by Belsky -Test Bank

Chapter 4- Essay


1. Describe the roots of attachment theory—that is, the studies that suggested to Bowlby that attachment was a vital human need.



2. Describe in sequence the development of the attachment response, giving examples of each stage.



3. Jeffrey, age 5 months, Marcus, age 14 months, and Jennifer, age 4, are on their weekly outing to the park. As they are all relaxing together, a park ranger stops by. Compare the likely responses of these three children to this person’s efforts to pick them up.



4. List the four attachment patterns identified by Mary Ainsworth, give examples of each, and then name the attachment style that BEST predicts having long-term personality problems.



5. Your nephew is insecurely attached. List the forces which may have contributed to this situation and suggest remedies.



6. As a psychologist, devise some strategies to help lessen the risk factors that work to impair poverty level preschoolers’ social and cognitive development.




7. To an anxious friend who is putting her daughter in infant day care, offer tips for selecting a setting and having this child get the best possible experience.



8. A friend asks, “What behaviors should I expect when my child is a toddler?” Your response:



9. Flavio is a shy toddler; Gina is exuberant. If both children attend a mommy-and-me playgroup, how would their behavior be different? What can you do to BEST help each child?




Answer Key


 • Babies in orphanages seemed depressed, apathetic, and emotionally disturbed.
 • Ethologists found that other species, such as geese, would get attached to and follow an object that they saw at a particular time after birth.
 • Harlow proved that contact comfort was more important to attachment than food, and, most important, showed that monkey babies who grew up without mothers were unable to socially relate as adults.


 • First 3 months, preattachment—no signs of any attachment to a caregiver.
 • 4 to 7 months, attachment in the making—babies show signs of preferring a primary caregiver, but still will go to anyone.
 • 7 months to 3 years, clear-cut attachment—infants and toddlers need to be close to a primary attachment figure, and show separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.
 • Over age 3, working model—children can be separated from a primary caregiver, but carry an internal representation of that person in mind. The attachment response is still evoked under conditions of threat, however, throughout life.
 • Jeffrey will be slightly wary, but allow the ranger to pick him up; Marcus will start crying or resist the ranger’s attempts; Jennifer will allow the ranger to pick her up.
 • Secure—baby runs with love into caregiver’s arms after being separated.
 • Avoidant—baby shows no response when caregiver leaves or returns.
 • Ambivalent/anxious—baby is too anxious to explore, and gets hysterical and cannot be comforted when the caregiver returns.
 • Disorganized—baby freezes/and responds with fear when caregiver returns.
 • The disorganized style is MOST apt to foreshadow later personality problems.
 • Caregiver is depressed and/or has emotional problems that prevent her from “dancing” well.
 • Baby has a difficult temperament.
 • Caregiver’s other relationships are making it difficult to “dance” with her baby.

Solutions: Work to eradicate parent’s emotional problems and try to teach her to respond in a more sensitive way. With temperamental issues, strive to tell the caregiver that the baby’s responses are not her “fault” and also teach strategies for providing the best temperament–environment fit. Work to eliminate the marital or external stresses that are impairing the dance.

 • Get the child into a high-quality preschool.
 • Give emotional support to parents and teach them ways of coping with stress (that don’t involve yelling and screaming).
 • See if you can help the child’s family move to out of a dangerous, impoverished neighborhood.
 • Encourage parents to read to their children and take advantage of free educational options (and offer a list of those options) in the community.
In choosing a setting, look for care providers that are committed to young children and the field, for a place that provides close to one-to-one care, and a setting where there is little staff turnover.
If everything else is equal, possibly select family day care.
Try not to put your child in full-time care or—if you must—take your child out for regular “vacations.”
“a passion for exploring the world”
“beginning language”
“focusing difficulties, angry outbursts, and problems sitting still and ‘sharing’”
during later toddlerhood, self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment
“not wanting to be separated from you.”
“intense love you may have never felt before from any person!”
Favio will hang back and be frightened in the group.
Gina may be more difficult to control or discipline. To help reduce Flavio’s temperamental shyness, gently expose him to caring social situations. With Gina, the best route to socialization is to offer plenty of positive reinforcement and love.


Chapter 4- Fill-in-the-Blank

1. ________ is the powerful bond of love between a child and a primary caregiver.



2. Harry Harlow found that motherless baby monkey’s preferred clinging to ________ mothers when distressed rather than the wire mothers from whom they were fed.



3. According to Bowlby, we show proximity-seeking behavior when we are faced with ________ or ________ life threats.



4. During the phase of ________ attachment, lasting from roughly ________, babies need to be physically near their caregivers.



5. The fact that a baby needs to repeatedly check back to see if his caregiver is pleased or upset is called ________.



6. The classic research strategy for determining infant attachment styles is called the ________.



7. Insecure attachment styles include ________, ________, and ________.



8. Attachment security in infancy depends on the ________, the ________, and the ________.



9. Our biologically based style of reacting to the world is called our ________.



10. A genetically vulnerable baby can sometimes become securely attached provided that the child has ________ caregiving.



11. Infants exposed to the severe deprivation of Eastern European orphanage life were MOST likely to become securely attached if they were adopted before ________.



12. In the United States, ________ have higher rates of poverty than any other age group.



13. Early childhood poverty has its MOST poisonous effect on ________ development.



14. ________ is a program for disadvantaged children under age 3 and their caregivers, designed to promote cognitive and social development.



15. In ________, a person looks after a small group of children in her home.



16. The NICHD study suggested there are small ________ effects of being sent to day care for long hours during the first 4 years of life.



17. The most important environmental force in a child’s development is the ________.



18. The PRIMARY quality to look for in a good day-care provider is ________ young children.



19. Day-care providers earn ________ wages.



20. According to Erikson, a toddler’s task is to develop a sense of ________.



21. Shame and other ________ emotions are a sign of first understanding that one is a real self.



22. If you have a shy toddler, the BEST approach is to ________.



23. The MOST effective strategy for dealing with a rambunctious toddler is to strive for an exceptionally strong ________.



24. ________ is the term for arranging a child’s environment to suit his unique strengths and weaknesses.




Answer Key


1. Attachment
2. cloth
3. internal; external
4. clear-cut; 8 months to age 3
5. social referencing
6. Strange Situation
7. avoidant; anxious-ambivalent; disorganized
8. caregiver; child; caregiver’s other relationships
9. temperament
10. highly sensitive
11. age 2
12. young children
13. cognitive or academic
14. Early Head Start
15. family day care
16. negative
17. quality of the care giving at home
18. being committed to nurturing
19. very low
20. autonomy
21. self-conscious
22. gently expose that child to supportive social situations
23. loving attachment
24. Goodness of fit


Chapter 4- Multiple Choice

1. Dr. Out-of-Date is an old-style behaviorist. How would he explain 1-year-old Ned’s efforts to be close to his mother at all times?
  A) “Ned shares a unique emotional bond with his mother.”
  B) “Ned’s behavior is being reinforced because his mother feeds him.”
  C) “Ned’s behavior is irrational.”
  D) “Ned’s behavior is genetically programmed.”



2. How would an evolutionary psychologist describe 1-year-old Ned’s need to be close to his mom at all times?
  A) “It’s being reinforced by food.”
  B) “It’s genetically programmed into our species.”
  C) “It’s genetically programmed into certain kinds of kids.”
  D) “It’s a sign of an emotional problem.”



3. “Too much mother love during infancy produces whiny, dependent adults.” This statement would most likely be made by a(n):
  A) evolutionary psychologist.
  B) old-style behaviorist.
  C) Eriksonian.
  D) meanie.



4. All of these findings helped Bowlby formulate attachment theory EXCEPT:
  A) Monkeys raised without moms couldn’t socially relate as adults.
  B) Orphanage babies were apathetic and mentally disturbed.
  C) Baby geese would follow forever “an object” that they saw at a specific time after birth.
  D) Babies love their moms.



5. Pick the basic message of Harlow’s findings with motherless monkeys.
  A) Physical contact (or love) is a basic human need.
  B) Physical contact (or love) is an overrated human need.
  C) Physical contact (or love) is less important than food.
  D) Physical contact (or love) is important in other species, but not in our own.



6. Elmer, 1½, is running ahead of his mom when some big kids race past on bicycles. Elmer turns around, runs back, and begs to be picked up. Elmer is showing:
  A) normal proximity-seeking behavior.
  B) abnormal proximity-seeking behavior.
  C) abnormal fear.
  D) abnormal attachment.



7. According to Bowlby, having a primary attachment figure is vital:
  A) mainly during infancy.
  B) at every age.
  C) if you are dependent.
  D) for humans but not for other species.



8. Which event is LEAST likely to evoke proximity-seeking behavior?
  A) learning you have a serious disease
  B) having your boss insult you
  C) leaving for a dangerous part of the world
  D) arriving at your job



9. The attachment response:
  A) disappears totally after infancy.
  B) is evoked at any time of life when we feel threatened.
  C) is a symptom of dependency after age 4.
  D) is reinforced by our parents.



10. In explaining the attachment response, Dr. Love is likely to make all of the following comments EXCEPT:
  A) “It’s genetically built into our species (and others).”
  B) “It’s programmed to come out during infancy.”
  C) “It helps promote survival.”
  D) “It disappears when we reach old age.”



11. According to Bowlby, a baby’s first social smile:
  A) shows intestinal gas.
  B) shows true attachment.
  C) shows love.
  D) is a reflexive response.



12. Maisie is 4 months old, so with regard to attachment you can predict she:
  A) happily smiles at every adult, and can be cuddled by anyone.
  B) is indifferent to adults—or acts sad.
  C) only goes to her primary caregiver.
  D) has two or three people she really likes.



13. Five-month-old Tara is more easily soothed by and smiles and looks more at Mom. Still, when Aunt Sally comes for a visit, Tara has no problem giving her a cuddle. Tara is in the:
  A) preattachment phase.
  B) attachment-in-the-making phase.
  C) clear-cut attachment phase.
  D) working model phase.



14. Attachment in the making coincides with the onset of:
  A) the primary circular reactions.
  B) separation anxiety.
  C) the secondary circular reactions
  D) the first social smile.



15. A friend asks, “When should my child be in the phase of clear-cut attachment?” What should you say?
  A) “It begins at about 4 months of age and lasts through age 1”
  B) “It begins at about 7 or 8 months of age and lasts through toddlerhood (till about age 3).”
  C) “It begins at about age 1 and lasts through age 4.”
  D) “It begins at about 18 months of age and lasts till kindergarten.”



16. Eight-month-old Nate suddenly begins to cry when he is left at the babysitter’s house, whereas before he never got upset. Pick the MOST reasonable cause.
  A) Nate is being abused by the sitter.
  B) Nate has entered the phase of clear-cut attachment.
  C) Nate is having abnormal trouble separating.
  D) Nate’s parents are having marital troubles.



17. It’s Christmas, you are at the mall, and a mom places her 1-year-old on the store Santa’s lap. You might expect:
  A) fear—and possibly hysterical crying.
  B) apathy—the kid won’t care.
  C) joy—he may be getting a toy!
  D) varying responses—depending on how child-sensitive that particular Santa is.



18. You are visiting your 13-month-old nephew and he gets agitated when you pick him up. You should feel:
  A) insulted—He doesn’t love me.
  B) not surprised—It’s normal at this age.
  C) concerned for his mental health.
  D) angry, as he is not being raised correctly.



19. At the park, 20-month-old Ethan, crawls through tunnels, throws sand everywhere, and lets a dog lick his face. But as he moves from one activity to another, he looks over his shoulder to see whether Daddy is watching. The name for Ethan’s behavior is:
  A) excessive anxiety.
  B) social referencing.
  C) insecure attachment.
  D) stranger anxiety.



20. When José, age 1, social references his mom, he is reacting to:
  A) expressions of fear.
  B) expressions of encouragement.
  C) expressions of happiness.
  D) He is reacting to all of these.



21. Juanita, age 5, goes to kindergarten happily, without any distress. The MOST likely reason is that Juanita is:
  A) insecurely attached.
  B) securely attached.
  C) in the working-model phase of attachment.
  D) in the phase of attachment-in-the making.



22. One-year-old Joshua needs to be near his main caregiver, his dad, all of the time. He gets uncomfortable when he is picked up by other adults: What should you be thinking?
  A) It’s normal.
  B) It’s a symptom of excessive dependency.
  C) It’s a sign of male bonding.
  D) It’s a problem—as kids this age are always primarily attached to their moms.



23. Pick the BEST sign that your 1-year-old nephew is securely attached.
  A) He can separate easily from his primary caregiver.
  B) He is thrilled when he sees his primary caregiver after being separated.
  C) He is incredibly distressed when separated from his primary caregiver.
  D) He is very calm when he sees his primary caregiver after being separated.



24. If 1-year-old Erik doesn’t seem to care when his mother leaves the room, and shows no reaction when she returns, how might you categorize Erik’s attachment style?
  A) secure
  B) disorganized
  C) avoidant
  D) anxious-ambivalent



25. One-year-old Anthony is terribly clingy even when his mom is in the same room. If she leaves, he cries frantically and cannot be comforted by her when she returns. How might you classify Anthony’s attachment status?
  A) secure
  B) anxious-ambivalent
  C) avoidant
  D) disorganized



26. Link the correct attachment style to the following descriptions: (1) thrilled when reunited with a caregiver, (2) confused, erratic response when reunited with a caregiver, and (3) doesn’t care when reunited with a caregiver.
  A) secure; avoidant; disorganized
  B) secure; disorganized; avoidant
  C) secure; anxious-ambivalent; avoidant
  D) secure; avoidant; anxious-ambivalent



27. At what time of life can we see the dance of attachment in action?
  A) during a baby’s first few months of life
  B) at age 1
  C) during the phase of clear-cut attachment
  D) at any age



28. Baby Clara and her Mom are totally in tune. They know when to come on strong and when to back off. This blissful sense of connection is called:
  A) synchrony.
  B) pure love.
  C) engrossment.
  D) organization.



29. Baby Clara’s mom is distant when she relates to her baby. Her mom can’t respond with love. According to the research, baby Clara may be:
  A) more likely to develop an avoidant attachment.
  B) more likely to develop an anxious-ambivalent attachment.
  C) more likely to be securely attached.
  D) No predictions are possible.



30. To use the attachment metaphor, if a caregiver and baby aren’t “dancing well together”:
  A) It’s the caregiver’s “fault.”
  B) The baby has a difficult temperament.
  C) Could be either that the baby has a difficult temperament and/or it’s the caregiver’s fault.
  D) The problem will persist throughout life.



31. A temperamentally difficult baby:
  A) will always end up having an insecure attachment.
  B) will always end up having a secure attachment.
  C) may end up having a secure attachment with exceptionally sensitive caregiver.
  D) needs a good deal of structure to become securely attached.



32. If 1–month-old Eric has a “difficult temperament,” pick the likely cause.
  A) It’s biological or genetic.
  B) It’s due to poor mothering.
  C) It’s due to poor feeding.
  D) It’s either due to genetics or to poor mothering.



33. These four babies have difficult temperaments. Which child is MOST likely to develop a secure attachment?
  A) Martin, whose mother keeps him on a strict schedule
  B) Nadia, whose parents work varying shifts at the factory, so Nadia’s care arrangements change frequently
  C) Olaf, whose mother is highly sensitive to his needs
  D) Paul, whose mother is frequently upset because nothing she does pleases her baby. She is determined to make Paul love her as much as she loves him.



34. Which statement about child-caregiver attachment is FALSE?
  A) Attachments to a single caregiver still occur in societies where infants are cared for by many people.
  B) Babies can only be attached to their moms.
  C) If a preschooler is insecurely attached, sometimes a sensitive teacher can make that child “secure.”
  D) When caregivers are not that sensitive, if a child is biologically or genetically hardy, that baby can still be securely attached.



35. Bella is pointing up flaws in Bowlby and Ainsworth’s ideas about infant attachment. She can make all of the following statements EXCEPT:
  A) “Attachment security in infancy can change over time.”
  B) “Attachment security in infancy depends on many forces, not just the caregiver.”
  C) “Attachment security in infancy may not necessarily predict long-term mental health.”
  D) “Attachment security in infancy is not important at all.”



36. As a mental health professional, you are concerned because your client and her baby don’t seem to be “dancing well.” What might be the problem?
  A) Your client is depressed.
  B) Your client’s baby has a difficult temperament.
  C) Your client is having marital troubles.
  D) It could be due to any or several of these factors.



37. A friend asks, “Who does a baby get attached to at age 1?” Your answer:
  A) “ equally to several caring people.”
  B) “ always the mom. ”
  C) “the person who spends the most time with a baby or is most sensitive to his needs.”
  D) “the person who feeds the child.”



38. Predict which insecurely attached baby is MOST at risk for later problems.
  A) a 1-year-old who reacts in an erratic confused way when reunited with a primary caregiver
  B) a 1-year-old who doesn’t seem to care when reunited with his primary caregiver
  C) a 1-year-old who isn’t able to be soothed when reunited with his primary caregiver
  D) a 1-year-old who doesn’t care at all when his primary caregiver leaves



39. Milo has a secure attachment at age 1. You can predict at age 21:
  A) Milo will probably be securely attached, if his caregiving and life situation remains stable.
  B) Milo will be securely attached, no matter how his life situation changes.
  C) Milo’s attachment status may shift to insecure if he is subjected to traumas during childhood.
  D) both answers a and c are correct



40. Your friend wants to adopt a 1-year-old who has been abused. Generalizing from the text, what you say about her chances of changing the child’s attachment from insecure to secure?
  A) “It’s hopeless, as infant attachments rarely change.”
  B) “You have a challenge, but go for it, as infant attachments can change with special care.”
  C) “No problem, as infant attachment has no relationship to later attachment.”
  D) “I can’t give you any advice, as we have no long-term studies of infant attachment.”



41. Clara and her husband have adopted a child who was warehoused in an Eastern European orphanage. According to the research, you can say all of the following EXCEPT:
  A) “If you adopt the child at or after age 2, the damage will be far harder to overcome.”
  B) “If you adopt the child in his first months of life, there should be few or no negative effects on development.”
  C) “If you adopt a boy, it will be harder for that baby to get securely attached.”
  D) “Secure attachments never occur after being subjected to this sort of trauma.”



42. Clara and her husband have adopted a 2-year-old child who was warehoused in an Eastern European orphanage. Which problem are they LEAST apt to find?
  A) Child has deficits in attention.
  B) Child has problems getting attached to any person.
  C) Child is “too friendly,” even going to strangers when it’s inappropriate.
  D) Child is unable to walk or speak.



43. The bottom line message of the attachment research is:
  A) Profound attachment deprivation is more difficult to overcome.
  B) Enduring attachment deprivation is more difficult to overcome
  C) Attachment security can change over time for the better or for the worse.
  D) All of these are bottom-line messages.



44. One vital message of the research following Eastern European orphanage infants is:
  A) Babies can recover if they are adopted prior to age 1 1/2 to 2.
  B) Babies can never recover.
  C) Babies can recover if they are adopted before age 6.
  D) Babies can recover easily if adopted before their teens.



45. In the United States, who is MOST likely to live in poverty today?
  A) a young child
  B) an adolescent
  C) an emerging adult
  D) an elderly person



46. If you start a family in your twenties today, statistically speaking you are probably (pick the BEST answer):
  A) fairly economically secure.
  B) going to struggle economically.
  C) going to struggle economically, but only if you are a single mother.
  D) unemployed.



47. Generalizing from the text, ________ is the WORST time to live in poverty.
  A) early childhood
  B) adolescence
  C) emerging adulthood
  D) old age



48. Who is MOST likely to be living in poverty in the United States?
  A) Sara, age 2, whose mom is in her early twenties
  B) Latisha, age 20, who is a college student
  C) Hernando, age 40, who has six kids
  D) Jose, age 65, who just retired



49. All things being equal, which student is MOST at risk of NOT graduating from high school?
  A) Bella, who lived in poverty during her first four years of life
  B) Sam, who lived in poverty during elementary school
  C) Clarissa, who has been living in poverty since her dad was laid off last year
  D) Sara, whose family has just experienced a decline in income



50. Early childhood poverty:
  A) impairs the quality of the attachment dance.
  B) leaves kids “ behind” academically in kindergarten (because they don’t have access to cognition enriching activities).
  C) promotes poor health.
  D) All of the answers are correct.



51. Pick the MAIN message of the section on early childhood poverty.
  A) Early childhood poverty always has a serious negative impact on development.
  B) Early childhood poverty can have a serious negative impact on development, unless caregivers are upbeat, sensitive, and loving.
  C) Early childhood poverty has little impact on development if, during elementary school, that family is no longer poor.
  D) Early childhood poverty is rare in the United States.



52. Your friend wants to move to a better neighborhood for her children’s sake. Your advice?
  A) “Go for it— if you live in a neighborhood blighted by poverty.”
  B) “Go for it—even if you now live in a middle-class neighborhood.”
  C) “Go for it—but only if your children are over age 6.”
  D) “Forget it—because if you give your children a loving, intellectually stimulating environment, the neighborhood won’t matter.”



53. Dr. Caring is offering reasons why early childhood poverty has negative academic outcomes. He can make all of the following points EXCEPT:
  A) Low-income children have less stimulating experiences at home.
  B) Low-income children are more apt to move frequently and live in more dangerous neighborhoods.
  C) Low-income children are more likely to have health problems.
  D) Low-income children are less likely to attend Head Start.



54. Living in poverty:
  A) has no impact on the quality of care-giving.
  B) puts caregivers at risk of not responding sensitively.
  C) means caregivers will definitely not respond sensitively.
  D) only matters if a person is a single mom.



55. The Head Start Program provides high quality:
  A) preschool to low-income children aged 3 to 5.
  B) day care to low-income children aged 1 to 5.
  C) preschool to any child aged 3 to 5.
  D) day care to any child aged 1 to 5.



56. Who is eligible for Early Head Start?
  A) low-income infants and toddlers
  B) low-income preschoolers
  C) any infant or toddler
  D) any preschooler



57. All of these forces work against academic success in poor children EXCEPT:
  A) having more stressed out parents.
  B) living in dangerous neighborhoods.
  C) going to family day care.
  D) living in crowded, substandard housing.



58. What is the long-term impact of attending preschool on low-income children?
  A) If the program is high quality, preschool can make an enduring difference.
  B) Every preschool makes an enduring difference.
  C) No preschool program has an enduring impact.
  D) Most preschools have a negative impact.



59. Give the MAIN reason why attending an excellent preschool can’t have a GREAT impact on low-income children’s later academic achievement.
  A) Poor children’s parents work long hours.
  B) Poor children go to substandard elementary schools and high schools.
  C) Poor children don’t have enough to eat.
  D) Poor children have parents who rarely care.



60. “A more teaching-oriented setting that enrolls children age 3 and above” is called:
  A) day care.
  B) preschool.
  C) afterschool.
  D) family care.



61. Sonia wants to know if she should send her 3-year-old to preschool. Your answer:
  A) “Go for it, as high-quality preschool gives children a cognitive boost.”
  B) “Go for it, but only because preschool helps with social skills.”
  C) “Be careful, as staying at home is best at this age.”
  D) “Avoid it, as most preschools are poorly run.”



62. If you lived in poverty as a young child, what force might BEST insulate you emotionally?
  A) having optimistic, happy, loving parents (or parent)
  B) having a good teacher
  C) having a large, extended family
  D) being a first born



63. Pick the most dramatic change in U.S. child care during the late twentieth century.
  A) more nannies
  B) more large day-care centers
  C) more moms quitting their jobs to stay with the kids
  D) more neighbors caring for kids



64. All are major concerns parents report when they send a baby to day care EXCEPT:
  A) “I’m worried about the expense.”
  B) “I’m worried about leaving my baby with strangers.”
  C) “I’m worried my child won’t be as attached to me.”
  D) “I’m worried that the setting is too far away.”



65. Fiona has returned to work when her child is 4 months old. If she lives in the United States, who is MOST likely to be responsible for the baby’s care?
  A) another relative (or her spouse)
  B) a day-care center
  C) a nanny
  D) a neighbor



66. Your working friend has a 3-year-old child. Statistically speaking, where is the child MOST likely to be when your friend is at her job?
  A) with grandma
  B) at a preschool (or day-care center)
  C) with another relative
  D) at home with the other parent



67. A mom tells you she is upset about leaving her baby and going to work. What should you be thinking?
  A) It’s a sign of insecurity.
  B) It’s a sign of paranoia.
  C) It’s a sign of excessive dependency.
  D) It’s totally normal.



68. Pick the main message of the NCHID study of child care.
  A) Day care has a clear positive impact.
  B) Day care has neither a positive nor a negative impact on development.
  C) The impact of long hours spent in day care can be a cause for concern.
  D) Day care has a negative impact on all children.



69. Given the text’s child-care findings, what should you advise a friend with a young baby?
  A) “Send the baby to full-time day care. It will help socially and cognitively.”
  B) “Send the baby to a high-quality preschool, but during the infant and toddler years (all things being equal), it’s better not to rely heavily on day-care centers.”
  C) “Keep the baby at home during the first 4 years of life.”
  D) “Don’t send the baby to family day care, but day-care centers are fine.”



70. Tonia decides to send her baby to day care. Pick the MOST important quality she should look for in the staff.
  A) They are utterly committed to working with young children.
  B) They have early childhood education degrees.
  C) They are older than 25.
  D) They work at the center part-time.



71. All promote burnout in day-care workers EXCEPT:
  A) The job pays very poorly.
  B) The job is low status—and often not well-respected.
  C) High child/caregiver ratios make it difficult to give adequate care.
  D) Day-care centers are typically run in an authoritarian way.



72. Your friend has decided to put her infant in family day care (versus a day-care center). All things being equal, what should your response be?
  A) “Good idea! Your baby may get more personal attention and one-to-one care.”
  B) “Bad idea! Your baby will be more likely to be abused, because her care will be hidden from view.”
  C) “Good idea! Your baby will probably be staying closer to home.”
  D) “Bad idea! Your baby’s caregivers are likely to be poorly educated.”



73. You are devising a checklist to help parents evaluate early child-care settings. All are questions that should appear on your list EXCEPT:
  A) Are there very few children per caregiver?
  B) Is there little staff turnover?
  C) Is the staff committed to this field?
  D) Does the staff have advanced degrees?



74. A mom is worried about putting her baby in day care. You can give her all of the following heartening bits of advice EXCEPT (pick the statement you should NOT make):
  A) “There are many exceptional facilities.”
  B) “The care you provide at home matters most.”
  C) “Your child will probably still be securely attached to you.”
  D) “Day care doesn’t have any negative effects.”



75. Sara’s 2-year-old is very shy, and she is worried about sending her to day care. What should you advise?:
  A) “Keep your child at home, as she will be too frightened.”
  B) “Send your child to a small day-care setting with highly supportive caregivers.”
  C) “Send your child to a large day care to help her conquer her fears.”
  D) “Send your child to the day care closest to your house.”



76. Mellissa is putting her infant in day care. You should give her all of the following tips EXCEPT:
  A) “Choose a place with low staff turnover.”
  B) “Choose a place with plenty of babies and many staff members.”
  C) “Choose a place where your child can get close to one-to-one care.”
  D) “Choose a place with caring, empathic caregivers.”



77. Which child is MOST at risk of having problems adjusting to day care?
  A) a girl who is sent to family day care
  B) a very active child, who is sent to a large day-care center
  C) any child who goes to a large day-care center
  D) a boy who is sent to family day care



78. All are classic behaviors at age 2 EXCEPT:
  A) wanting to dress and feed yourself.
  B) angry outbursts and temper tantrums.
  C) becoming embarrassed or ashamed for the first time.
  D) not following a pointing finger or looking in the direction of someone’s gaze.



79. Clara believes that, with the right discipline, she can train her child to have good manners as early as age 1. Your response:
  A) “No!—the ability to control oneself develops gradually during childhood.”
  B) “Yes!—if you provide the right reinforcements.”
  C) “Possibly—if your child really wants to please you.”
  D) “Yes—but only if your child is a girl.”



80. Which statement is NOT TRUE about self-conscious emotions?
  A) They normally emerge during late toddlerhood (around age 2).
  B) They show that the child is becoming aware of being “a self.”
  C) They predict having emotional problems.
  D) They are crucially important in socialization.



81. You notice that your toddler is starting to get embarrassed for the first time. As a caring parent, how should you feel?
  A) pleased that your child is beginning to understand she is a separate person
  B) concerned that your child is becoming insecure
  C) worried that you may not be raising your child correctly
  D) upset, but only if your child is a boy



82. Sara is teaching her 2-year-old to sit at the table and say “please.” The name for this training is:
  A) habituation.
  B) committed compliance.
  C) socialization.
  D) assertive discipline.



83. Parents first (or earliest) socialization efforts revolve around:
  A) teaching a child to avoid dangerous objects.
  B) teaching a child to “be nice.”
  C) toilet training a child.
  D) instilling moral values.



84. Which young child is MOST likely to obey the rule “Don’t touch this toy till dinner”?
  A) Gretchen, an active, fearless child of age 4
  B) Harry, an active fearless child of age 2
  C) Irina, an anxious child of age 2
  D) Heloise, an anxious child of age 4



85. Parents in the United States begin to heavily teach their children to “share,” be nice, or not to hit at around:
  A) 14 months.
  B) their second birthday.
  C) age 3.
  D) age 4.



86. A friend asks you, “When can I expect my child to begin to obey rules when I’m not in the room?” Your answer:
  A) “around age 1.”
  B) “around ages 2 to 4.”
  C) “around age 5.”
  D) “around age 10.”



87. Your friend confesses that she was very shy during childhood, but then says, “I got outgoing as I got older.” What might you be thinking?
  A) Yes and no. You may be more outgoing, but you probably carry your “shy” tendency     inside.
  B) Congrats! You’ve totally conquered your childhood shyness.
  C) You are deluding yourself! You probably are just as shy as before.
  D) Not so fast! As you get older, you will probably become very shy again.



88. Two-year-old Sonia reacts with intense fear to people and clings to her mom. What can you predict about Sonia’s behavior at 25?
  A) She will get more outgoing, but still be a bit anxious in unfamiliar situations.
  B) She will totally outgrow her fear.
  C) She will be just as shy as before.
  D) She will get even shyer than ever.



89. Shyness is:
  A) caused by incompetent parenting.
  B) a warning sign of child abuse.
  C) an inborn tendency that can be evident throughout a person’s life.
  D) an inborn tendency that totally disappears over time.



90. If you have an extremely inhibited or exuberant toddler, what can you predict about his future?
  A) The child will still have the same temperament, but become less “extreme” with age.
  B) The child will completely outgrow this temperamental tendency with age.
  C) The child will be just as “extreme” temperamentally with age.
  D) The child will develop serious emotional problems with age.



91. A 2-year-old is a real handful. He just cannot sit still. How is this child MOST likely to react at age 4 when his preschool teacher asks the class to sit quietly during story time?
  A) He will still have more trouble obeying the teacher, although he will have quieted down considerably.
  B) He will be exactly the same as at age 2.
  C) He will totally calm down.
  D) There is no way of predicting.



92. Your friend Juanita asks, “How can I help my shy toddler son become less anxious?” Your answer:
  A) “Insulate him from social situations until he is older.”
  B) “Gently expose him to supportive social situations.”
  C) “Immerse him in intense stressful social situations.”
  D) “Treat him the same way you would any other child.”



93. Which inhibited toddler will tend to develop the BEST coping skills?
  A) Ramon, whose parents expose him to many stressful social situations to toughen him up
  B) Sadie, whose parents treat her as though she were made of glass, keeping her insulated from frightening social experiences
  C) Theo, whose parents carefully expose him to less threatening social experiences
  D) Ursula, whose parents see no need to treat her any differently from any other child



94. Your colleague asks, “How can I BEST socialize my incredibly active 2-year-old?” Your reply:
  A) “Provide firm rules.”
  B) “Provide lots of love.”
  C) “Tell your child you won’t love him unless he behaves.”
  D) “Use time outs regularly, and don’t be afraid to physically punish.”



95. If Hernando is a very active child, who has trouble obeying, he is apt to be subjected to which kind of childrearing strategy?
  A) power assertion
  B) overprotection
  C) positive reinforcement
  D) guilt induction



96. In addition to fostering a secure attachment, what other socialization strategy promotes healthy development?
  A) Make sure that the child has proper respect for adults.
  B) Promote “goodness of fit” between the child’s temperament and the environment.
  C) Expose the child to every new experience.
  D) Follow a strict regimen.



97. Which parent is employing temperament friendly child rearing?
  A) Margaret, who arranges her son’s life so that he is limited, within reason, from things that cause him problems and encourages activities that accentuate his strengths
  B) Nigel, who insists his daughter fit in with the family rules
  C) Olivia, who is teaching her child not to want expensive things
  D) Pablo, who adds a new room to the house every time his wife has another baby



98. Some research suggests that if you have two long forms of a serotonin gene, you are set up to:
  A) cope well in any life situation.
  B) cope well in stressful, difficult life situations.
  C) cope well in unusually calm life situations.
  D) have problems in life situations.



99. Tania gets incredibly upset in stressful situations, while Thomas is amazingly calm. According to some research, who will BEST flourish in a supportive, nurturing environment?
  A) Tania
  B) Thomas
  C) both children equally
  D) No predictions are possible.



100. The bottom-line message of the toddler temperaments discussion is:
  A) Fit the environment to a child’s temperamental style.
  B) What looks like “a problem” in one environment can be a plus in another setting.
  C) Our basic temperament doesn’t totally change.
  D) All of these are basic messages.




Answer Key


1. B
2. B
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. D
9. B
10. D
11. D
12. A
13. B
14. C
15. B
16. B
17. A
18. B
19. B
20. D
21. C
22. A
23. B
24. C
25. B
26. B
27. D
28. A
29. A
30. C
31. C
32. A
33. C
34. B
35. D
36. D
37. C
38. A
39. D
40. B
41. D
42. C
43. D
44. A
45. A
46. B
47. A
48. A
49. A
50. D
51. B
52. A
53. D
54. B
55. A
56. A
57. C
58. A
59. B
60. B
61. A
62. A
63. B
64. D
65. A
66. B
67. D
68. C
69. B
70. A
71. D
72. A
73. D
74. D
75. B
76. B
77. B
78. D
79. A
80. C
81. A
82. C
83. A
84. D
85. B
86. B
87. A
88. A
89. C
90. A
91. A
92. B
93. C
94. B
95. A
96. B
97. A
98. B
99. A
100. D



Chapter 4- True-False

1. The term “toddlerhood” refers to children from 1 to 2 1/2 years of age.
  A) True
  B) False



2. John Bowlby believed that having a loving primary attachment figure is essential for normal development.
  A) True
  B) False



3. A baby’s first social smile shows clear-cut attachment to a caregiver.
  A) True
  B) False



4. Separation anxiety appears when a baby is around 7 or 8 months old.
  A) True
  B) False



5. A baby’s attachment to his primary caregiver is totally dependent just on the caregiver’s sensitivity alone.
  A) True
  B) False



6. A temperamentally difficult baby is unlikely to become securely attached, no matter how sensitive his caregivers are.
  A) True
  B) False



7. The percentage of infants who are securely attached is about the same around the world.
  A) True
  B) False



8. A baby’s primary attachment figure must be the mom.
  A) True
  B) False



9. An insecurely attached infant practically never becomes secure later on.
  A) True
  B) False



10. Inadequate mothering during infancy always leaves permanent emotional scars.
  A) True
  B) False



11. Parents who have children when they are in their twenties today are often struggling economically.
  A) True
  B) False



12. Statistically speaking, the elderly are the poorest age group in the United States.
  A) True
  B) False



13. Living in poverty during the first years of life has few long-term effects.
  A) True
  B) False



14. The neighborhood a child lives in only affects cognitive development during the school years.
  A) True
  B) False



15. Head Start provides support for disadvantaged children from birth to age 6.
  A) True
  B) False



16. Head Start offers preschool experiences to disadvantaged children aged 3 to 5.
  A) True
  B) False



17. Most twenty-first century moms feel comfortable about leaving their babies in someone else’s care.
  A) True
  B) False



18. Spending long hours in day care during the first 5 years of life can have negative effects.
  A) True
  B) False



19. Large day-care centers are clearly superior to family care.
  A) True
  B) False



20. A problem with many U.S. day-care facilities is caregiver–child ratios that are too high to provide optimum care.
  A) True
  B) False



21. Shy toddlers may thrive in small, supportive family care.
  A) True
  B) False



22. Socialization pressures become very strong when children approach their second birthdays.
  A) True
  B) False



23. The appearance of self-conscious emotions is a landmark in understanding that we have a separate self.
  A) True
  B) False



24. Shyness is a temperamental trait that persists to some extent throughout life.
  A) True
  B) False



25. It’s vitally important to protect a shy baby from encountering social situations.
  A) True
  B) False



26. Using power assertion, and providing strong rules are the MOST effective ways to socialize a rambunctious toddler.
  A) True
  B) False




Answer Key


1. A
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. B
6. B
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. B
11. A
12. B
13. B
14. B
15. B
16. A
17. B
18. A
19. B
20. A
21. A
22. A
23. A
24. A
25. B
26. B


Chapter 6- Essay

1. Neither Ramona nor Judy, both age 8, are able to get along with their classmates, although they have very different personalities. The school counselor has told the teacher that Ramona has externalizing tendencies, while Judy has internalizing tendencies. What behaviors would you expect from Ramona and Judy? What is the self-esteem risk for each girl?



2. Max is an exuberant child who has a very high opinion of himself and always seems to be in the center of any activity, whether his teacher wants him to be there or not. Minnie thinks very little of herself and has given up trying to make good grades. What steps should their teacher take to promote realistic self-esteem in Max and Minnie?



3. Highlight the risks faced by Black children once they become attuned to the racial stereotypes about academic abilities and then devise an intervention program.



4. A shy, anxious fourth-grade girl, a self-confident, happy child, and a child who has externalizing tendencies are shocked to see their classmate run past them with an angry bird pecking her on the head. Their classmate is clearly frightened and injured by the attack. What reactions would you expect from each child?



5. Describe the developmental changes in aggression that typically occur over childhood.



6. Todd is a 10-year-old boy who is always in trouble for hurting other children and has been labeled as an “antisocial child.” A major issue is that Todd has decided that the world is out to get him, and misreads even kind acts as insults. First, identify the developmental pathway that may have made Todd the person he is today, and then label his excessively paranoid worldview.



7. Wendell is 2 years old; his brother Roger is 5 years old. On a family vacation, they spend time playing with their same-age cousins. How will Wendell’s play differ from Roger’s? What is the name for Roger’s play?



8. You have accepted a job as a counselor at a coed summer day camp for ages 6 to 10. What gender differences would you expect to see in the children’s play?



9. Sam and Logan, both fifth graders, are best friends. Describe the main characteristics or qualities that made them “best buddies” and the developmental functions of their relationship.



10. Your niece, a third grader, is a rejected child. What might be causing her problems and how might her parents intervene?




Answer Key


1. Ramona’s behaviors are as follows: excessively aggressive, impulsive, and has trouble listening and sitting still. Ramona tends to take over social situations and boss her peers around. The self-esteem danger for Ramona is she ignores her flaws and passes off any failure as other people’s fault, producing unrealistically high self-esteem. Judy’s behaviors are as follows: anxious, shy, and depressed. Judy tends to hang back in social situations and be too timid to socially interact. The self-esteem danger for Judy is she exaggerates her flaws or sees deficiencies where none exist, producing unrealistically low self-esteem. Judy in particular is at risk of “learned helplessness”—that is, deciding she is hopelessly incompetent and, as a result, not trying in important areas of life.
2. Intervention for Max: Gently point out where he is having trouble—“It’s not working for you to barge in and take over. The kids get upset when you always must be center stage.” Then work to foster self-efficacy, by praising Max for working to control himself in these crucial areas. Intervention for Minnie: Once again, work to enhance reality—“You are doing well in areas X, Y, and Z. Here is where you really are a success.” Then try to foster self-efficacy by breaking school challenges into small steps and then pointing out successes. For both children emphasize you care and, most importantly, drum in the idea, “You can succeed, if you work.”
3. Risks—not trusting positive feedback from teachers as “true” (“She is just being kind, but she really thinks I’m dumb”); lowered self-efficacy on tasks supposedly tapping into basic academic talents; deciding to turn off to school, thereby ensuring failure. Intervention: focus heavily on pointing out the MANY Black academic role models—particularly those who triumphed over adversity throughout history and in our contemporary society.
4. Reaction from shy, anxious child: May run away or be paralyzed by fear, as excessive empathy and feelings of incompetence will prevent her from making a prosocial response. Reaction from self-confident, happy child: Apt to take action to comfort the child and actively take steps to help, as she can feel sympathy plus be confident about her ability to act effectively. Reaction from child with externalizing tendencies: May ignore or possibly laugh at the classmate, as she is unable to feel the empathy (and then muster the sympathetic reaction) crucial in deciding to act in a prosocial way.
5. From its life peak around age 2, as children get older, rates of aggression decline and wounds to “the self” become salient provocations for aggressive acts. Also, as children move into elementary school, overt aggression (hitting, yelling, and screaming) is replaced by more indirect modes. In particular, during late elementary school and middle school, relational aggression—spreading rumors, teasing, and acting to destroy relationships—becomes especially common.
6. Todd may have been an exuberant and/or difficult toddler, whose inability to control himself provoked harsh discipline from his parents. Constantly being spanked, yelled at, and told he was “impossible” led to clear-cut externalizing symptoms during preschool. Then, early in elementary school, Todd’s aggressive, out-of-control behavior caused him to be rejected by his peers and teachers, further amplifying his hostility, getting him defined as an antisocial child, and causing him generally to think “the world is out to get me.” The name for Todd’s paranoid worldview is a hostile attributional bias.
7. Wendell will just run around or fight over toys; at a minimum, he will play in a parallel universe from that of his cousins. Roger will make up pretend scenarios and truly relate to his cousins as he plays. Roger’s play style is called collaborative pretend play.
8. The boys will be more overtly competitive, bossy, and play in larger groups. They also will run around more (and really enjoy fighting with each other!). The boys will play with classically male toys. The girls will prefer quieter activities, relate more one-to-one, and tend to negotiate and interact in a more collaborative way. The girls may play with more classically female toys such as Barbie dolls. While some girls will enjoy male toys, if they try to cross the gender divide and join all-boy groups, they may get a harsh reception. Moreover, if a boy enjoys girl toys and prefers to play mainly with girls, he will be socially scorned.
9. Sam and Logan are apt to have similar interests, enjoy each other as people, and also support one another and be loyal. This friendship is teaching the boys the importance of loyalty and support, as well as how to negotiate and get along as equals. It’s training them in the core skills involved in having adult relationships, and offering them protection as they venture out into life. When the boys argue, they will be motivated to compromise to preserve their bond.
10. Your niece may be incredibly socially anxious, have externalizing problems, or may simply be very different from her group. If the child is socially anxious, connect her with a friend. If the child has externalizing problems, provide a nurturing environment and resist the tendency to spank, scream, or define the child as “bad.” If the issue is simply being unlike the group, one possibility is to move your niece to another school or a different class, where she might be more in “sync” with her peers.


Chapter 6- Fill-in-the-Blank

1. Children who are especially timid and self-conscious have ________ tendencies.



2. Children who are highly aggressive and disruptive have ________ tendencies.



3. According to Erik Erikson, the developmental task of early childhood is ________, while that of middle childhood is ________.



4. Garth is often in trouble at school, but denies that he is responsible for his difficulties. Garth MOST likely has ________ tendencies and unrealistically ________ self-esteem.



5. To improve self-esteem, parents and teachers must enhance children’s ________, their feelings that they can be competent.



6. A child who helps comfort an upset classmate is showing ________.



7. The term for directly feeling another person’s emotion is ________.



8. To promote altruism, caregivers should use ________, teaching a child to imagine how the other person she has hurt feels.



9. In contrast to shame, ________ connects us to other people and can help promote prosocial behavior.



10. Spreading rumors, tattling, and generally acting to destroy relationships is called ________ aggression.



11. ________ aggression is hurtful behavior that we use to achieve a goal. ________ aggression is evoked in response to being hurt.



12. A person who sees threat in benign social situations has a(n) ________.



13. When Sally and Sara, both age 5, imagine that they are friends serving tea to a group of dolls, they are engaging in ________.



14. When children enter ________, their play interests tend to shift from pretending to structured games.



15. According to Vygotsky, fantasy play allows children to practice ________.



16. ________ is the term for the fact that, during elementary school, boys play with boys and girls play with girls.



17. Gender-stereotyped play has both ________ and environmental causes.



18. According to ________ theory, when children understand their gender label they start selectively observing and modeling their own sex.



19. We tend to choose friends who are ________ to us.



20. Children who are rejected either have ________ problems or are ________ from the group.



21. A child who is highly socially anxious is likely to be ________ by her classmates.



22. A main quality that provokes bullying is being highly ________.



23. ________ try to change the school norms to make bullying socially unacceptable.




Answer Key


1. internalizing
2. externalizing
3. initiative; industry
4. externalizing; high
5. efficacy feelings (or self-efficacy)
6. prosocial behavior
7. empathy
8. induction
9. guilt
10. relational
11. Instrumental; Reactive
12. hostile attributional bias
13. collaborative pretend play
14. concrete operations
15. adult roles
16. Gender-segregated play
17. biological
18. gender schema
19. similar (or loyal)
20. internalizing and/or externalizing (or emotional); very different
21. rejected
22. unassertive (or anxious or shy or unable to fight back)
23. Bully-prevention programs


Chapter 6- Multiple Choice

1. “I’ll go to class today, even though I’d rather sleep.” “I’ll conquer my shyness and ask the teacher that question.” Pick the correct term for these challenges.
  A) cognitive control
  B) emotion regulation
  C) externalization
  D) internal tenacity



2. Children who have serious problems regulating and controlling their emotions:
  A) tend to be unpopular.
  B) tend to have troubles succeeding in life.
  C) tend to be excessively aggressive and/or anxious.
  D) All of the answers are correct.



3. Which behavior does NOT indicate that a child has externalizing tendencies?
  A) Tony barges in and takes over social situations, so he has few friends.
  B) Tom fights continually with his classmates and adults.
  C) Sara cannot stop running around the classroom when she needs to focus on work.
  D) Sally freely discusses her emotions.



4. Which behavior does NOT indicate that a child has internalizing tendencies?
  A) Jim has trouble making friends because he is so self-conscious and shy.
  B) Jan prefers to hide her emotions, rather than speaking out.
  C) Judy is depressed and chronically dissatisfied with life.
  D) Janet is too anxious to complete most tasks.



5. Which child does NOT have emotion regulation problems?
  A) Sam barges in and takes over social situations, so he has few friends.
  B) Samantha is so shy and self-conscious that she has trouble with children and adults.
  C) Sara cannot stop running around the classroom when she needs to focus on work.
  D) Sally freely discusses her emotions.



6. Give each child the correct “diagnosis” or label in order: “Judy is extremely anxious and depressed.” “Jane acts disruptively and regularly gets into fights.”
  A) internalizing tendencies; externalizing tendencies
  B) externalizing tendencies; internalizing tendencies
  C) in both cases, internalizing tendencies
  D) in both cases, externalizing tendencies



7. Carl is shy and withdrawn; Carlos is aggressive and unable to sit still. Predict what would happen socially if each boy moved to a collectivist culture such as India.
  A) Carlos would have problems. Carl would be more apt to fit in.
  B) Carl would have problems. Carlos would be more apt to fit in.
  C) Both boys would have problems.
  D) Can’t make general statements, as it depends on the boy.



8. If 10-year-old Carl has serious troubles controlling his anxiety, he would have problems succeeding:
  A) around the world.
  B) only in individualistic cultures like the United States.
  C) only in elementary school.
  D) only if he was aggressive.



9. In her research on the developing self, Susan Harter draws on:
  A) Erikson’s ideas.
  B) Piaget’s ideas.
  C) Freud’s ideas.
  D) Bowlby’s ideas.



10. According to Susan Harter, how would a 4-year-old describe himself?
  A) “I am sometimes nervous around new people.”
  B) “Although I am a good reader, I have trouble with numbers.”
  C) “My hair is curly.”
  D) “I try to be nice to everyone, but sometimes it is hard.”



11. When Susan Harter asks, “What are you like as a person?” pick the statement only a 10-year-old might make.
  A) “I am one of the best readers in my class, but I sometimes have trouble with long division.”
  B) “My favorite color is green.”
  C) “I’m always nice to everyone.”
  D) “I have long, straight hair.”



12. Marta is 4 years old. According to Susan Harter, Marta is likely to describe herself as:
  A) the best kid in the world.
  B) not so good compared to most kids.
  C) the worst kid in the world.
  D) You cannot make any predictions.



13. Pick the MAIN reason why reaching concrete operations tends to produce “self-esteem” issues.
  A) Children can realistically compare their abilities with those of their peers.
  B) Children can fully express their feelings.
  C) Children are now getting disciplined for the first time.
  D) Children are now expected to do homework.



14. An 8-year-old child is beginning to make negative comments such as “I’m not that smart or pretty.” What should you conclude?
  A) The child has reached concrete operations.
  B) The child is beginning to realistically scan her abilities.
  C) The child is normal for her age.
  D) You should conclude all of these.



15. If your 8-year-old is beginning to make negative comments such as “I’m not that smart or pretty,” based on Harter’s research, you should conclude that:
  A) my child needs to go to therapy.
  B) my child is acting normally.
  C) my child is developing externalizing issues.
  D) my child is being bullied by her teachers and her peers.



16. If a fourth grader is constantly evaluating her abilities compared to her classmates’, what should you conclude?
  A) The child needs therapy.
  B) The child is acting normally.
  C) The child is developing an externalizing disorder.
  D) The child is developing an internalizing disorder.



17. A teacher tells you that she’s horrified that her fourth graders are always making comparisons between one another. What should be your response?
  A) “That’s normal when children reach concrete operations.”
  B) “That’s normal, starting in preschool.”
  C) “That’s a sign you are running the class poorly.”
  D) “That’s a sign that the children may be having problems at home.”



18. Hank has always had high self-esteem. Lately, though, he’s begun to make negative comments about himself. Hank is MOST likely ________ years old.
  A) 3
  B) 15
  C) 9
  D) 22



19. According to Susan Harter, self-esteem first becomes an important issue for children:
  A) around age three.
  B) during elementary school.
  C) around the teens.
  D) only when children are not being raised well.



20. Your niece is in preschool (age 4). According to Erikson’s theory, her main challenge is to:
  A) test her skills in the wider world.
  B) learn to inhibit her behavior.
  C) learn to work for what she wants.
  D) learn to form letters and read.



21. According to Erikson’s theory, in preschool our challenge is to ________, while in elementary school, our challenge is to ________.
  A) try new things, or test our skills; control ourselves and work hard for what we want
  B) control ourselves and work hard for what we want; try new things or test our skills
  C) obey our parents; obey the teacher
  D) learn social skills; learn to read and do math



22. Why did Erik Erikson label the early childhood task “initiative”?
  A) because at this age, kids need to be free to do what they want
  B) because at this age, children’s mission is to test their abilities in the world
  C) because at this age, children have a lot of guts
  D) because at this age, children first have their own ideas



23. If you have a 3-year-old daughter, you can expect all of the following EXCEPT:
  A) She may have low self-esteem.
  B) She is apt to think she is the greatest person in the world.
  C) She is apt to continually try out her skills.
  D) She can’t realistically evaluate her abilities.



24. If you have a normal well-adjusted 9-year-old child, based on Harter’s and Erikson’s ideas, you can expect her to:
  A) constantly compare herself to other kids.
  B) realistically discuss the areas in which she isn’t doing well.
  C) control herself and work hard for what she wants.
  D) do all of these.



25. Why did Erikson label the developmental task of middle childhood “industry versus inferiority”?
  A) It’s the time when we first need to work to be successful.
  B) It’s the time when we first get to know about different industries.
  C) It’s the time when we first fully relate to peers.
  D) It’s the time when we first really go out in the world.



26. Which fifth grader is MOST vulnerable to low self-esteem?
  A) Jerry, who is not doing well at academics, but doesn’t worry about it because he is a star at baseball
  B) Kayla, who is a terrific student, but isn’t performing well in her top priority—art
  C) Liam, the “class clown,” who doesn’t mind getting into trouble, as long as his classmates laugh at his jokes
  D) Marlena, who is overweight, but passionate to become a biologist, and shrugs it off when the kids call her “Blimpy”



27. According to Susan Harter, which child is MOST vulnerable to low self-esteem?
  A) a 4-year-old, who gets teased by her older sibs for being “dumb”
  B) an 8-year-old, whose passion is sports, but isn’t good enough to make the team
  C) a 4-year-old, whose passion is sports, but is too young to hit the ball
  D) an 8-year-old, who gets teased by her peers for being “dumb”



28. A colleague regularly gets into trouble for his behavior; but when he messes up, he thinks, “It’s their fault, not mine.” Pick the issue/problem that does NOT apply to this person.
  A) He will probably continue to fail.
  B) He probably has externalizing tendencies.
  C) He probably has internalizing tendencies.
  D) He has unrealistically high self-esteem.



29. Nick is very self-critical, feels powerless to affect what happens to him, and doesn’t try to improve himself. Nick suffers from:
  A) learned helplessness and probably has internalizing tendencies.
  B) learned helplessness and probably has externalizing tendencies.
  C) both internalizing and externalizing tendencies.
  D) excessive emotion regulation and learned helplessness.



30. A child who believes that she will fail no matter how hard she tries has developed:
  A) low self-esteem.
  B) inferiority.
  C) an industrial complex.
  D) learned helplessness.



31. The danger with externalizing problems is ________, while the danger with internalizing problems is ________.
  A) unrealistically high self-esteem; unrealistically low self-esteem
  B) unrealistically low self-esteem; unrealistically high self-esteem
  C) unrealistically high self-esteem; unrealistically high self-esteem
  D) unrealistically low self-esteem; unrealistically low self-esteem



32. The bottom-line message of the research with regard to African Americans and academic performance is that:
  A) Blacks face more emotional barriers to succeeding at school.
  B) because of affirmative action, whites face more barriers to succeeding at school.
  C) Blacks are now completely “equal” to whites in confronting the challenges of succeeding at school.
  D) Blacks are basically less intelligent than whites.



33. If your child tells you “I feel totally dumb at school,” pick the MOST effective/helpful strategy.
  A) Tell your child it doesn’t matter, as he is a wonderful person.
  B) Get your child to experience success in some area, and/or to feel good about having really tried.
  C) Tell your child he must have lousy teachers, because he is really smart.
  D) Tell your child, “It doesn’t matter. You are good at sports.



34. If a child gets a terrible math grade, pick the LEAST effective/helpful response.
  A) “Let’s face it. Some people just aren’t born to be good with numbers.”
  B) “Let’s break this challenge into small steps, so you can succeed.”
  C) “Do the best you can. “I’ll be proud of you if you try very hard.”
  D) “Think of how well you are doing in Language Arts, if you start to lose confidence in your ability to do well in school.”



35. When your child fails in some important area, according to the text, you might give all of the following responses EXCEPT:
  A) “I still love you.”
  B) “If you work hard you may be able to improve.”
  C) “If you did your best, that’s what most important.”
  D) “Don’t worry. Some people just aren’t naturally talented in certain areas.”



36. Your daughter gets an A on her science test. According to the research, your response should be:
  A) “I’m thrilled because you are brilliant in science!”
  B) “I’m thrilled because you have been trying so hard!”
  C) “I’m thrilled because you will probably do well in anything you do!”
  D) “I’m thrilled because you probably have a high IQ!”



37. If your child gets a terrific math grade, based on the research, pick the MOST effective response.
  A) “You are a total genius at math!”
  B) “You must have worked so hard!”
  C) “You might not get that grade next semester. It could be a fluke.”
  D) “You should do better in English next time.’



38. As a teacher, how can you get your students to want to tackle challenging tasks?
  A) Praise them when they work hard.
  B) Praise them for being such wonderful kids.
  C) Praise them for being so smart.
  D) Praise them by giving out rewards for getting As.



39. Which child is MOST likely to recover from a blow to self-esteem?
  A) Juana, whose father has high standards for success
  B) Kent, whose mother abandoned him when he was three years old
  C) Lilly, who has very few friends
  D) Myron, who has a warm, close relationship with his parents



40. An African American and a White teenager both get praised by their science teacher for doing so well in class. According to the research:
  A) the Black teen might believe the teacher is being condescending or not saying what she really feels.
  B) the White teen might believe that the teacher is being condescending or not saying what she really feels.
  C) both teens should be thrilled.
  D) both teens should feel nervous.



41. According to the text, after they enter concrete operations, Black children face all of the following academic dangers EXCEPT:
  A) feeling that because they are Black they can’t be smart.
  B) feeling that teachers aren’t being honest when they praise them in class.
  C) feeling that school “isn’t their thing” because they are “Black.”
  D) feeling that they are far more capable academically than they really are.



42. Imagine you are Black teen at a mainly White upper middle-class school. According to the research, if you really work hard and do well you might be:
  A) accused of acting White.
  B) praised for being so exceptional for your race.
  C) rejected by your peers for “selling out.”
  D) Both a and c are correct.



43. By focusing on the lives of successful minority role models who have triumphed over adversity, teachers are:
  A) encouraging self-efficacy in every student.
  B) encouraging self-efficacy, but mainly in minority students.
  C) acting racist.
  D) not doing much except going along with the normal twenty-first century P.C. curriculum.



44. Which person is showing prosocial behavior?
  A) Oscar, who doesn’t know a stranger, as he is incredibly outgoing
  B) Patty, who would rather party than be alone
  C) Quentin, who goes out of his way to be nice to the new boy in class
  D) Rhoda, who plans to live in a more socialist nation than the United States



45. Rates of prosocial behavior:
  A) decrease as children get older.
  B) increase as children get older.
  C) are higher in collectivist nations.
  D) are higher in individualistic nations.



46. When your friend says, “I feel your pain,” she is expressing:
  A) empathy.
  B) altruism.
  C) sympathy.
  D) insight.



47. When your friend says, “I feel so sorry for you,” she is expressing:
  A) empathy.
  B) altruism.
  C) sympathy.
  D) insight.



48. The research on cultural differences in prosocial behavior suggests:
  A) Japanese children and adults are more prosocial than Westerners.
  B) Japanese children and adults are more reluctant to discuss their prosocial acts than Westerners.
  C) Japanese children and adults are less prosocial than Westerners.
  D) There are no cultural differences in prosocial behaviors.



49. Which prosocial act is genuinely altruistic?
  A) You give your friend your notes, so she will give you hers next time.
  B) You give your friend your notes, because she will be furious at you if you don’t.
  C) You give your friend your notes, so she will understand what a great note taker you are.
  D) You give your friend your notes, because you feel terrible that her car accident has kept her from coming to class.



50. To act prosocial, we need to:
  A) consider different alternatives, and select an altruistic act.
  B) feel confident that we can help.
  C) use our emotion-regulating skills to mute empathy into sympathy.
  D) We need to do all of these.



51. Pick the fifth grader who would NOT be particularly prosocial.
  A) a child who was extremely prosocial in preschool
  B) a child who is extremely happy
  C) a child who is extremely self-confident
  D) a child who gets extremely upset—or reacts incredibly intensely—when she sees another person’s pain



52. When a classmate screams that she has been stung by a hornet, which fifth grader is MOST likely to take a prosocial action?
  A) Andrew, who is terrified by stinging insects
  B) Bethany, who earned her first-aid badge in Girl Scouts
  C) Carlos, who is very shy
  D) Daphne, who likes to tease the other children



53. All of these qualities predict that Danny will act prosocially EXCEPT:
  A) Danny has good executive functions.
  B) Danny is basically happy.
  C) Danny feels confident of having the skills to help.
  D) Danny’s parents take him to church every week.



54. Which response involves induction?
  A) “You made fun of that kid, so I’m putting you in time out.”
  B) “You made fun of that kid, so you are a bad boy.”
  C) “You made fun of that kid, so think of how terrible he must feel.”
  D) “You made fun of that kid, so I’m going to make fun of you now.”



55. A group of fifth graders is torturing a first grader by playing Keep Away with his back pack. Which parent is using induction to deal with her child’s misbehavior?
  A) Alice says to her son, “That’s the last straw! No video games for a week!”
  B) Barney says to his daughter, “Because you damaged that little boy’s backpack, you will buy him a new one with the birthday money you got from Aunt June.”
  C) Carlinda says to her daughter, “It is unkind to tease someone by snatching away something that belongs to him. Think how frightened that little boy must have felt when you kids ganged up on him.”
  D) Darren thinks: Kids will be kids. Besides, that little child probably did something to tick the other kids off.



56. Pick the strategy that is LEAST effective at socializing prosocial behavior.
  A) taking a child to church on Sunday
  B) praising a child for being a caring person (when that child acts prosocially!)
  C) getting a child to imagine how the other person will feel when that child behaves hurtfully
  D) giving a child a chance to make amends when he behaves hurtfully



57. Which adult is socializing prosocial behavior?
  A) A father says, “Because you teased your little brother, you are grounded.”
  B) A mother says, “You are such a kind person to shovel the snow off Mrs. O’Connell’s driveway!”
  C) An aunt says, “I’ll pay you if you are, nice to your baby cousin.”
  D) A teacher says, “You are such a bad boy for acting mean in class!”



58. When you see a child making fun of a classmate, pick the MOST effective response for socializing prosocial behavior.
  A) “It’s hurtful to tease; think of how that other child must feel.”
  B) “It’s hurtful to tease, so I’m putting you in time out.”
  C) “It’s hurtful to tease; you are a bad kid.
  D) “It’s hurtful to tease; you really disappointed me.”



59. “You should be ashamed of yourself for being so mean”; “I’m surprised at you. You are usually such a nice kid.” Pick the terms that BEST fit each reaction.
  A) guilt inducing; shame inducing
  B) shame inducing; guilt inducing
  C) guilt inducing; guilt inducing
  D) shame inducing; shame inducing



60. Why is guilt particularly effective at socializing prosocial behavior?
  A) It allows us to apologize and make amends.
  B) It allows us to become closer to people.
  C) It gives us a chance to feel good about ourselves.
  D) All of the answers are correct.



61. Coach Shaw catches Matt, age 9, peeking into the girls’ locker room after gym. How should the Coach react that would BEST promote prosocial behavior?
  A) “I am disappointed that you would violate someone’s privacy. I know you know better.”
  B) “I’m going to tell your parents that you are a danger to other students.”
  C) “Because you violated the girls’ privacy, you will have to stand in front of them wearing your gym shorts, while they laugh at you.”
  D) “You cannot be trusted in the locker room, so you will spend gym in the principal’s office for the rest of the term.”



62. Dr. Garcia is giving a lecture on prosocial behavior. Which statement is he MOST likely to make?
  A) “Parents can teach prosocial behavior by requiring children to volunteer with the homeless.”
  B) “Although a loving home is best for producing prosocial children, some people become altruistic through experiencing early adversity.”
  C) “Parents should give their children special privileges for acting prosocially.”
  D) “A child who teases other children should be teased by her parents so that she knows how it feels.”



63. Two years ago, Amy was notorious for hitting and shoving her playmates. Lately, Amy has been less openly aggressive, but now teases the other children, and strikes back when she feels personally insulted. Amy is MOST likely ________ years old.
  A) 3
  B) 7
  C) 10
  D) 12



64. Dale wants a cupcake, so he shoves Tom aside. Tom reacts by bopping Dale over the head. First, label the type of aggression each child is showing and then identify which boy will be MOST angry.
  A) Dale is showing relational aggression; Tom’s is instrumental aggression. Dale will be most infuriated.
  B) Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is relational aggression. Tom will be most infuriated.
  C) Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is reactive aggression. Tom will be most infuriated.
  D) Dale is showing instrumental aggression; Tom’s is reactive aggression. Dale will be most infuriated.



65. Linda and Annie are swimming towards a raft, when Linda roughly pushes Annie’s head underwater, to get there first. As soon as Annie can speak after coming up for air, she says, “Go find yourself another best friend!” Linda is showing ________ aggression. Annie is showing ________ aggression.
  A) direct and instrumental; reactive and relational
  B) reactive and relational; direct and instrumental
  C) instrumental and reactive; direct and relational
  D) direct and relational; instrumental and reactive



66. Pick the example that does NOT illustrate the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
  A) Joe is cut off in traffic, so he gets out of his car and curses the other driver out.
  B) You get a bad grade on this test, so you go home and kick the dog.
  C) Your Dad loses his job, so he begins to regularly yell at you kids.
  D) Sara wants to get her friend’s boyfriend, so she starts a rumor that this friend is sleeping around.



67. Which “aggression” statement is MOST accurate?
  A) “Aggression is vitally important in life; it only becomes a serious problem when you make that behavior your main life mode.”
  B) “Aggression is typically unhealthy and needs to be stopped.”
  C) “There are few downsides to being aggressive, provided it works.”
  D) “Girls are more aggressive than boys.”



68. Juan and Jorge are candidates for president of their fifth-grade class. Jorge starts a rumor that, if elected, Juan plans to ask the teacher to shorten recess so that the class has more time for math. Juan’s behavior is an example of:
  A) reactive aggression.
  B) instrumental aggression.
  C) direct aggression.
  D) relational aggression.



69. Which child is MOST likely to engage in relational aggression?
  A) a 4-year-old
  B) a 5-year-old
  C) a 6-year-old
  D) a 9-year-old



70. All are TRUE of relational aggression EXCEPT:
  A) It comes out strongly in later elementary school.
  B) It is more common in girls than boys at every age.
  C) It involves activities like spreading rumors in order to destroy the person’s relationships.
  D) It is characteristic of political attack ads.



71. Romney is a rich guy who made his money by getting rid of jobs. Obama is a socialist who was born in Kenya. These statements are classic examples of:
  A) reactive aggression.
  B) instrumental aggression.
  C) relational aggression.
  D) a hostile attributional bias.



72. All are true of instrumental aggression EXCEPT:
  A) This behavior allows us to get what we want, and is important in gaining status.
  B) This behavior is generally “bad” and needs to be stopped.
  C) This behavior is often accompanied by feeling excited and powerful.
  D) This behavior occurs at every age.



73. Which child is most at risk of being labeled “highly aggressive” in elementary school?
  A) Jake, a shy toddler, who was shamed by his parents
  B) Jim, an exuberant toddler, who was catered to by his parents
  C) Joe, a shy toddler, who was regularly spanked
  D) James, an exuberant toddler, who was regularly spanked.



74. Sibyl, age 3, is an exuberant child who has terrible trouble controlling herself and “listening.” Due to an evocative process, when Sibyl misbehaves her parents may be likely to:
  A) ignore her.
  B) use induction.
  C) employ time out.
  D) yell, shame, and hit.



75. Pick the child for whom regular spanking is MOST apt to be terribly dangerous.
  A) a fearless child who has trouble controlling her impulses
  B) a shy, obedient child
  C) a child who is behind academically
  D) a child who is ahead of the rest of the class



76. Pick the pathway to producing a highly aggressive “antisocial” fourth grader:
  A) yelling, screaming at, and spanking a difficult toddler and then the child gets rejected by his classmates in elementary school
  B) overindulging a difficult toddler and then the child gets rejected in elementary school
  C) yelling, screaming at, and spanking a difficult toddler and then the elementary school kids reinforce that child’s aggressive acts
  D) overindulging a difficult toddler and then the elementary school kids reinforce that child’s acts



77. Which third-grader is MOST likely to have a hostile attributional bias?
  A) As a toddler, Elliott was fearless and disciplined harshly. Now he is being rejected by his peers.
  B) Francine is anxious, and her parents yelled a lot, but now she does well in school.
  C) Guillermo has internalizing tendencies and only a few friends.
  D) Hannah was born with a difficult temperament. Her father takes care to use induction when she misbehaves.



78. Carlo is the MOST aggressive “out of control” child in kindergarten. Predict Carlo’s likely fate in elementary school:
  A) Carlo will be rejected by his teachers and his peers.
  B) Carlo will be popular with peers.
  C) Carlo will be popular with his peers but rejected by his teachers.
  D) No predictions are possible, as children like Carlo often change dramatically when they enter real school.



79. How important is peer rejection in promoting aggression and antisocial behavior?
  A) very important
  B) fairly important
  C) of minor importance
  D) irrelevant



80. Shane interprets offhand remarks in the MOST negative way possible. When a classmate asks him, “What grade did you get on the spelling test?” his response is “You want to know if I’m stupid!” Shane is showing:
  A) instrumental aggression.
  B) relational reaction.
  C) a hostile attributional bias.
  D) frustration/aggression.



81. When the first-grade boys wrestle and hit each other as they are in line for lunch, they are engaging in:
  A) collaborative play.
  B) exercise play.
  C) rough-and-tumble play.
  D) fantasy play.



82. Josh and Jim, age 5, love to wrestle and hit each other. What should you be thinking?
  A) It’s normal.
  B) It’s abnormal and needs to be stopped.
  C) It predicts the boys will be highly aggressive adults.
  D) Josh and Jim don’t like each other.



83. Which type of play ALMOST exclusively occurs with boys?
  A) fantasy play
  B) exercise play
  C) collaborative play
  D) rough-and-tumble play



84. Your friend complains that when her child has “friends” over, all they do is fight over toys. How old is this child MOST likely to be?
  A) 2 years old
  B) 4 years old
  C) 5 years old
  D) 6 years old



85. Children’s first “pretend partners” are:
  A) siblings.
  B) peers.
  C) moms.
  D) dads.



86. Mary Ann and Catie are playing house. Catie, the Mommy, is calling the doctor because Mary Ann, the baby, is sick. First, name the type of play the girls are engaging in and then identify these children’s probable ages:
  A) collaborative pretend play; about age 5
  B) fantasy play; about age 8
  C) rough-and-tumble play; about age 5
  D) exercise play; about age 8



87. Ian loves to pretend with his friends; Carlo adores playing soccer. Roughly how old are these children?
  A) 2 years old; over age 8
  B) 7 years old; over age 10
  C) 5 years old; over age 8
  D) 1 year old; over age 8



88. According to Vygotsky, girls play house and boys like to play soldier because they are:
  A) rehearsing adult roles.
  B) expressing their feelings.
  C) mimicking what’s on TV.
  D) expressing their imagination.



89. Which preschooler exemplifies Vygotsky’s idea that children use fantasy play to feel a sense of control?
  A) Jessie pretends she is Wonder Woman when she gets bossed around by her sibs.
  B) After Mommy punishes him for breaking a dish, Keith pretends he is a daddy, and scolds his action figures for being messy.
  C) Leila retreats to the top of her castle, and imagines she is a queen, when she is feeling hurt.
  D) All of these exemplify his idea about children’s use of fantasy play!



90. According to Vygotsky, fantasy play has all of the following purposes EXCEPT:
  A) It allows children to practice adult roles.
  B) It allows young children a sense of control over their life.
  C) It helps young children understand and master social norms.
  D) It helps young children be more creative.



91. If you went to a preschool and watched pretend play, you would be MOST likely to find plots involving:
  A) totally unfamiliar figures.
  B) very violent activities.
  C) just happy events.
  D) mastering upsetting events.



92. As a nurse, you could use a child’s fantasy play to help:
  A) her cope with her fears.
  B) release her feelings.
  C) control her pain.
  D) take up her time.



93. Imagine you are a kindergarten teacher and a student is obsessed with playing very violently. Generalizing from the text, what might you be thinking?
  A) This is normal.
  B) This will change.
  C) This may predict later problems.
  D) This child is a boy.



94. A first-grade teacher—alarmed because her male students are constantly wrestling and shoving—asks you for advice. What should you say?
  A) “It’s normal rough-and-tumble play. As long as no one gets hurt or bullied, it’s best not to intervene.”
  B) “You have a budding youth gang on your hands! Call the school psychologist.”
  C) “Offer strict rules to keep their aggression under control.”
  D) “Put these boys in regular time outs.”



95. The term for boys playing with boys and girls playing with girls is:
  A) gender-splitting play.
  B) heterophilic intimacy.
  C) gender-segregated play.
  D) gender-aversion play.



96. Which of the following statements about gender and play is TRUE?
  A) “The play patterns of girls and boys are very similar.”
  B) “Compared to that of girls, boys’ play is more physical and rambunctious.”
  C) “Girls’ play is more competitive than that of boys.”
  D) “Boys play in smaller groups than girls do.”



97. Compared with boys, girls play more ________.
  A) collaboratively
  B) intensely
  C) physically
  D) competitively



98. Generalizing from the research, pick the elementary school interaction you are LEAST likely to observe.
  A) A third-grade boy and a girl are best friends.
  B) Four 9-year-old boys enjoy playing Monopoly together.
  C) A group of fourth-grade boys and girls play soccer every recess.
  D) Four girls are best friends.



99. At what age do children begin to clearly prefer playing with their own sex?
  A) as toddlers
  B) in preschool
  C) in first grade
  D) in third grade



100. You are watching first-grade children at the playground. Pick the behavior you are LEAST likely to find.
  A) The boys are playing more roughly.
  B) The boys are competing in groups.
  C) The girls are doing more negotiating and more one to one playing.
  D) The boys and the girls are all playing together.



101. “Stick to your own gender.” This rule is MOST rigid for?
  A) boys
  B) girls
  C) varies from child to child
  D) neither sex



102. Which situation involving an 8-year-old child would you be MOST likely to witness at a toy store?
  A) Diane is too embarrassed to go down the toy truck aisle to shop for her brother’s birthday gift.
  B) Paul won’t be caught dead buying a Barbie, even though it is a present for his sister.
  C) Andy and Jane like to shop together to be sure they get toys they both like.
  D) Melissa uses her birthday money to buy action figures to go along with her dolls.



103. The play patterns of young rhesus monkeys are:
  A) more gender-neutral than for humans.
  B) more rough-and-tumble than for humans.
  C) the same as with humans.
  D) more gender-segregated than for humans.



104. Female rhesus monkeys that are exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone:
  A) engage in more rough-and-tumble play than their non-exposed female age-mates do.
  B) are likely to be infertile.
  C) become extremely nurturing to their own offspring.
  D) are indistinguishable from females that have not been exposed to testosterone.



105. The research linking prenatal hormones to sex role behavior and interests suggests:
  A) Exposure to testosterone has no effect on girls’ behavior.
  B) Exposure to high levels of estrogen makes girls more feminine.
  C) Exposure to high levels of testosterone makes boys more masculine.
  D) Exposure to high levels of testosterone produces more “masculine” interests in girls.



106. What does the text research relating to prenatal testosterone and later gender role behavior imply about the cause of homosexuality?
  A) It’s genetic.
  B) It’s environmental.
  C) It may be produced by hormone levels during prenatal development.
  D) The text research implies nothing at all.



107. All of the following environmental forces promote gender-stereotyped behavior EXCEPT:
  A) peer reinforcement.
  B) the media.
  C) the way teachers relate to girls and to boys.
  D) diet.



108. Which 8-year-old child is MOST likely to be popular?
  A) Gloria, who carries a purse, and takes ballet lessons
  B) Hank, who has externalizing tendencies
  C) Inez, who has short hair, wrestles with her brothers, and frequently skins her knees
  D) Jose, who likes to sketch flowers



109. Pick the BEST example of gender schema theory.
  A) When Marcie learns she is a girl, she imitates and plays close attention to how her mom and other women dress.
  B) Marcie’s dad calls her his little princess.
  C) When Marcie says, “Let’s play with trucks,” her friends make fun of her.
  D) Marcie gets interested in fashion at around age 10.



110. Children typically understand that a person is born either female or male and stays that way for life:
  A) around the time that they begin to talk.
  B) by age 3.
  C) toward the end of the preoperational stage.
  D) in fifth grade.



111. Gender stereotyped behavior is MAINLY:
  A) biological or genetically built-in.
  B) shaped by a variety of environmental forces.
  C) both biologically built-in and shaped by a variety of environmental forces.
  D) biological for boys; shaped by environmental forces for girls.



112. Which children are MOST likely to be best friends in preschool?
  A) two children who love to play with dolls
  B) a quiet child and one who loves to run around
  C) two children who like to share their feelings
  D) a leader and a follower



113. All are core qualities involved older children’s friendships EXCEPT:
  A) being similar in interests and attitudes.
  B) trusting each other to be loyal.
  C) supporting each other emotionally.
  D) giving each other social status.



114. The core qualities we look for in friendships are being:
  A) similar in interests and attitudes and being loyal (or trustworthy).
  B) good looking and having a lot of money.
  C) happy and living close by.
  D) popular and never disagreeing.



115. Bettina says, “Lindy is my best friend because she’s always there when I need to talk to someone.” Bettina is probably ________ years old.
  A) 10
  B) 5
  C) 3
  D) 7



116. Natalie and Joyce are fifth-graders who are best friends. One day in the school cafeteria, a mean older girl trips Natalie, causing her lunch tray to go flying. Based on the text, if they are truly best friends Joyce might?
  A) stand up to the bully—so it doesn’t happen again
  B) laugh at Natalie
  C) not take any action
  D) run away



117. All are true of friends EXCEPT:
  A) They teach us to manage our emotions.
  B) They tend to be similar in interests and attitudes.
  C) They support us as we move into the world.
  D) They rarely fight or disagree.



118. Pick the core difference between friendships and popularity.
  A) Friendships are close one-to-one relationships; popularity refers to group status.
  B) Friendships are harder to establish than being popular.
  C) Friendships are more enduring than popularity.
  D) Friendships are less important in life than popularity.



119. Popularity FIRST becomes a totally absorbing concern at what age?
  A) 3
  B) 5
  C) around age 9 or 10
  D) around age 16



120. Jody is a popular second-grader. He is apt to have all of following traits EXCEPT:
  A) being prosocial.
  B) being outgoing.
  C) being instrumentally aggressive, but also able to reach out in caring ways to the group.
  D) being intelligent.



121. Lately, Barbara has become intensely focused on being popular. Barbara is MOST likely ________ years old.
  A) 3
  B) 11
  C) 5
  D) 9



122. If most of José’s classmates rank him among the two or three fifth-graders they most dislike, Jose is labeled:
  A) neglected.
  B) omitted.
  C) overlooked.
  D) rejected.



123. After the whole class ranks their classmates, a few people put Shaun on my favorite person list and a few rank him as most disliked, but typically Shaun doesn’t appear in either category. Shawn’s social status is:
  A) popular.
  B) average.
  C) medium.
  D) rejected.



124. Which fourth grader is apt to be rejected?
  A) Pedro, who is extremely aggressive
  B) Paul, who likes to play with dolls
  C) Peter, who is incredibly shy
  D) All of these kids are apt to be rejected.



125. Which fourth grader is LEAST likely to be rejected?
  A) Pedro, whose family is on food stamps but attends an upper middle-class school
  B) Paul, who likes to play with dolls
  C) Peter, who is instrumentally aggressive, but also socially skilled
  D) Paulo, who is very socially anxious



126. Which boy may be popular in middle school but NOT in elementary school?
  A) a very shy boy
  B) the class rebel
  C) a boy who loves to read
  D) a boy who the teachers like



127. Dr. Jones is discussing the difference between being popular in elementary school and middle school. He can make all of these statements EXCEPT:
  A) “In elementary school, popular kids are more apt to be prosocial and well-behaved; in middle school, it can be the rebellious kids.”
  B) “In elementary school, popular kids are well-liked by their classmates; in middle school, kids in the in-crowd group may be disliked.”
  C) “In elementary school shy kids tend to be popular; in middle school, it’s the outgoing kids.”
  D) “In elementary school, prosocial kids are more apt to be popular; in middle school, being highly relationally aggressive can help you climb the social ranks.”



128. If Sara is in the in the seventh grade popular crowd, you can predict that:
  A) she is apt to be well adjusted as an adult.
  B) she is apt to have emotional problems as an adult.
  C) she is apt to get married at a younger age.
  D) No predictions are possible—as middle-school popularity has no relation to adult mental health.



129. Although Sammy was rejected in fourth grade, he became an incredible success in his thirties. Generalizing from the text, in elementary school, Sammy was MOST likely rejected for:
  A) being different from his classmates.
  B) being highly aggressive.
  C) being incredibly shy.
  D) having externalizing problems.



130. Which unpopular fourth grader has the BEST adult prognosis?
  A) a highly physically aggressive kid
  B) an extremely socially anxious kid
  C) a child who has been rejected for being different
  D) an extremely hostile kid



131. All are bottom-line messages about the long-term fate of childhood popularity EXCEPT:
  A) Being rejected for being highly aggressive is a risk factor for later problems.
  B) Being rejected for being different is a serious risk factor for later problems.
  C) Being popular in middle school doesn’t predict much about adult life.
  D) To look at a rejected child’s fate, consider the reasons why that child is unpopular with his peers.



132. ________ children are most likely to be chronically bullied.
  A) Popular
  B) Unassertive and/or unusually aggressive
  C) Academic
  D) Impulsive



133. Who is MOST likely to be chronically bullied?
  A) Tina and her best friend, Sharon, who keep to themselves
  B) Cassius, who is highly aggressive, and Clara, who is very anxious and won’t fight back
  C) Darryl, who spends his free time volunteering at a local animal shelter
  D) Erica, who is often late to school and seldom has her homework done on time



134. Pick the child who is MOST apt to be classified as a bully-victim.
  A) a very shy kid
  B) a very aggressive, impulsive, unpopular kid
  C) a very intellectual kid
  D) a dork



135. In a classroom where bullying is always reinforced by the other kids, you can predict:
  A) everyone is apt to bully.
  B) only the nicest kids will refrain from bullying.
  C) girls will bully more often than boys.
  D) boys will bully more often than girls.



136. The REAL key to preventing bullying is to:
  A) teach bullied kids to stand up for themselves.
  B) have teachers say “you shouldn’t bully.”
  C) train bullied kids in karate or another skill that allows them to effectively retaliate.
  D) change the classroom norms, so bullying becomes a “no no” among the group.



137. Bullying-prevention programs focus on:
  A) punishing bullies.
  B) getting victimized kids to stand up for themselves.
  C) offering lectures on the evils of bullying.
  D) changing classroom norms so peers don’t reinforce this behavior.



138. The bottom-line message of the bullying discussion is that:
  A) it exists at every age—because it’s part of human nature—but we can reduce its frequency, by changing the social norms.
  B) it can be totally stamped out, if we vigorously intervene.
  C) it is mainly a childhood problem.
  D) it’s ineffective at gaining status.



139. Suzie is a shy 5-year-old. What should her parents do to reduce her social anxiety?
  A) Nothing. She will outgrow her shyness as she moves through elementary school.
  B) Expose her to large groups of children her own age.
  C) Help her to make a friend in kindergarten or first grade.
  D) Homeschool her until she overcomes her anxiety.



140. If you have a fearless explorer toddler:
  A) he could turn out to be a tremendous success with the right person–environment fit.
  B) avoid power assertion.
  C) offer lots of love.
  D) All of the answers are correct.




Answer Key


1. B
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. D
6. A
7. A
8. A
9. B
10. C
11. A
12. A
13. A
14. D
15. B
16. B
17. A
18. C
19. B
20. A
21. A
22. B
23. A
24. D
25. A
26. B
27. B
28. C
29. A
30. D
31. A
32. A
33. B
34. A
35. D
36. B
37. B
38. A
39. D
40. A
41. D
42. D
43. A
44. C
45. B
46. A
47. C
48. B
49. D
50. D
51. D
52. B
53. D
54. C
55. C
56. A
57. B
58. A
59. B
60. D
61. A
62. B
63. B
64. C
65. A
66. D
67. A
68. D
69. D
70. B
71. C
72. B
73. D
74. D
75. A
76. A
77. A
78. A
79. A
80. C
81. C
82. A
83. D
84. A
85. C
86. A
87. C
88. A
89. D
90. D
91. D
92. A
93. C
94. A
95. C
96. B
97. A
98. A
99. B
100. D
101. A
102. B
103. C
104. A
105. D
106. C
107. D
108. A
109. A
110. C
111. C
112. A
113. D
114. A
115. A
116. A
117. D
118. A
119. C
120. D
121. D
122. D
123. B
124. D
125. C
126. B
127. C
128. D
129. A
130. C
131. B
132. B
133. B
134. B
135. A
136. D
137. D
138. A
139. C
140. D


Chapter 6- True-False

1. A child who has externalizing tendencies tends to be highly disruptive and argumentative.
  A) True
  B) False



2. Children with serious internalizing tendencies are well-liked in collectivist cultures.
  A) True
  B) False



3. Self-esteem first becomes an issue during early childhood.
  A) True
  B) False



4. Children with externalizing tendencies are at risk of having unrealistically high self-esteem.
  A) True
  B) False



5. The key to raising self-esteem is to keep telling children they are special and wonderful.
  A) True
  B) False



6. The key to getting children to tackle challenging tasks is to tell them that they are incredibly intelligent.
  A) True
  B) False



7. Being praised for one’s academic abilities and performance have similar effects for both Black and White elementary schoolers and teens.
  A) True
  B) False



8. Prosocial behavior is always motivated by altruism.
  A) True
  B) False



9. Prosocial behavior in children is promoted by using induction.
  A) True
  B) False



10. Parents who want to raise prosocial children should avoid using shame as a discipline strategy.
  A) True
  B) False



11. Boys are more likely than girls to engage in relational aggression.
  A) True
  B) False



12. Instrumental aggression refers to aggressive acts used in the service of “getting something.”
  A) True
  B) False



13. The term rough-and-tumble play refers to physical games such as baseball or soccer.
  A) True
  B) False



14. Children’s first experiences with fantasy play typically involve their mothers.
  A) True
  B) False



15. Collaborative pretend play helps children learn important social skills.
  A) True
  B) False



16. Fantasy play has nothing in common with real life.
  A) True
  B) False



17. To best promote emotional growth, teachers and parents should actively manage children’s fantasy play.
  A) True
  B) False



18. Gender-segregated play begins during preschool.
  A) True
  B) False



19. Boys and girls who behave in gender-atypical ways tend to be less popular than children whose behavior is stereotypically “male” or “female.”
  A) True
  B) False



20. Young rhesus monkeys segregate themselves by gender and play in “male” and “female” ways, just as human children do.
  A) True
  B) False



21. Gender schema theory refers to the fact that we are reinforced by parents and peers for acting in classically “female” or “male” ways.
  A) True
  B) False



22. Preschoolers’ friendships are based on common interests and activities.
  A) True
  B) False



23. Friendships help teach us how to act as adults.
  A) True
  B) False



24. Being popular is exactly the same thing as having a friend.
  A) True
  B) False



25. Children can be popular and also instrumentally aggressive.
  A) True
  B) False



26. Being in the middle-school “popular kids” group means your classmates automatically like you as a person.
  A) True
  B) False



27. The characteristics associated with being popular in middle school and elementary school are identical.
  A) True
  B) False



28. Efforts to reduce school bullying focus on helping bullied children stand up for themselves.
  A) True
  B) False



29. Exuberant toddler explorers (even those who have trouble as kids!) can sometimes be prosocial heroes as adults.
  A) True
  B) False




Answer Key


1. A
2. B
3. B
4. A
5. B
6. B
7. B
8. B
9. A
10. A
11. B
12. A
13. B
14. A
15. A
16. B
17. B
18. A
19. A
20. A
21. B
22. A
23. A
24. B
25. A
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. A




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