Experience Psychology 2nd Edition By King – Test Bank

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Experience Psychology 2nd Edition By King

Chapter 02

 

The Brain and Behavior

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 43)The _____ system is the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry.
    A. pulmonary
    B. nervous
    C. endocrine
    D. respiratory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 43)A single cubic centimeter of the human brain consists of well over _____ nerve cells.
    A. 50 million
    B. 10 million
    C. 30 billion
    D. 20 billion

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 43)Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system best reflects the brain’s ability to coordinate information from all five senses?
    A. Complexity
    B. Adaptability
    C. Integration
    D. Electrochemical transmission

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 44)The term plasticity refers to the _____.
    A. flexibility of the endocrine system
    B. ability of people to adapt to new surroundings
    C. ability to connect electrical impulses and chemical messengers
    D. brain’s special capacity for modification and change

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 44)Plasticity best reflects which of the following characteristics of the nervous system?
    A. Complexity
    B. Integration
    C. Adaptability
    D. Electrochemical transmission

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 44)You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. In order to hear this stimulus, _____ neurons must carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain.
    A. afferent
    B. olfactory
    C. efferent
    D. pyramidal

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 44)The lecture you were listening to is over. The bell that rang in the hall signaled the end of class. You get up out of your seat, pick up your things, and walk out the classroom door. Which kind of nerves sent the signals from your brain to your muscles to initiate your physical movements?
    A. Afferent
    B. Pyramidal
    C. Efferent
    D. Olfactory

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 44)Information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles is sent through _____, thus enabling the body to move.
    A. afferent nerves
    B. efferent nerves
    C. pyramidal nerves
    D. olfactory nerves

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 44)Your brain has instructed your body muscles to move so that you avoid burning your hand on a hot stove. Which type of nerves carried the information from your brain to your muscles so that you could avoid getting burned?
    A. Efferent nerves
    B. Afferent nerves
    C. Sensory nerves
    D. Parasympathetic nerves

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 44)Joshua is reading a novel. The input from his eyes is transmitted to his brain and then passed through many _____ that translate the character on the page to integrate sensory input and motor output.
    A. vesicles
    B. myelin sheaths
    C. synapses
    D. neural networks

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 45)The brain and spinal cord make up the _____.
    A. peripheral nervous system
    B. central nervous system
    C. autonomic nervous system
    D. somatic nervous system

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 45)The _____ nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
    A. central
    B. peripheral
    C. somatic
    D. autonomic

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 45)The somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system are components of the _____.
    A. sensory system
    B. central nervous system
    C. limbic system
    D. peripheral nervous system

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 45)The function of the somatic nervous system is to _____.
    A. take messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion
    B. tell muscles what to do
    C. be involved in the experience of stress and calms the body
    D. convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 45)The function of the _____ is to take messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion.
    A. central nervous system
    B. autonomic nervous system
    C. somatic nervous system
    D. parasympathetic nervous system

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 45)Which of the following essential body functions are under the control of the autonomic nervous system?
    A. Functions of reproductive system
    B. Excretory functions
    C. Sensory functions such as vision and hearing
    D. Heart rate, breathing, and digestion

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 45)The sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system are components of the _____.
    A. central nervous system
    B. endocrine system
    C. somatic nervous system
    D. autonomic nervous system

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 46)Which of the following is one of the functions of the sympathetic nervous system?
    A. Convey information from skin and muscles to CNS
    B. Calm the body
    C. Fight-or-flight reaction
    D. Influence somatic nervous system

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 46)You are walking to school when you encounter a strange barking dog. You start sweating and contemplate whether you should run away. Which nervous system is responsible for this “fight-or-flight” reaction?
    A. Somatic
    B. Sympathetic
    C. Parasympathetic
    D. Central

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 46)Just before you went on a job interview your heart was pounding like crazy. You experienced a shortness of breath and felt sick to your stomach. These symptoms were most likely produced by your _____ nervous system.
    A. central
    B. somatic
    C. parasympathetic
    D. sympathetic

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 46)Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for producing physiological symptoms (such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach) under conditions of stress?
    A. Somatic
    B. Parasympathetic
    C. Sympathetic
    D. Central

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 46)After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should increase the response of the _____ nervous system, which results in a slower heart and respiration rate and less muscular tension.
    A. somatic
    B. central
    C. parasympathetic
    D. sympathetic

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 46)Corticosteroids are _____.
    A. stress hormones
    B. sex hormones
    C. neurotransmitters that regulate mood
    D. neurotransmitters that regulate memory

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 46)_____ stress is the momentary stress that occurs in response to life experiences.
    A. Intrinsic
    B. Differential
    C. Chronic
    D. Acute

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

 

  1. (p. 47)Which of the following types of cells in the nervous system handle the information-processing function?
    A. Neurons
    B. Glial cells
    C. Sclerenchyma cells
    D. Myelin

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 47)_____ provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions in the nervous system.
    A. Neurons
    B. Glial cells
    C. Sclerenchyma cells
    D. Dendrites

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 49)The cell body contains the _____, which directs the manufacture of substances that a neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
    A. myelin
    B. nucleus
    C. axon
    D. dendrite

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 49)The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance, is called the _____.
    A. axon hillock
    B. terminal stub
    C. cell body
    D. stem cell

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 49)Where is the nucleus of a neuron located?
    A. axon hillock
    B. terminal stub
    C. dendrite
    D. cell body

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 49)Dendrites are _____.
    A. the part of the neuron that is responsible for sending information away from the cell body toward other cells
    B. the branch-like part of the neuron that is responsible for receiving information from other neurons
    C. located inside the cell body
    D. the layer of fat cells that encase and insulate the neuron

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 49)The axon is _____.
    A. the part of the neuron that is responsible for sending or carrying information away from the cell body toward other cells
    B. the branch-like part of the neuron that is responsible for receiving information from other neurons
    C. located inside the cell body
    D. the layer of fat cells that encase and insulate the neuron

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 49)_____ is a layer of fat cells that insulates most axons and speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses.
    A. A dendrite
    B. The myelin sheath
    C. The axon
    D. A nucleus

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 49)Which of the following is a function of the myelin sheath?
    A. Carry information away from the cell body toward other cells
    B. Increase the surface area of nerve cells
    C. Speed up the transmission of nerve impulses
    D. Play a role in imitation

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 50)Resting potential is the _____.
    A. amount of time a signal travels through the central nervous system
    B. amount of time a neuron must “rest” in between firing episodes
    C. stable, positive charge of an inactive neuron
    D. stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 50)The membrane of the resting neuron is said to be _____.
    A. deconcentrated
    B. depolarized
    C. concentrated
    D. polarized

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 50)When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane?
    A. There is a negative charge on the outside of the cell membrane, and a positive charge on the inside.
    B. There is a negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside.
    C. There is a negative charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane.
    D. There is a positive charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 51)The brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon is _____.
    A. resting potential
    B. action potential
    C. graded potential
    D. polarized potential

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 51)When a neuron sends an action potential, it is commonly said to be “_____.”
    A. firing
    B. grading
    C. depolarizing
    D. classifying

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 51)According to the all-or-nothing principle, _____.
    A. if all the neurons in a network are not integrated, the “message” carried by the neurons will be lost
    B. the amount of time a neuron must “rest” in between firing episodes is stable
    C. once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity
    D. as a person ages, his or her neurological system slows down and the intensity of neural impulses decreases significantly

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 51)Which of the following refer to tiny spaces between the neurons?
    A. Dendrites
    B. Axons
    C. Synapses
    D. Basal ganglia

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 52)_____ are chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron.
    A. Neurotransmitters
    B. Axons
    C. Synapses
    D. Dendrites

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 53)Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in _____.
    A. action of muscles, learning, and memory
    B. vision and hearing
    C. mood regulation
    D. reproductive function

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 53)Your relative is experiencing memory loss related to Alzheimer disease. Research suggests that the decline in memory is due to a(n) _____ deficiency in this individual’s brain.
    A. serotonin
    B. gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
    C. acetylcholine
    D. dopamine

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 54)_____ inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract.
    A. Serotonin
    B. Dopamine
    C. Norepinephrine
    D. GABA

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 454)Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
    A. High levels of oxytocin—Alzheimer disease
    B. Low levels of dopamine—Parkinson disease
    C. Low levels of acetylcholine—Schizophrenia
    D. High levels of serotonin—Depression

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 54)Depression is associated with low levels of which neurotransmitter?
    A. Acetylcholine
    B. Serotonin
    C. Dopamine
    D. Oxytocin

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 54)Which of the following indicates elevated levels of endorphins?
    A. Amy, a 30 year old teacher, who in shock after a car wreck.
    B. Jamie, a 40 year old diplomat, who is on a cruise.
    C. Martha, a 32 year old home maker, who is showing symptoms of schizophrenia.
    D. Joshua, a 17 year old student, who is depressed after seeing his low scores on SAT.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 54)A powerful surge of oxytocin is released in a _____.
    A. person who is in shock after a car wreck
    B. long distance runner
    C. young boy on a roller coaster ride
    D. mother who has just given birth

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 55)An _____ is a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter’s effects whereas an _____ is a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter’s effect.
    A. agonist/antagonist
    B. antagonist/agonist
    C. oxytocin/endorphin
    D. endorphin/oxytocin

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 55)Mark Johnson, a doctor in Dallas, prescribed an antidepressant drug Prozac to his patient, Ted. Prozac works by increasing brain levels of serotonin. This means that Prozac is considered _____.
    A. an agonist
    B. an antagonist
    C. a hormone stimulant
    D. an oxytocin

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Neurons

  1. (p. 55)Michael has schizophrenia. His doctor prescribed a new drug that blocks or interferes with the activity of dopamine. Michael’s doctor is using _____ to treat his disorder.
    A. an agonist
    B. an antagonist
    C. brain lesion
    D. a lobotomy

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 56)Neuroscientists who surgically remove, destroy, or eliminate the brain tissue of laboratory animals are using which of the following techniques for studying the brain?
    A. Electroencephalogram
    B. Positron emission tomography (PET)
    C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    D. Brain lesioning

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 56)Electrical activity in the brain can be captured by placing multiple electrodes on the scalp and then measuring the underlying electrical activity. This method of studying the brain’s activity is called a(n) _____.
    A. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    B. positron emission tomography (PET)
    C. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    D. functional MRI (fMRI)

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 57)Arnold Becker, a doctor in Seattle, needs information about the location and extent of damage involving stroke and loss of memory of his patient, Judith. Which of the following techniques will he most likely use to diagnose Judith’s condition?
    A. Brain lesioning
    B. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)
    C. Positron emission tomography (PET)
    D. Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 57)Stern Tyler, a neuroscientist who is collecting data for a new research study, uses techniques for monitoring the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain. Which of the following methods is Stern Tyler using in this study?
    A. Brain lesioning
    B. Staining
    C. Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
    D. Electroencephalogram (EEG)

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 57)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that _____.
    A. measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain and then sends this information to a computer for analysis
    B. constructs a three-dimensional image from X rays
    C. examines the effects of lesions in brain tissue
    D. involves creating a magnetic field around a person’s body and using radio waves to construct images of a person’s tissues and biochemical activities

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 58)Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that _____.
    A. allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working
    B. requires injecting the brain with a substance but still cannot portray brain function.
    C. measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain and then sends this information to a computer for analysis
    D. examines the effects of lesions in brain tissue

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 60)The medulla, cerebellum, and pons are parts of the _____.
    A. hindbrain
    B. midbrain
    C. forebrain
    D. corpus callosum

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 60)Which part of the nervous system regulates breathing and heart rate?
    A. Hypothalamus
    B. Pons
    C. Medulla
    D. Cerebellum

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 61)Marshall damaged his cerebellum in a car accident. Marshal is likely to have problems with _____.
    A. breathing and heart rate
    B. seeing and hearing
    C. talking and understanding
    D. balance and muscle coordination

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 61)Clumps of cells in the _____ determine alertness and regulate basic survival functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.
    A. hypothalamus
    B. forebrain
    C. brain stem
    D. cerebellum

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 61)The _____ relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears.
    A. forebrain
    B. midbrain
    C. hindbrain
    D. cerebellum

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 61)The reticular formation is primarily responsible for _____.
    A. controlling breathing and regulating reflexes to maintain an upright posture
    B. involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns such as walking, sleeping, or turning to attend to a sudden noise
    C. control and coordination of balance, hearing, and parasympathetic function
    D. governs higher brain functions, such as thinking, learning, and consciousness

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 61)Which of the following is the brain’s largest division?
    A. Forebrain
    B. Midbrain
    C. Hindbrain
    D. Medulla

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 61)Which of the following parts of the brain are correctly matched?
    A. Thalamus—hindbrain
    B. Amygdala—midbrain
    C. Basal ganglia—hindbrain
    D. Limbic system—forebrain

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 61-62)Discrimination of objects that are necessary for survival (such as appropriate food) as well as emotional awareness and expression involves the _____.
    A. hippocampus
    B. occipital lobe
    C. medulla
    D. amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 62)Steven was in a serious automobile accident that caused a severe injury to his hippocampus. What type of problem is Steven likely to experience as a result of this brain injury?
    A. He will probably be unable to speak.
    B. He will probably be unable to comprehend language.
    C. He will probably be unable retain any new conscious memories.
    D. He will probably be unable to move on his own.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 62)Large neuron clusters located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements are called _____.
    A. occipital lobes
    B. basal ganglia
    C. medulla
    D. amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 63)The _____ is a small forebrain structure that monitors pleasurable activities (e.g. eating, drinking, and sex), emotion, stress, and reward.
    A. hypothalamus
    B. basal ganglia
    C. corpus callosum
    D. medulla

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 64)The most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning, take place in the _____.
    A. corpus callosum
    B. cerebral cortex
    C. cerebellum
    D. amygdala

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 64)Samantha had a stroke. Doctors told her she sustained substantial damage to the occipital lobes. What type of deficiencies is Samantha likely to experience as a result of this brain damage?
    A. She may be blind or unable to see clearly.
    B. She will probably be unable to comprehend language.
    C. She will probably have difficulties with memory function.
    D. She will probably suffer from impaired cognitive functioning (planning, reasoning, and self-control will be negatively impacted).

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 65)Structures in the cerebral cortex that are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory are called _____.
    A. temporal lobes
    B. frontal lobes
    C. occipital lobes
    D. parietal lobes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 65)The ____ are involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.
    A. temporal lobes
    B. frontal lobes
    C. occipital lobes
    D. parietal lobes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 65)Which of the following are correctly matched?
    A. Frontal lobes—hearing, language processing, and memory
    B. Occipital lobes—personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles
    C. Temporal lobes—visual stimuli
    D. Parietal lobes—spatial location, attention, and motor control

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 65)The somatosensory cortex processes information about _____.
    A. planning and decision making
    B. bodily sensations
    C. facial expressions
    D. voluntary body movement

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 65)The _____ is the part of the cerebral cortex that processes information about voluntary muscle movement.
    A. motor cortex
    B. sensory cortex
    C. limbic system
    D. temporal lobe

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 67)Which of the following is true with regard to the association cortex?
    A. It processes information about body sensations.
    B. It makes up 25 percent of the cerebral cortex.
    C. It is at the rear of the frontal lobes, processes information about voluntary movement.
    D. It is the region of the cerebral cortex that is the site of the highest intellectual functions, such as thinking and problem solving.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 67)Katy was in a car accident and sustained serious brain damage. Since the accident Katy can speak only one word. This is an example of _____.
    A. amnesia
    B. aphasia
    C. multiple sclerosis
    D. epilepsy

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 67)_____ plays an important role in the production of speech, whereas _____ plays an important role in the comprehension of language.
    A. Wernicke’s area/Broca’s area
    B. Broca’s area/Wernicke’s area
    C. The occipital lobe/the hippocampus
    D. The hippocampus/the occipital lobe

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 68)The corpus callosum _____.
    A. is the large bundle of axons that connects the brain’s two hemispheres and relays information between the two sides
    B. is the region of the brain that is primarily responsible for managing our emotions
    C. is an almond-shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism’s survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals.
    D. plays an important role in the production of speech

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 68)Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the _____.
    A. hypothalamus
    B. cerebellum
    C. amygdala
    D. corpus callosum

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 69)The left hemisphere of the brain plays an important role in managing or regulating _____.
    A. speech and grammar
    B. spatial perception
    C. visual recognition
    D. movement in the left side of the body

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 71)The endocrine system _____.
    A. directs the most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning
    B. connects the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body
    C. consists of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing hormones into the bloodstream
    D. communicates through the release of neurotransmitters

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 71)The chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands are known as _____.
    A. neurotransmitters
    B. hormones
    C. myelin sheath
    D. stem cells

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

 

  1. (p. 72)The _____ is sometimes referred to as the “master gland” because it controls growth and it releases the hormones that regulate other glands in the endocrine system.
    A. thyroid gland
    B. adrenal gland
    C. pituitary gland
    D. parathyroid gland

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 72)Ellie has recently experienced irregular mood swings. Her energy level has decreased and she seems to have greater difficulty coping with stress. Based on her symptoms, it seems as though Ellie may have problems with her _____ glands.
    A. pituitary
    B. pineal
    C. adrenal
    D. thymus

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 72)_____ are secreted by the adrenal glands.
    A. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
    B. Estrogen and testosterone
    C. Estrogen and epinephrine
    D. Acetylcholine and testosterone

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

 

  1. (p. 72)Which of the following play(s) an important role in insulin production, metabolism, and body weight?
    A. Testes and ovaries
    B. Adrenal gland
    C. Pituitary gland
    D. Pancreas

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 72)Which of the following organs are involved in men’s and women’s sexual development and reproduction?
    A. Testes and ovaries
    B. Adrenal glands
    C. Pituitary glands
    D. Pancreas

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 73)When the axons of healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches, _____ has occurred.
    A. collateral sprouting
    B. substitution of function
    C. neurogenesis
    D. synaptic pruning

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Brain Damage; Plasticity; and Repair

 

  1. (p. 73)When Charlie was three years old, he fell off the slide at the playground and damaged the left hemisphere of his brain. Despite this injury, as Charlie grew older he still retained some of his language abilities because the right hemisphere of his brain took control over the language function. Which of the following mechanisms of brain damage repair is apparent in this example?
    A. Collateral sprouting
    B. Substitution of function
    C. Neurogenesis
    D. Lobotomy

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Brain Damage; Plasticity; and Repair

  1. (p. 75)Which of the following is true about neurogenesis?
    A. Neurogenesis cannot occur in human adults.
    B. No neurons, only increased connections between neurons, could be formed following infancy.
    C. Researchers have documented neurogenesis in only two brain regions; the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb.
    D. The different functions that these new brain cells perform are now known and they have been found to last for several years.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Brain Damage; Plasticity; and Repair

  1. (p. 75)_____ are unique primitive cells that have the capacity to develop into most types of human cells.
    A. Schwann cells
    B. Neurons
    C. Glial cells
    D. Stem cells

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Brain Damage; Plasticity; and Repair

 

  1. (p. 76)In the human cell, threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair originating from each parent, and that contain DNA are called _____.
    A. chromosomes
    B. ergosomes
    C. ribosome
    D. polysomes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 76)_____ is a complex molecule in the cell’s chromosomes that carries genetic information.
    A. RNA
    B. DNA
    C. Ribosome
    D. Polysome

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 77)Genes _____.
    A. consist of short segments of ribosomes composed of RNA
    B. match and link small pieces of RNA
    C. enable cells to reproduce and manufacture the proteins that are necessary for maintaining life
    D. act independently and do not collaborate with another gene

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. (p. 78)According to the dominant-recessive genes principle, _____.
    A. the recessive gene overrides the dominant gene
    B. a recessive gene exerts its influence only if one gene of a pair is recessive
    C. a recessive gene exerts its influence only if both genes are dominant
    D. the dominant gene overrides the recessive gene

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 78)_____ is a term used to describe the influences of multiple genes on behavior.
    A. The all or none principle
    B. Polygenic inheritance
    C. Phenotype
    D. Genotype

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 78)_____ is a genetic method in which organisms are chosen for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display.
    A. Selective breeding
    B. Experimental evolution
    C. Polymorphism
    D. Natural selection

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. (p. 78)Dr. Cardinale is interested in the effects of heredity and environment on intelligence. She compares the similarity of IQ scores of identical twins to the similarity of IQ scores of fraternal twins. Dr. Cardinale is conducting a _____ study.
    A. human genome
    B. molecular genetics
    C. behavior genetics
    D. selective breeding

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 80)A _____ is a person’s genetic heritage, his or her actual genetic material.
    A. prototype
    B. phenotype
    C. endophenotype
    D. genotype

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

  1. (p. 80)Molly’s natural hair color is brown but she has had it dyed blonde. Molly changed her _____.
    A. phenotype
    B. genotype
    C. chromosomes
    D. genetic heritage

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 45-46)Briefly describe the peripheral nervous system and its four divisions. What is the function of each?
    Give examples of situations that would activate each division and how they would do so.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) extends from the central nervous system (CNS) to the extremities of the body through a system of neurons. The two major divisions of the PNS are the somatic and autonomic divisions. The somatic division is responsible for voluntary movements and for the transmission of information to and from such areas as the eyes, ears, and fingers. The autonomic division regulates organs that are necessary for survival, like the heart and lungs. It operates even without our awareness, because it would be disastrous if we forgot to remind ourselves to breathe or our heart to beat. The autonomic division is further subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, and these subdivisions are most noticeable during emergencies. The sympathetic division prepares the body for emergencies and helps us to either fight stressors or to flee from them. If you were inside a burning house, for example, the sympathetic division would produce the necessary arousal that would allow you to either run out of the house to safety, or to find a fire extinguisher to help battle the blaze. The parasympathetic division restores the body to its resting state once an emergency has ended. Once it is clear that your house was not on fire, your breathing and heart rate return to normal, and you eventually feel a sense of calm. The parasympathetic system is also responsible for storing nutrients and oxygen for the body to use should another emergency arise.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Nervous System

  1. (p. 49)Describe the structure of a neuron and explain the function of each component.

Every neuron has three components, a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. Dendrites are branch-like fibers that receive information and orient it towards the neuron’s cell body. Most nerve cells have multiple dendrites. The axon is the slender, tail-like extension of a neuron that sends or carries information away from the cell body toward other cells. The cell body contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 51-53)Briefly explain how one neuron sends a message to another neuron. Be sure to include a description of the roles that the various structures of the neuron play in communicating neural messages.

When neurons are at rest, they have a negative electrical charge. When an excitatory message is received from another neuron, the neuron becomes more positive. As the charge reaches a critical level of positivity, an action potential occurs and the electrical message travels along the neuron’s axon. Once the message passes any point of the axon, that section becomes negatively charged once again, and the neuron is unable to fire again immediately. When a nerve impulse reaches the end of the axon, the terminal buttons on the ends of the axon release neurotransmitters into the synapse. Dendrites of nearby neurons receive messages from the neurotransmitters that “fit” onto their particular receptor sites. If the concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters that have been received is higher, then the neuron fires. If the concentration of inhibitory neurotransmitters that have been received is higher, then the neuron will not fire.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Neurons

 

  1. (p. 56-59)Compare and contrast the techniques researchers use to study the brain. Explain what type of information can be gained by each approach.

One way researchers have learned more about the brain is by studying the effects of brain lesions or brain damage. By examining the person or animal that has the lesion, researchers get a sense of the function of the part of the brain that was damaged. Staining is a process that involves injecting dyes that are selectively absorbed by neurons. These dyes allow scientists to chart neural networks. Electroencephalograph (EEG) involves recording the brain’s electrical activity. Researchers also might use one of several brain imaging techniques. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan or CT scan) involves the use of x-rays to produce a composite three-dimensional image and can provide information about the location and extent of brain damage. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) is another brain imaging technique that is based on metabolic (glucose) changes related to brain activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves creating a magnetic field around a person’s body and using radio waves to construct images of the person’s tissues and biochemical activities. MRI scans provide valuable information about the structure of the brain and can allow researchers to see if and how experiences affect brain structure. Although MRI scans can reveal considerable information about brain structure, they cannot portray brain function. A new method known as functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working. fMRI charts track changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity.

 

Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 61-63)Identify the major functions of the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and the reticular formation. Give examples of their functions in terms of real behaviors.

The hypothalamus is a small structure in the brain that maintains the body’s internal balance or homeostasis. For example, the hypothalamus works to keep the body at a constant temperature, triggering perspiration when the body is hot and shivering when the body is cold.
The hypothalamus is also involved in behaviors such as eating, self-protection, sexual behavior, emotions, and stress. The cerebellum is primarily responsible for bodily balance. When we can stand without falling, or when we successfully try to balance on a narrow plank, we know the cerebellum is functioning properly. The cerebellum constantly monitors feedback from the muscles to coordinate their placement, movement, and tension; it also helps us to analyze and coordinate sensory information and to solve problems. The reticular formation stands guard to activate other parts of the brain to quickly produce general bodily arousal. Additionally, it filters out many kinds of background stimuli (e.g., traffic noise during sleep to allow us to sleep without interruption).

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

  1. (p. 67-70)Explain how the right and left hemispheres of the brain are specialized for different functions.

The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. The left and right hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum, which allows the two hemispheres to communicate and coordinate their activities. Although the left and right hemispheres have overlapping functions, each hemisphere appears to excel or specialize in certain tasks. For example, the left hemisphere plays an important role in many language functions. The right hemisphere dominates in spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

 

  1. (p. 43-44, 71-72)Compare and contrast the nervous system and the endocrine system.

Researchers have learned that the nervous system and endocrine system are intricately interconnected. Both systems work together to control the body’s activities. However, the nervous system and endocrine system do differ in a variety of ways. First, the parts of the endocrine system are not all connected in the way that the parts of the nervous system are. Second, the endocrine system communicates via hormones, whereas the nervous system communicates via electrical impulses and neurotransmitters. Hormones are released in the bloodstream and are transported throughout the body by the circulatory system. Thus, hormones move much more slowly than the neural impulses in the nervous system.

 

Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

  1. (p. 71-72)How does the endocrine system transmit its messages? What functions do the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, and gonads (testes or ovaries) perform?

The endocrine system consists of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing hormones (chemical substances) into the bloodstream. The pituitary gland regulates growth but it is also known as the “master gland” because it regulates other glands in the body. Adrenal glands are located at the top of each kidney. They secrete epinephrine and noepinephrine and play an important role in regulating mood, energy level, and the ability to cope with stress. The pancreas, which is located under the stomach, performs both digestive and endocrine functions. The pancreas produces insulin, which is a hormone that controls glucose levels in the body and is related to metabolism, body weight, and obesity. The gonads (ovaries or testes) are the sex-related endocrine glands that produce hormones related to sexual development and reproduction.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: The Endocrine System

 

  1. (p. 73-75)Discuss the extent to which the brain has the capacity for repair. Include concepts such as plasticity, substitution of function, and neurogenesis.

The brain does have the capacity to repair itself in some situations. Plasticity, or the ability to adapt and change function, is greatest in young children. According to the substitution of function principle, although certain parts of the brain are more associated with specific tasks (e.g., auditory cortex in the temporal lobe is associated with hearing), when one area gets damaged, another area can pick up the duties of the damaged area. Neurons can actually change their purpose. New neurons can also be created through neurogenesis.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Brain Damage; Plasticity; and Repair

  1. (p. 80)Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype. Be sure to mention how both relate to the nature-nurture debate and the role of environmental influences.

A genotype is one’s genetic heritage, the actual genetic material that determines characteristics. A phenotype is one’s observable characteristics, which may or may not differ from what would be predicted based on the genotypic information alone. Nature provides the genotype; the environment (i.e., nurture) can influence the phenotype but cannot influence the genotype.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Genetics and Behavior

Chapter 14

Health Psychology

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. (p. 514)_____ emphasizes psychology’s role in establishing and maintaining physical well-being and preventing and treating illness.
    A. Evolutionary psychology
    B. Social psychology
    C. Developmental psychology
    D. Health psychology

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

  1. (p. 514)Health psychology reflects the belief that _____.
    A. health is predetermined by genetics and biology
    B. lifestyle choices, behaviors, and psychological characteristics can play important roles in health
    C. the body has a tremendous impact on the mind, but the mind has very little impact on the body
    D. health has very little to do with psychology, so research should focus more on an exclusively physiologic al model of health

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

 

  1. (p. 514)Behavioral medicine _____.
    A. explains the importance of social ties as an important variable in predicting health
    B. focuses on motivational tools for self-change that involve changing for the right reasons
    C. is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on developing and integrating behavioral and biomedical knowledge to promote health and reduce illness
    D. explains the importance and usage of medicines in everyday life

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

  1. (p. 514)Although the concerns of behavioral medicine and health psychology overlap, behavioral medicine primarily focuses on _____ factors, whereas health psychology primarily focuses on _____ factors.
    A. behavioral and biomedical/behavioral and cognitive
    B. behavioral and cognitive/behavioral and biomedical
    C. conscious/unconscious
    D. unconscious/conscious

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

  1. (p. 514)Which of the following is not considered a health behavior?
    A. Brushing your teeth
    B. Practicing safe sex
    C. Exercising
    D. Reading

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 516)According to _____, effective change requires individuals to have specific intentions about their behaviors, as well as positive attitudes about a new behavior, and to perceive that their social group looks positively on the new behavior as well.
    A. the stages of change model
    B. the theory of reasoned action
    C. the general adaptation syndrome
    D. Lazarus’s model of stress and coping

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)You are having fun at a New Year’s Eve party when your friend Dominic tells you that he really wants to quit smoking. He asks you to share what you know about health psychology so that he can use your advice to help him to successfully quit. If you apply the theory of reasoned action to Dominic’s situation, which of the following statements best represents the advice you should offer?
    A. “Dominic, you should make an explicit commitment. If you are really serious about quitting, you should make a New Year’s resolution to stop smoking. ”
    B. “Dominic, you should envision quitting smoking as a form of punishment for your previous behavior. Think of quitting as a negative behavior.”
    C. “Dominic, you should make sure you surround yourself with friends who smoke and who don’t support your goal of quitting. Having a little adversity from your social network will keep you motivated.”
    D. “Dominic, you should give in to the ‘higher power’ and realize that you can’t truly control your smoking behavior. Just hope and pray for the best.”

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 516)The theory of planned behavior includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds another important variable to the model. This variable is _____.
    A. genetic health history
    B. a person’s perception of control over the outcome of the situation
    C. level of introversion
    D. intelligence and cognitive ability

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)What is the main difference between the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior?
    A. The theory of reasoned action includes the stages of change model.
    B. The theory of planned behavior includes the stages of change model.
    C. The theory of reasoned action includes the idea that perceptions of control over the outcome are important.
    D. The theory of planned behavior includes the idea that perceptions of control over the outcome are important.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)The stages of change model _____.
    A. describes the process by which individuals evolve to think about others before themselves
    B. describes the process by which individuals develop physically and mentally in adolescence
    C. describes the process by which individuals give up bad habits and adopt healthier life-styles
    D. describes the process by which individuals give up their inhibitions and behave against the norms of society

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 516)Which of the following lists the stages of the stages of change model in the correct order?
    A. Preparation, precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance
    B. Preparation, action, precontemplation, contemplation, maintenance
    C. Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
    D. Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, maintenance, action

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)Which of the following is the first stage in the stages of change model?
    A. Preparation/determination
    B. Precontemplation
    C. The action/willpower
    D. Contemplation

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)During the _____ stage, individuals are not yet genuinely thinking about changing.
    A. preparation/determination
    B. maintenance
    C. precontemplation
    D. contemplation

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 516)Raising one’s consciousness is the key component of which of the following stages of change?
    A. Precontemplation
    B. Contemplation
    C. Preparation/determination
    D. Action/willpower

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)Sam has a problem with alcohol. He gets substantially drunk at parties four to five nights a week and it is not uncommon for him to experience blackouts. Despite his friends’ concerns, Sam doesn’t think he has a problem and believes that he is just being a typical college student. Sam would most likely be classified as being in the _____ stage of change.
    A. maintenance
    B. contemplation
    C. precontemplation
    D. preparation/determination

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 516)Your roommate has been engaging in risky sexual behavior all semester, yet she denies that anything is wrong. She is likely in the _____ stage of the stages of change model.
    A. preparation/determination
    B. contemplation
    C. Termination
    D. precontemplation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 517)Some of the characteristics that distinguish people who are in the _____ stage of change are that they possess a beginning awareness of their problem behavior but they are not yet ready to change it.
    A. action/willpower
    B. contemplation
    C. maintenance
    D. preparation/determination

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 517)Suzanne wants to lose 20 pounds before her honeymoon to Hawaii. Although she realizes that being thinner will make her feel stronger and healthier, she has a weakness for ice cream. She’s not sure that she will be able to give up the short-term pleasure of indulging in an ice cream cone for dessert today in exchange for the long-term benefits of weight loss. Suzanne appears to be in which of the following stages of change?
    A. Maintenance
    B. Contemplation
    C. Preparation/determination
    D. Action/willpower

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 517)During the _____ stage individuals acknowledge the problem but may not be ready to commit to change.
    A. preparation/determination
    B. maintenance
    C. action/willpower
    D. contemplation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 516-517)Dan has a problem with smoking. If Dan were in the _____ stage of change, the best stage-matched intervention would be to inform him about the dangers of continuing this unhealthy behavior. However, if he were in the _____ stage, you would do well to provide him with training in specific skills that can help him to actually stop smoking.
    A. contemplation/precontemplation
    B. precontemplation/contemplation
    C. preparation/contemplation
    D. precontemplation/preparation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 517)You are trying to change your exercise routine in order to have a healthier lifestyle. You develop a new exercise schedule and plan to implement it starting next month. You are in the _____ stage of the stages of change model.
    A. precontemplation
    B. contemplation
    C. preparation/determination
    D. action/willpower

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 517)Belief in one’s ability to successfully change and “see it through” is characteristic of which of the following stages of change?
    A. Preparation/determination
    B. Maintenance
    C. Action/willpower
    D. Contemplation

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 517)Which of the following statements would be most typical of someone in the preparation/determination stage of change?
    A. “Problem? What problem? I don’t have a problem.”
    B. “I am going to focus on learning new alternative healthy behaviors that will replace the old unhealthy ones.”
    C. “I know that my behavior is problematic, but I’m just not ready to change it yet.”
    D. “I’m going to do something about this problem, starting first thing next week.”

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)According to the stages of change model, during the _____ stage, individuals commit to making a real behavioral change and enact a plan for effective change.
    A. action/willpower
    B. contemplation
    C. maintenance
    D. preparation/determination

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)Uncle Leo quit smoking two months ago. He is hoping that he can continue to stay tobacco-free so he has been trying to find ways to support his new, healthy behavior pattern. He eats mint whenever he gets a craving to smoke. Uncle Leo seems to be in the _____ stage of the stages of change model.
    A. preparation/determination
    B. contemplation
    C. action/willpower
    D. maintenance

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 518)_____ our accomplishments can motivate consistent behavior.
    A. Bragging about
    B. Forgetting
    C. Downplaying
    D. Acknowledging, enjoying, and celebrating

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)Bob decided that he was a bit overweight and in order to do something about it, he created a new exercise program, something he’d never tried before. Though he initially had some difficulty setting it up and sticking with it, he has consistently done his exercise workout for the last eight months. Though it is becoming more habitual, the program is still not yet automatic for him and he reinforces himself with new CDs each month if he has successfully completed his workouts. According to the stages of change model, Bob would most likely be in the _____.
    A. contemplation stage
    B. maintenance stage
    C. termination stage
    D. preparation/determination stage

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)Which of the following is the last stage in the stages of change model?
    A. Resolution
    B. Resistance
    C. Action/willpower
    D. Maintenance

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 518)When Wendy first started trying to eat healthier it felt like she was a “dieter.” She was constantly thinking about how to eat healthy. After several months of successfully opting to eat nutritious food as opposed to her old fast food favorites, Wendy does not feel like a dieter anymore. She no longer has to consciously think about trying to eat healthy foods; rather, her new lifestyle has become a part of who she is. Wendy is in which of the following stages of change?
    A. Preparation/determination
    B. Maintenance
    C. Action/willpower
    D. Contemplation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)According to the stages of change model, when conscious attention is no longer required to maintain the new, healthy behaviors and such behaviors simply are part of the individual’s lifestyle, _____ has been achieved. This occurs during the _____ stage of change.
    A. determination/action-willpower
    B. transcendence/maintenance
    C. optimistic appraisal/contemplation
    D. hardiness/preparation

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 518)One challenge during the maintenance stage is to avoid _____.
    A. relapse
    B. boredom
    C. stagnancy
    D. denial

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 520)Maria, Nicole, Abby, and Jessica are adolescents currently enrolled in an obesity treatment program. According to self-determination theory, which teen will be most likely to achieve her weight loss goals?
    A. Maria (who was forced by her parents to come to the program)
    B. Nicole (who was forced by her doctor to come to the program)
    C. Abby (who voluntarily enrolled because she made a personal commitment to herself)
    D. Jessica (who wants to get thinner so that she can get her ex-boyfriend’s attention)

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 520)_____ refer(s) to specific strategies for dealing with the challenges of making a life change.
    A. Intrinsic motivation
    B. Attribution strategies
    C. Implementation intentions
    D. Extraversion

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 520)Which of the following is the strongest predictor of mortality rates?
    A. Cigarette smoking
    B. Social isolation
    C. Optimism
    D. Intelligence

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

 

  1. (p. 521)When Samantha’s father passed away, Ronnie got food for Samantha’s family. The giving of food after the death of a loved one is an example of _____.
    A. extrinsic motivation
    B. emotional support
    C. implementation intentions
    D. tangible assistance

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 521)Your co-worker Christina was just laid off. You immediately inform her about a relevant job opening that you recently heard about. You have tried to help Christina by offering _____.
    A. tangible assistance
    B. emotional support
    C. an important source of information
    D. affirmation

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 521)Andrea was just fired from a job she really loved. You are her best friend so you try to offer her all the support that she needs. Giving Andrea a hug when she is down and telling her that you will “be there for her” is an example of _____ support, whereas loaning her money and telling her that she can stay with you until she finds another job is an example of _____ support.
    A. tangible/emotional
    B. emotional/tangible
    C. psychological/physical
    D. physical/psychological

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

 

  1. (p. 521)In the long run, writing about traumatic life events _____.
    A. is harmful because one relives the trauma over and over again
    B. increases distress among men but not among women
    C. is associated with physical and psychological health benefits
    D. has no impact on reducing stress

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 521-522)Your textbook describes a study that investigated the effects of diverse social ties on the susceptibility to getting a common cold. Results of this study showed that those with diverse social networks were _____ than their counterparts with less diverse social networks.
    A. more likely to get a cold
    B. less likely to get a cold
    C. less likely to volunteer to participate in the study
    D. more likely to volunteer to participate in the study

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 523)A number of studies have linked religious participation to _____.
    A. increased loneliness and isolation
    B. a longer and healthier life
    C. greater self-esteem
    D. hardiness

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

 

  1. (p. 523)Pauline is responsible and reliable. She likes structure and always sees a task through until it is completed. She exercises, eats healthy foods, and always wears her seatbelt. Pauline would score high on which of the following personality traits?
    A. Extraversion
    B. Conscientiousness
    C. Agreeableness
    D. Openness to new experiences

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 523)_____ is associated with high levels of emotional well-being, successful coping, and good health.
    A. An external locus of control
    B. A sense of personal control
    C. Strong extrinsic motivation
    D. Type-A behavior

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 524)Self-efficacy is the belief that you can _____.
    A. teach others to be self-reliant
    B. show unconditional positive regard for others
    C. be empathetic to your own problems
    D. master a situation and produce positive outcomes

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 524)Self-efficacy influences _____.
    A. whether an individual tries to develop healthy habits
    B. whether a person uses emotion-focused or problem-focused coping strategies
    C. a person’s resting heart rate
    D. a person’s level of happiness

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 524)_____ is the power of belief in yourself and how long you persist in the face of obstacles.
    A. Problem-solving skill
    B. Placebo effect
    C. Self-efficacy
    D. Self-esteem

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Changes

  1. (p. 524)Individuals who have high self-efficacy are least likely to do which of the following?
    A. Persist in the face of obstacles
    B. Expend effort in coping with stress
    C. Experience less stress in challenging situations
    D. Perceive that they have no control over the situation

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Changes

 

  1. (p. 525)According to Seligman, optimists explain the causes of bad events as _____, whereas pessimists explain them as _____.
    A. internal, stable, and global/external, unstable, and specific
    B. external, unstable, and specific/internal, stable, and global
    C. internal, unstable, and global/external, stable, and specific
    D. external, stable, and global/internal, unstable, and specific

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 526)Which of the following statements about optimism is false?
    A. Optimism is associated with how an individual explains the causes of life events.
    B. Optimists expect that good things are more likely and that bad things are less likely to occur in the future.
    C. Optimism is something that you are born with. It cannot be learned or cultivated.
    D. Optimists generally are physically and mentally healthier than pessimists.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 527)The general adaptation syndrome describes the _____.
    A. steps taken during cognitive appraisal
    B. body’s response to stressors
    C. frustration created by conflict
    D. top three stressful personality types

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 527)The body’s first reaction to a stressor, in the _____, is a temporary state of shock during which resistance to illness and stress falls below normal limits.
    A. alarm stage
    B. resistance stage
    C. exhaustion stage
    D. irritability phase

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)When a rat is first introduced to an over-crowded cage, it will likely enter the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
    A. alarm
    B. resistance
    C. exhaustion
    D. action/willpower

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)According to Selye, in which stage does the person exert an all-out effort to combat stress?
    A. Alarm stage
    B. Resistance stage
    C. Primary appraisal
    D. Secondary appraisal

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 527)Once you get over the initial stress associated with your first exam of finals week, the fact that you have several more exams will likely lead your body to enter the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
    A. alarm
    B. resistance
    C. exhaustion
    D. action/willpower

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)According to the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), once resistance to a persisting stressor collapses, individuals enter the _____.
    A. resistance-coping stage
    B. exhaustion stage
    C. alarm and mobilization stage
    D. irritability phase

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)According to the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS,) biological damage (e.g., weakened immune system, heart attack, or death) can occur during the _____.
    A. exhaustion stage
    B. resistance stage
    C. coping stage
    D. alarm and mobilization stage

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 527)Two years ago, Walter’s business went bankrupt. Two months ago, his wife left him. Two days ago, Walter began having panic attacks. Selye would say that Walter is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
    A. Alarm
    B. Reaction
    C. Resistance
    D. Exhaustion

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)Denise has just finished a stressful week of final exams and she now feels as though she is coming down with the flu. According to the general adaptation syndrome, Denise’s reaction to stress suggests that she is now in the _____ stage.
    A. alarm
    B. resistance
    C. exhaustion
    D. primary appraisal

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)Which of the following accurately describes the sequence of the general adaptation syndrome?
    A. Alarm, resistance, and challenge
    B. Primary appraisal, alarm, secondary appraisal
    C. Challenge, frustration, and exhaustion
    D. Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 527)Which hormonal response in Seyle’s GAS model is responsible for providing instant energy?
    A. plasma immunoreactive somatostatin (IRS)
    B. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)
    C. systemic glucagon regulation (SGR)
    D. b-endorphin and prolactin (PRL)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527)A key hormone shared by the central nervous system and the immune system is _____, which is produced in the hypothalamus and unites the stress and immune responses.
    A. oxytocin
    B. testosterone
    C. estrogen
    D. corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527-528)Rosemary is interested in studying the relationships between emotion, the nervous system, and the immune system. Given these interests, she will probably want to pursue future study in the field of _____.
    A. cognitive psychology
    B. psychopharmacology
    C. psychoneuroimmunology
    D. anatomy and physiology

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 527)Which of the following statements concerning the relationship between the immune system and stress is false?
    A. Acute stressors produce superior immune system functioning.
    B. Acute stressors can produce immunological changes.
    C. Chronic stressors are associated with an increasing downturn in immune system responsiveness.
    D. Chronic emotional stress is associated with high blood pressure, heart disease, and early death.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 529)The Type A behavior pattern is defined by a cluster of characteristics, including being excessively _____.
    A. competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile
    B. relaxed, easygoing, flexible, and carefree
    C. optimistic, resilient, friendly, and intelligent
    D. assertive, introverted, angry, and rational

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 529)_____ is defined by a cluster of characteristics, including being relaxed and easy going.
    A. The Type A behavior pattern
    B. The Type B behavior pattern
    C. Hardiness
    D. Optimism

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 529)_____ is linked with a higher incidence of heart disease, whereas _____ is linked with a lower incidence of heart disease.
    A. The Type A behavior pattern/the Type B behavior pattern
    B. The Type B behavior pattern/the Type A behavior pattern
    C. The Type B behavior pattern/the Type D behavior pattern
    D. The Type D behavior pattern/the Type A behavior pattern

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 530)Cancer patients show _____ activity in the blood.
    A. diminished B lymphocytes
    B. increased cardiomyocyte
    C. diminished natural killer cell (NK-cell)
    D. increased red blood cells (RBCs)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 530)Based on your text’s discussion, which of these is an accurate conclusion concerning the relationship of stress to the immune system and cancer?
    A. The physiological effects of stress provide resistance to cancer.
    B. The physiological effects of stress inhibit immune responses to cancer.
    C. The physiological effects of stress slow the progression of cancer.
    D. The physiological effects of stress cause smoking, which causes cancer.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 530)According to Lazarus, _____ occurs when an individual interprets how significant a stressor is.
    A. initial assessment
    B. initial intake
    C. primary appraisal
    D. secondary appraisal

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 530)Kirby just got divorced. He is currently thinking about how disruptive and significant this life change will be for him. According to Lazarus, Kirby’s behavior is an example of _____.
    A. primary appraisal
    B. secondary appraisal
    C. daily hassles and uplifts
    D. the general adaptation syndrome

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)In _____, individuals evaluate their resources and determine how effectively they can be marshaled to cope with the event.
    A. initial assessment
    B. initial intake
    C. primary appraisal
    D. secondary appraisal

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 530)Leslie, a first-grade teacher, recently received a pink slip notice informing her that she would be laid off next year. She has had some time to think about how this change will impact her life, and now she is actively evaluating her resources and trying to come up with a “game plan.” According to Lazarus’s model, Leslie is now engaging in _____.
    A. primary appraisal
    B. secondary appraisal
    C. emotion-focused coping
    D. social sharing

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)_____ reduces stress by directly targeting the stressor itself.
    A. Problem-focused coping
    B. Emotion-focused coping
    C. Denial
    D. Repressive coping

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)Melissa just landed her dream job. The only problem is that her workplace is far from her home. She spends about 3 hours commuting in the car every day. Traffic is normally quite heavy and Melissa is experiencing a great deal of stress. If Melissa moved closer to her place of employment in order to decrease her commute time, this would be an example of _____.
    A. emotion-focused coping
    B. problem-focused coping
    C. repressive coping
    D. denial

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 531)_____ reduces stress by controlling or managing one’s emotional reaction to the stressor.
    A. Problem-focused coping
    B. Emotion-focused coping
    C. Social sharing
    D. Optimism

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)Martha likes her new job but her workplace is far from her home. She spends a lot of time driving every day. Traffic is normally quite heavy and Martha is experiencing a great deal of stress. Telling herself to relax, listen to music, and to enjoy “alone time” in the car rather than dreading the commute would be an example of _____.
    A. emotion-focused coping
    B. problem-focused coping
    C. social sharing
    D. repressive coping

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)You just received a letter informing you that the college you really wanted to attend next semester has denied your application for enrollment. If you use the emotion-focused coping method you would _____.
    A. confront the source of your stress head-on
    B. acknowledge your problem and actively try to solve it
    C. calm yourself and visit a friend
    D. retake the SAT to try to raise your standardized test score

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 531)Which of the following is true about coping strategies?
    A. Emotion-focused coping is the cognitive strategy of squarely facing one’s troubles and trying to solve them.
    B. Problem-focused coping entails responding to the stress that one is feeling—rather than confronting the root problem.
    C. Emotion-focused coping can never be beneficial in dealing with life’s problems.
    D. Problem-focused coping might involve coming up with goals and implementation intentions.

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)Although many individuals use both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, over the long term, _____.
    A. emotion-focused coping rather than problem-focused coping usually works best
    B. problem-focused coping rather than emotion-focused coping usually works best
    C. both problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping strategies are equally effective
    D. neither problem-focused nor emotion-focused coping strategies are effective

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 532)Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of hardiness?
    A. Compatibility
    B. Control
    C. Commitment
    D. Challenge

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 534)Which of the following is true about exercise?
    A. Exercise designed to strengthen muscles is referred to as aerobic exercise.
    B. Exercise typically increases levels of anxiety.
    C. Exercise that stimulates heart and lung functioning is known as muscle strengthening exercise.
    D. Exercise refers to structured activities whose goal is to improve health.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 534)Clare climbs steps everyday to stimulate her heart and lung functioning. She does this to remain fit and healthy. Claire’s exercise is a type of _____.
    A. anaerobic exercise
    B. muscle strengthening exercise
    C. aerobic exercise
    D. flexibility exercise

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 534)Health experts recommend that adults engage in at least _____ minutes of moderate physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week and that children exercise for _____ minutes.
    A. 60/120
    B. 45/90
    C. 15/30
    D. 30/60

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

 

  1. (p. 534-535)Health experts recommend that adults engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity (at least 60 percent of your maximum heart rate) on most, or preferably all, days of the week. According to the text, what proportion of American adults are active at these recommended levels of physical activity?
    A. One-tenth
    B. One-fifth
    C. One-half
    D. Two-thirds

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 537)Your text described a study by the National Weight Control Registry that investigated people who have lost at least 40 pounds and kept it off for at least 2 years. They found that _____ was an important predictor of weight-loss success.
    A. having a personal trainer
    B. having a gym membership
    C. eating a breakfast that is rich in whole grains
    D. fasting

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 538)Smoking contributes to all of these EXCEPT _____.
    A. increased risk of middle-ear diseases for children of smokers
    B. cancer deaths
    C. heart disease deaths
    D. diabetes deaths

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

 

  1. (p. 538)Which of the following statements about research on smoking cessation is true?
    A. Studies show that nicotine replacement techniques (e.g., nicotine gum, the patch, or spray) do not enhance the chance of successfully quitting.
    B. Lighter smokers have more success with “going cold turkey” than heavier smokers.
    C. Bupropion SR (sold as Zyban) is an antidepressant that is commonly prescribed to smokers who are trying to quite, but unfortunately research does not confirm that this drug is effective.
    D. “Going cold turkey” is the most productive strategy one can use to quit smoking.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 538-539)Twenty-year-old Lily has been smoking since she was 12 and wants to quit. While no method is foolproof, the most successful avenue for breaking the addiction involves _____.
    A. nicotine replacement
    B. therapy
    C. behavioral strategies
    D. using a combination of therapeutic methods

 

Blooms: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 539)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are contracted through _____.
    A. vaginal intercourse
    B. cuddling
    C. massage
    D. mutual masturbation (without the exchange of bodily fluids)

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

 

  1. (p. 540)Which of the following is an example of a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?
    A. Erysipelas
    B. Impetigo
    C. Syphilis
    D. Cellulitis

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

  1. (p. 539)Which of the following is true about a sexually transmitted infection (STI)?
    A. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by viruses.
    B. All sexually active people are at risk of contracting HIV and other STIs.
    C. SITs are not contracted through oral-genital sex.
    D. Some STIs, such as genital herpes, are bacterial in origin.

 

Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

 

Essay Questions

  1. (p. 515)How does the biopsychosocial model conceptualize the relationship between the mind and body?

From the biopsychosocial perspective, the many diverse aspects of the person are strongly intertwined. Our bodies and minds are deeply connected. However, the mind is not responsible for everything that happens to the body. Even as we consider the many ways that psychological processes contribute to health and disease, we must understand that sometimes illness happens for other reasons—affecting even those who have led healthy lives. Although it might be more exciting to think about ways the mind may influence health, it is important to appreciate that the body may influence the mind as well. That is, how we feel physically may have implications for how we think. Being physically healthy can be a source of psychological wellness.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

 

  1. (p. 519)Evaluate the stages of change model. Has research supported this theoretical model? What are the major criticisms or shortcomings of the model?

The stages of change model has been applied successfully to a broad range of behaviors. These include cigarette smoking, exercise, safe-sex practices, marijuana use in teenagers, substance abuse more broadly, and weight loss. Although the stages of change model has proven to be relevant to a variety of behaviors, it is controversial. Some critics have questioned whether the stages are mutually exclusive and whether individuals move from one stage to another sequentially as has been proposed. For example, some individuals might feel themselves to be in both action/willpower and maintenance at the same time or may move from contemplation back to precontemplation. Critics of the model also point out that it refers more to attitudes that change than to behaviors. Furthermore, all of the stages might be understood as promoting readiness to change rather than change itself.

 

Blooms: Evaluate
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objectives: Making Positive Life Changes

  1. (p. 521)Describe the three primary benefits or functions of social support.

Social support has three types of benefits: tangible assistance, information, and emotional support. The first important function of social support is that others can be a source of tangible assistance. Family and friends can provide goods and services in stressful circumstances. For example, gifts of food are often given after a death in the family occurs, so that bereaved family members will not have to cook at a time when their energy and motivation are low. Second, social relationships serve an important information function. Individuals who provide support can also recommend specific actions and plans to help the person under stress cope more successfully. Friends may notice that a co-worker is overloaded with work and suggest ways for him or her to manage time or to delegate tasks more effectively. Finally, social relationships are an important source of emotional support. In stressful situations, individuals often suffer emotionally and may develop depression, anxiety, and loss of self-esteem. Friends and family can reassure the person under stress that he or she is valuable and loved. Knowing that others care allows a person to manage stress with greater assurance.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

 

  1. (p. 523)Why is religious participation linked with health benefits?

Many religions frown on excess and promote moderation. Indeed, weekly religious attendance relates to a host of healthy behaviors, including not smoking, taking vitamins, walking regularly, wearing seatbelts, exercising strenuously, sleeping soundly, and drinking moderately or not at all. Religious participation may also benefit health through its relation to social support. The social connections promoted by religious activity can forestall anxiety and depression and can help to prevent isolation and loneliness. Religious faith and spirituality more generally may also be an important factor in good health because they provide a sense of life meaning and a buffer against the effects of stressful life events. Religious thoughts can play a role in maintaining hope and stimulating motivation for positive life changes. Faith may also help individuals to avoid burnout at work and to negotiate life’s difficulties without feeling overwhelmed. Belief in the enduring meaningfulness of one’s life can help one keep perspective and see life’s hassles in the context of the big picture.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

  1. (p. 524-525)Is self-efficacy an important predictor of stress and well-being? Why or why not?

Yes, self-efficacy is a very important predictor of stress and well-being. Research has shown that self-efficacy is related to success in a wide variety of positive life changes, including sticking to a New Year’s resolution, achieving weight loss, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, ending substance abuse, and practicing safe sex. Self-efficacy influences whether individuals try to develop healthy habits, how much effort they expend in coping with stress, how long they persist in the face of obstacles, and how much stress they experience. If there is a problem to be fixed, self-efficacy—having a can-do attitude—is related to finding a solution.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Resources for Effective Life Change

 

  1. (p. 527)Outline the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this model.

The first stage, the alarm and mobilization stage, occurs when people become aware of the presence of a stressor, and the sympathetic nervous system is activated. If the stressor persists, people move into the next stage of the model. In the resistance stage, people prepare themselves to fight the stressor. If resistance is inadequate, people enter the last stage of the model, the exhaustion stage. During the exhaustion stage, a person’s ability to adapt to the stressor declines to the point where negative consequences of stress appear: physical illness; psychological symptoms in the form of an inability to concentrate, heightened irritability, or, in severe instances, disorientation and a loss of touch with reality. Although the general adaptation syndrome is a useful way to think about the stress response, it is not without critics. For example, some psychologists argue that the way we perceive and interpret stressful situations can influence our stress response to them. Thus, the biological response to stress is not the same for every stressor.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 527-528)Discuss the consequences of chronic stress as outlined by psychoneuroimmunologists.

Chronic stress can have serious implications for the body, in particular the immune system. Interest in links between the immune system and stress spawned a new field of scientific inquiry, psychoneuroimmunology, which explores connections among psychological factors (such as attitudes and emotions), the nervous system, and the immune system. Stress can profoundly influence the immune system. Acute stressors (sudden, stressful, one-time life events) can produce immunological changes. For example, in relatively healthy HIV-infected individuals, as well as in individuals with cancer, acute stressors are associated with poorer immune system functioning. In addition to acute stressors, chronic stressors (long-lasting agents of stress) are associated with an increasing downturn in immune system responsiveness. This effect has been documented in a number of circumstances that include worries about living next to a damaged nuclear reactor, failures in close relationships (divorce, separation, and marital distress), negative relationships with family and friends, and burdensome care giving for a family member with a progressive illness.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 530-531)Discuss Lazarus’s cognitive model of stress. Explain the distinction between primary and secondary appraisal.

In Lazarus’s view, people appraise events in two steps: primary appraisal and secondary appraisal. In primary appraisal, individuals interpret whether an event involves harm or loss that has already occurred, a threat of some future danger, or a challenge to be overcome. Lazarus believed that perceiving a stressor as a challenge to be overcome, rather than as a threat, is a good strategy for reducing stress. In secondary appraisal, individuals evaluate their resources and determine how effectively they can be used to cope with the event. This appraisal is secondary because it both comes after primary appraisal and depends on the degree to which the event is appraised as harmful, threatening, or challenging.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

  1. (p. 531)Describe problem-focused and emotion-focused coping styles. Are both coping styles equally effective at reducing stress?

Problem-focused coping is the cognitive strategy of squarely facing one’s troubles and trying to solve them. Emotion-focused coping involves responding to the stress that you are feeling—trying to manage your emotional reaction—rather than confronting the problem itself. In emotion-focused coping, you might avoid the source of your stress, rationalize what has happened to you, deny the problem is occurring, laugh it off, or call on your religious faith for support. Many individuals successfully use both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping when adjusting to a stressful circumstance. Over the long term, though, problem-focused coping rather than emotion-focused coping usually works best.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

 

  1. (p. 539-540)What are the ways to prevent STIs?

Latex condoms help to block the transmission of many STIs. Condoms are most effective in preventing gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS. Research suggests that consistent condom use also significantly reduces the risk that males will transmit to their female partners the human papilloma virus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer. Although condoms are less effective against the spread of herpes than against other STIs, the consistent use of condoms reduces the risk of herpes infection for both men and women.

 

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objectives: Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as if Your Life Depends Upon it

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