Essentials of Understanding Psychology 11th Edition by Feldman – Test Bank

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Essentials of Understanding Psychology 11th Edition by Feldman – Test Bank

CHAPTER 5

This chapter has 144 questions.
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Multiple Choice Questions – (109)
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement and define
the operant view of generalization and discrimination, superstitious behavior,
and shaping. – (26)
Essay Questions – (15) Learning Outcome: 15-1 – (2)
Worksheet Questions – (20) Learning Outcome: 15-2 – (41)
Odd Numbered – (72) Learning Outcome: 16-1 – (63)
Even Numbered – (72) Learning Outcome: 16-2 – (5)
APA LO: 1.2 – (135) Learning Outcome: 17-1 – (33)
APA LO: 1.3 – (73) Topic: Applying Conditioning to Human Behavior – (4)
APA LO: 2.2 – (5) Topic: Behavior Modification – (6)
APA LO: 2.3 – (2) Topic: Biological Constraints – (1)
APA LO: 2.5 – (3) Topic: Classical Conditioning – (18)
APA LO: 5.2 – (1) Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory – (5)
APA LO: 5.5 – (1) Topic: Discrimination – (9)
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation – (109) Topic: Extinction – (7)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply – (36) Topic: Generalization – (8)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember – (58) Topic: Latent Learning – (9)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand – (50) Topic: Learning – (5)
Difficulty: Easy – (67) Topic: Observational Learning – (9)
Difficulty: Medium – (77) Topic: Operant Conditioning – (4)
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning. – (19) Topic: Punishment – (14)
Learning Objective: Define learning. – (5) Topic: Reinforcement – (19)
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and outline
its basic processes. – (33) Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement – (18)
Learning Objective: Describe behavior modification. – (6) Topic: Shaping – (4)
Learning Objective: Explain operant conditioning. – (36) Topic: Thorndike’s Law of Effect – (2)
Learning Objective: Identify the challenges that have been
made to the traditional views of classical conditioning. – (3) Topic: Violence in Media – (11)
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and
discrimination. – (16)
1. Psychologists use the term _____ to refer to a relatively permanent change in
behavior resulting from experience.
growth
maturation
cognition
→ learning
Multiple Choice Question
MC Psychologists use the term _____ to refer to a
relatively perm…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy:
Page 1 of 62
Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define
learning.
Learning Outcome: 15-1
Topic: Learning
2. Learning reflects _____. Maturation reflects _____.
→ nurture; nature
nature; nurture
nature; nature as well
nurture; nurture as well
Multiple Choice Question
MC Learning reflects _____. Maturation reflects
_____.
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define
learning.
Learning Outcome: 15-1
Topic: Learning
3. _____ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated
presentations of the same stimulus.
Sensation
Disinhibition
→ Habituation
Conservation
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that
occurs…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define
learning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Learning
4. You toss a newly purchased felt mouse across the floor; your cat chases it excitedly,
clutches it in her paws and rolls around with it. Several tosses later, your cat yawns
pointedly and settles herself for a nap. The change in your cat’s behavior illustrates:
adaptation.
→ habituation.
conditioning.
Page 2 of 62
maturation.
Multiple Choice Question
MC You toss a newly purchased felt mouse across the
floor; your cat cha…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define
learning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Learning
5. _____ refers to a decrease in the response to a stimulus when it is presented
repeatedly, whereas _____ refers to the eventual disappearance of a conditioned
response when an unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented.
Extinction; habituation
→ Habituation; extinction
Habituation; adaptation
Adaptation; habituation
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ refers to a decrease in the response to a
stimulus when…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy:
Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define
learning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Learning
6. _____ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in
psychology.
Thorndike
Skinner
→ Pavlov
Watson
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is credited with laying the
foundation for the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
Page 3 of 62
7. _____ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a
response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
→ Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Observational learning
Instrumental conditioning
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a type of learning in which a
neutral stimulus comes…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
8. _____ stimulus does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
Reflexive
Unconditioned
→ Neutral
Normative
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ stimulus does not naturally
br…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
9. _____ stimulus naturally brings about a particular response without having been
learned.
Conditioned
→ Unconditioned
Neutral
Normative
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ stimulus naturally brings about a
particular…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Page 4 of 62
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
10. In Pavlov’s study, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was _____; the neutral stimulus
was _____; and, finally, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was _____.
meat; the bell; meat
→ meat; the bell; the bell
the bell; meat; meat
meat; meat; the bell
Multiple Choice Question
MC In Pavlov’s study, the unconditioned
stimulus…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
11. Tim loves dill pickles. Now, the sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his
mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n)
_____.
→ conditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
neutral stimulus
conditioned response
Multiple Choice Question
MC Tim loves dill pickles. Now, the sight of a jar
on the supermarket shelf…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and
describe classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
12. Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her
dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a knock on the door.
Which alternative below CORRECTLY identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and
the UCS?
Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—cocaine; UCS—cocaine
Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door;
UCS—pounding heart

Page 5 of 62
Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door;
UCS—cocaine
Neutral stimulus—cocaine; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine
Multiple Choice Question
MC Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her
sympathetic nervous syste…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and
describe classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
13. In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response
related?
They are not related; they are completely different stimuli.
They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable.
→ The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus.
The conditioned stimulus becomes the neutral stimulus.
Multiple Choice Question
MC In classical conditioning, how are the
neutral stimulus and the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and
describe classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
14. Nature is to nurture what _____ is to _____.
conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response; unconditioned response
neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
→ unconditioned response; conditioned response
Multiple Choice Question
MC Nature is to nurture what _____ is to
_____.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
Page 6 of 62
15. Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins:
→ just before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
at exactly the same time that the unconditioned stimulus begins.
long before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
immediately after the unconditioned stimulus begins.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Classical conditioning is most successful
when the ne…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
16. Which pair below CORRECTLY identifies a stimulus or response in Watson and
Rayner’s “Little Albert” study?
→ Unconditioned stimulus—noise
Conditioned stimulus— fear
Unconditioned response—rat
Neutral stimulus—fear
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which pair below CORRECTLY
identifies a stimulus…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Applying Conditioning to Human
Behavior
17. Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD). Now, back home in a quiet California neighborhood, he jumps when he
hears a firecracker or a car backfire. In the terminology of classical conditioning,
these sounds are best thought of as _____ stimuli.
neutral
unconditioned
→ conditioned
normative
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Page 7 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He
suffers from posttrau…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Applying Conditioning to
Human Behavior
18. _____ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and
eventually disappears.
→ Extinction
Habituation
Adaptation
Deconditioning
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ occurs when a previously
conditioned response decreases in…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
19. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction?

Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her
hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a
car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did
when she first started using.
Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her
hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her
drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
Alexis uses cocaine. She finds that she is slowly losing her sense of
smell.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
scenarios exemplifies…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Page 8 of 62
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
20. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the phases of the classical
conditioning process, from first to last?
Acquisition → spontaneous recovery → extinction
→ Acquisition → extinction → spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous recovery → acquisition → extinction
Extinction → acquisition → spontaneous recovery
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following sequences
CORRECTLY arranges the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
21. The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and
with no further conditioning is known as _____.
extinction
habituation
→ spontaneous recovery
deconditioning
Multiple Choice Question
MC The reemergence of an
extinguished conditioned…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
22. Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her
hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a
car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did
when she first started using.

Page 9 of 62
Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her
hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her
drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
Alexis uses cocaine. She finds that she is slowly losing her sense of
smell.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
scenarios best exemplifies spon…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
23. _____ is a process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a
particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same
response.
Stimulus location
→ Stimulus generalization
Stimulus reflexive
Stimulus discrimination
Multiple Choice Question
MC ____ is a process in which, after a
stimulus has been conditioned to…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Generalization
24. Which of the following is TRUE of stimulus generalization?
It is the process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from
one another.
→ The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood
of stimulus generalization.
The conditioned response elicited by the new stimulus is usually more
intense than the original conditioned response.
Stimulus generalization provides the ability to differentiate between
stimuli.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is
TRUE of stimulus gen…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Page 10 of 62
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Generalization
25. Rosa becomes anxious when she enters the examination room at the clinic before a
blood test. She also squirms when she views injections on television. This illustrates:
observational learning.
→ stimulus generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
stimulus discrimination.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Rosa becomes anxious when she
enters the examination room…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Generalization
26. _____ occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from each other that one evokes a
conditioned response but the other does not.
Stimulus location
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus diffusion
→ Stimulus discrimination
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ occurs if two stimuli are
sufficiently distinct from each other that
one…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Discrimination
27. Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus
generalization and stimulus discrimination?
They are unrelated.
→ They are opposites.
They are the same thing.
Page 11 of 62
Stimulus discrimination is a type of stimulus generalization.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following terms
best expresses the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Discrimination
Topic: Generalization
28. June’s cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, which she has
learned is used to open her food when her dinner is about to be served. The cat does
not run when a blender is used, although it sounds similar. June’s cat is
demonstrating stimulus:
control.
→ discrimination.
generalization.
diffusion.
Multiple Choice Question
MC June’s cat runs to the kitchen at
the sound of the electric…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Discrimination
29. Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now,
back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact
that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus:
diffusion.
discrimination.
→ generalization.
control.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Janine completed several tours
of duty in Afghanistan…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Page 12 of 62
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Generalization
30. Stimulus _____ provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli.
control
→ discrimination
generalization
diffusion
Multiple Choice Question
MC Stimulus _____ provides the
ability to differentiate between stimuli.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning,
define acquisition, extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Discrimination
31. In what way does learned taste aversion seem to contradict the basic principles of
classical conditioning?
In learned taste aversion, the CS and the unconditioned response (UCR)
are separated by only a brief interval.
→ Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing.
Learned taste aversion takes longer to develop than do most classical
conditioning processes.
Learned taste aversion is subject to biologically based constraints while,
classical conditioning is not.
Multiple Choice Question
MC In what way does learned taste
aversion seem to contradict the basi…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Identify the challenges
that have been made to the traditional views of
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
32. _____ is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened,
depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences.
Classical conditioning
→ Operant conditioning
Observational learning
Instrumental conditioning
Page 13 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is learning in which a voluntary
response is strength…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Operant Conditioning
33. Operant conditioning most importantly involves forming associations between:
neutral and unconditioned stimuli.
stimuli and involuntary behavior.
→ behavior and consequences.
conditioned response and reflex.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Operant conditioning most importantly
involves…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Operant Conditioning
34. Classical conditioning applies mostly to _____. Operant conditioning applies mainly
to _____.
→ biological responses; voluntary responses
voluntary behavior; involuntary behavior
voluntary behavior; biological behavior
involuntary response; involuntary behavior
Multiple Choice Question
MC Classical conditioning applies
mostly…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Operant Conditioning
35. The root of operant conditioning may be traced to _____’s early studies of hungry
cats learning to escape from cages.
Skinner
→ Thorndike
Watson
Page 14 of 62
Pavlov
Multiple Choice Question
MC The root of operant conditioning may be
traced…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Thorndike’s Law of Effect
36. “Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated.” This
is the law of:
consequences.
reward.
→ effect.
reinforcement.
Multiple Choice Question
MC “Responses that lead to satisfying
consequences…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Thorndike’s Law of Effect
37. The most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was:
Freud.
Watson.
Pavlov.
→ Skinner.
Multiple Choice Question
MC The most influential psychologist to study
operant…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Operant Conditioning
38. The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior
will be repeated is called:
habituation.
Page 15 of 62
→ reinforcement.
learning.
spontaneous recovery.
Multiple Choice Question
MC The process by which a stimulus increases the
likelihood…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
39. Which of the following approaches to treating a phobia is/are CORRECTLY
matched with the type of learning it reflects?
Conditioning client to associate a response of relaxation rather than
anxiety to the feared object – observational learning
→ Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object – operant
conditioning
Exposing client to a model interacting successfully with the feared object
– classical conditioning
A new behavior is learned but not demonstrated until some incentive is
provided for displaying it – perceptual learning
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following approaches to treating a
phobia is/are…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
40. A _____ is any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will
occur again.
catalyst
rejoinder
→ reinforcer
stimulant
Multiple Choice Question
MC A _____ is any stimulus that increases the
probability tha…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Page 16 of 62
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
41. Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____ reinforcers.
→ primary
positive
unconditioned
reflexive
Multiple Choice Question
MC Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need
are calle…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
42. Nature is to nurture what _____ reinforcers are to _____ reinforcers.
positive; negative
secondary; primary
unconditioned; conditioned
→ primary; secondary
Multiple Choice Question
MC Nature is to nurture what _____ reinforcers
are to…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
43. Which of the following reinforcers is INCORRECTLY categorized?
Food—primary reinforcer
→ Money—primary reinforcer
Praise—secondary reinforcer
Relief—primary reinforcer
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Page 17 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
reinforcers…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
44. Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
Food
Sex
→ Money
Relief
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is an example of a
secondary…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
45. As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree to
praise the other if she completes her assigned household chores by the end of the
day. Such praise is an example of:
primary reinforcement
tertiary reinforcement
→ positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement
Multiple Choice Question
MC As part of a behavior modification program,
Kendra and her partner…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain
operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-2
Topic: Reinforcement
46. The term reward is synonymous with:
→ positive reinforcement only.
reinforcement generally.
Page 18 of 62
negative reinforcement only.
primary reinforcement only.
Multiple Choice Question
MC The term reward is synonymous
with:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
47. A(n) _____ reinforcer is a stimulus added to the environment, like getting paid to
work, that specifically brings about an increase in a preceding response.
primary
→ positive
unconditioned
neutral
Multiple Choice Question
MC A(n) _____ reinforcer is a stimulus added to the
environment, like…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain
operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
48. A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on a
sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the probability
that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
→ negative
secondary
unconditioned
neutral
Multiple Choice Question
MC A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of
an unpleasan…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Page 19 of 62
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
49. One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two
weeks. Carlos’ paycheck is a _____ reinforcer.
neutral
primary
→ secondary
negative
Multiple Choice Question
MC One reason Carlos continues to work at his
job is the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
50. Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures.
Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The
students have provided _____ reinforcement.
→ positive
secondary
conditioned
neutral
Multiple Choice Question
MC Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding
in agreement…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
51. Negative reinforcement:
is the same thing as punishment.
→ increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated.
decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be performed.
is a stimulus whose removal leads to a decrease in the probability that a
preceding response will be repeated.
Page 20 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC Negative reinforcement:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
52. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?
→ Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the
annoying alert sound.
Drake no longer cuts class, now that his parents confiscated his iPod.
Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the
price of one.
Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following scenarios exemplifies
negative reinforcement?
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain
operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
53. _____ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
Negative reinforcement
Negative punishment
→ Positive punishment
Normative reinforcement
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ weakens a response through the
application…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
54. _____ punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant.
Prescriptive
Page 21 of 62
→ Negative
Positive
Normative
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ punishment consists of the removal of
something pleasant.
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain
operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
55. Which of the following scenarios exemplify negative punishment?
→ Astrid tells her daughter she is grounded for misbehaving and cannot
meet her friends for a week.
Carly yells at her husband when he comes home drunk.
Jim makes his middle-schoolers run extra laps when they are unruly in
gym class.
Joanie takes several ibuprofen tablets when she has a headache.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following scenarios exemplify
negative punishment?
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain
operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
56. Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?
You fight with your significant other and walk away
→ Getting a speeding ticket
Grounding a child for misbehaving and not letting him/her watch
television
Giving your dog a treat for rolling over
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is an example of
positive punishment?
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Page 22 of 62
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
57. Sheryl’s parents have told her that she is “grounded” and will not be allowed to watch
any television for a week, because she is not completing her assignments on time.
This is an example of:
→ negative punishment.
negative reinforcement.
positive punishment.
positive reinforcement.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Sheryl’s parents have told her that she is
“grounded” and will…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
58. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
You fight with your significant other and walk away.
Spanking a child for misbehaving.
Yelling at your spouse for being irresponsible.
→ Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job
evaluation.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is an example of
negat…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
59. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an
example?
Positive reinforcement – Vickie applies lotion to lessen the discomfort of
a small burn
Negative reinforcement – Ella’s parents confiscate her car keys for
breaking curfew
Page 23 of 62
→ Positive punishment – Laurel’s mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20
from her mom’s purse
Negative punishment – Maddie receives a bonus for outstanding work
performance
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following types of
consequences is…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
60. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an
example?
Positive reinforcement – Harvey is suspended when he vandalizes school
property
→ Negative reinforcement – Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to
sprinkle so he won’t get wet
Positive punishment – Jacqueline’s teacher puts a cute sticker on an
arithmetic exercise completed without mistakes
Negative punishment – Tommy receives a written reprimand from his
boss following a series of customer complaints
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following types of
consequences is…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
61. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of punishment?
It is ineffective if it is not delivered immediately after the undesirable
behavior.
Physical punishment sends the message that aggressive behavior is
appropriate.
→ It tends to change behavior very slowly.
Punishment does not suggest which alternative behaviors might be more
desirable.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Page 24 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is NOT a
disadvanta…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
62. Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs is said to be on a(n) _____
reinforcement schedule.
secondary
positive
intermittent
→ continuous
Multiple Choice Question
MC Behavior that is reinforced
every time it occurs is said…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
63. You don’t receive a smile or a “thank you” each time you hold a door for the person
behind you. It is acknowledged sometimes. Door-holding is reinforced on a(n) _____
reinforcement schedule.
continuous
→ partial
regular
fixed
Multiple Choice Question
MC You don’t receive a smile or a
“thank you” each time you…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
64.
Page 25 of 62
Vending machine is to slot machine what _____ reinforcement is to _____
reinforcement.
secondary; primary
→ continuous; intermittent
partial; intermittent
variable; fixed
Multiple Choice Question
MC Vending machine is to slot
machine what…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
65. A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule:
→ by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of
responses are made.
by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses
rather than after a fixed number.
that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has
elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average
rather than being fixed.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A fixed-ratio schedule is
a schedule:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious behavior,
and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
66. Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of
reinforcement?
A café prints “You are a winner” on a random one-twelfth of its coffee
lids; patrons receiving such a lid can redeem it for a free beverage.

Page 26 of 62
A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a
beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron
receives a free beverage.
A café offers each patron an early morning two-for-one free-beveragewith-
purchase deal from 5 to 6 a.m. on Monday mornings.
Now and then, a café announces a two-for-one deal.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
promotions exemplifies the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
67. Dr. Arceneaux wants his students to take advantage of online practice quizzes on his
course site. Which of the following is the most effective plan to increase the number
of practice quizzes completed?
→ 1 bonus point for every 2 online practice quizzes completed
5 points deducted from course total if no quizzes are completed
1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if 2 or more quizzes have been
completed
1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if
2 or more quizzes have been completed recently
Multiple Choice Question
MC Dr. Arceneaux wants his
students to take advantage of
online…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
68. A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of
responses are made.
→ by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses
rather than after a fixed number.
Page 27 of 62
that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has
elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average
rather than being fixed.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A variable-ratio schedule
is a schedule:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious behavior,
and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
69. Dr. Arceneaux has developed several alternative plans to increase the number of
online practice quizzes his students complete. Which plan below is INCORRECTLY
matched with the related schedule?
1 bonus point for every two online practice quizzes completed—fixedratio
1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if two or more quizzes have been
completed—fixed-interval
→ 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if
two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio
1 bonus point awarded randomly, either for every 2 online quizzes taken
or 2 bonus points for all those students taken within the first
week—variable-interval
Multiple Choice Question
MC Dr. Arceneaux has developed
several alternative plans…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
70. Imagine that you graphed the cumulative number of bar-press responses over time of
four rats, each reinforced on a different one of the four schedules of intermittent
reinforcement. Each rat’s behavior is graphed on a separate line. The line with the
greatest slope should be that displaying the behavior of the rat reinforced on the
_____ schedule.
fixed-ratio
Page 28 of 62
fixed-interval
variable-interval
→ variable-ratio
Multiple Choice Question
MC Imagine that you graphed the
cumulative number of bar-press…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
71. In general, _____ schedules of reinforcement yield high response rates.
variable-interval
fixed-interval
→ variable-ratio
fixed-ratio
Multiple Choice Question
MC In general, _____ schedules of
reinforcement yield high…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
72. Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.
→ fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio
Multiple Choice Question
MC Typically long pauses in
responding are found in…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
Page 29 of 62
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
73. A privately funded program pays low-income parents $50 every two months for each
child who attends school regularly during that period. This incentive illustrates a
_____ schedule of reinforcement.
→ fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio
Multiple Choice Question
MC A privately funded program
pays low-income parents $50
every…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
74. A fixed-interval schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of
responses are made.
by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses
rather than after a fixed number.
→ that provides reinforcement for a response only if an unvarying time
period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average
rather than being constant.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A fixed-interval schedule
is a schedule:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious behavior,
and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
Page 30 of 62
75. Paychecks and semester grades are delivered on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-ratio
→ fixed-interval
variable-ratio
variable-interval
Multiple Choice Question
MC Paychecks and semester
grades are delivered on a…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
76. A variable-interval schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of
responses are made.
by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses
rather than after a fixed number.
that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has
elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.
→ by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some
average rather than being fixed.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A variable-interval
schedule is a schedule:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
77. Which of the following is TRUE about stimulus control training?
→ In stimulus control training, a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a
specific stimulus.
In stimulus control training, a behavior is reinforced in the absence of a
specific stimulus.
Page 31 of 62
Stimulus control training is the process of teaching a complex behavior
by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Stimulus control training is the process of teaching a simple behavior by
rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is
TRUE about stimulus…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Discrimination
78. Ewan is convinced that a woman across the bar is “sending signals.” A learning
theorist would term such signals:
conditioned stimuli.
→ discriminative stimuli.
positive reinforcers.
intermittent reinforcers.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Ewan is convinced that a
woman across the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Discrimination
79. Sheryl makes pleasant small talk and pays her boss a compliment before asking for a
personal day, because such a strategy was successful with a few of her previous
bosses. This example most clearly illustrates:
→ stimulus generalization.
stimulus control.
stimulus discrimination.
shaping.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Sheryl makes pleasant small talk
and pays her boss a compliment…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Page 32 of 62
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Generalization
80. The process of teaching a complex behavior by reinforcing closer and closer
approximations of the desired behavior is called:
stimulus control training.
discrimination training.
→ shaping.
behavior modification.
Multiple Choice Question
MC The process of teaching a
complex behavior by reinforcing…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Shaping
81. Mrs. Martin, a third-grade teacher, is instructing cursive writing. At first, she
reinforces even crude attempts to reproduce letters with an encouraging word; as
time goes on, though, she reinforces only well-formed letters. By reinforcing
progressively better attempts at writing letters, Mrs. Martin is using:
discrimination training.
→ shaping.
stimulus control training.
behavior modification.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Mrs. Martin, a third-grade
teacher, is instructing cursive writing.
At first,…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious
behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Shaping
82.
Page 33 of 62
Which of the following does NOT accurately reflect a distinction between classical
and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning entails forming an association between stimuli;
operant conditioning involves forming an association between a behavior
and its consequences.
→ Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant
conditioning applies to involuntary behavior.
In the case of classical conditioning, before conditioning, an
unconditioned stimulus leads to an unconditioned response; in operant
conditioning reinforcement leads to an increase in behavior.
In the case of classical conditioning, after conditioning, a conditioned
stimulus leads to a conditioned response; in operant conditioning
punishment leads to a decrease in behavior.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following does NOT accurately
reflect a distinct…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe
behavior modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Behavior Modification
83. Which of the following is TRUE of classical conditioning?
Its basic principle is that reinforcement increases the frequency of the
behavior preceding it; punishment decreases the frequency of the
behavior preceding it.
→ It applies to involuntary behavior.
According to classical conditioning, reinforcement leads to an increase in
behavior.
According to classical conditioning, organism voluntarily operates on its
environment to produce a desirable result. After behavior occurs, the
likelihood of the behavior occurring again is increased or decreased by
the behavior’s consequences.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is TRUE of
classical…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe behavior
modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Behavior Modification
84. Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior analyst. What does she do?
Page 34 of 62
She helps clients explore the unconscious motivations behind their
behaviors.
She helps clients change how they think about their own behavior and
that of others.
→ She specializes in behavior modification techniques.
She conducts basic research into conditioning mechanisms and
principles.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior
analy…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe behavior
modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-2
Topic: Behavior Modification
85. _____ is a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable conducts
and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.
Functional modification
Genetic modification
Posttranslational modification
→ Behavior modification
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a formalized technique for promoting
the frequency of desirable…
Accessibility: Keyboard
Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe
behavior modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-2
Topic: Behavior Modification
86. The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently
with _____.
→ latent; Tolman
latent; Thorndike
implicit; Tolman
implicit; Thorndike
Multiple Choice Question
MC The cognitive learning concept of
_____ learning is…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Page 35 of 62
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
87. The _____ is an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought
processes that underlie learning.
transformative learning theory
behavioral learning theory
→ cognitive learning theory
constructivism learning theory
Multiple Choice Question
MC The _____ is an approach to the study
of learning that focuses…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory
88. Psychologists working within the cognitive learning perspective:
deny the importance of classical and operant conditioning.
→ go beyond classical and operant conditioning.
perform research essentially identical to that conducted by more
traditional learning theorists.
have probably never heard of classical and operant conditioning.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Psychologists working within the
cognitive learning …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory
89. Which of the following does the cognitive learning theory emphasize?
→ Expectations
Imitation
Consolidation
Associations
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following does the
cognitive learning theory…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Page 36 of 62
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory
90. The focus of classical and operant conditioning is on _____; the focus of the
cognitive learning approach is on _____.
→ external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement; internal thoughts and
expectations of learners
external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement; external stimuli,
responses, and reinforcement as well
internal thoughts and expectations of learners; external stimuli,
responses, and reinforcement
internal thoughts and expectations of learners; internal thoughts and
expectations of learners as well
Multiple Choice Question
MC The focus of classical and operant
conditioning is on…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory
91. Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some
incentive is provided for displaying it is known as _____ learning.
tangential
→ latent
perceptual
spatial
Multiple Choice Question
MC Learning in which a new behavior is
acquired but is not…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
92. Which theorist is CORRECTLY matched with the concept with which he is
associated?
Bandura—classical conditioning
→ Tolman—latent learning
Page 37 of 62
Pavlov—observational learning
Watson—associative learning
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which theorist is CORRECTLY
matched with the concept…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
93. _____ learning occurs without reinforcement.
→ Latent
Operant
Subliminal
Manifest
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ learning occurs without
reinforcement.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
94. Recall Tolman’s latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze.
What was the critical result?
Rats that were never given an incentive, never learned to run the maze.
Rats that were never given an incentive still learned to run the maze.

Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment
rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from
the beginning of the experiment.
Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment
never learned to run the maze.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Recall Tolman’s latent learning
experiments in which rats…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
95. A(n) _____ is a mental representation of spatial locations and directions.
Page 38 of 62
algorithm
prototype
→ cognitive map
perceptual blueprint
Multiple Choice Question
MC A(n) _____ is a mental representation
of spatial locations…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
96. You have a kind of picture in your head of your hometown, a mental representation
of its layout and the location of key landmarks, like rivers, buildings, freeways, and
parks. This representation is called a(n):
internal navigator.
mental GPS.
→ cognitive map.
perceptual blueprint.
Multiple Choice Question
MC You have a kind of picture in your
head of your hometown…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
97. Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model is known as _____.
perceptual learning
→ observational learning
latent learning
tangential learning
Multiple Choice Question
MC Learning by watching the behavior of
another person, or mod…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
98. Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment was intended to demonstrate:
Page 39 of 62
shaping.
→ observational learning.
latent learning.
stimulus control training.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment
was intended to…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
99. Observational learning is based in part on the activity of _____ neurons in the brain.
→ mirror
reflexive
imitative
modeling
Multiple Choice Question
MC Observational learning is based in part
on the activity of…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
100.Which of the following statements INCORRECTLY describes the effects on
observational learning of the reinforcement or punishment of the model?
We are more likely to imitate reward models than we are to imitate nonreward
models.
→ Observational learning does not occur when the model is punished.
Observing the punishment of a model does not stop observers from
learning the behavior.
Observational learning is likely to occur when the model is rewarded.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following statements
INCORRECTLY describ…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
Page 40 of 62
101._____ is associated with the Fearless-Peer experiment. The experiment demonstrates
_____.
Pavlov; classical conditioning
→ Bandura; observational learning
Skinner; operant conditioning
Thorndike; latent learning
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is associated with the
Fearless-Peer…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
102.Based on your reading of the text, the average child in the United States has viewed
more than _____ murders on network TV by the time he or she graduates from
elementary school.
12
500
→ 8,000
6,000
Multiple Choice Question
MC Based on your reading of the text, the
average child in the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
103.According to one survey, approximately one-_____ of violent young male offenders
in Florida had attempted to commit a media-inspired copycat crime.
fifth
→ fourth
third
half
Multiple Choice Question
MC According to one survey,
approximatel`y one-_…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Page 41 of 62
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
104.Based on your reading of the text, exposure to actual firearm violence increases by a
factor of _____ the likelihood that an adolescent will commit serious violence within
the succeeding two years.
1.5
→ 2
3
4
Multiple Choice Question
MC Based on your reading of the text,
exposure …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
105.Travis is an intuitive thinker with a highly developed ability to remember verbal
material, especially if it is highly relevant. Janet is detail-oriented, with an excellent
memory for abstract material. She is not easily dissuaded by dull tasks. Which of the
following statements best identifies the learning styles of these two individuals?
Travis has an analytical learning style. Janet’s learning style is relational.
→ Travis has a relational learning style. Janet’s learning style is analytical.
Both Travis and Janet have analytical learning styles.
Both Travis and Janet have relational learning styles.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Travis is an intuitive thinker with
a highly…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
106.Which alternative below CORRECTLY pairs a learning style described in your text
with one of its characteristics?
→ Relational style – shows intuitive thinking
Relational style – able to focus on details
Analytical style – displays improvisational, intuitive thinking
Analytical style – displays good memory for relevant, verbal material
Page 42 of 62
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which alternative below
CORRECTLY pairs a le…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
107.Neal, an Asian-American student would most likely:
→ focus on detail.
have a good memory for verbally presented ideas and information.
learn materials that have a human, social content.
perceive information as part of total picture.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Neal, an Asian-American student
would most l…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
108.An analytic learning style is most likely to be displayed by:
→ Caucasian males.
Asian-American females.
Hispanic-American females.
Native-American males.
Multiple Choice Question
MC An analytic learning style is most
likely to…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
109.Which of the following students is most likely to display an analytical learning
style?
Jamal, an African-American male
→ Lee, an Asian-American male
Page 43 of 62
Mona, a Caucasian female
Nina, a Hispanic-American female
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following students is
most like…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational
learning and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
110.Habituation is a decline in the behavioral response following repeated exposure
to the same stimulus.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ is a decline in the
behavioral …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
111.In Pavlov’s study, the bell is both a(n) neutral stimulus and a conditioned
stimulus.
Worksheet Question
FB In Pavlov’s study, the bell is both
a(n)…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
112.A bright flash automatically causes us to blink. It is a(n) unconditioned
response.
Worksheet Question
FB A bright flash automatically
causes us …
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
Page 44 of 62
113. Phobias are intense, irrational fears.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ are intense, irrational
fears.
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Applying Conditioning to Human Behavior
114. Spontaneous recovery occurs when an extinguished conditioned response
reappears after a period of rest.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ occurs when an
extinguished conditioned …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Extinction
115.Adam was badly stung by a bee when he was a child. Now he is frightened not only
of bees but of all flying insects. This example illustrates
stimulus generalization .
Worksheet Question
FB Adam was badly stung
by a bee when …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Generalization
116.Olympia consumed some poorly stored sushi on a hot day; she became violently ill.
Now Olympia can’t stand the sight of sushi. She has developed a(n)
learned taste aversion .
Worksheet Question
FB Olympia consumed some
poorly stored …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Page 45 of 62
Learning Objective: Identify the challenges that have
been made to the traditional views of classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
117.A stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
is termed a(n) reinforcer .
Worksheet Question
FB A stimulus that increases the
probability …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
118.Money is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
Worksheet Question
FB Money is an example of a …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Reinforcement
119.Positive punishment weakens a response through the application of an
unpleasant stimulus.
Worksheet Question
FB Positive punishment _____ a
response …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
120.A weekly paycheck is an example of fixed-interval schedule.
Worksheet Question
FB A weekly paycheck is
an example of…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Page 46 of 62
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement
and define the operant view of generalization and
discrimination, superstitious behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
121.When a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus, but not in its
absence it is known as stimulus control training.
Worksheet Question
FB When a behavior is
reinforced in the presence …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of
reinforcement and define the operant view of
generalization and discrimination, superstitious behavior,
and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Discrimination
122.When your partner says “I’m going up to bed early,” you follow expectantly. When
he or she says, “I’m tired,” you stay behind and say you’ll read in the living room for
a while. This is an example of a discriminative stimulus.
Worksheet Question
FB When your partner
says “I’m going …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement
and define the operant view of generalization and
discrimination, superstitious behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Discrimination
123.Shaping is one way that organisms learn complex behavior.
Worksheet Question
FB Shaping is one way
that organisms …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement
and define the operant view of generalization and
discrimination, superstitious behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Shaping
124.Dr. Margate specializes in using behavior modification techniques to help adults
engage in health-promoting behaviors, such as exercising, quitting smoking, and so
forth. Dr. Margate is a behavior analyst .
Page 47 of 62
Worksheet Question
FB Dr. Margate specializes in
using …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe behavior
modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-2
Topic: Behavior Modification
125.Dr. Tabachnik focuses on the expectations participants develop regarding the
likelihood that a given behavior will be punished. Dr. Tabachnik might be described
as a(n) cognitive learning theorist.
Worksheet Question
FB Dr. Tabachnik focuses on the
expectations …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Cognitive Learning Theory
126.In the latent learning study described in the text, the rats that were reinforced only
during the latter portion of the experiment would be considered a(n)
experimental group.
Worksheet Question
FB In the latent learning study
described …
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
127.In observational learning, the organism whose behavior is observed is termed the
model .
Worksheet Question
FB In observational learning, the
organism…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
Page 48 of 62
128. Mirror neurons are neurons that fire when we observe another person’s
behavior.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ are neurons that fire
when we…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
129.Although a “phonics” approach to reading instruction might capitalize on an analytic
learning style, the “whole-word” approach may be better suited to a(n)
relational learning style.
Worksheet Question
FB Although a “phonics” approach
to reading …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning
and outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
130.Explain classical conditioning with a suitable example.
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as the
experimenter’s footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a
stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response.
To demonstrate classical conditioning, Pavlov attached a tube to the salivary gland
of a dog, allowing him to measure precisely the dog’s salivation. He then rang a bell
and, just a few seconds later, presented the dog with meat. This pairing occurred
repeatedly and was carefully planned so that, each time, exactly the same amount of
time elapsed between the presentation of the bell and the meat. At first the dog
would salivate only when the meat was presented, but soon it began to salivate at the
sound of the bell. In fact, even when Pavlov stopped presenting the meat, the dog
still salivated after hearing the sound. The dog had been classically conditioned to
salivate to the bell.
Page 49 of 62
Essay Question
ES Explain classical conditioning with a
suitable example.
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe
classical conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
131.In the case of Pavlov and his dog, identify and describe the following: neutral
stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and
conditioned response.
Explanation:
Before conditioning, there are two unrelated stimuli: the ringing of a bell and meat.
We know that normally the ringing of a bell does not lead to salivation but to some
irrelevant response, such as pricking up the ears or perhaps a startle reaction. The
bell is therefore called the neutral stimulus, because it is a stimulus that, before
conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response in which we are interested.
We also have meat, which naturally causes a dog to salivate—the response we are
interested in conditioning. The meat is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
because food placed in a dog’s mouth automatically causes salivation to occur. The
response that the meat elicits (salivation) is called an unconditioned response (UCR)
—a natural, innate, reflexive response that is not associated with previous learning.
Unconditioned responses are always brought about by the presence of unconditioned
stimuli. When conditioning is complete, the bell has evolved from a neutral stimulus
to a conditioned stimulus (CS). At this time, salivation that occurs as a response to
the conditioned stimulus (bell) is considered a conditioned response (CR). After
conditioning, then, the conditioned stimulus evokes the conditioned response.
Essay Question
ES In the case of Pavlov and his
dog, …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
132.
Page 50 of 62
Making specific reference to such terms as UCS, CS, UCR, CR, and stimulus
generalization, explain how classical conditioning may account for the development
of a specific phobia.
Explanation:
The acquisition of a phobia begins with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively
elicits a startled, anxious, or fearful response. Such UCSs include loud noises, a loss
of bodily support, and tissue damage. Neutral stimuli occurring along with the
unconditioned stimulus may become conditioned stimuli, able to elicit a conditioned
response of fear or anxiety. In Watson and Rayner’s “Little Albert” study, for
example, a previously neutral white rat was presented along with an unconditioned
stimulus of loud noise; Little Albert came to fear the rat. Through the process of
stimulus generalization, fear or anxiety may be elicited not only by the original CS,
but by similar stimuli as well; Little Albert, for example, became fearful of other
white or furry objects in addition to rats.
Example: Fear of flying: A fear of flying may be seen as essentially a fear of falling,
of the loss of bodily support. During a period of turbulence, a flight passenger may
experience a dropping or plummeting sensation, an unconditioned stimulus eliciting
an unconditioned fear response. Surrounding stimuli, such as the flight cabin, may
act as conditioned stimuli capable of eliciting a conditioned fear response. This
response may generalize to the airplane itself and to other stimuli associated with
flying.
Essay Question
ES Making specific reference to such
terms …
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define and describe classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Applying Conditioning to Human Behavior
133.Making reference to neutral, unconditioned, conditioned stimuli, unconditioned, and
conditioned responses, distinguish between (a) extinction and spontaneous recovery
and (b) stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Give an original
example of either extinction or spontaneous recovery, and of either stimulus
generalization and stimulus discrimination.
Explanation:
Page 51 of 62
The answer should contain the following points:
Extinction vs. spontaneous recovery: Extinction refers to the weakening and
eventual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is
presented repeatedly in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. For example, a
cat conditioned to run toward the kitchen at the sound of an electric can opener may
eventually stop doing so when its owner begins to feed it only dry food, rather than
canned wet food. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of an extinguished
conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is again presented along with
the conditioned stimulus. Returning to the previous example, a cat may immediately
resume running toward the kitchen at the sound of the can opener when its owner
again feeds it canned wet food after a period of feeding it only dry food.
Stimulus generalization vs. stimulus discrimination: Stimulus generalization occurs
when a conditioned stimulus is elicited not only by the original conditioned
stimulus, but also by similar stimuli. An individual with a needle phobia may react
with anxiety not only to injections or blood tests, but to also to the mere sight of an
injection on television or of a discarded needle on the sidewalk. By contrast,
stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus that might seem somewhat similar to
the original conditioned stimulus fails to elicit the conditioned stimulus. For
example, an individual with a needle phobia may react with anxiety to the sight of an
injection on television or of a discarded needle on the sidewalk, but not to the sight
of scissors, knives, or other sharp objects.
Essay Question
ES Making reference to
neutral, unconditioned, …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: In classical conditioning, define
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
generalization, and discrimination.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Discrimination
Topic: Extinction
Topic: Generalization
134.How have psychologists challenged Pavlov’s traditional account of classical
conditioning?
Explanation:
Psychologists have challenged Pavlov’s original description of classical conditioning
by suggesting that biology influences the ease with which associations may be
conditioned.
Page 52 of 62
Learning theorists influenced by cognitive psychology have argued that learners
actively develop an understanding and expectancy about which particular
unconditioned stimuli are matched with specific conditioned stimuli. A ringing bell,
for instance, gives a dog something to think about: the impending arrival of food.
Pavlov implied that all associations may be acquired with more or less equal ease.
However, it appears that organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain
associations more readily than others. One example is conditioned taste aversion. If
a food makes an organism sick, the organism may acquire an association between
stimuli associated with the food, such as its appearance or smell, and illness or
nausea rapidly, perhaps after a single experience with illness following the food.
Essay Question
ES How have psychologists
challenged Pavlov’s …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Identify the challenges that have
been made to the traditional views of classical
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 15-2
Topic: Classical Conditioning
135.Imagine that you are a parent, a teacher, or a supervisor in a workplace. Give
specific examples of how you might use (a) positive reinforcement, (b) negative
reinforcement, (c) positive punishment, and (d) negative punishment to bring about
desirable changes in the behavior of a child, student, or subordinate worker.
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
The answer might include examples such as the following:
Parent:
Positive reinforcement. A parent may give a child money for completing household
chores, thereby increasing the likelihood that he or she will complete chores in the
future.
Negative reinforcement. Following the exemplary completion of a series of chores, a
parent might excuse the child from an odious chore he or she may have originally
been expected to perform. The child may be more likely in the future to complete his
or her chores.
Page 53 of 62
Positive punishment. A parent may reprimand a child harshly for hitting a sibling.
The child should be less likely to hit the sibling in the future.
Negative punishment. A parent may send a child to his or her room without dessert
if the child throws a tantrum during the evening meal. The child should be less likely
to throw tantrums in the future.
Teacher:
Positive reinforcement. A teacher may praise a student for completing an assignment
without errors, thereby increasing the likelihood that he or she will complete
assignments correctly in the future.
Negative reinforcement. A teacher may eliminate a homework assignment if recent
homework has been completed in a timely and accurate fashion; the student’s
performance may improve in the future as a result.
Positive punishment. A teacher may write harsh comments on a carelessly done
homework assignment, perhaps reducing the likelihood that assignments will be
completed sloppily in the future.
Negative punishment. A child may be forced to sit alone in a corner or in the
cloakroom if he or she behaves aggressively toward classmates; aggressive behavior
should decrease in the future as a result.
Supervisor:
Positive reinforcement. A supervisor may give an employee a value card to a local
restaurant or department store following a highly productive week, thereby
encouraging future productivity.
Negative reinforcement. A supervisor may grant an employee a personal day or an
extended lunch hour for exemplary work performance, encouraging high
performance in the future.
Positive punishment. A supervisor may lecture an employee for making an off-color
remark to another worker; the employee may be less likely to make such remarks in
the future.
Negative punishment. A supervisor may eliminate a perk such as free coffee when
employees abuse workplace privileges. Workers should be less likely to abuse
privileges in the future.
Essay Question
ES Imagine that you are a parent, a …
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Page 54 of 62
Topic: Punishment
Topic: Reinforcement
136.Suppose that you are asked to lead a workshop for parents on the use of punishment
and reinforcement to manage child and adolescent behavior. What might you tell the
parents regarding the appropriate and inappropriate use of punishment? Provide
concrete examples to support your points. Suggest how parents might use
punishment more effectively and how they might substitute reinforcement for
punishment. Provide concrete examples to support your points.
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
Punishment is sometimes appropriate. It is the most rapid means of suppressing
behavior that may be dangerous to continue, such as running into the street or
playing with matches. Punishment has also been applied successfully to prevent selfinjury
among autistic children.
Punishment is often used ineffectively by parents. First, punishment is only effective
if it is delivered immediately after the undesirable behavior. For example, the threat,
“Wait until your father gets home!” will do little to stop a toddler from writing on
the wall. If punishment is to be used, it should be delivered while the behavior is
underway. Second, the use of physical punishment—e.g., spanking,
whipping—conveys the message that physical aggression is appropriate. It may
cause the child to fear or evade the parent, and it may damage a child’s self-esteem.
A child may conceal his undesirable behavior, such as by writing on the walls inside
a closet. Third, punishment is really only effective if it is accompanied by the
reinforcement of desirable alternatives to the punished behavior. A parent might
additionally reinforce drawing or writing on paper rather than on the wall, rather
than only punishing the child when he writes on the wall. Punishment in and of itself
does little to convey information regarding more appropriate behaviors.
Essay Question
ES Suppose that you are asked to
lead …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
137.What are the pros and cons of punishment?
Page 55 of 62
Explanation:
Punishment often presents the quickest route to changing behavior that, if allowed to
continue, might be dangerous to an individual. There are some rare instances in
which punishment can be the most humane approach to treating certain severe
disorders. For example, some children suffer from autism, a psychological disorder
that can lead them to abuse themselves by tearing at their skin or banging their heads
against the wall, injuring themselves severely in the process. In such cases—and
when all other treatments have failed—punishment in the form of a quick but intense
electric shock has been used to prevent self-injurious behavior. Such punishment,
however, is used only to keep the child safe and to buy time until positive
reinforcement procedures can be initiated.
Punishment has several disadvantages that make its routine questionable. For one
thing, punishment is frequently ineffective, particularly if it is not delivered shortly
after the undesired behavior or if the individual is able to leave the setting in which
the punishment is being given. Even worse, physical punishment can convey to the
recipient the idea that physical aggression is permissible and perhaps even desirable.
In addition, physical punishment is often administered by people who are themselves
angry or enraged. It is unlikely that individuals in such an emotional state will be
able to think through what they are doing or control carefully the degree of
punishment they are inflicting. Finally, punishment does not convey any information
about what an alternative, more appropriate behavior might be. To be useful in
bringing about more desirable behavior in the future, punishment must be
accompanied by specific information about the behavior that is being punished,
along with specific suggestions concerning a more desirable behavior.
Essay Question
ES What are the pros and cons of
punishment?
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain operant
conditioning.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Punishment
138.Draw on your knowledge of positive and negative reinforcement, punishment,
schedules of reinforcement, stimulus control training, discriminative stimuli,
shaping, and biological constraints on learning to describe how you might use
operant conditioning to train domestic animals—e.g., dogs, cats, horses, etc.—to
perform desired behaviors.
Page 56 of 62
Explanation:
Students’ answers may vary.
Positive reinforcement. We may reward a kitten with a cuddle when it begins to use
its litter box.
Punishment. We may squirt a cat with water each time it climbs on the furniture or
the curtains.
Schedules of reinforcement. When training a puppy to sit on command, we might
reinforce it on a continuous schedule at first to facilitate the acquisition of the
behavior; we may then fade the reinforcement schedule, reinforcing it on a fixed- or
variable-ratio intermittent schedule to make the behavior resistant to extinction.
Stimulus control training and discriminative stimuli. We might wish to train a cat to
use an outdoor litter box rather than a flower bed; we might reinforce the cat for
using the box but punish it for using the flower bed.
Shaping. When training a puppy to sit on command, we might reinforce successive
approximations to the desired behavior. For example, we might initially reinforce
even fairly general squatting motions; later we might reinforce only a full sit.
Biological constraints on learning. We may take advantage of species-typical
behaviors to train animals. Examples include the tendency of cats to bury their feces,
the tendency of some breeds of dogs to burrow, and so on.
Essay Question
ES Draw on your
knowledge of
positive …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement and
define the operant view of generalization and discrimination,
superstitious behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Biological Constraints
Topic: Punishment
Topic: Reinforcement
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
Topic: Shaping
139.Identify and define the four schedules of intermittent or partial reinforcement.
Provide day-to-day examples of each of the four schedules. Identify two specific
ways that college professors might use our understanding of the schedules to
increase the frequency with which students study course materials.
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Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
The answer should include the following:
Four schedules of intermittent reinforcement: Fixed-interval (FI), fixed-ratio (FR),
variable-interval (VI), and variable-ratio (VR) schedules.
Definitions and examples:
Fixed-interval (FI). Reinforcement is delivered following a set or constant time
period. Typical examples include grades and paychecks.
Fixed-ratio (FR). Reinforcement is delivered following a set or constant number of
responses. Piecework offers a typical example.
Variable-interval (VI). Reinforcement is delivered following a time period that
varies around an average. Fishing and holding on the phone are reinforced on a VI
schedule.
Variable-ratio (VR). Reinforcement is delivered following a variable number of
responses. Salespeople are reinforced with sales on such a schedule. Slot machines
deliver payoffs on a VR schedule.
Professors might try to take advantage of the higher rates of responding seen under
ratio schedules. Using an FR schedule, for example, professors could award points
for each chapter summary or review completed. The text also suggests that giving
quizzes on a VI rather than an FI schedule—that is, giving “pop” quizzes—might
encourage students to study more regularly.
Essay Question
ES Identify and define
the four schedules of …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Outline the schedules of reinforcement
and define the operant view of generalization and
discrimination, superstitious behavior, and shaping.
Learning Outcome: 16-1
Topic: Schedules of Reinforcement
140.Identify a behavior of your own that you would like to perform more frequently
(e.g., studying, completing household chores or yard work) or less frequently (e.g.,
snacking, smoking cigarettes). Outline a step-by-step behavior modification program
that might help you achieve your goal.
Page 58 of 62
Explanation:
The behavior students identify may differ.
Identifying goals and target behaviors. Define the desired behavior change and state
goals and specific targets in observable, measurable terms. Example: Goal—to
smoke fewer cigarettes; Target—to smoke no more than five cigarettes each day.
Designing a data-recording system and recording preliminary data. Collect baseline
data. Example: record the number of cigarettes smoked each day for one week prior
to attempting to change the behavior.
Selecting a behavior change strategy. Select strategies based on operant conditioning
principles. More than one strategy should be used. For example, one might reward
oneself with a desired activity (e.g., a phone call to a friend) each day that one meets
the five-cigarette target. One might also reinforce activities incompatible with
smoking cigarettes, such as visiting the gym.
Implementing the program. Apply the program consistently.
Keeping records. Monitor target behaviors. Example: record the number of
cigarettes smoked each day; record the delivery of reinforcements, etc.
Evaluating and altering the ongoing program. Compare program data to the baseline
data to determine the success of the program. If the program has been successful, it
can be gradually faded; if it has not, changes may be made.
Essay Question
ES Identify a behavior of your own that
you …
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 5.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe behavior
modification.
Learning Outcome: 16-2
Topic: Behavior Modification
141.How do the phenomena of latent and observational learning force a reconsideration
of the view of learning offered by classical and operant conditioning theorists?
Provide as thoughtful a response as you can.
Explanation:
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Two key ideas should form the core of the answer: (1) latent and observational
learning phenomena suggest that direct reinforcement may not be necessary for an
individual to learn; and (2) latent and observational learning phenomena suggest that
internal processes may be a necessary component of any complete explanation of
learning.
In Tolman’s latent learning work, rats who began reinforcement for running a maze
only halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats who
had been receiving reinforcement from the beginning, suggesting that they had been
developing some internal representation of the maze all along. Reinforcement was
not necessary for learning to occur; it was necessary only for the demonstration of
learning in behavior. In Bandura’s “Bobo doll” experiments, children only needed to
see a model reinforced for aggressive behavior to become more aggressive
themselves. Observational learning is supported internally by networks of mirror
neurons.
Essay Question
ES How do the phenomena of
latent and …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Latent Learning
Topic: Observational Learning
142.Briefly describe observational learning and Bandura’s Bobo doll research. Discuss
how this research altered conventional views of learning. What role might mirror
neurons play in observational learning?
Explanation:
According to psychologist Albert Bandura and colleagues, a major part of human
learning consists of observational learning, which is learning by watching the
behavior of another person, or model. Because of its reliance on observation of
others—a social phenomenon—the perspective taken by Bandura is often referred to
as a social cognitive approach to learning. Observational learning is particularly
important in acquiring skills in which the operant conditioning technique of shaping
is inappropriate. Observational learning may have a genetic basis. For example, we
find observational learning at work with mother animals teaching their young such
activities as hunting. In addition, the discovery of mirror neurons that fire when we
observe another person carrying out a behavior suggests that the capacity to imitate
others may be innate. Not all behavior that we witness is learned or carried out, of
course. One crucial factor that determines whether we later imitate a model is
Page 60 of 62
whether the model is rewarded for his or her behavior. Models who are rewarded for
behaving in a particular way are more apt to be mimicked than are models who
receive punishment. Observing the punishment of a model, however, does not
necessarily stop observers from learning the behavior. Observers can still describe
the model’s behavior—they are just less apt to perform it. Observational learning is
central to a number of important issues relating to the extent to which people learn
simply by watching the behavior of others.
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe observational
learning …
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Observational Learning
143.Observational learning research suggests that seeing others reinforced for particular
behaviors may encourage our own acquisition of similar behaviors. To what extent
is exposure to media violence associated with the acquisition of aggressive
behavior?
Explanation:
Different levels of media violence are associated with aggressive behavior. The text
offers the following evidence:
— One survey of incarcerated, violent young male offenders showed that 25% had
tried to commit a media-inspired copycat crime.
— College students who frequently played violent video games were more likely to
have been involved in delinquent behavior and aggression.
The text mentions three specific mechanisms by which media violence may
contribute to real-life aggression: (1) it may lower inhibitions against behaving
aggressively; (2) it may predispose us to see others’ behavior as aggressive even
when it is not; and (3) it may desensitize us to violence.
Essay Question
ES Observational learning
research suggests …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
Page 61 of 62
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
144.To what extent does culture influence learning style? Distinguish between analytic
and relational learning styles and suggest how they might vary across sociocultural
groups. How might they reflect cross-cultural differences in parenting or teaching
practices?
Explanation:
The answer should include the following elements:
Analytic learning style—Individuals with an analytic learning style perform best
when they can undertake an initial analysis of the principles and components
underlying a phenomenon.
Relational learning style—Individuals with a relational learning style perform best
when they are first exposed to a full unit or complete phenomenon; the individual
parts are best understood through their relationship to the whole.
Caucasian and Asian-American males tend to display an analytic learning style;
Caucasian females and African-, Native-, and Hispanic-American males and females
tend to display a relational style.
Parenting and teaching practices may encourage the development of one or the other
of the learning styles. Western education tends to reinforce the acquisition of an
analytic style, as does Caucasian-American parenting; it is possible that parenting
styles among other sociocultural groups tend to encourage a more relational style.
Essay Question
ES To what extent does culture
influence …
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 5.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define observational learning and
outline its basic processes.
Learning Outcome: 17-1
Topic: Violence in Media
Page 62 of 62

 

CHAPTER 13

This chapter has 134 questions.
Scroll down to see and select individual questions or
narrow the list using the checkboxes below.
0 questions at random and keep in order 
Multiple Choice Questions – (99) Learning Outcome: 40-2 – (59)
Essay Questions – (15) Learning Outcome: 41-1 – (13)
Worksheet Questions – (20) Learning Outcome: 41-2 – (2)
Odd Numbered – (67) Learning Outcome: 41-3 – (5)
Even Numbered – (67) Learning Outcome: 41-4 – (11)
APA LO: 1.1 – (69) Learning Outcome: 42-1 – (32)
APA LO: 1.2 – (49) Topic: Antianxiety drugs – (2)
APA LO: 1.3 – (15) Topic: Antidepressant drugs – (5)
APA LO: 1.4 – (1) Topic: Antipsychotic drugs – (8)
APA LO: 4.2 – (1) Topic: Behavioral approaches – (6)
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation – (99) Topic: Choosing a therapist – (1)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply – (15) Topic: Classical conditioning
treatments – (10)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember – (72) Topic: Cognitive approaches – (13)
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand – (47) Topic: Community psychology – (5)
Difficulty: Easy – (82) Topic: Contemporary
psychodynamic approaches – (3)
Difficulty: Medium – (52) Topic: Effectiveness of
therapy – (10)
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and characterize the main types of
psychotherapy. – (10)
Topic: Electroconvulsive
therapy – (7)
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies. – (12) Topic: Family therapy – (1)
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal therapy, and group therapies. – (6) Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis – (13)
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral approaches to the treatment of abnormal
behavior. – (29) Topic: Group therapy – (3)
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy. – (12) Topic: Humanistic approaches – (4)
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic approaches to treatment. – (14) Topic: Interpersonal therapy – (1)
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic approach to the treatment of abnormal
behavior. – (19)
Topic: Operant conditioning
treatments – (12)
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy. – (11) Topic: Person-centered
therapy – (10)
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community psychology and deinstitutionalization,
and identify recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist. – (6)
Topic: Psychodynamic
Therapies – (14)
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in the treatment of abnormal behavior, and
discuss the problems and controversies surrounding their use. – (15) Topic: Psychosurgery – (5)
Learning Outcome: 40-1 – (11) Topic: Self-help groups – (1)
1. _____ is treatment in which a trained professional—a therapist—uses psychological
techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders,
resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth.
Phototherapy
→ Psychotherapy
Biomedical therapy
Page 1 of 54
Physiotherapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is treatment in which a
trained profes…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
2. Therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological
functioning is referred to as _____
phototherapy
psychotherapy
→ biomedical therapy
physiotherapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC Therapy that relies on drugs and
other medic…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
3. Dr. Andersen attempts to bring about personal growth by using psychological
techniques; Dr. Bradley attempts to improve psychological functioning through the
use of psychotropic medication. Dr. Andersen practices _____; Dr. Bradley, _____.
psychotherapy; psychoanalysis
→ psychotherapy; biomedical therapy
psychoanalysis; biotherapy
physiotherapy; psychotherapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC Dr. Andersen attempts to bring
about persona…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
4. Today therapists use a(n) _____ approach to therapy, which means they use a variety
of methods with an individual patient.
Page 2 of 54
existential
behavioral
psychoanalytical
→ eclectic
Multiple Choice Question
MC Today therapists use a(n) _____
approach to …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
5. _____ are professionals with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who have also completed a
postgraduate internship. They specialize in assessment and treatment of
psychological difficulties, providing psychotherapy and, in some U.S. states, can
prescribe drugs.
Psychoanalysts
Psychiatrists
Psychiatric social workers
→ Clinical psychologists
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ are professionals with a
Ph.D. or Ps…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
6. _____ are professionals with a Ph.D. or Ed.D. who typically treat day-to-day
adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic.
→ Counseling psychologists
Psychiatrists
Licensed professional counselors
Psychoanalysts
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ are professionals with a
Ph.D. or Ed.D…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Page 3 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
7. Which of the following mental health professionals is correctly matched with a brief
description?
→ Counseling psychologist–treats everyday adjustment problems, often in a
university mental health clinic
Psychiatrist–specializes in Freudian treatment techniques
Psychoanalyst–prescribes medication and treats severe disorders
Clinical social worker–holds Ph.D.; assesses and treats psychological
difficulties
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following mental
health profess…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
8. Which of the following professionals most likely has a Ph.D.?
→ Counseling psychologists
Psychiatrists
Licensed professional counselors
Psychoanalysts
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
professionals most…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
9. Professionals with a master’s degree who provide therapy to individuals, couples, and
families and who hold a national or state certification are called _____.
counseling psychologists
psychiatrists
→ licensed professional counselors
psychoanalysts
Multiple Choice Question
MC Professionals with a master’s
degree who …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Page 4 of 54
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
10. Professionals with a master’s degree and specialized training who may provide
therapy, usually regarding common family and personal problems are called _____.
counseling psychologists
→ psychiatric social workers
licensed professional counselors
psychoanalysts
Multiple Choice Question
MC Professionals with a master’s
degree and …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
11. _____ therapy seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses
from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems
more effectively.
Cognitive
→ Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ therapy seeks to bring
unresolved past…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
12. Psychodynamic therapy involves:
→ the consideration of unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses.
the use of drugs and medical procedures.
behavior modification techniques.
an attempt to challenge the patient’s current thinking patterns.
Page 5 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC Psychodynamic therapy
involves:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
13. The most common defense mechanism is _____.
dissociation
projection
reaction formation
→ repression
Multiple Choice Question
MC The most common defense
mechanism is _____.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
14. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between
psychoanalysis and psychotherapy?
Psychoanalysis is limited to only dream analysis.
Psychotherapy is one type of psychoanalysis.
→ Psychoanalysis is one type of psychotherapy.
The two are unrelated.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
statements best expre…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
15. __________ was developed by Freud in which the goal is to release hidden
unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling
behavior.
→ Psychoanalysis
Transactional analysis
Meta-analysis
Page 6 of 54
Microarray analysis
Multiple Choice Question
MC __________ was developed by
Freud in wh…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
16. The surface description of a dream is called the _____ content.
latent
philological
semiotic
→ manifest
Multiple Choice Question
MC The surface description of a
dream is called…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
17. The underlying meaning of a dream which is the true unconscious meaning of the
dream is called _____ content.
→ latent
philological
semiotic
manifest
Multiple Choice Question
MC The underlying meaning of a
dream which is t…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
18. Noah dreams that he suddenly becomes paralyzed as he tries to cross a busy
intersection. In Freudian terms, this is the _____ content of Noah’s dream. The
underlying meaning of the dream is the _____ content.
manifest; repressed
Page 7 of 54
→ manifest; latent
repressed; manifest
repressed; latent
Multiple Choice Question
MC Noah dreams that he suddenly
becomes paralyz…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
19. _____ is an inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories,
thoughts, or motivations.
→ Resistance
Transference
Dissociation
Projection
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is an inability or
unwillingness to di…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
20. After telling his psychoanalyst about his relationship with his ex-wife for a few
minutes, Jerome suddenly changes the subject. Jerome is exhibiting:
→ resistance.
transference.
a latent conflict.
projection.
Multiple Choice Question
MC After telling his psychoanalyst
about his re…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
21. _____ is the transmission of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had
been originally directed to a patient’s parents or other authority figures.
Page 8 of 54
Regression
→ Transference
Dissociation
Projection
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is the transmission of
feelings to a p…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
22. What is transference?
The transfer of a learned response from one task to another similar task
The transfer of irrational cognitions to the self
→ The transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a
psychoanalyst
A behavioral technique invented to facilitate the transfer of learned
behaviors from the session to the outside world
Multiple Choice Question
MC What is
transference?
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic approach to
the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
23. Which of the following is a suitable way of handling transference?
The therapist should discourage and attempt to minimize the patient’s
transference.
→ The therapist can take advantage of transference to help the patient
“redo” difficult relationships.
The therapist should simply ignore the patient’s transference.
The therapist should refer the patient to another professional toward
whom the patient is unlikely to demonstrate transference.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is a
suitable way of …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Page 9 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
24. How does contemporary psychodynamic therapy differ from classic psychoanalysis?
Contemporary psychodynamic therapy generally lasts longer than classic
psychoanalysis.
Today, psychoanalysis takes a less directive role than was the case in the
past.
Classic psychoanalysts concentrated more on an individual’s current
relationships and specific complaints than contemporary therapists.
→ Contemporary therapist puts less emphasis on a patient’s past history and
childhood than classic psychoanalysts.
Multiple Choice Question
MC How does contemporary
psychodynamic therapy …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Contemporary psychodynamic approaches
25. Despite being criticized, why has psychodynamic therapy remained a viable
approach to psychological treatment?
→ It facilitates the development of deep insight into one’s life.
It is brief and inexpensive.
It is more objective than are some other forms of therapy.
It doesn’t differentiate between articulate and less verbal patients.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Despite being criticized, why
has psychodyna…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Contemporary psychodynamic approaches
26. _____ treatment approaches make use of the basic processes of learning, such as
reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behaviors are
both learned.
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
→ Behavioral
Humanistic
Page 10 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ treatment approaches
make use of the b…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
27. Which of the following approaches to psychotherapy is correctly matched with its
description?
Psychodynamic approach—Treatment aims to change maladaptive
thinking patterns.
→ Behavioral approach—Classical and operant conditioning principles are
used to change people’s behavior.
Psychoanalysis approach—Treatment aims to change a patient’s
dysfunctional cognitions about the world.
Humanistic approach—Therapy aims to bring unconscious conflicts and
impulses into the conscious.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
approaches to psychot…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
28. According to a behavior therapist, how might psychological disorders be treated
most effectively?
→ The client should learn new behaviors to replace the faulty skills.
Patients should say aloud whatever comes to mind.
Unconscious conflicts should be brought to light.
Neurotransmitter irregularities should be rectified through drugs.
Multiple Choice Question
MC According to a behavior
therapist, how might…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
29. _____ is a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by
pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
Page 11 of 54
Systematic desensitization
→ Aversive conditioning
Manifest structuring
Exposure treatment
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a form of therapy that
reduces the …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
30. _____ is a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing
stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
→ Systematic desensitization
Aversive conditioning
Manifest structuring
Exposure treatment
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a behavioral technique
in which gra…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
31. Giovanni abuses cocaine; Hans has a dog phobia. Which alternative below correctly
identifies the behavioral treatment most appropriate for each of these individuals?
Giovanni—aversive conditioning; Hans—exposure treatment
Giovanni—systematic desensitization; Hans—exposure treatment
→ Giovanni—aversive conditioning; Hans—systematic desensitization
Giovanni—exposure treatment; Hans—aversive conditioning
Multiple Choice Question
MC Giovanni abuses cocaine; Hans
has a dog phob…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
32. A hierarchy of fears may be used in:
Page 12 of 54
aversive conditioning.
→ systematic desensitization.
transference.
manifest structuring
Multiple Choice Question
MC A hierarchy of fears may be
used in:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
33. _____ is a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted either
suddenly or gradually with a stimulus that they fear.
Aversive conditioning
Systematic desensitization
Transference
→ Exposure
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a behavioral treatment
for anxiety …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
34. How do flooding treatments differ from systematic desensitization?
Exposure treatments use a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli;
systematic desensitization does not.
Exposure treatment gauges neurotic symptoms; systematic
desensitization does not.
→ Exposure treatment does not use learned relaxation techniques;
systematic desensitization does.
Exposure treatment is a very complicated form of therapy; systematic
desensitization is not.
Multiple Choice Question
MC How do flooding treatments
differ from syste…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Page 13 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
35. Which of the following operant conditioning techniques is incorrectly paired with its
description?
Token system—An individual is rewarded for desired behavior with
such items as chips or play money, which he or she can exchange for
desired items.
Contingency contracting—The therapist and client create a written
agreement specifying the consequences for desirable and undesirable
behaviors.
Observational learning—An individual models desired behavior for the
client.

Token system—The therapist reduces the frequency of undesired
behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired
behavior.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following operant
conditioning …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
36. _____ rewards a person for desired behavior with a poker chip or some kind of play
money.
→ The token system
Contingency contracting
Observational learning
The appraisal technique
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ rewards a person for
desired behavior …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
37. The token system is most often used:
→ in institutional settings, for individuals with relatively serious problems.
as an appraisal technique.
by friends in a dorm.
Page 14 of 54
as a classroom management technique.
Multiple Choice Question
MC The token system is most
often used:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
38. In _____, the therapist and client (or teacher and student or parent and child) draw up
a written agreement.
the token system
→ contingency contracting
observational learning
the appraisal technique
Multiple Choice Question
MC In _____, the therapist and
client (or teach…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
39. _____ is the process in which the behavior of other people is modeled to
systematically teach people new skills and ways of handling their fears and anxieties.
Token systematization
Contingency contracting
→ Observational learning
Exposure therapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is the process in which
the behavior o…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
40. A client with social anxiety watches a film in which an individual greets strangers in
a crowded room, makes small talk, and smiles pleasantly. The individual in the film
appears to gain pleasure from these activities. The behavior therapy technique used
in this scenario is:
Page 15 of 54
token systematization.
contingency contracting.
→ observational learning.
aversive conditioning.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A client with social anxiety
watches a film …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
41. _____ is said to occur when therapists imparting certain basic social skills to their
clients maintain eye contact and act assertively.
→ Observational learning
Contingency contracting
Dialectical behavior therapy
Behavioral activation
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is said to occur when
therapists impar…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
42. Which of the following statements is false regarding behavior therapy?
It is especially effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
It can produce actual changes in the functioning of the brain.
→ It is actually based mainly on psychoanalytic ideas.
It has no problem other than the maladaptive behavior itself.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
statements is false r…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
43. How might one best respond to the charge that behavior therapy produces only a
superficial change in external behavior?
Page 16 of 54
Research shows that behavior therapies produce the same sorts of
insights into one’s life that one associates with psychoanalytic and
humanistic therapies.
→ Neuroscientific evidence shows that behavioral treatments produce
actual changes in the functioning of the brain.
External behavior is a result of internal functions.
Research shows that behavior therapies and cognitive therapies are
fundamentally the same.
Multiple Choice Question
MC How might one best respond to
the charge tha…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
44. _____ evidence shows that behavioral treatments can produce actual changes in brain
functioning, which suggests that behavioral treatments can produce changes beyond
external behavior.
→ Neuroscientific
Psychodynamic
Cognitive
Hearsay
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ evidence shows that
behavioral treatme…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
45. _____ treatment approaches teach people to think in more adaptive ways by
changing their dysfunctional notions about the world and themselves.
→ Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ treatment approaches
teach people to t…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Page 17 of 54
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
46. _____ approach is a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning
to change the way people think.
Psychodynamic-cognitive
Humanistic-behavioral
→ Cognitive-behavioral
Psychodynamic-humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ approach is a treatment
approach that …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
47. _____ is a form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a
more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs
that maintain irrational behavior.
Multi-modal therapy
→ Rational-emotive behavior therapy
Dialectical-behavior therapy
Prolonged-exposure therapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ is a form of therapy that
attempts to …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
48. Characteristics of cognitive treatment approaches include each of the following
EXCEPT that:
it is relatively short term.
it focuses on concrete problems.
it involves an active therapist.
Page 18 of 54
→ it is not structured.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Characteristics of cognitive
treatment appro…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
49. Which of the following therapies emphasizes the challenging of irrational, unrealistic
beliefs?
Multi-modal therapy
→ Rational-emotive behavior therapy
Dialectical-behavior therapy
Prolonged-exposure therapy
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
therapies emphasizes …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
50. Rational-emotive therapy is associated with _____; cognitive-behavioral approach
with _____.
Beck; Ellis
Beck; Seligman
→ Ellis; Beck
Ellis; Seligman
Multiple Choice Question
MC Rational-emotive therapy is
associated with …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
51.
Page 19 of 54
Which of the following alternatives correctly illustrates a term in Ellis’s A-B-C
model?
Activating condition—”I must get the top score in the class; a perfect
score.”
Irrational belief—extreme anxiety
Emotional consequence—a midterm test is scheduled for next week
→ Irrational belief—”I will never get a good score in my test”
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
alternatives correctly…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
52. In _____ appraisal, clients are asked to evaluate situations, themselves, and others in
terms of their memories, values, beliefs, thoughts, and expectations.
→ cognitive
psychodynamic
behavioral
humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC In _____ appraisal, clients are
asked to eva…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
53. How is cognitive therapy different from rational-emotive therapy?
It entails a more confrontational therapist.
→ It entails a less confrontational therapist.
It is relatively long-term and loosely structured.
It aims to change people’s behavior, rather than their thought pattern.
Multiple Choice Question
MC How is cognitive therapy
different from rati…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Page 20 of 54
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
54. Which of the following is NOT regarded as one of the strengths of the cognitive
approach to treatment?
→ It encourages deep insight into one’s life.
It has been successful in dealing with a wide range of problems.
It is flexible and open to incorporating elements of other approaches to
treatment.
Therapy tends to be highly structured and focused on concrete problems.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is NOT
regarded as on…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive
therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
55. _____ therapy is therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control
of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible
for solving their own problems.
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
→ Humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ therapy is therapy in which
the underl…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Humanistic approaches
56. According to humanistic therapists, psychological disorders result from:
→ the inability to find meaning in life and connection to others.
unconscious conflicts and early experiences.
irrational thought patterns.
faulty learning.
Page 21 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC According to humanistic therapists,
psycholo…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Humanistic approaches
57. Person-centered therapy is a specific type of _____ therapy.
cognitive
psychodynamic
behavioral
→ humanistic
Multiple Choice Question
MC Person-centered therapy is a
specific type o…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
58. Person-centered therapy was developed in the _____ by _____.
1920s; Albert Ellis
→ 1950s; Carl Rogers
1970s; Carl Rogers
1990s; Aaron Beck
Multiple Choice Question
MC Person-centered therapy was
developed in the…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
59. Therapy in which the goal is to reach one’s potential for self-actualization is known
as _____ therapy.
self-help
→ person-centered
interpersonal
group
Page 22 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC Therapy in which the goal is to
reach one’s …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.4
APA LO: 4.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
60. In person-centered therapy, the therapist:
challenges the client’s irrational statements.
teaches the client cognitive appraisal techniques.
uses the token system to monitor behavior.
→ provides unconditional positive regard.
Multiple Choice Question
MC In person-centered therapy, the
therapist:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
61. Which of the following terms most nearly captures the essence of unconditional
positive regard?
Directional
→ Empathetic
Judgmental
Challenging
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following terms most
nearly cap…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
62. How is contemporary person-centered therapy different than it was in Rogers’s day?
Therapists are even less directive now than in the past.
The patient’s insight is now seen as less central to the therapeutic
process.
Page 23 of 54
→ Therapists are more likely to nudge clients towards insights rather than
merely reflecting back their statements.
Person-centered therapy is used today in its purest form.
Multiple Choice Question
MC How is contemporary personcentered
therapy …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
63. _____ therapy refers to short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current
social relationships.
Self-help
Person-centered
→ Interpersonal
Group
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ therapy refers to short-term
therapy t…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
64. Interpersonal therapy derives from _____ approaches to therapy, but it is _____.
→ psychodynamic; shorter and more directive
psychodynamic; longer and less directive
humanistic; shorter and more directive
humanistic; longer and less directive
Multiple Choice Question
MC Interpersonal therapy derives from
_____ app…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-2
Topic: Interpersonal therapy
65. Therapy in which people meet collectively with a therapist to discuss problems is
specifically known as _____ therapy.
Page 24 of 54
client-centered
person-centered
interpersonal
→ group
Multiple Choice Question
MC Therapy in which people meet
collectively wi…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-3
Topic: Group therapy
66. Regarding group therapy, which of the following statements is TRUE?
→ Group therapy is generally more economical than individual therapy.
In group therapy, the therapist is usually highly directive.
Shy individuals benefit more from group therapy than do assertive
people.
Group therapies are for shorter durations than individual therapies.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Regarding group therapy, which of
the follow…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-3
Topic: Group therapy
67. Family therapy practitioners believe each of the following statements EXCEPT:
→ individual members of a family may be treated successfully in isolation.
the family as a single unit to which each member contributes.
an individual member of the family cannot be treated successfully
without simultaneously involving other family members.
family members tend to take on set roles with respect to each other.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Family therapy practitioners believe
each of…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-3
Topic: Family therapy
68. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an example of _____ therapy.
Page 25 of 54
client-centered
→ self-help
person-centered
interpersonal
Multiple Choice Question
MC Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an
example of _…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-3
Topic: Self-help groups
69. In 1952, noted psychologist _____ published a study challenging the effectiveness of
_____ therapy.
Eysenck; humanistic
→ Eysenck; psychodynamic
Cattell; cognitive
Cattell; behavioral
Multiple Choice Question
MC In 1952, noted psychologist _____
published …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the
effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
70. Today, most psychologists:
echo Eysenck’s 1952 position on the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
→ dispute Eysenck’s 1952 position on the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
believe that psychotherapy is only minimally effective, especially as
compared to drug therapy.
accept that the symptoms of abnormal behavior go away by themselves
if left untreated.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Today, most
psychologists:
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of
psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
Page 26 of 54
71. A research technique in which data from a large number of studies are statistically
combined is known as:
matrix analysis.
factor analysis.
→ meta-analysis.
correlational analysis.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A research technique in which data
from a la…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness
of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
72. The effectiveness of various approaches to therapy found that although success rates
vary somewhat by treatment form, most treatments show that success rates range
from about _____% greater success for treated compared with untreated individuals.
15-20
25-30
→ 70-85
90-95
Multiple Choice Question
MC The effectiveness of various
approaches to t…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness
of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
73. Research shows that behavioral therapy is roughly _____% more effective than no
treatment at all.
15
25
60
→ 80
Multiple Choice Question
MC Research shows that behavioral
therapy is ro…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness
Page 27 of 54
of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
74. _____ approaches to psychotherapy tend to be more successful than do _____
approaches.
psychodynamic and humanistic; behavioral cognitive
→ cognitive behavioral; psychodynamic
cognitive and humanistic; behavioral and psychodynamic
behavioral and client-centered; cognitive and psychodynamic
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ approaches to psychotherapy
tend to be…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Evaluate the
effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
75. What proportion of people fail to benefit from psychotherapy?
2%
5%
→ 10%
25%
Multiple Choice Question
MC What proportion of people fail to
benefit fr…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness
of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
76. Which of the following statements is most TRUE?
→ Different forms of therapy work best in different situations.
People who don’t attend therapy do just as well as people who do.
The effectiveness of the different treatments is the same in all cases.
Psychotherapy can safely be said to be beneficial for everyone.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following statements is
most TR…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Evaluate the
effectiveness of psychotherapy.
Page 28 of 54
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
77. No greater change has occurred in mental hospitals than the successful introduction
in the mid-_____ of antipsychotic drugs.
1940s
→ 1950s
1960s
1970s
Multiple Choice Question
MC No greater change has
occurred in mental hos…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
78. The first major antipsychotic drug to be introduced was _____; it was used to treat
_____.
paliperidone; bipolar disorder
paliperidone; schizophrenia
chlorpromazine; bipolar disorder
→ chlorpromazine; schizophrenia
Multiple Choice Question
MC The first major
antipsychotic drug to be int…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
79. The newest antipsychotics are called _____ antipsychotics.
depot
→ atypical
tricyclic
typical
Multiple Choice Question
MC The newest antipsychotics
are called _____ a…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Page 29 of 54
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
80. Atypical antipsychotics affect both _____ and _____ levels in certain parts of the
brain.
→ serotonin; dopamine
prolactin; histamine
epinephrine; GABA
oxytocin; glycine
Multiple Choice Question
MC Atypical antipsychotics
affect both _____ an…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
81. Tricyclic drugs, MAO inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are
examples of which class of drugs?
Antipsychotics
Mood stabilizers
Antianxiety drugs
→ Antidepressants
Multiple Choice Question
MC Tricyclic drugs, MAO
inhibitors, and selecti…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antidepressant drugs
82. Which of the following is NOT among the neurotransmitters that are influenced by
the various antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs?
→ Endorphins
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
Dopamine
Page 30 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is
NOT among the neur…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
83. Prozac is an example of a(n) _____.
antipsychotic drug
→ antidepressant drug
mood stabilizer
antianxiety drug
Multiple Choice Question
MC Prozac is an example of a
(n) _____.
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in the
treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the problems
and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antidepressant drugs
84. Which type of antidepressant is matched with the correct neurotransmitter action?
Tricyclics–increase activity of neurotransmitter GABA
SSRIs–prevent neurotransmitter breakdown
MAO inhibitors–increase norepinephrine
→ SSRIs–inhibit reuptake of serotonin
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which type of
antidepressant is matched with…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antidepressant drugs
85. _____ are a class of medications used in cases of severe depression to improve a
patient’s mood and feeling of well-being.
Mood stabilizers
Page 31 of 54
Antianxiety drugs
Antipsychotic drugs
→ Antidepressant drugs
Multiple Choice Question
MC _____ are a class of
medications used in cas…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antidepressant drugs
86. Which drug class is correctly matched with a drug that represents it?
Antidepressants—lithium
→ Antipsychotics—Chlorpromazine
Mood stabilizers—Xanax
Antianxiety drugs—Prozac
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which drug class is
correctly matched with a…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
87. Which drug class is matched with the correct neurotransmitter action?
Mood stabilizers—increase norepinephrine activity
→ Antipsychotics—block dopamine receptors
Antidepressants —increase activity of GABA
Antianxiety drugs—inhibit serotonin reuptake
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which drug class is matched
with the correct…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
88. Drugs that reduce the level of worry or tension a person experiences essentially by
reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being are known as _____.
Page 32 of 54
mood stabilizers
→ antianxiety drugs
antipsychotic drugs
antidepressant drugs
Multiple Choice Question
MC Drugs that reduce the level
of worry or tens…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antianxiety drugs
89. Approximately what percentage of U.S. families have a member who has taken an
antianxiety drug?
10%
25%
35%
→ 50%
Multiple Choice Question
MC Approximately what
percentage of U.S. famili…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in
the treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the
problems and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antianxiety drugs
90. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was introduced in the _____; it is used to treat
severe _____.
→ 1930s; depression
1930s; anxiety
1950s; depression
1950s; anxiety
Multiple Choice Question
MC Electroconvulsive therapy
(ECT) was introduc…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Page 33 of 54
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
91. Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences of the use of
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?
Disorientation and confusion
Memory loss
→ Sudden death
Potential brain damage
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is
NOT one of the neg…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
92. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to treat:
→ depression.
bipolar disorder.
schizophrenia.
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Transcranial magnetic
stimulation (TMS) is u…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
93. Which of the following is TRUE of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
It uses an electrical current.
→ It is still experimental.
It is not as popular as it used to be.
It does not have any side effects.
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following is
TRUE of transcrani…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Page 34 of 54
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
94. In the _____, surgeons performed prefrontal lobotomy on thousands of patients often
with little precision.
1920s and 1930s
→ 1930s and 1940s
1940s and 1950s
1950s and 1960s
Multiple Choice Question
MC In the _____, surgeons
performed prefrontal …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Psychosurgery
95. A newer form of psychosurgery—cingulotomy—is used in cases of:
→ obsessive-compulsive disorder.
bipolar disorder.
major depression.
schizophrenia.
Multiple Choice Question
MC A newer form of
psychosurgery%u2014cingulot…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Psychosurgery
96. Radiation is used to destroy specific brain areas in a type of psychosurgery called
_____; it is used to treat _____.
transcranial magnetic stimulation; obsessive-compulsive disorder
transcranial magnetic stimulation; major depression
→ gamma knife surgery; obsessive-compulsive disorder
gamma knife surgery; major depression
Page 35 of 54
Multiple Choice Question
MC Radiation is used to destroy
specific brain …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive
therapy and psychosurgery, and discuss the
effectiveness of biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Psychosurgery
97. Community psychology came of age in the _____; its aim was to minimize
psychological disorders.
→ 1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
Multiple Choice Question
MC Community psychology
came of age in the ____…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a
psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Community psychology
98. Which of the following best represents the percentage of homeless adults who have a
major psychological disorder?
5-10%
→ 15-35%
75-85%
50-60%
Multiple Choice Question
MC Which of the following
best represents the p…
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Community psychology
99. College students in counseling are treated in only _____ sessions on average.
three
Page 36 of 54
→ five
ten
twelve
Multiple Choice Question
MC College students in
counseling are treated …
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Choosing a therapist
100. Clinical or psychiatric social workers are professionals with a master’s degree
and specialized training who may provide therapy, usually regarding common
family and personal problems.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ are professionals with a
master’s degree …
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Define psychotherapy and
characterize the main types of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-1
Topic: Psychodynamic Therapies
101.Adrienne is describing a dream to her therapist. The events she recounts constitute
the manifest content of her dream.
Worksheet Question
FB Adrienne is describing a
dream to her therap…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
102.Bryan is feeling angry with his therapist; Bryan’s anger reflects his feelings toward
his father when he was a young boy in the throes of the Oedipal conflict. This
example illustrates transference .
Worksheet Question
FB Bryan is feeling angry with
his therapist; B…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Page 37 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
103.Cathy visits a behavior therapist for help with her alcohol abuse. To treat Cathy’s
problem, the therapist will most likely use aversive conditioning.
Worksheet Question
FB Cathy visits a behavior
therapist for help w…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
104.In systematic desensitization , gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing
stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
Worksheet Question
FB In _____, gradual exposure to
an anxiety-p…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
105.Hierarchy of fears is a list in order of increasing severity of the things you
associate with your fears.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ is a list in order of
increasing sev…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
106.Contingency contracting and token economies are based on operant
conditioning.
Worksheet Question
FB Contingency contracting and
token economies …
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Page 38 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
107.Declan and his mother have signed a written agreement: Each day that Declan fails
to complete all his homework, he must complete an additional household chore.
Declan and his mother are using a behavior modification technique known as
contingency contracting .
Worksheet Question
FB Declan and his mother have
signed a written …
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
108.Ingrid is learning to carefully examine situations so that she may learn to think more
appropriately about herself and others in terms of her memories, values, beliefs,
thoughts, and expectations. Ingrid is undertaking a process of
cognitive appraisal .
Worksheet Question
FB Ingrid is learning to carefully
examine situ…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
109.Eli’s client-centered therapist clarifies and reflects back Eli’s remarks. The therapist
is using a technique known as nondirective counseling .
Worksheet Question
FB Eli’s client-centered therapist
clarifies and …
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
110.Client-centered therapists should communicate that not only they are caring and
nonjudgmental, but also empathetic ; that is, they should reflect a genuine
understanding of the client’s emotional experience.
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Page 39 of 54
Worksheet Question
FB Client-centered therapists should
communicat…
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Person-centered therapy
111. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique in which the results of a large number of
studies are combined.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ is a statistical technique in
which …
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of
psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
112.Dr. Grimaldi consults the research literature each time he acquires a new client; he
seeks to use the most effective technique available, given a client’s particular
disorder. Dr. Grimaldi practices evidence-based psychotherapy.
Worksheet Question
FB Dr. Grimaldi consults the research
literatur…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of
psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
113.Many therapists integrate multiple approaches to treat an individual’s problems; that
is, they use a(n) eclectic approach.
Worksheet Question
FB Many therapists integrate multiple
approache…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness
of psychotherapy.
Learning Outcome: 41-4
Topic: Effectiveness of therapy
114.The newest generation of antipsychotics is called atypical antipsychotics; they
influence serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain.
Page 40 of 54
Worksheet Question
FB The newest generation of
antipsychotics is c…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in the
treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the problems
and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antipsychotic drugs
115.Many newer antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Worksheet Question
FB Many newer
antidepressants are selective
__n…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Name and describe drugs used in the
treatment of abnormal behavior, and discuss the problems
and controversies surrounding their use.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Antidepressant drugs
116.Like ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation may be used to treat depression .
Worksheet Question
FB Like ECT, transcranial
magnetic stimulation …
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy
and psychosurgery, and discuss the effectiveness of
biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
117.One form of psychosurgery used today is cingulotomy , performed occasionally
to treat cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Worksheet Question
FB One form of psychosurgery
used today is __ne…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy
and psychosurgery, and discuss the effectiveness of
biomedical therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Psychosurgery
118. Community psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention
and minimization of psychological disorders in the community.
Page 41 of 54
Worksheet Question
FB _____ is a branch of
psychology that focus…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Community psychology
119. Deinstitutionalization is the transfer of former mental patients from institutions
to the community.
Worksheet Question
FB _____ is the transfer of
former mental pat…
APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Community psychology
120.Discuss how (a) free association; (b) dream interpretation; (c) resistance; and (d)
transference may be used as tools in psychoanalytic therapy.
Explanation:
The answer should include the following points:
Free association. When therapists use free association, they instruct the patient to say
aloud whatever comes to mind, regardless of how irrelevant or nonsensical it seems.
The therapist attempts to identify connections between what the patient says and his
or her unconscious, and to point out and label these connections for the patient.
Dream interpretation. The patient reports his or her dreams. The surface content of
the dream is the manifest content, a disguised or symbolic representation of the true,
underlying meaning, or latent content, which presumably reflects the contents of the
unconscious mind. The therapist attempts to decode the manifest content in order to
understand the dream’s latent content, and thereby the patient’s unconscious mind.
Resistance. Resistance is the patient’s inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal
particular memories, thoughts, or motivations. Resistance may be revealed in many
ways: the patient may change the subject abruptly, appear to forget what he or she
was saying, and so on. The therapist attempts to identify instances of resistance and
use these as a clue to particularly painful or disturbing elements of the unconscious.
Page 42 of 54
Transference. Transference is the transfer to the analyst feelings of anger or love that
the patient originally directed toward his or her parents or other authority figures.
The therapist can use these feelings to reenact the patient’s past relationships.
Therapy sessions can be used to redo these relationships and to potentially resolve
the conflicts or difficulties they entailed.
Essay Question
ES Discuss how (a) free
association; (b) dream …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic
approach to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Freud’s psychoanalysis
121.Briefly describe in one or two paragraphs what psychodynamic therapy entails as
well as current perspectives and criticisms about its efficacy as a treatment.
Explanation:
Even with its current modifications, psychodynamic therapy has its critics. In its
longer versions, it can be time consuming and expensive, especially in comparison
with other forms of psychotherapy, such as behavioral and cognitive approaches.
Furthermore, less articulate patients may not do as well as more articulate ones.
Ultimately, the most important concern about psychodynamic treatment is whether it
actually works, and there is no simple answer to this question. Psychodynamic
treatment techniques have been controversial since Freud introduced them. Part of
the problem is the difficulty in establishing whether patients have improved after
psychodynamic therapy. Determining effectiveness depends on reports from the
therapist or the patients themselves—reports that are obviously open to bias and
subjective interpretation.
Furthermore, critics have questioned the entire theoretical basis of psychodynamic
theory; they maintain that constructs such as the unconscious have not been
scientifically confirmed. Despite the criticism, though, the psychodynamic treatment
approach has remained viable. For some people, it provides solutions to difficult
psychological issues, provides effective treatment for psychological disturbance, and
also permits the potential development of an unusual degree of insight into one’s life.
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Page 43 of 54
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe in one or
two paragr…
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the psychodynamic approach
to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Contemporary psychodynamic approaches
122.Describe using concrete examples how a behavior therapist might use systematic
desensitization and flooding treatments to treat a specific phobia or source of
anxiety.
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
The answer should include the following components:
Systematic desensitization. In systematic desensitization, exposure to an anxietyproducing
stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
The idea is to learn to associate relaxation with a stimulus that previously produced
anxiety. First, the patient is trained in relaxation techniques to learn how to relax his
or her body fully. Next, the patient creates a hierarchy of fears—a list of stimuli
associated with the patient’s phobia, arranged in order of increasing severity. For
example, a patient with a needle phobia might place seeing a discarded needle on the
sidewalk near the bottom of the hierarchy; having a blood test would be near the top
of the hierarchy. Then the patient is asked to imagine each scene in the hierarchy
while in a fully relaxed state. When the patient can imagine a scene in the hierarchy
and remain relaxed, the patient moves to the next level in the hierarchy. At the end
of treatment, the patient is asked to confront the object of the phobia in real life; the
hope is that the patient will not become anxious but will remain relaxed. For
example, the patient may be asked to take a blood test or receive an injection.
Flooding Treatments. Flooding is a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people
are suddenly confronted with a stimulus that they fear. The goal behind flooding is
to allow the maladaptive response of anxiety or avoidance to become extinct. For
example, a patient who has a deep fear of germs may be made to soil her hands in
dirt and to keep them dirty for hours. For a person with a fear of germs, initially this
is a highly anxiety-producing situation. After a few hours, however, the anxiety will
decline, leading to extinction of the anxiety.
Essay Question
ES Describe using concrete
examples how a behav…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Page 44 of 54
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
123.Assume you are treating two patients: Betina, who has anorexia, and Sebastian, who
has anger management issues with his girlfriend. Using operant conditioning
techniques, like token or contingency techniques, suggest a plan to treat them?
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
One example of the systematic application of operant conditioning principles is the
token system, which rewards a person for desired behavior with a token such as a
poker chip or some kind of play money. Although it is most frequently employed in
institutional settings for individuals with relatively serious problems and sometimes
with children as a classroom management technique, the system resembles what
parents do when they give children money for being well behaved—money that the
children can later exchange for something they want. The desired behavior may
range from simple things such as keeping one’s room neat to personal grooming and
interacting with other people. In institutions, patients can exchange tokens for some
object or activity, such as snacks, new clothes, or, in extreme cases, sleeping in one’s
own bed rather than in a sleeping bag on the floor.
Contingency contracting, a variant of the token system, has proved quite effective in
producing behavior modification. In contingency contracting, the therapist and client
(or teacher and student or parent and child) draw up a written agreement. The
contract states a series of behavioral goals the client hopes to achieve. It also
specifies the positive consequences for the client if the client reaches goals—usually
an explicit reward such as money or additional privileges. Contracts frequently state
negative consequences if the client does not meet the goals.
Behavior therapists also use observational learning, the process in which the
behavior of other people is modeled, to systematically teach people new skills and
ways of handling their fears and anxieties. For example, modeling helps when
therapists are teaching basic social skills, such as maintaining eye contact during
conversation and acting assertively.
Essay Question
ES Assume you are treating two
patients: Betina…
APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Operant conditioning treatments
Page 45 of 54
124.Describe using examples how behavior therapists can use averse conditioning to
modify behavior.
Explanation:
Students’ examples may vary.
Averse conditioning is aversive conditioning, a form of therapy that reduces the
frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with
undesired behavior. For example, behavior therapists might use aversive
conditioning by pairing alcohol with a drug that causes severe nausea and vomiting.
After the two have been paired a few times, the person associates the alcohol alone
with vomiting and finds alcohol less appealing. Aversion therapy works reasonably
well in inhibiting substance-abuse problems such as alcoholism and with certain
kinds of sexual disorders. Critics, however, question its long-term effectiveness.
Also, important ethical concerns surround aversion techniques that employ such
potent stimuli as electric shock, which therapists use only in the most extreme cases,
such as patient self-mutilation. Clearly, though, aversion therapy offers an important
procedure for eliminating maladaptive responses for some period of time—a respite
that provides, even if only temporarily, an opportunity to encourage more adaptive
behavior patterns
Essay Question
ES Describe using examples how
behavior therapi…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Classical conditioning treatments
125.Describe the general aim of cognitive therapy. Write a note on Ellis’s rationalemotive
therapy.
Explanation:
The following ideas should be mentioned:
The goal of cognitive therapy is to help people learn to think in more adaptive ways
by changing their unreasonable, irrational cognitions about the world and about
themselves. Cognitive therapy often incorporates basic principles of learning; in this
case, treatment is referred to as cognitive-behavioral approach.
Page 46 of 54
Ellis’s rational-emotive therapy attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a
more realistic, rational, and logical set of views. According to Ellis, people are
unhappy and suffer from disorders because they hold irrational, unrealistic ideas,
such as the notion that we have to succeed in all we do to be worthwhile people. In
rational-emotional therapy, the therapist actively challenges and argues against these
sorts of beliefs when the client expresses them. By challenging these views, the
therapist is helping the patient adopt more realistic ideas.
Essay Question
ES Describe the general aim of
cognitive therap…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the cognitive therapy
approaches of rational-emotive and cognitive therapy.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Cognitive approaches
126.Identify (a) one advantage, strength, or contribution, and (b) one disadvantage,
weakness, or limitation of each of the following types of psychotherapy: behavior
therapy and cognitive therapy.
Explanation:
The answer should mention some of the following points:
Behavior therapy
Advantages/strengths/contributions. Works well for eliminating anxiety disorders,
treating phobias and compulsions, establishing control over impulses, and learning
complex social skills. It provides tools nonprofessionals can use to change their own
behavior. It is efficient because it focuses on solving carefully defined problems.
Disadvantages/weaknesses/limitations. Because it focuses on changing external
behavior, behavior therapy does not help people gain insight into the maladaptive
thought patterns that might drive their problem behavior.
Cognitive therapy
Advantages/strengths/contributions. Cognitive approaches have been successful in
treating a wide range of disorders, including anxiety disorders, depression, substance
abuse, and eating disorders. The approach is open to incorporating elements from
other treatment approaches, making it more flexible and effective than some other
approaches.
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Disadvantages/weaknesses/limitations. The goal of making people more reasonable
and logical ignores the fact that life really is absurd and irrational sometimes. It may
not always be possible to bring about true cognitive change through therapy.
Essay Question
ES Identify (a) one advantage,
strength, or con…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the behavioral
approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.
Learning Outcome: 40-2
Topic: Behavioral approaches
Topic: Cognitive approaches
127.Briefly describe the humanistic perspective. Applying what you know about
humanistic psychology, how would a humanistic psychologist help someone with
low self-esteem?
Explanation:
Humanistic therapy draws on this philosophical perspective of self-responsibility in
developing treatment techniques. The many different types of therapy that fit into
this category have a similar rationale: We have control of our own behavior, we can
make choices about the kinds of lives we want to live, and it is up to us to solve the
difficulties we encounter in our daily lives.
Humanistic therapists believe that people naturally are motivated to strive for selfactualization.
As we discussed in the chapter on motivation, self-actualization is the
term that clinical psychologist Abraham Maslow used to describe the state of selffulfillment
in which people realize their highest potentials in their own unique way.
Instead of acting in the more directive manner of some psychodynamic and
behavioral approaches, humanistic therapists view themselves as guides or
facilitators.
Therapists using humanistic techniques seek to help people understand themselves
and find ways to come closer to the ideal they hold for themselves. In this view,
psychological disorders result from the inability to find meaning in life and from
feelings of loneliness and a lack of connection to others.
Humanistic approaches have produced many therapeutic techniques. Among the
most important is person-centered therapy.
Page 48 of 54
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe the humanistic
perspec…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Humanistic approaches
128.Describe the aim of person-centered therapy. Identify several ways that therapists try
to achieve this goal. How does contemporary person-centered therapy differ from
the therapy as it might have been practiced in Rogers’ day?
Explanation:
The answer should make such points as:
Aim of person-centered therapy – As a humanistic therapy, person-centered therapy
attempts to help clients move toward self-actualization—a state of self-fulfillment in
which people realize their highest potentials.
Methods – Person-centered therapists act as guides or facilitators. They provide a
warm and supportive environment through nondirective counseling, in which they
reflect and clarify the client’s statements, and through providing unconditional
positive regard by expressing warmth and acceptance.
Contemporary person-directed therapy is somewhat more directive than it was in its
classic Rogerian form.
Essay Question
ES Describe the aim of personcentered
ther…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-1
Topic: Humanistic approaches
129.Briefly compare and contrast interpersonal therapy with traditional psychodynamic
therapy.
Explanation:
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) considers therapy in the context of social relationships.
Page 49 of 54
Although its roots stem from psychodynamic approaches, interpersonal therapy
concentrates more on the here and now with the goal of improving a client’s existing
relationships. It typically focuses on interpersonal issues such as conflicts with
others, social skills issues, role transitions (such as divorce), or grief.
Interpersonal therapy is more active and directive than traditional psychodynamic
approaches, and sessions are more structured. The approach makes no assumptions
about the underlying causes of psychological disorders but focuses on the
interpersonal context in which a disorder is developed and maintained. It also tends
to be shorter than traditional psychodynamic approaches and typically lasts only 12-
16 weeks. During those sessions, therapists make concrete suggestions on improving
relations with others and offer recommendations and advice.
Because interpersonal therapy is short and structured, researchers have been able to
demonstrate its effectiveness more readily than longer-term types of therapy.
Evaluations of the approach have shown that interpersonal therapy is especially
effective in dealing with depression, anxiety, addictions, and eating disorders.
Essay Question
ES Briefly compare and contrast
interpersonal t…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe the humanistic
approaches to treatment.
Learning Outcome: 41-2
Topic: Person-centered therapy
130.Briefly describe the pros and cons of group therapy. Are there any disorders where
group therapy appears to be more effective than one on one? Please defend your
answer.
Explanation:
Although most treatment takes place between a single individual and a therapist,
some forms of therapy involve groups of people seeking treatment. In group therapy,
several unrelated people meet with a therapist to discuss some aspect of their
psychological functioning.
People typically discuss with the group their problems, which often center on a
common difficulty, such as alcoholism or a lack of social skills. The other members
of the group provide emotional support and dispense advice on ways they have
coped effectively with similar problems.
Groups vary greatly in terms of the particular model they employ; there are
psychoanalytic groups, humanistic groups, and groups corresponding to the other
therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, groups also differ with regard to the degree of
Page 50 of 54
guidance the therapist provides. In some, the therapist is quite directive; in others,
the members of the group set their own agenda and determine how the group will
proceed.
Because several people are treated simultaneously in group therapy, it is a much
more economical means of treatment than individual psychotherapy. On the other
hand, critics argue that group settings lack the individual attention inherent in oneto-
one therapy and that especially shy and withdrawn individuals may not receive
the attention they need in a group setting.
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe the pros and cons
of group …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe interpersonal
therapy, and group therapies.
Learning Outcome: 41-3
Topic: Group therapy
131.One of the most controversial treatments in the field of psychology is
electroconvulsive therapy. Briefly describe its illustrious history and if it is still used
today. What are the justifications for using this type of treatment?
Explanation:
First introduced in the 1930s, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure used
in the treatment of severe depression. In the procedure, an electric current of 70-150
volts is briefly administered to a patient’s head, which causes a loss of consciousness
and often causes seizures. Typically, health-care professionals sedate patients and
give them muscle relaxants before administering the current; such preparations help
reduce the intensity of muscle contractions produced during ECT. The typical
patient receives about 10 ECT treatments in the course of a month, but some patients
continue with maintenance treatments for months afterward.
ECT is a controversial technique. Apart from the obvious distastefulness of a
treatment that evokes images of electrocution, side effects occur frequently. For
instance, after treatment patients often experience disorientation, confusion, and
sometimes memory loss that may remain for months. Furthermore, ECT often does
not produce long-term improvement; one study found that without follow-up
medication, depression returned in most patients who had undergone ECT
treatments. Finally, even when ECT does work, we do not know why, and some
critics believe it may cause permanent brain damage.
Despite the drawback, therapists still use it because in many severe cases of
depression, it offers the only quickly effective treatment. For instance, it may
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prevent depressed, suicidal individuals from committing suicide, and it can act more
quickly than antidepressive medications.
The use of ECT has risen in the last decade with more than 100,000 people
undergoing it each year. Still, ECT tends to be used only when other treatments have
proved ineffective, and researchers continue to search for alternative treatments.
Essay Question
ES One of the most
controversial treatments
in …
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy and
psychosurgery, and discuss the effectiveness of biomedical
therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
132.What is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
Explanation:
One new and promising alternative to ECT is transcranial magnetic stimulation
(TMS). TMS creates a precise magnetic pulse in a specific area of the brain. By
activating particular neurons, TMS has been effective in relieving the symptoms of
major depression in a number of controlled experiments. However, the therapy can
produce side effects, such as seizures and convulsions, and it is still considered
experimental.
Essay Question
ES What is transcranial
magnetic stimulation (T…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy and
psychosurgery, and discuss the effectiveness of biomedical
therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Electroconvulsive therapy
133.Briefly describe psychosurgery.
Explanation:
Page 52 of 54
A technique used only rarely today, psychosurgery was introduced as a “treatment of
last resort” in the 1930s.The initial form of psychosurgery, a prefrontal lobotomy,
consisted of surgically destroying or removing parts of a patient’s frontal lobes,
which surgeons thought controlled emotionality. In the 1930s and 1940s, surgeons
performed the procedure on thousands of patients often with little precision. For
example, in one common technique, a surgeon literally would jab an ice pick under a
patient’s eyeball and swivel it back and forth.
Psychosurgery often did improve a patient’s behavior—but not without drastic side
effects. Along with remission of the symptoms of the mental disorder, patients
sometimes experienced personality changes and became bland, colorless, and
unemotional.
In other cases, patients became aggressive and unable to control their impulses. In
the worst cases, treatment resulted in the patient’s death.
With the introduction of effective drug treatments—and the obvious ethical
questions regarding the appropriateness of forever altering someone’s
personality—psychosurgery became nearly obsolete. However, it is still used in very
rare cases when all other procedures have failed and the patient’s behavior presents a
high risk to the patient and others. For example, surgeons sometimes use a more
precise form of psychosurgery called a cingulotomy in rare cases of obsessivecompulsive
disorder in which they destroy tissue in the anterior cingulate area of the
brain. In another technique, gamma knife surgery, beams of radiation are used to
destroy areas of the brain related to obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Occasionally, dying patients with severe, uncontrollable pain also receive
psychosurgery.
Still, even these cases raise important ethical issues, and psychosurgery remains a
highly controversial treatment.
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe
psychosurgery.
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Describe electroconvulsive therapy and
psychosurgery, and discuss the effectiveness of biomedical
therapies.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Psychosurgery
134.Briefly describe the community psychology movement originating in the 1960s.
Explanation:
Page 53 of 54
The answer should mention the following points:
Community psychology. The community psychology approach began in the 1960s
with the aim of preventing or reducing the incidence of psychological disorders
rather than at alleviating psychological disorders. Mental health professionals
planned a network of low-cost community mental health centers to provide
education and low-cost mental health services.
The community health movement and the availability of drug therapies spurred the
deinstitutionalization of many mental health patients. Unfortunately, the resources
necessary for the network of community health centers and so on were never made
available, resulting in deinstitutionalized patients simply being dumped into the
community with little or no support. Many of these individuals remained homeless;
many became involved in substance abuse and criminal activity.
Essay Question
ES Briefly describe the
community psychology
mo…
APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: Explain the concepts of community
psychology and deinstitutionalization, and identify
recommended guidelines for selecting a psychotherapist.
Learning Outcome: 42-1
Topic: Community psychology
Page 54 of 54

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