Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank

$30.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: CULTURE

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the total way of life shared by members of a society?
a. values c. culture
b. norms d. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
a. culture c. aggregate
b. society d. network

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. Culture is defined as:
a. all of the physical artifacts produced and used by a society.
b. the total way of life shared by members of a society.
c. the standards of desirability shared by members of a society.
d. the unique values, interests, and lifestyles of the elite members of society.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Refrigerators, ovens, coffee pots, and stereos are all examples of what sociologists call:
a. material culture. c. high status culture.
b. nonmaterial culture. d. cultural necessities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. All of the following are examples of nonmaterial culture EXCEPT:
a. a belief in atheism. c. the commandment “thou shalt not kill.”
b. a belief in God. d. a religious cross.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1

 

  1. Within sociology there are several different approaches to the study of culture. The _____ approach is more interested in how culture shapes individuals than in how economies shape culture.
a. structural-functional. c. biological.
b. conflict. d. conservative.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.2

 

  1. The theoretical approach that wonders why one culture develops differently from another, and who benefits from cultural patterns, is:
a. structural-functionalism.
b. conflict theory.
c. biological determinism.
d. symbolic interactionism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The term for the attitudes and knowledge that bring power and status to members of the upper class is:
a. cultural norms c. cultural capital
b. status symbols d. materialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Choosing a fine French wine, using multiple utensils for a five-course meal, and having contacts among the elite are all examples of:
a. popular culture. c. local knowledge.
b. popular cultural norms. d. cultural capital.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. _____ focuses on the meanings that people find in culture, and how those meanings are created.
a. Conflict theory c. Symbolic interactionism
b. Structural-functionalism d. Cultural materialism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Americans are shaped by their shared value of individualism and independence. This is a claim that pertains most strongly to the _____ perspective.
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which theoretical approach would be most likely to examine the competing perspectives of multiculturalism and assimilation?
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which theoretical perspective is most likely to examine the meanings that ethnic foods have for the groups that consume them?
a. structural-functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. None of these; this is not a question any theory would address.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2                 KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The text argues that _____ help to explain what is common to humankind across societies but _____ explains why people and societies differ from one another.
a. cultural universals; genetics
b. biological factors; culture
c. social structures; biology
d. technological advances; cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. When sociologists say that culture is problem solving, they mean that:
a. culture is created through conflict.
b. if a society is cultured, there will be no crime or deviance.
c. culture provides a standard pattern for dealing with common dilemmas.
d. we should worship culture instead of false gods.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. Structural-functionalists and conflict theorists agree that:
a. some people benefit from culture more than others.
b. culture is manipulated by the elite for their own advantage.
c. culture serves everyone equally.
d. culture provides ready-made solutions to the problems of everyday life.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.3

 

  1. When Americans traveling abroad say that they really “find the people strange” they are:
a. being ethnocentric.
b. expressing cultural relativism.
c. identifying with a counterculture.
d. expressing a wish for more cultural variability.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. The requirement that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture is known as:
a. ethnocentrism. c. normative adaptation.
b. cultural diffusion. d. cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Janice is analyzing the American cultural value of “all men are created equal” and has determined that the United States does not “practice what it preaches.”  She is not interested in how the U.S. compares with other countries in terms of relative equality. Janice’s analysis is an example of:
a. ethnocentrism. c. normative adaptation.
b. cultural diffusion. d. cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. The tendency to view the norms and values of one’s culture as absolute and to use them as a standard against which to judge the practices of other cultures is known as:
a. cultural relativity. c. ethnocentrism.
b. cultural objectivity. d. practical assessment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Which of these statements about ethnocentrism is FALSE?
a. Ethnocentrism can create a barrier to interaction between people from different cultures.
b. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view the norms and values of one’s culture as absolute.
c. Ethnocentrism is always something negative.
d. Ethnocentrism is essential for social integration.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. In Equatorial Guinea, citizens were shocked to find an American neighbor living alone in a large apartment. The Equatoguinean’s surprise at this horrible, lonely, living arrangement is an example of:
a. personal distaste. c. ethnocentrism.
b. cultural universalism. d. general dislike of foreign neighbors.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4

 

  1. Your text concludes that ethnocentrism:
a. weakens social control.
b. is essential for cultural exchange.
c. is a bridge between different cultures when they come into contact.
d. is a natural, and in some ways, desirable product of growing up in a culture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.4                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Sociologists say that culture is a social product. What does this mean?
a. Cultural diversity is not the product of isolated gene pools, rather it is learned and changed through social interaction.
b. Culture is a material commodity shared by all members of a society.
c. Culture is determined by biological instincts.
d. Culture cannot be understood or known by any individual. It can only be experienced collectively.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. The transmission of culture from one person (or generation) to the next is dependent upon:
a. a large brain.
b. natural human instincts.
c. the human capacity for creating and using technology.
d. the human capacity for language.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. Sociobiology is defined in your text as the:
a. systematic study of human social interaction.
b. study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior.
c. study of biological adaptations to social environments.
d. study of social evolution as influenced by biology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. Biological explanations are most likely to be accepted for behavioral patterns that are:
a. highly specialized. c. deviant and subversive.
b. different in each culture. d. universal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. _____ assumes that some human social behavior such as altruism, has evolved as a genetic adaptation.
a. Cultural relativity c. Social science in general
b. Sociobiology d. Sociology

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to sociobiologists, which of the following characteristics is related to successful reproduction?
a. altrusim toward all members of the society
b. altruism toward kin
c. larger bone structure
d. men with a higher sperm count

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to _____, a change in a species occurs primarily because some individuals are more successful than others at reproducing. Thus, the species comes to be characterized by the traits that mark successful reproducers.
a. conflict theorists c. symbolic interaction
b. structural functionalists d. sociobiologists

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. According to your text, the “carriers of culture” are:
a. family, government, and religion. c. biological, social and cultural evolution.
b. technology, environment, and population. d. language, values, and norms.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. The phrase “language is a framework of culture” implies that:
a. language limits the technological and creative potential of a culture.
b. language allows the transmission of culture from one person to the next.
c. language is forever changing and adapting to the evolving culture.
d. language symbolizes culture and shapes the way in which culture develops.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Why would it be important for members of immigrant groups to teach their children their native language?
a. because language is the source of shared meanings and culture.
b. because without their native language they will have no identity.
c. to make it easier for them to find employment.
d. to teach them the proper discipline and respect.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   37                  OBJ:   2.6                 KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to _____, the grammar, structure, and categories embodied in each language affect how its speakers see reality.
a. the linguistic relativity hypothesis c. the reality thesis
b. the carrier of culture hypothesis d. the symbolic interaction perspective

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. According to the text, the relationship between language and culture includes each of the following EXCEPT:
a. language is a carrier of culture.
b. our thinking and perceptions are shaped by our linguistic capacities.
c. language is symbolic.
d. language inhibits cultural adaptation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following terms is used for shared ideas about desirable goals in a culture, such as good health, stability and security?
a. norms c. wants
b. values d. folkways

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Having a happy and satisfying marriage is a value of American culture. Values are defined by the text as:
a. shared ideas of what is a desirable goal.
b. shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think and act.
c. the normal, customary, habitual ways of doing things.
d. strong ideas of what is morally right or wrong, enforced by the police powers of the state.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a value?
a. The sky is blue. c. Cats make good companion animals.
b. Material success. d. Ina likes sweets.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Norms are defined as the:
a. total way of life shared by members of a society.
b. shared ideas about desirable goals in a society.
c. shared rules about how people ought to think and act.
d. actual behavior of members of a group.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of these values are practically universal?
a. strong family and good health. c. youthfulness and status.
b. material wealth and long life. d. material wealth and competition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   39                  OBJ:   2.6                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Norms that are simply the customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things are known as:
a. mores. c. customs.
b. laws. d. folkways.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a folkway of American culture?
a. not eating with your mouth full. c. thank you notes.
b. white wedding dresses. d. monogamy, marriage to one spouse.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Alex did not bathe or use deodorant for one week. His classmates refused to sit by him and sent him a bar of soap anonymously. Alex violated a:
a. cultural universal. c. folkway.
b. law. d. value.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Norms for which strong ideas of right or wrong have developed are called:
a. laws. c. moral customs.
b. folkways. d. mores.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. In American society, the commandment “thou shalt not commit adultery” belongs to which category?
a. folkways c. cultural universals
b. mores d. values

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Norms or rules that are officially enforced and sanctioned by society are known as:
a. folkways. c. laws.
b. mores. d. requirements.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between norms and law?
a. All norms are supported by law.
b. Not all norms are supported by law and not all laws are supported by norms.
c. All laws are supported by general norms.
d. Formal laws are established and enforced only when they have the backing of informal sanctions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Which of these principles is illustrated by laws requiring the use of seat belts:
a. creation of values. c. elimination of values.
b. emphasize voluntary compliance. d. using laws to create norms.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. John has noticed that his boss smiles and is pleased when John gets to work at the office a bit early, or stays a bit late. John is being influenced by:
a. values. c. formal sanctions.
b. informal sanctions. d. mores.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Sanctions:
a. are always punishments for violating norms.
b. are always rewards for adhering to norms.
c. may be either rewards or punishments.
d. None of these is true about sanctions.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Sanctions refer to:
a. life-styles that are opposed to those of the larger culture.
b. rewards for conformity and punishments for nonconformity.
c. the forms of interaction through which people relate to one another.
d. the expectation that people will return favors when they are obligated to do so.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. Professor Mitchell allows her students the opportunity to “skip” the final exam if they have earned an A on all their coursework and have no absences at the end of the semester.  Allowing the students to “skip” the final for doing well and coming to class is a type of:
a. sanction c. mos (singular of mores)
b. folkway d. law

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7

 

  1. What is the text’s general conclusion about norms?
a. Norms are a good guide to people’s actual behavior.
b. Norms are not related to behavior.
c. There is no relationship between norms and values.
d. Norms are not a good guide to people’s actual behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Research indicates that one half of all married men and women in our society have committed adultery. This example shows that:
a. normative behavior always reflects actual behavior.
b. many norms are unimportant.
c. our mores regarding marital fidelity are very powerful.
d. norms are not always a good guide to what people actually do.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. The discrepancy between cultural norms and people’s actual behavior is called:
a. sanctioning c. deviance
b. mores d. folkways

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Groups that share in the overall culture of society but maintain their own distinctive values, norms and life-styles are called:
a. deviant subgroups. c. countercultures.
b. subcultures. d. supercultures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Betty has just taken a position with a different corporation. She is quite frustrated because workers in her new office have a different approach than what she is used to. Her co-workers use terms that she has not heard before and have their own ways of dividing the work and covering for each other. Betty is reacting to:
a. a subculture. c. a counterculture.
b. cultural diffusion. d. changing mores.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   42                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Groups that have values, interests, beliefs, and life-styles that are opposed to those of the larger society are called:
a. deviant subgroups. c. disloyal antagonists.
b. countercultures. d. subcultures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A group of people who reside in the United States do not agree with the American values of material success, patriarchy, and marriage.  They have chosen to isolate themselves from mainstream society by forming a commune where women and men are equal and marriage is forbidden.  This group would be considered a:
a. subculture. c. sub-group.
b. type of organized crime mob. d. counterculture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A subculture is:
a. a group that has values, interests, beliefs and lifestyles that are opposed to those of the larger society.
b. a group that shares the overall culture of mainstream society but maintains its own distinctive values, norms, and lifestyles.
c. a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
d. a group of people with similar physical characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. A counterculture is:
a. a group that has values, interests, beliefs and lifestyles that are opposed to those of the larger society.
b. a group that shares the overall culture of mainstream society but maintains its own distinctive values, norms, and lifestyles.
c. a population that shares the same territory and is bound together by economic and political ties.
d. a group of people with similar physical characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.8

 

  1. Until fairly recently many people believed that ethnic and religious subcultures should learn and adopt the ways of the dominant group. Such people were advocating:
a. multiculturalism. c. countercultures.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diffusion.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Maria has recently moved to the United States from Columbia.  Her children no longer speak Spanish and are learning to live like American children. Maria’s children are experiencing:
a. multiculturalism. c. cultural relativism.
b. ethnocentrism. d. assimilation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The image of the United States as a “salad bowl” rather than a “melting pot” has been used to illustrate the concept of:
a. ethnocentrism. c. acculturation.
b. multiculturalism. d. cultural relativism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. The term for the belief that cultural differences should be preserved and appreciated is:
a. multiculturalism. c. countercultures.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diffusion.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. For many deaf people, using American Sign Language creates a shared identity and unique forms of expression. For these people, being deaf would be considered:
a. a disability. c. a society.
b. a culture. d. a linguistic novelty.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In many cases cochlear implants have not enabled deaf children to hear and understand, but have only confused them with new, unintelligible sounds. Given that implants are not very successful, deaf activists have criticized the medical practice of surgically inserting cochlear implants as:
a. a neutral medical technology.
b. multiculturalism on the part of the “hearing” culture.
c. ethnocentrism on the part of the “hearing” culture.
d. a form of cultural relativity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. Studies of the deaf show that:
a. nearly all deaf people would join the “hearing” culture if they had a choice.
b. many deaf people would not join the “hearing” culture if they had a choice.
c. deaf people view themselves as having a serious disability.
d. most deaf people are excited about the new cochlear implant options available to deaf babies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. People who advocate for the use of cochlear implants for deaf children are taking the perspective of:
a. cultural relativity. c. multiculturalism.
b. assimilation. d. cultural diversity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.9                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT included in your text as a major factor accounting for cultural diversity?
a. isolation. c. technological difference.
b. environmental differences. d. political structures.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. The process by which aspects of one culture or subculture enter and are incorporated into another is referred to as:
a. acculturation. c. cultural diffusion.
b. cultural isolation. d. technological advance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. Salsa sales in the United States have surpassed ketchup sales.  This is the result of:
a. assimilation. c. technology.
b. cultural diffusion. d. ethnocentrism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. At the broadest level, cultural elements spread around the world. This is called:
a. Globalization of culture. c. Xenophobia.
b. Assimilation d. Cultural lag.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Cultural diffusion occurs most rapidly when:
a. the new ideas and inventions come from the United States.
b. new values and tools meet basic needs and are consistent with existing culture.
c. the culture uses English as its language of choice.
d. pre-existing relative deprivation is high.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. Many scholars believe unrealistic media images:
a. contribute to higher levels of self-esteem among girls.
b. contribute to higher levels of eating disorders among women and girls.
c. have not had an effect on young women.
d. have no affect on boys and men.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   47                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. According to the study by Melissa Milkie on how young women interpret images of women in beauty magazines:
a. white teens were more likely than African American teens to believe the images of female beauty in magazines were unrealistic.
b. African American teens were more likely than white teens to believe the images of female beauty in magazines were unrealistic.
c. the self-concept of the African American teens was less negatively affected by the magazine images than the self-concept of the white teens.
d. the self-concept of the white teens was less negatively affected by the magazine images than the self-concept of the African American teens.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   45                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. High culture refers to:
a. a culture’s ideas about its own past.
b. a culture’s views about religion.
c. cultural preferences associated with persons of high social status.
d. a group who has power or influence over another.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.11

 

  1. Which of the following would likely be included in the category of high culture?
a. heavy metal music c. stock car racing
b. murals painted on the side of buildings d. opera and ballet

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.11

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of popular culture?
a. a sculpture museum c. stock car racing
b. classic literature d. opera and ballet

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.11

 

  1. Popular culture refers to:
a. cultural preferences associated with persons of high social status.
b. only the parts of culture that change over time.
c. aspects of culture that are widely accessible and broadly shared.
d. primarily myths and urban legends.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.11

 

  1. What is the difference between popular culture and high culture?
a. Popular culture includes aspects of culture that shared by the typical citizen while high culture appeals primarily to those of upper social standing.
b. High culture includes aspects of culture that are widely accessible while popular culture is reserved for those of the upper classes.
c. Popular culture changes while high culture does not.
d. High culture changes while popular culture does not.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   46                  OBJ:   2.11

 

  1. _____ is the term for the philosophy that buying is good.
a. Globalization of culture c. Xenophobia
b. Consumerism d. Customerism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   48                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. According to the text, consumerism in the U.S. is based on the belief:
a. in planned obsolescence. c. that a penny saved is a penny earned.
b. that we are what we buy. d. in delayed gratification.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   48                  OBJ:   2.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. According to your text, an increase in television viewing is associated with:
a. an increase in individual annual spending.
b. an increase in marital satisfaction.
c. a decrease in life satisfaction.
d. a decrease in individual annual spending.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   48                  OBJ:   2.10

 

  1. Between 1989 and 2007 the gap between the amount of savings and debt for U.S. households has:
a. declined.
b. remained the same.
c. increased.
d. None of these; there is no gap between savings and debt.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   49                  OBJ:   2.10               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The term _____ is applied to a situation whereby one part of a culture changes more rapidly than another.
a. cultural lag c. temporal ordering
b. culture shock d. causation

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   49                  OBJ:   2.12

 

  1. Genetic engineering technology has enabled scientists to create a genetically engineered clone of biological organisms.  However, this technology came about before adequate ethical, moral, and legal guidelines were established.  That lack of legal, ethical, and moral guidelines in place as the technology developed is an example of:
a. culture shock. c. temporal ordering.
b. cultural lag. d. causation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   49                  OBJ:   2.12

 

  1. _____ refers to the disconcerting and unpleasant experiences that can accompany exposure to a different culture.
a. Cultural lag c. Xenophobia
b. Culture shock d. Ethnocentrism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.12

 

  1. Rylie recently moved from the United States to Italy.  She is upset to find that parents in Italy openly allow their children to drink alcohol.  The feelings that Rylie experienced are an example of:
a. cultural lag. c. xenophobia.
b. culture shock. d. role-taking.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.12

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of culture shock?
a. “Sexting” or sending nude pictures of oneself via text messaging.
b. Immigrants to the U.S. being unable to speak the language for the first generation.
c. American travelers in Greece are uncomfortable by people standing too close to them.
d. The spread of material cultural elements, such as salsa, around the world.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.12

 

  1. _____ is the process through which ideas, resources, practices, and people are increasingly operating in a worldwide rather than a local framework.
a. Globalization c. Assimilation
b. Diffusion. d. Temporization

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.13

 

  1. According to the text, how did the break up of the Soviet Union contribute to globalization?
a. The breakup of the Soviet Union permitted new countries to move to a more capitalistic economic system.
b. Countries formed after the breakup forged new relationships with other countries in order to seek raw materials and trade partners.
c. Trade barriers that were part of earlier political tensions were relaxed.
d. All of these are ways the breakup of the Soviet Union contributed to increased globalization.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. After the breakup of the former Soviet Union, the countries of Europe united politically in a form of continental government called:
a. The European Parliament. c. The European Union.
b. NAFTA. d. The United Governments of Europe

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.13               KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Legislation adopted in 1994 that reduced trade barriers between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada is called:
a. The Union of the Americas.
b. The North American Free Trade Agreement.
c. The South American Free Trade Agreement.
d. The Organization of American States.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which citizens are more likely to fear foreign influence on their way of life?
a. citizens of wealthier countries c. citizens of western Europe
b. citizens of poorer countries d. citizens of the U.S.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   50                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these is NOT an impact created by globalization discussed in the text?
a. cultural impact c. psychological impact
b. economic impact d. political impact

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   51                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The globalization of popular culture has a significant impact on cultures throughout the world primarily because popular culture:
a. is a major source of entertainment.
b. is too expensive for most people to participate in.
c. supports local cultural practices.
d. carries cultural values.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   51                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the overall economic impact of globalization?
a. International financial relationships have reduced violence.
b. International financial enterprises raise the standard of living for all in the countries involved.
c. The effects of economic globalization have been exclusively negative.
d. Observers of globalization are not in agreement as to its overall economic impact.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   51                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. One result of NAFTA has been:
a. many American workers have lost their jobs or accepted cuts to keep their jobs.
b. new trade relationships have created more employment for Americans.
c. American workers have been able to increase their demands for benefits.
d. All of these have resulted from NAFTA.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   53                  OBJ:   2.13

 

  1. Globalization has resulted in the creation of new international organizations. Research indicates that the growth of these organizations:
a. has resulted in decreased political and economic autonomy for the U.S.
b. has successfully diminished international crimes such as the torture of political prisoners.
c. has had little impact, if any.
d. has resulted in decreased political and economic autonomy for poorer nations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   53                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. There are some human groups that do not have culture.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   32                  OBJ:   2.1                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Cultural capital serves as a symbolic boundary to keep the social classes isolated from one another.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.2

 

  1. Biological factors provide a good explanation for why one culture differs from another.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   33                  OBJ:   2.5                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Ethnocentrism is the opposite of cultural relativity.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   34                  OBJ:   2.4                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Culture is a social product.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   35                  OBJ:   2.5

 

  1. Cultural evolution occurs more rapidly than biological evolution.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   36                  OBJ:   2.5                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Culture is possible without language.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   38                  OBJ:   2.6                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The “rule” against going to a nice restaurant and talking with your mouth full is an example of a mos (singular of mores).

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Laws are always norms.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. The norms of any culture are a good guide to people’s actual behavior.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   41                  OBJ:   2.6

 

  1. Hard core punkers and survivalists are examples of countercultures.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   43                  OBJ:   2.8                 MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Deaf infants of parents who use sign language will begin to “babble” with their hands at about the same time that hearing infants begin to verbally babble.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   44                  OBJ:   2.9

 

  1. A significant difference between American culture and other cultures is the emphasis on consumerism.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   48                  OBJ:   2.10               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. All parts of a single culture evolve or change at the same time.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   49                  OBJ:   2.12               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. There is general agreement that the overall consequences of economic globalization have been positive for all participants.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   51                  OBJ:   2.13               MSC:  NEW

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Give an example of material and non-material culture.

 

ANS:

An example of material culture might be a cellular phone and an example of non-material culture might be the American value of equality.

 

REF:   32

 

  1. What is meant by the term cultural relativity?

 

ANS:

Cultural relativity requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture.

 

REF:   34

 

  1. How is culture a social product?

 

ANS:

It is not the product of gene pools but comes about through cultural evolution. Many aspects of culture are produced intentionally.

 

REF:   35

 

  1. What is sociobiology?

 

ANS:

It is the study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior.

 

REF:   37

 

  1. What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis?

 

ANS:

It argues that the grammar, structure, and categories embodied in each language affect how its speakers see reality.

 

REF:   38

 

  1. Explain the difference between values and norms.

 

ANS:

Values are shared ideas about desirable goals or standards. Norms are behaviors; they are shaped by values, and the means for achieving goals.

 

REF:   40                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Explain the difference between a subculture and a counterculture; give an example of each.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   42                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is assimilation?

 

ANS:

It is the process through which individuals learn and adopt the values and social practices of the dominant group, more or less giving up their own values in the process.

 

REF:   43

 

  1. What is the difference between high culture and popular culture? Give an example of each.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   46                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is cultural lag? Give an example.

 

ANS:

It occurs when one part of culture changes more rapidly than another. An example is having technologies, such as cloning, without a set of values and norms to guide them.

 

REF:   49

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain how the approaches of structural-functionalism and conflict differ in how they study culture.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   32

 

  1. What is ethnocentrism, how does it arise, and how might it be seen as both helpful and harmful to a given society?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   34

 

  1. Discuss the difference between sociobiology and cultural explanations in their approach to the study of human behavior.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   36-37             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Discuss the various aspects of language as a carrier of culture. Why is language important to culture?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   37-38             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Define the concepts of assimilation and multiculturalism.  Discuss how thinking changed over time with respect to these two concepts and culture in the United States.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   43

 

  1. How does culture change? Develop your own example, describing the role played by the environment, isolation, technology, and dominant cultural themes.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   45-46

 

  1. Explain what effect media depictions of female beauty has on young women and girls?  How are these depictions used by males?  Describe ethnic group differences in the impact on self-concept.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   47

 

  1. Discuss consumerism as a dominant theme in American culture. How did consumerism develop, what are the influences on consumer behavior. What are the effects of consumerism on the American lifestyle?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   48                  MSC:  NEW

 

  1. List and explain the sources of globalization.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   50

 

  1. Discuss the impact of globalization, both negative and positive. Give one example each for the economic, cultural and political impact of globalization.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   51                  MSC:  NEW

CHAPTER 8: RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A race is a category of people:
a. who are genetically very different from the rest of the population.
b. classified on the basis of social characteristics.
c. with shared physical traits that are given social importance.
d. who have the same national heritage.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a cultural characteristic that distinguishes ethnic groups?
a. language c. national identification
b. race d. religion

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. Members of an ethnic group:
a. are always from the same race.
b. share a common origin and elements of culture.
c. are always members of a minority group.
d. would not be considered “white”.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Race is a biological fact, not a social concept.
b. Race and ethnicity are socially constructed categories.
c. Ethnicity and race are interchangeable terms.
d. None of the above is true.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. The sociological concept of the social construction of race means that:
a. race is more of a social idea than a biological fact.
b. race really means the same thing as ethnicity.
c. ethnicity is biological; race is social.
d. race is always defined in the same way, regardless of time and place.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. In the U.S. definitions of race:
a. have always included “white” as a category.
b. have always included Mexican American as a race.
c. have changed over time.
d. have included Hispanic.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.2

 

  1. Which of these statements about changing ethnic identities if FALSE?
a. Sicilians, Milanese, and Napolitanos only began sharing an identity as Italians in the 20th century.
b. The break up of the Soviet Union resulted in the reconstruction of identities that were abandoned earlier.
c. Changing borders create new ethnic identities.
d. An individual’s ethnic and racial identities are fixed throughout his or her life.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. When sociologists refer to a majority group, they are referring to the:
a. numerically largest group in a society.
b. group that is culturally, economically, and politically dominant.
c. numerically smallest group in a society.
d. group that is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. Females in the United States could be regarded as a minority group because they:
a. are culturally, economically and politically subordinate to males.
b. are smaller than males.
c. participate less than males in politics.
d. make up less than 50 percent of the population.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. A _____ group is a group that is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate.
a. majority c. ethnic
b. minority d. racial

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. The type of theory most often used to explain how relations between majority and minority groups are developed and maintained is:
a. structural-functionalism.
b. symbolic interactionism.
c. conflict theory.
d. None of these theories applies to majority/minority relations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.4                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. How does inequality within any particular racial-ethnic group compare with the inequality between groups?
a. All racial and ethnic groups have very different patterns of internal inequality.
b. The inequality between groups is much greater than the inequality within any particular group.
c. Within each different racial-ethnic group, the top 20 percent of the population receives about half of the income.
d. There is very little inequality within the population of African Americans.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. According to the data presented in the text, the median income of white non-Hispanic families is about _____ that of Hispanic and African American families.
a. half as much as c. ten times
b. one and a half times d. equal to

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. According the date presented in the text, the median net worth of white non-Hispanic families is about _____ that of Hispanic and African American families.
a. half as much as c. ten times
b. one and a half times d. equal to

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Racial differences in ______ are primarily responsible for the continuing racial divide in the U.S.
a. income c. political representation
b. cultural norms d. wealth

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. _____ is the term used to describe the disproportionately large number of health and environmental risks that minorities face in their neighborhoods and workplaces.
a. Culture of poverty c. Situational discrimination
b. Multiplying inequality d. Environmental racism

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. The best predictor of exposure to environmental pollution is:
a. race. c. region of country of residence.
b. gender. d. age.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Research shows that compared to white communities, minority communities are exposed to a _____ number of health and environmental risks in their neighborhoods and on the job.
a. slightly higher c. disproportionately high
b. slightly lower d. disproportionately low

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. Which of these statements regarding environmental pollution is FALSE?
a. Hazardous waste landfills are disproportionately located in Hispanic and African American neighborhoods.
b. Unlike other industries, manufacturers do not tend to locate their plants in minority communities.
c. Farm workers are often exposed to toxic pesticides as part of their work.
d. Uranium mining on Native American reservations has cause poisoning through the air and water.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. When groups exist as separate but equal cultures within a society this is termed:
a. assimilation. c. pluralism.
b. a melting pot. d. acculturation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The U.S:
a. has not made any progress toward pluralism.
b. has achieved true pluralism.
c. has no interest in pluralism.
d. has done better than most other countries in terms of achieving pluralism.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. When members of minority groups lose their defining features and adopt those of the majority culture this is termed:
a. assimilation. c. pluralism.
b. a melting pot. d. acculturation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Many Jewish Americans give Christmas gifts and put up a Christmas tree. This is an example of:
a. assimilation. c. pluralism.
b. domination. d. affiliation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Genocide is an example of:
a. acculturation. c. conflict.
b. social integration. d. accommodation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   189                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Which of these statements about genocide is TRUE?
a. Genocides have occurred throughout history in various places in the world.
b. Genocide often just seems to happen; groups that get along suddenly turn on each other.
c. Genocide was frequent in the past, but is rare in today’s world.
d. All of these statements about genocide are true.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   189                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. The first step in a society moving toward committing genocide is:
a. dehumanization of members of a minority group.
b. mass killing and destruction.
c. declaring war.
d. the classifying of people into different groups.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   189                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Segregation continues because of:
a. laws preventing integration.
b. preferences by minorities.
c. economic differences and continuing prejudice.
d. None of these; segregation has virtually disappeared.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   191                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. The physical separation of minority and majority group members is called:
a. segregation. c. prejudiced ideology.
b. discrimination. d. acculturation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   191                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Which of these statements accurately describes racial segregation in the U.S.?
a. As segregation was made illegal it as slowly disappeared.
b. Lower-income members of minority groups are more likely to live in ethnically segregated neighborhoods than are wealthier members of the same groups.
c. Economic differences are almost exclusively the reason for segregated neighborhoods in the U.S.
d. Segregation of all racial minority groups has been increasing since the 1970s.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   192                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Prejudice is:
a. the belief that people who belong to the same category share common characteristics.
b. an irrationally based negative attitude toward categories of people.
c. the belief that inherited physical characteristics determine the presence or absence of socially relevant abilities and characteristics.
d. the unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in a category.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   192                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Which is NOT true about prejudice?
a. It is always negative. c. It is a barrier to interaction.
b. It is irrational. d. It easily gives way to facts.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   192                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. An irrational negative attitude held about a category of people is known as:
a. authoritarianism. c. discrimination.
b. prejudice. d. scapegoating.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   192                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Mindy believes that African Americans are simply not as intelligent as whites.  She says that grades on things like the SAT are an example of this.  She believes it is only fair that African Americans, therefore, make less money than whites. This is an example of:
a. scapegoating. c. racism.
b. authoritarianism. d. institutionalized discrimination.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   193                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. The belief that inherited physical characteristics associated with racial groups determine individual abilities and are a legitimate basis for unequal treatment is called:
a. stereotyping. c. discrimination.
b. racism. d. conflict.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   193                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. When people believe that racism is no longer a problem and therefore oppose any programs designed to combat racism, this has been termed:
a. color-blind racism. c. stereotyping.
b. assimilationist racism. d. conservative racism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   193                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Stereotyping is:
a. always negative.
b. a belief that people who belong to the same category share common characteristics.
c. a belief that people who belong to different groups share common characteristics.
d. comparison shopping for home audio equipment.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   193                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. The following are all factors causing prejudice discussed in your text EXCEPT:
a. authoritarianism. c. institutionalized patterns of inequality.
b. cultural norms. d. biological inheritance.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Individuals who are submissive to those with higher status and bully those with less status are considered:
a. undemocratic. c. opportunists.
b. having a disciplinarian personality. d. having an authoritarian personality.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Someone with _____ is likely to be submissive to those in authority, but hold negative attitudes toward those lower in status.
a. an authoritarian personality c. a devaluation disorder
b. a tendency for scapegoating d. color-blind racism

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Racial and ethnic hostilities are most pronounced when economic resources are _____ and majority group advantage is _____.
a. scarce; secure c. abundant; secure
b. scarce; threatened d. abundant; threatened

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. James, an unemployed construction worker, can’t find a job.  He blames cheaper immigrant labor for his unemployment, and is hostile toward anyone who appears of a different race than he is. This is an example of:
a. targeting. c. subversion.
b. discrimination. d. scapegoating.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of scapegoating?
a. Joe believes that African Americans are all criminals.
b. Penny thinks that all ethnic groups should have the same opportunities to get a job.
c. Bob lost his job and blames immigrants in the U.S. for working for lower wages and causing him to get fired.
d. Tom believes that the welfare system encourages people not to work.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. When acting on the belief that a situation exists results in it becoming real, this is called:
a. institutionalized racism. c. discrimination.
b. a self-fulfilling prophecy. d. scapegoating.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Two groups of children are randomly labeled either “gifted” or “slow” and are treated accordingly.  Although there are no real differences, the children labeled gifted perform better than those labeled slow.  This is known as:
a. institutional racism. c. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
b. reverse discrimination. d. prejudice.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. It is assumed that Jewish students are clannish.  Therefore, no one who is not Jewish invites any Jewish students to socialize with them. Consequently, the Jewish students socialize with one another.  This is an example of:
a. institutionalized racism. c. authoritarianism.
b. a self-fulfilling prophecy. d. scapegoating.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Discrimination is:
a. the unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of their membership in categories.
b. the tendency to be submissive to those in authority.
c. the process of blaming other groups for your group’s failures.
d. an irrational, negative attitude toward a category of people.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. _____ is an attitude; _____ is behavior.
a. Discrimination / prejudice c. Racism / prejudice
b. Prejudice / discrimination d. Segregation / racism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Public policy in the U.S. directed at racism is aimed almost entirely at reducing:
a. prejudice. c. social distance.
b. discrimination. d. stereotyping.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Which of the following is a TRUE statement?
a. Prejudice always causes discrimination.
b. Discrimination always causes prejudice.
c. Prejudice and discrimination do not always occur together.
d. Prejudice and discrimination are unrelated.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. When situations in everyday life appear to be fair but in reality reproduce racial or ethnic inequality, this is termed:
a. laissez-faire racism. c. reverse discrimination.
b. institutionalized racism. d. a self-fulfilling prophecy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   196                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. _____ occurs when the normal operation of apparently neutral processes systematically produces unequal results for majority and minority groups.
a. Triple jeopardy c. Institutionalized racism
b. Double jeopardy d. Individual racism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   196                OBJ:   8.7                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of institutionalized discrimination?
a. Colleges basing the acceptance of students on standardized tests that may be culturally biased.
b. A police officer who targets minorities for traffic ticketing.
c. A human resources manager who does not hire minorities because she is prejudiced.
d. None of the above is an example of institutionalized discrimination.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   196                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Gypsy children in the Czech Republic score lower than others on standardized tests. Based on these scores they are placed in schools for the mentally handicapped. Because they are in these schools they are not able to catch up with other Czech children and remain further behind. This is an example of:
a. laissez-faire racism. c. reverse discrimination.
b. institutionalized racism. d. culture of poverty.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   196                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. By 1700, the _____ culture was dominant on the entire Eastern seaboard.
a. Dutch c. Spanish
b. German d. English

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   197                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The white racial identity is characterized by:
a. self-awareness as a white person.
b. considerable, if unacknowledged privilege.
c. the same barriers as all other ethnicities.
d. a lack of any culture.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   197                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The term “the melting pot” implies:
a. Anglo-conformity.
b. cultural pluralism.
c. authoritarianism.
d. the idea of the emergence of a new culture.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   197                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Whites receive often unacknowledged benefits and opportunities simply by virtue of being white. Collectively, these are referred to as:
a. reverse affirmative action. c. equal opportunity.
b. white privilege. d. majority advantages.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   197                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Black infants are _____ white infants to die before their first birthday.
a. more than two times as likely as c. as equally likely as
b. less likely than d. four times as likely as

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   198                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Blacks in corporate positions:
a. are just as powerful as their white counterparts.
b. often remain outside the true corporate power structure.
c. are paid equal to others in similar positions.
d. are actually less common than they were a decade ago.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Black workers earn _____ than White workers and Black families are _____ likely to have two earners.
a. more; less c. less; more
b. more; more d. less; less

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Significant improvements in the status of African Americans within the U.S. did not begin until:
a. immediately following WWI. c. after the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
b. immediately following WWII. d. after the Civil War.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   198                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Which of the following may explain the black-white earning gap?
a. Pervasive patterns of discrimination.
b. A higher proportion of blacks than whites living in the south where wages are lower.
c. Lower educational attainment of blacks.
d. All of these explain the earnings gap.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The wage gap between blacks and whites can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT:
a. different levels of work experience. c. differences in willingness to work.
b. discrimination. d. different levels of education.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. About half the gap between black and white family income is due to the fact that black families:
a. are more likely to have a female head of household and female heads of household earn less than male heads of household.
b. don’t spend their money as wisely as white families.
c. have more children than white families.
d. have less access to quality investments than white families.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Because so many more black than white households are headed by females, some commentators have concluded that black poverty is a result of bad decision-making by African American men and women. Empirical evidence:
a. suggests this is simply not true.
b. suggests this is probably the case.
c. has not been conducted to support or refute this.
d. suggests this is definitely the case.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Approximately what proportion of African American families are headed by an unmarried woman?
a. 7 percent c. 22 percent
b. 10 percent d. 46 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Which of the following is a TRUE statement?
a. Poverty among African Americans results mostly from the poor marital decisions men and women make.
b. Female-headship in African American families is a result of poverty.
c. Intact African American families have average annual earnings equal to those of intact white families.
d. African Americans, on average, earn more than whites.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The largest racial or ethnic minority in the U.S. today is _____ Americans:
a. Hispanic c. African
b. Japanese d. Native

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The largest group of Hispanics in the U.S. are the:
a. Puerto Ricans. c. Mexican Americans.
b. Cubans Americans. d. Central and South Americans.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Your text asserts that _____ were more readily accepted by Americans and are acculturated more quickly.
a. Mexican Americans c. Chicanos
b. early immigrants from Cuba d. South Americans

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The most poorly educated racial or ethnic group in the U.S. is:
a. African Americans. c. Puerto Ricans.
b. Mexican Americans. d. Korean Americans.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Which ethnic group is most likely to live in poverty?
a. Puerto Ricans c. Japanese Americans
b. Cuban Americans d. Anglo-Americans

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The fastest growing segment of the U.S. population is:
a. African Americans. c. Whites.
b. Hispanics. d. Asians.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   200                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Which of the following racial and ethnic groups in the United States has the highest percent of families that are female-headed?
a. White, non-Hispanic c. African American
b. Cuban American d. Native American

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   200                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. What impact does Hispanic immigration have on the economic lives of the typical American?
a. It depresses the wages of all Americans.
b. It depresses the wages of those who lack a high school degree.
c. It improves the lives of the affluent by making a pool of cheap labor possible.
d. The impact is not clear; each of the above is true according to different researchers.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. A major concern affecting the Hispanic population today is:
a. lack of assistance learning English.
b. extreme residential segregation at all income levels.
c. concern about immigration on the part of many Americans.
d. a lack of anything thing resembling Latino culture in the U.S.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Compared with African Americans:
a. Hispanics experience greater segregation and discrimination.
b. Hispanics experience less segregation and discrimination.
c. the Hispanic population is growing much more slowly.
d. All of these are true when comparing Hispanics to African Americans.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Since 1980 the Asian population in the U.S. has more than doubled. Today Asian Americans are _____ of the U.S. population.
a. 1 percent c. 8 percent
b. about 3.6 percent d. almost 12 percent

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. More recent Asian immigrants to the U.S. have come predominantly from:
a. China. c. the Philippines.
b. Japan. d. southeast Asia.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Asian Americans:
a. generally earn higher incomes than whites.
b. are more likely than white Americans to have earned a college, graduate, or professional degree.
c. are typically no longer the victims of discrimination.
d. have always been welcome in the U. S. because of their work ethic.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Similar to the pattern found among Japanese and Chinese Americans, recent immigrants from Southeast Asia:
a. have substantially less education than Anglos.
b. have similar levels of education as white Americans.
c. have approximately the same level of education as Hispanics.
d. are more likely to be enrolled in school in their early 20’s than whites of the same age.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Evidence suggests that Asian Americans are _____ to be accepted at elite universities as/than white Americans with the same credentials.
a. substantially more likely c. somewhat less likely
b. slightly more likely d. as likely

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. James Zuo is a third generation Chinese American.  Like Mark Kennedy who is white, non-Hispanic, James is a Harvard graduate with a degree in electrical engineering and 5 years of job experience.  Research shows that James is likely to earn _____ Mark.
a. substantially more than c. the same as
b. slightly more than d. substantially less

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Native Americans today comprise _____ of the U.S. population.
a. more than 5 percent c. about 8 percent
b. less than 1 percent d. 12 percent

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. _____ are widely regarded as the most disadvantaged group in the United States.
a. Native Americans c. Cuban Americans
b. Jews d. Asian Americans

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. _____ have the highest rates of premature death compared with other racial or ethnic groups.
a. Puerto Ricans c. African Americans
b. Mexican Americans d. Native Americans

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. _____ have the highest rates of alcoholism of any of these racial or ethnic groups.
a. Puerto Ricans c. African Americans
b. Mexican Americans d. Native Americans

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Within the U.S., Native Americans:
a. are fairly evenly spread out throughout the country.
b. have not had any economic success.
c. are disproportionately poor, despite mineral resources and casinos on tribal lands.
d. face less prejudice and discrimination than members of other minority groups.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   203                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. According to your text, Arab Americans constitute:
a. a poorly educated group of people.
b. a group that is very poorly paid.
c. a highly educated group of people.
d. an extremely homogenous group of people.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   203                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. In a recent poll of Americans’ attitudes toward members of various religious groups, which group was viewed the least favorably?
a. Jews c. Evangelical Christians
b. Muslims d. Atheists

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   204                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. According to a recent Gallup Poll, what percentage of Americans is in favor of special security requirements for Muslim Americans?
a. 5 percent c. 24 percent
b. 15 percent d. 40 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   204                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. About what proportion of the U.S. population currently identifies themselves as multiracial?
a. .05 percent c. 3.5 percent
b. 1.6 percent d. 10 percent

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   204                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Which of these factors has contributed to the increasing number of Americans defining themselves as multiracial?
a. More multiracial children are being accepted by their family members of different races.
b. It has only recently been made legal to declare ones self multiracial.
c. In the past having multiracial parentage was extremely rare.
d. None of these is a factor in the increasing numbers of self-identified multiracial Americans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   205                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Having low status on two different dimensions of stratification is known as:
a. double jeopardy. c. institutionalized discrimination.
b. triple jeopardy. d. significant turmoil.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   205                OBJ:   8.9                 KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of the following could be described as being in double jeopardy?
a. Rose, a black woman c. George, a Mexican American man
b. Ben, an older white man d. Mary, a white woman

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   205                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. If W. J. Wilson is correct about the impact of race, the status of African Americans will increasingly be linked to:
a. economic status. c. prejudice of whites.
b. racial consciousness. d. racism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   205                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. In evaluating the economic and social disadvantages of African Americans, William Julius Wilson has argued that:
a. racism keeps all racial minorities poor.
b. racism is currently the major cause of economic disadvantage among racial minorities.
c. racism is irrelevant to the economic status of African Americans.
d. the status of African Americans currently has less to do with racism than it does with the simple inheritance of social class.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   205                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. W. J. Wilson claims that African Americans can best be helped by strategies that will help all Americans. _____ sociologists agree.
a. All c. Few
b. Most d. No

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   206                OBJ:   8.9

 

  1. Affirmative Action rules:
a. require quotas.
b. are illegal.
c. require employers, schools, and others to actively work to decrease the effects of past discrimination.
d. don’t work.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   206                OBJ:   8.10               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Which of these strategies for ending inequality has proved to be the most contentious?
a. Affirmative Action
b. making discrimination in employment illegal
c. the Voting Rights Act
d. school desegregation

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   207                OBJ:   8.10

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biologists generally agree that there is no genuine biological basis for race.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. Ethnic identities change as national borders are changed for various reasons.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.3

 

  1. Using the sociological definition used in your text, it is safe to say that the minority group is always the group that is smallest in size.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   186                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. The best predictor of whether an area will be exposed to environmental pollution is race.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. The U.S. is a fully pluralistic society.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. High levels of residential segregation in the United States have practically disappeared since the mid-1980s.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   191                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Prejudice and discrimination do not always occur together.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Most public policy aimed at ending racism has specifically addressed discrimination.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   195                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Blacks in corporate positions are generally just as powerful as their white counterparts.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The largest group of Hispanics in the United States can trace their roots back to Mexico.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Hispanic immigration to the U.S. has negative consequences for the entire population.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   201                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Because of the educational success, Asian Americans earn more than white Americans with the same credentials.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. The establishment of casinos on reservation land has dramatically decreased rates of poverty among Native Americans.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Prior to September 11, 2001 many Americans had no particular opinions about Arabs.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   204                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Most sociologists agree that class is more relevant than race or ethnicity in terms of economic and social inequality.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   206                OBJ:   8.9

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is the difference between race and ethnic group?

 

ANS:

A race is a category of people treated as distinct on account of physical characteristics to which social importance has been assigned.  An ethnic group is a category whose members are thought to share a common origin and to share important determinants of a common culture.

 

REF:   185                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. What is the difference between majority and minority groups?

 

ANS:

A majority groups is a group that is culturally, economically, and politically dominant; while the minority group is the group that is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate.

 

REF:   186                OBJ:   8.1

 

  1. What is environmental racism?

 

ANS:

Environmental racism refers to the disproportionately large number of health and environmental risks that minorities face daily in their neighborhoods and workplaces.

 

REF:   187                OBJ:   8.5

 

  1. What are the three general patterns of interaction between majority and minority groups discussed in the text?

 

ANS:

assimilation, pluralism, and conflict

 

REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. Define pluralism.

 

ANS:

True pluralism is the existence of separate but equal cultures within a society. Each culture would have its own institutions, and membership in any one culture would not affect one’s position.

 

REF:   188                OBJ:   8.6

 

  1. What is an authoritarian personality and what is its relevance to inequality?

 

ANS:

An authoritarian personality is one that is submissive to authority but antagonistic to those with lower status. People with authoritarian personalities tend to be more prejudiced.

 

REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. Provide an example of scapegoating.

 

ANS:

Scapegoating occurs when people or groups who are blocked in their own goal attainment blame others for their failures.  An example might be a white, non-Hispanic man blaming his unemployment on the influx of immigrants from Mexico stating that the illegals are taking all the jobs.

 

REF:   194                OBJ:   8.7

 

  1. What are three reasons for the lower earnings of blacks compared to whites?

 

ANS:

Higher unemployment; lower educational attainment; employment in low-paying fields; discrimination, African Americans are more likely to live in the South where wages are lower

 

REF:   199                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Name three indicators that suggest that Native Americans are the most disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States.

 

ANS:

Native Americans have the lowest incomes and lowest rates of educational achievement; they have the highest alcoholism rates, and have the highest premature death rates.

 

REF:   202                OBJ:   8.8

 

  1. Briefly describe double jeopardy.

 

ANS:

Double jeopardy means having low status on two different dimensions of stratification.

 

REF:   205                OBJ:   8.9

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare the concepts of race and ethnicity.  In what ways are they different and in what ways may they overlap?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   185

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the “social construction of race and ethnicity.” Give examples that demonstrate how these concepts are constructions.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   185-186

 

  1. Name and define the different patterns of interaction that may occur between majority and minority groups and provide an example of each.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   188-190

 

  1. Define genocide; give examples of places in the world where genocide is currently taking place. Describe the stages leading to genocide.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   189-192

 

  1. Compare the concepts of stereotypes and prejudice.  Provide examples of each. How do these concepts relate to each other?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   192-193

 

  1. Define prejudice and discrimination.  Describe the relationship between them.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   192-195

 

  1. What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?  How might the self-fulfilling prophecy affect racial and ethnic inequality in the U.S.?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   194-195

 

  1. Discuss the construction of whiteness as a race, and the meaning of white racial identity. Explain white privilege as it pertains to white identity.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   197

 

  1. What is meant by the term “double jeopardy”?  Choose one example of double jeopardy and illustrate its consequences, using research findings reported in your text.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   205-206

 

  1. Summarize William Julius Wilson’s position on race and ethnicity.  Why do most sociologists disagree with Wilson?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   205-206

CHAPTER 14: POPULATION AND URBANIZATION

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Demography is the study of:
a. population. c. geography.
b. urbanization. d. stratification.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1

 

  1. The world’s population is currently approximately:
a. 10 billion. c. 6.3 billion
b. 8.7 billion. d. 3.4 billion.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. The world’s population is two and a half times larger than it was in 1950. This is because:
a. the fertility rate has been increasingly dramatically.
b. the birth rate and the fertility rate have both increased, making population growth double.
c. mortality as decreased rapidly while fertility has decreased only slowly.
d. None of these; migration is the only factor that has changed since 1950.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the difference between the fertility rate and the birth rate?
a. The fertility rate takes mortality into consideration and the birth rate does not.
b. The fertility rate is based on births per 1000 women, and the birth rate is based on births per 1000 persons.
c. The birth rate is easier for most people to understand than the fertility rate.
d. None of these; there is no difference between these two measures.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. As industry has diminished in the some areas of the Northeast U.S. many people have moved South and Southwest. Demographers would term this:
a. internal migration. c. emigration.
b. immigration. d. shifting population.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Immigration is important because it has implications for:
a. population growth.
b. issues of citizenship.
c. definitions of nationality.
d. All of these are impacted by immigration.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. If the birth rate of the world were 30 births per 1,000 population and the death rate were 10 deaths per 1,000 population, the rate of natural increase would be _____ percent.
a. 1.0 c. 2.0
b. 1.6 d. 2.4

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   346                OBJ:   14.1

 

  1. A low life expectancy (say, 30 or 35) means that:
a. nobody lives to old age. c. a lot of people die in infancy.
b. 30 is considered middle aged. d. a lot of people live to be quite old.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   346                OBJ:   14.1

 

  1. The change from a population characterized by high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates is called:
a. population projection. c. the fertility-mortality shift.
b. the demographic transition. d. the population revolution.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The demographic transition:
a. is the process of moving from the traditional balance of high birth- and death-rates to a new balance of low birth- and death-rates.
b. is the process of migrating to a society with higher mortality and fertility from a society with lower mortality and fertility.
c. refers to the situation of a consistently high fertility rate.
d. refers to a population experiencing negative population growth.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. The first major cause of declining mortality in the West was:
a. modern medicine. c. vaccinations.
b. improvements in hygiene. d. improvements in nutrition.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. The primary reason for the dramatic decreases in U.S. mortality rates during the twentieth century is:
a. the sharp decline in fertility.
b. improvements in standard of living and nutrition.
c. improvements in medical science.
d. the more equitable distribution of goods and services.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. Why do some countries with a lower standard of living than the U.S. have a life expectancy that is as high, if not higher?
a. After a certain point standard of living is less important than reducing income inequality in extending life expectancy.
b. Some natural remedies used in these countries are far more effective than modern medicine.
c. People in countries with lower standards of living do not experience as much stress as do people in the U.S.
d. None of these; countries with lower standards of living always have lower life expectancies.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. How did the Industrial Revolution influence fertility rates?
a. New economic forms, such as pensions, meant children weren’t needed for care in one’s old age.
b. Lower mortality rates meant fewer births were needed to ensure that several children survived into adulthood.
c. New ideas of individual satisfaction helped to popularize limiting family size.
d. All of these are ways in which the Industrial Revolution indirectly impacted fertility rates.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. A number of hypotheses have been developed about the decline in the death rate, the decline in fertility, and the development of industrialization.  What is considered to be the main and direct cause of the fertility reduction in the West?
a. reduced mortality c. changed values and aspirations
b. greater industrialization d. government intervention

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. In the non-West, birth and death rates remained equally high until:
a. the 1960s. c. the 1990s.
b. the early twentieth century. d. about 1840.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. In less-developed nations, mortality rates began to decline in the mid-twentieth century due to:
a. an aging population.
b. increased standard of living.
c. rapid industrialization.
d. improvements in sanitation and health care.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. The decreased mortality in less-developed countries in the mid-twentieth century resulted in:
a. decreased fertility rates. c. increased population growth.
b. higher fertility rates. d. gradual population decrease.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. Population growth has slowed considerably in some African countries like Botswana, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe due to:
a. the increased status of women.
b. the impact of AIDS.
c. aggressive family planning programs.
d. a new value placed on individual gratification.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. What is a population pyramid?
a. a graphic illustration of population size broken down by age and sex
b. a estimated projection of future population trends
c. a type of kinship chart demonstrating relationships within the society
d. a demographic chart of migration, birth and death

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. When a population pyramid is shaped like a pyramid this means that:
a. the country is at zero-population growth.
b. a country has undergone the demographic transition.
c. birth, death and migration are all fairly equal.
d. the population is very young, and relatively few people live into old age.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   348                OBJ:   14.3               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In Ghana, women who cannot bear children:
a. have a higher status than women who do. c. are at risk of divorce or abandonment.
b. must adopt them. d. are executed.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   349                OBJ:   14.4

 

  1. Women in Ghana have many children because:
a. their husbands insist on it.
b. they have been systematically denied access to contraceptives.
c. they do not know any better.
d. in many ways, they are better off when they have large families.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   350                OBJ:   14.4

 

  1. In Ghana, large families are:
a. an economic and political disadvantage.
b. considered a curse.
c. advantageous politically and economically.
d. relatively rare.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                OBJ:   14.4

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the high value placed on children in Ghana?
a. Educational desires for the future of the country.
b. The creation of political ties through children’s marriages.
c. Women’s social status.
d. Economic security in the parents’ old age.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   350                OBJ:   14.4

 

  1. Your text suggests that the BEST way to reduce fertility in places like Ghana is to:
a. open more family-planning clinics.
b. provide free contraceptives.
c. provide more educational and economic opportunities for women.
d. combine access to contraceptives with more educational and economic opportunities for women.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   350                OBJ:   14.4

 

  1. With modern levels of mortality, replacement level fertility requires an average of _____ children per woman.
a. 1.0 c. 2.0
b. 1.8 d. 2.1

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.5               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Given current trends, over the next few generations the population in Europe will:
a. gradually increase. c. greatly increase.
b. gradually decrease. d. remain stable.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. The fertility rate to replace a woman and her partner, and to cover childhood mortality is called:
a. reverse mortality rate. c. raw birth rate.
b. crude birth rate. d. zero population growth

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. In a low fertility society, such as Italy, women typically:
a. do not need to have children to have a purpose in life or to assure their social standing.
b. have little involvement outside the home.
c. view fertility as a duty and a means of old-age insurance.
d. gain higher status from having children.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. In Italy current trends in fertility will result in age structures in which the:
a. younger generation is much larger than the older generation.
b. age cohorts will all be the same size.
c. older generation is as large as or larger than the younger generation.
d. life expectancy will decrease.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a concern due to the low fertility rate in Italy?
a. too many old people. c. cultural dilution.
b. too many young people. d. labor force shortage.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Which of the following is a negative consequence of low fertility discussed in the text?
a. Unhappy family life and empty nest syndrome.
b. Less satisfying marriages and lack of family income from children’s labor.
c. Diminished to the new technologies and popular culture that children learn about first.
d. Difficulty filling all necessary occupations, and rising costs of caring for the elderly.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Low fertility in Italy has resulted in too few workers. To counteract this problem, Italy has:
a. begun outsourcing jobs to the United States.
b. been importing workers from Albania.
c. begun importing workers from Central and South American.
d. been considering exporting its older population to other countries.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Even though Italy has been experiencing a labor shortage, it has recently clamped down on immigration. Why?
a. They fear their cultures will be diluted or changed.
b. They fear of terrorists have been entering the country.
c. Immigrants were having too many children.
d. Foreign workers were taking all of the good jobs.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. In May 2008 an earthquake struck Sichuan province in China. Schools collapsed and thousands of children were killed. This disaster was especially tragic because:
a. scientists had been warning of danger from earthquakes in that area.
b. many of the children killed were the only children of their parents due to China’s restriction on having more than one child.
c. the children were all under the age of five.
d. with better emergency alerts it would have been possible to clear the schools before they collapsed.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Incentive programs in Italy and other European countries designed to encourage fertility include:
a. cash bonuses for childbearing.
b. housing subsidies for families with more children.
c. paid and longer maternity leave.
d. All of these are incentives designed to encourage fertility.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. What is the impact of public policies encouraging fertility in Italy and other countries in Europe?
a. They are likely to raise fertility and population size somewhat.
b. They may protect against dramatic declines in the birth rate, but are unlikely to raise it much.
c. They are likely to backfire and actually reduce fertility.
d. They are too costly and burdensome administratively to be worthwhile.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   353                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Which is true regarding the success of policies promoting childbearing in Europe?
a. It is unlikely that government can successfully bribe parents into having more than one or two children.
b. It is certain that fertility will increase as a result of these policies.
c. The policies have been more successful than anticipated.
d. Promotion of fertility has been most successful in suburban neighborhoods.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   353                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Since 1950 the average number of births per woman has:
a. decreased in every part of the world.
b. increased in every part of the world.
c. remained the same in every part of the world.
d. increased everywhere except for Western Europe.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   353                OBJ:   14.6               KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In the most-developed countries, environmental destruction:
a. is a population problem.
b. results from way of life more than population pressure.
c. is the result of overpopulation plus standard of living.
d. is not a problem as it is in the least-developed countries.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.6               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In sub-Saharan Africa, the destruction of the environment is mainly:
a. a poverty problem. c. not our problem.
b. a personal problem. d. a population problem.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.6

 

  1. Your textbook advocates all of the following as immediate responses to the destruction of the global environment EXCEPT:
a. reducing rural poverty.
b. improving farming practices.
c. reducing the debt of less- and least-developed countries.
d. giving the U.S. greater control over the resources in developing nations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.6

 

  1. Approximately _____ people in the world are seriously undernourished.
a. 3 million c. 1/2 billion
b. 1 billion d. 25 million

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. What is the relationship between high fertility and poverty in the developing countries today?
a. High fertility is the primary cause of poverty.
b. Poverty is the primary cause of high fertility.
c. High fertility is not the only or even the major cause of poverty.
d. There is no relationship between these concepts.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. High fertility is:
a. the only cause of poverty in the least developed nations.
b. the only problem in the least developed nations.
c. not even the primary cause of poverty in the developing nations.
d. the primary cause of poverty in the least developed nations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. Between 1975 and 1991 an aggressive family planning program increased contraceptive use in Bangladesh by:
a. 50 percent. c. 500 percent.
b. 100 percent. d. 1000 percent.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   355                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. The family planning program in Bangladesh decreased the average number of children per woman from _____ to _____ in 16 years.
a. 10 / 7 c. 6 / 2
b. 7 / 5 d. 4 / 1

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   355                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. Experience has shown that as education _____, fertility _____.
a. decreases; decreases c. increases; increases
b. increases; decreases d. decreases; remains stable

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   355                OBJ:   14.7

 

  1. What is the impact of increasing women’s education levels, economic status and legal rights?
a. Women do not need to have children in order to secure their social value.
b. Women gain greater power within the family.
c. Women marry later and have fewer children.
d. All of these are the outcomes of increasing women’s social and economic status.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   355                OBJ:   14.7               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The countries with the greatest success in family planning and economic development:
a. have been in Central America.
b. have made special efforts to increase women’s educational and economic status.
c. have given women free access to contraception.
d. have tried to lower infant mortality first.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   355                OBJ:   14.7               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In the year 2008 about _____ people fled their homes involuntarily or were living outside of their countries as stateless persons or asylum seekers.
a. 50,000 c. 3 million
b. 500,000 d. 11 million

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8               KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Most international refugees move from a developing country to:
a. the U.S. c. a developing country.
b. a European country. d. any of the industrialized countries.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8

 

  1. Which of the following is a push factor in migration?
a. Better education in other countries.
b. Better employment opportunities in other countries.
c. Higher standard of living in other countries.
d. Drought and famine in one’s home country.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8

 

  1. Which of the following is a pull factor in migration?
a. A war in one’s home country.
b. Better employment opportunities in other countries.
c. Drought and famine in one’s home country.
d. Little religious freedom in one’s home country.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8

 

  1. Who profits the most from international migration?
a. the migrants themselves c. the host countries
b. the migrants’ countries of origin d. It is not clear who profits the most.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The average number of children born per woman in the United States has been _____ for the last two decades.
a. about 1 c. just at 3
b. about 2 d. slightly more than 3

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.9

 

  1. In the last 15 years, increases in life expectancy in the U.S. have been attributed largely to:
a. conquering infectious disease.
b. better diagnosis and treatment of degenerative diseases.
c. prevention of infant mortality and premature births.
d. reducing the gap between men and women.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   357                OBJ:   14.9

 

  1. In the U.S. the populations at greatest risk of death from AIDS are:
a. aged 25-44.
b. middle-class whites.
c. persons with diseases that require transfusions.
d. gays and lesbians.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   358                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Currently almost all immigrants to the U.S. come from:
a. countries of the former Soviet Union. c. Asian and Africa.
b. Latin America or Asia. d. Eastern Europe.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   358                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. If annual migration remains the same and if fertility remains low, the racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. will:
a. stay the same.
b. change substantially with proportionately fewer non-Hispanic whites.
c. change substantially with increasing numbers of non-Hispanic whites.
d. change very little.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   358                OBJ:   14.9

 

  1. What is the economic impact of immigration to the U.S.?
a. Immigrants take away jobs from citizens and negatively impact the economy.
b. Immigrants have no impact on the economy of the U.S.
c. Immigrants may depress the wages of the least educated Americans in low-skill jobs.
d. There is no research on the economic impact of immigrants.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   359                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In 2008 the percentage of Americans who moved homes was:
a. lower than it has been in 60 years. c. stable given the economic downturn.
b. higher than it has ever been. d. detrimental to the economy.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The most striking example of internal migration within the U.S. was:
a. the northern migration of African Americans following the Civil War.
b. the movement of people out of the Midwest as the auto industry crumbled.
c. the relocation of retirees during the 1990s to the Sunbelt.
d. the exit of one million people out of New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The movement of people from rural areas and small towns into cities is termed:
a. suburbanization. c. consolidation.
b. urbanization. d. metropolitanization.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these statements about trends in internal migration in the U.S. is TRUE?
a. For most of U.S. history rural areas have grown faster than urban areas.
b. For most of U.S. history urban areas have grown faster than rural areas.
c. Since 1970 suburbs have been shrinking and urban areas have been expanding.
d. Most internal migration recently has been from the South to the North.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a current trend in internal migration in the U.S.?
a. migration from central cities to suburbs
b. the growth of the Sunbelt
c. movement from the Sunbelt back North since the recent job and housing crisis
d. the growth of some nonurban areas

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               KEY:  WWW

MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Due to relocation of the U.S. population new problems have emerged.  These include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. urbanization of poverty. c. shrinking central cities.
b. higher mortality rates. d. pollution.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9

 

  1. Much of the geographical relocation in the U.S. population over the last 30 years has been to:
a. the Sunbelt.
b. rural areas in the Midwest and Great Plains.
c. Northeastern nonmetropolitan areas.
d. central cities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9

 

  1. Currently what percentage of the population of the U.S. lives in cities of 100,000 people or more?
a. one-fifth c. one-half
b. one-fourth d. two-thirds

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   361                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. _____ assume that cities grow in ways that provide the most efficient means for distributing goods and services.
a. Conflict theorists c. Materialists
b. Structural-functionalists d. Urban environmentalists

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   362                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. According to _____, each city grows or declines in its own way, depending on the power of competing economic and political forces.
a. Conflict theorists c. Materialists
b. Structural-functionalists d. Urban environmentalists

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   362                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. During the last half century, cities have come to be seen as unsafe and unclean places. Many middle class people have moved from cities to the suburbs. Sociologists refer to this as:
a. urban blight. c. white flight.
b. ruralization. d. urbanization.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   362                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of these statements about suburbanization in the U.S. is TRUE?
a. Suburbanization was promoted by the government in the form of home mortgages.
b. The automobile industry has been a strong lobby for urban mass transit.
c. It is generally easier to get a mortgage for a home in the city than in the suburbs.
d. All of these are true about suburbanization in the U.S.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   363                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The first industrial cities differed from preindustrial cities in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
a. production shifted from the countryside to urban factories.
b. high rates of disease were caused in part by crowding.
c. housing moved outward toward the suburbs.
d. business districts became more centralized.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   364                OBJ:   14.11             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. An important characteristic of the industrial cities of the 19th century was that:
a. production was based primarily in rural areas.
b. improved transportation reduced the problems of density and crowding.
c. there was a tremendous expansion of single-family housing.
d. they were dirty and crowded.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   364                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. The Central Business District, a dense concentration of retail trade, banking and finance, and government offices, developed as a pattern in:
a. preindustrial cities. c. postindustrial cities.
b. industrial cities. d. third world cities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   364                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. The industrial city was a product of a manufacturing economy and a relatively immobile labor force.  It has been suggested that one element has been the “chief architect” of American cities since 1950.  This has been:
a. the growth in single family homes.
b. the change to a secondary mode of production.
c. greater consolidation of production units.
d. the automobile.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. Suburban areas that have developed an existence separate from the cities they were once connected to are called:
a. metropolitan areas. c. edge cities.
b. consolidated zones. d. nonmetropolitan areas.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.11             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a nonmetropolitan county?
a. It is not socially or economically tied to a county with a major city.
b. It has no cities with populations larger than 25,000 in it.
c. It has no urban residents.
d. It is at least 75 miles from a major city.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. Bradbury County has about 100,000 residents spread across dozens of small communities.  The county seat, Phillipsburg, is the largest city in the county with 18,000 residents.  Many of the people who live in Bradbury County work in the county next door, which includes Philadelphia.  According to the definitions in the text:
a. Bradbury County is nonmetropolitan.
b. Bradbury County is metropolitan.
c. Bradbury County is nonmetropolitan, but Phillipsburg is metropolitan.
d. Bradbury County is metropolitan, but Phillipsburg is nonmetropolitan.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. The metropolitan population refers to those who live:
a. in the central city.
b. within the city limits.
c. outside the central city, but in the balance of the county.
d. anywhere in a metropolitan county.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. The annual growth rate of cities such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Calcutta is:
a. negative. c. quite rapid.
b. quite slow. d. 100 percent.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   366                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. Cities in the least developed nations today differ from cities in the developed world in that:
a. little of their growth is due to natural population growth.
b. many have never been industrial cities.
c. they offer too many working-class jobs.
d. they are planned communities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   366                OBJ:   14.11             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Cities in the least developed nations are primarily:
a. industrial cities. c. trade and administrative centers.
b. agricultural centers. d. patterned after the new industrial cities.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   366                OBJ:   14.11

 

  1. According to _____, one result of urbanization will be that people become more cold, calculating and indifferent to strangers.
a. conflict theory c. Louis Wirth
b. symbolic interactionism d. Herbert Gans

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   367                OBJ:   14.10

 

  1. Wirth argued that the greater size, heterogeneity, and density of urban life would:
a. lead to a breakdown of the normative and moral fabric of everyday life.
b. cause urban residents to look to new types of people to form their social network.
c. lead to increases in kindness toward strangers.
d. be offset by the critical mass enabling virtually every type of social network possible.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   367                OBJ:   14.10

 

  1. More recent sociologists studying urban life view cities as:
a. cold, hostile and impersonal environments.
b. opportunities for growth and change.
c. a mosaic of small worlds that are manageable and knowable by those who reside in them.
d. opportunities for the development of critical mass.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   367                OBJ:   14.10

 

  1. Compared to persons living in rural areas, urban dwellers:
a. are more often estranged from family and friends.
b. are more lonely and alienated in general.
c. have a more extensive kin network.
d. have similar numbers of intimate ties.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. Urban researchers have generally concluded that the LEAST likely basis for establishing ties of intimacy for city dwellers is:
a. the neighborhood. c. kin groups.
b. friendship groups. d. work groups.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. Neighbors in urban areas are most useful for:
a. large favors. c. small favors.
b. close friendships. d. intimate ties.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. One of the most outstanding differences in rural/urban quality of life is that big-city residents:
a. are more knowledgeable about social issues.
b. are more highly educated.
c. are less conservative on social issues.
d. are exposed to more crime.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. Urban people express more fear of crime than rural residents.  Empirical data show that:
a. this is unjustified since crime rates are about equal.
b. this is justified since crime rates are higher in urban areas.
c. only women and children have anything to fear in large areas.
d. property crimes do indeed increase in urban areas, but not crimes of violence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. Which of these problems is more severe in rural areas than in metropolitan areas?
a. methamphetamine use c. noise and overcrowding
b. violent crime d. lack of affordable housing

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   369                OBJ:   14.12             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to prefer to live in Manhattan?
a. Joe and Mary, a retired couple
b. Bill and Susan, who have two kids in elementary school
c. Tina and Ken who have two teenagers
d. Paula and Stan, who are in their 30s and have no children

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   369                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the changes that have taken place in suburbia in the last 20 years?
a. It has become more diverse.
b. It has become more crowded.
c. The residents are more affluent.
d. More trade and retail shops have developed.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12

 

  1. Which of the following is listed by your text as one of the major suburban problems?
a. Crime rates that are increasing faster than the national average.
b. The loss of retail jobs.
c. Inadequate zoning authority and haphazard growth.
d. Deteriorating public school systems.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12

 

  1. Quality of life in the suburbs is very contingent upon:
a. being wealthy. c. owning a car.
b. having a large family. d. keeping pets.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12             KEY:  WWW

 

  1. What percent of the U. S. population lives in small towns?
a. 5 percent c. 15 percent
b. 7 percent d. 25 percent

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12

 

  1. The major problem with rural life is:
a. a lack of social ties. c. a lack of high-paying jobs.
b. little opportunity for entertainment. d. little affordable housing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   371                OBJ:   14.12             MSC:  NEW

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Improvements in nutrition were the first major cause of declining mortality in the West.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. Public-health engineering ensuring a safe water supply and treatment of sewage was more important than improved medical care in terms of reducing mortality.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Research indicates that the most effect way to reduce fertility globally is to provide free contraceptives.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. With modern levels of mortality, replacement level fertility or zero population growth requires an average of 2.1 children per woman.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   351                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. Whether trying to promote or reduce fertility, programs are only effective if they coincide with women’s own desires.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   353                OBJ:   14.4| 14.5       MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The pressure on the environment cause by the most industrialized countries, including the U.S., is the result of over-population.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.6               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. In most developing countries high fertility rates are the primary cause of poverty.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   354                OBJ:   14.7               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Increases in the U.S. population are caused by immigration, not an increased fertility rate.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   356                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Economic research indicates that immigrant labor in the U.S. is taking jobs away from American citizens.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   359                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Internal migration within the U.S. is currently occurring at much higher rates than ever before.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The population of New Orleans is about 40 percent smaller than it was prior to Hurricane Katrina.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The urban renewal programs of the 1960s and 1970s were successful at restoring neighborhoods and quality housing in urban areas.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   363                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. The creation of the suburbs was dependent on the automobile.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   365                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Sociological research has found that urban residents have as many intimate ties as rural and suburban residents.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   368                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. About 40 percent of the nation’s population lives in rural areas or small towns of 2,500 people or less.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is the difference between the birth rate and the fertility rate?

 

ANS:

The birthrate is the number of births per 1,000 persons and the fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women.

 

REF:   345                OBJ:   14.1               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the demographic transition?

 

ANS:

The demographic transition is the process of moving from the traditional balance of high birth- and deathrates to a new balance of low birth- and deathrates.

 

REF:   347                OBJ:   14.2

 

  1. List three reasons why the nations in Europe are concerned about fertility rates that are too low.

 

ANS:

population demise, too many older people placing demands on a system with too few workers, labor-force shortages, nationalistic fears concerning the dilution of the culture

 

REF:   352                OBJ:   14.5

 

  1. What are the elements of the most successful programs for reducing fertility in developing countries?

 

ANS:

The most effective programs for reducing fertility in the developing world combine family planning programs, educational and economic development, and programs for improving the status of women.

 

REF:   355                OBJ:   14.4               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the most common pattern of migration in the developing world?

 

ANS:

Most refugees from developing countries move to nearby developing countries. Voluntary migrants from developing countries move to industrialized countries.

 

REF:   356                OBJ:   14.8               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is urbanization?

 

ANS:

Urbanization is the process of population concentration in metropolitan areas.

 

REF:   360                OBJ:   14.10

 

  1. What are the three major trends in internal migration within the U.S.?

 

ANS:

growth of the Sunbelt, migration from central cities to suburbs, and resurgence of some nonurban areas.

 

REF:   360                OBJ:   14.9               MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What is the structural-functional view of urbanization?

 

ANS:

Structural-functionalists emphasize the benefits of urban growth and decline. They believe that healthy competition leads the city to grow in ways that provide an efficient means of distributing goods and services.

 

REF:   362                OBJ:   14.10             MSC:  NEW

 

  1. What are edge cities?

 

ANS:

Edge cities are suburban centers that now have an existence largely separate from the cities that spawned them.

 

REF:   365                OBJ:   14.10| 14.11

 

  1. What are three problems associated with the growth of suburbs?

 

ANS:

weak governments, lack of adequate public transportation (car dependence), social isolation and alienation

 

REF:   370                OBJ:   14.12

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What is meant by demographic transition?  In what ways did the demographic transition of western industrialized countries differ from that of developing nations?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   346-348

 

  1. Discuss the relationship between women’s status and roles in society and fertility rates.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   349-351

 

  1. Discuss the economic, political, and cultural consequences of current patterns of low fertility in Italy and other European countries.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   351-353

 

  1. Are environmental problems in the least developed nations primarily problems of poverty or population?  What role, if any, can population control play in the solution to the environmental problem?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   353-354

 

  1. Discuss the causes of poverty in the least developed countries. What programs are being implemented to address high fertility and attempt to increase standard of living?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   354-355

 

  1. Describe fertility, mortality, and migration in the U.S. What are their combined impact in terms of the overall population?

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   356-361

 

  1. Describe the process of white flight and the factors that contribute to it.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   362-363

 

  1. Compare the characteristics of the industrial city and the postindustrial city.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   364-365         MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Describe the realities of urban life in terms of social networks, neighborhoods, and the overall quality of life.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   367-368         MSC:  NEW

 

  1. Explain the growth of the suburbs and the problems that have grown along with them.

 

ANS:

Not provided

 

REF:   369-370         MSC:  NEW

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Essentials Of Sociology 8th Edition By Weitz White-Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *