Essentials of Sociology 5th Edition By Giddens – Richard P. Appelbaum-Test Bank

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Essentials of Sociology 5th Edition By Giddens – Richard P. Appelbaum-Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: Culture and Society

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to the text, the sociological study of culture began with which theorist?
a. Margaret Mead
b. Karl Marx
c. Émile Durkheim
d. Max Weber
e. Adam Smith

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 42          TOP:   What is Culture? (I)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Johann is from the United Kingdom. In his cross-cultural studies, he sees that women in Afghanistan are often forced to wear headscarves, but women in the United Kingdom are not. He concludes, then, that women in Afghanistan would be more free if their culture were more like that of the United Kingdom. How might sociologists likely critique Johann’s position?
a. Johann has not yet made an argument for how the United Kingdom might free the women of Afghanistan.
b. Johann first needs to look at class relations in the two countries, because gender is always an effect of class.
c. Johann cannot make meaningful comparisons without at least four more sample countries.
d. Johann would be better served as a social scientist if he avoided those kinds of value judgments.
e. Johann needs to demonstrate how Islam leads to women’s oppression, unlike Christianity, by doing a comparison of religious contexts.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 42          TOP:   What Is Culture? (I)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Bella will be moving to the United States to study characteristics of contemporary white American culture. Why might sociologists say Bella must be careful in her study?
a. Culture is a fuzzy concept and, thus, unworthy of study.
b. Only Americans should study American culture.
c. There is no single, monolithic white American culture.
d. Anthropologists are typically the ones who study culture.
e. Bella must be careful to collect quantitative as well as qualitative data.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Defining “Culture” (I.A)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________ refer(s) to abstract ideals in a given society.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Sociobiology
e. Instinct

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Values (I.A.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. James wants to investigate why many modern societies tend to strongly encourage monogamous relationships among their members. James will be studying:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Values (I.A.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ are widely agreed-upon principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the dos and don’ts of social life.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Primal drives
e. Instincts

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Norms (I.A.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Candace is doing a comparative study in her thesis work to compare different societies’ expectations of how husbands should treat their in-laws. Candace will be analyzing:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Norms (I.A.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Pablo studies clothing choices in subcultural groups. He is investigating:
a. values
b. norms
c. material culture
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ________ refer(s) to the physical objects that individuals in society create. These objects, in turn, influence how we live.
a. Norms
b. Material goods
c. Values
d. Sociobiology
e. Instinct

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Carolina studies mainstream American culture. One of her colleagues notices that she consistently ignores material objects such as food, clothing, and art. Why might her studies be criticized?
a. These objects are a crucial part of culture that influences how we live our lives.
b. Studying American culture is useless since it has spread all over the globe.
c. Culture is a secondary effect of social structures, so Carolina would do better to begin her studies with capitalism and the state.
d. Carolina should be studying American subcultures since mainstream culture is a given.
e. Of the three things Carolina ignores, only art matters in the context of studying culture.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Mihir notes in his work on altruism that there are some behaviors that seem innate to humans rather than learned and uses that to criticize the idea that humans are “naturally” selfish. Mihir is taking note of:
a. values
b. norms
c. material goods
d. instinct
e. reproductive labor

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Instinct (I.A.iv)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. We might think of culture as a “design for living” or “tool kit” of practices, knowledge, and symbols acquired through learning rather than through:
a. norms
b. material goods
c. values
d. sociobiology
e. instinct

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Instinct (I.A.iv)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The textbook defines a(n) __________ as a system of interrelationships that connects individuals together.
a. commodity
b. workplace
c. ecosystem
d. family
e. society

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 45          TOP:   Society (I.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Alice stole a bit of money from her friend Rosa to buy groceries. Rosa finds out and angrily chastises Alice for her behavior. What does this exchange demonstrate?
a. labeling theory
b. socialism
c. reinforcement of norms
d. a deviant career
e. mutual exchange

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 46          TOP:   Society (I.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Kendrick studies which human behaviors might be innate and which might be learned through social processes. His studies contribute most to which sociological debate?
a. monogamy vs. polygamy
b. economics vs. culture
c. structures of accumulation vs. institutional roles
d. nature vs. nurture
e. macro vs. micro

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 47          TOP:   Nature or Nurture (II.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ refers to the application of biological principles to explain the social activities of animals, including human beings.
a. Biological determinism
b. Sociobiology
c. Social constructionism
d. Marxism
e. Symbolic interaction

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Mario is researching how genetic factors influence human behaviors. His research would best be described as:
a. social constructionism
b. sociobiology
c. conflict theory
d. structural functionalism
e. institutional ethnography

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Simone de Beauvoir once famously asserted that “one is not born a woman, but becomes one” to suggest that “women” are created by cultural forces. How might sociobiologists respond to this?
a. De Beauvoir is correct; the essence of women can be found within all cultures.
b. De Beauvoir misses that what constitutes a woman is biological as well as cultural.
c. De Beauvoir fails to show how the category of “woman” is purely an effect of economics.
d. De Beauvoir is correct because our biology determines our culture.
e. De Beauvoir does not account for the role of industrialization in creating the category of “woman.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Mandy is studying differences in promiscuity between men and women and is critiquing the notion that men are genetically wired to want more sexual partners than women based on anthropological research that shows a wide variety of sexual practices in different human societies, both contemporarily and historically. She is studying what sociobiologists have called:
a. reproductive strategies
b. human nature
c. human antinomies
d. social contract theory
e. the sexual contract

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 48          TOP:   Sociobiology (II.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ does not refer only to people from different cultural backgrounds or those who speak different languages within a larger society. It can also refer to any segment of the population that is distinguishable from the rest of society by its cultural patterns.
a. Subculture
b. Race
c. Ethnicity
d. Polity
e. Aesthetic

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Yang is researching how many groups that live in Spain seem to have their own sets of norms and values that are at times different from mainstream Spanish norms and values. Which sociological concept best describes what he is studying?
a. political economy
b. ritual ascendance
c. postmodernism
d. essentialism
e. subcultures

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 49          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why might sociologists criticize a study of “American culture”?
a. Americans do not produce their own culture; they only copy others.
b. Culture originated with the high art associated with Western Europe, not the United States.
c. There is no single “American culture” but rather a contested terrain of mainstream culture and hundreds, if not thousands, of subcultures.
d. Americans are notoriously uncultured people.
e. American culture is the province of anthropology, not sociology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 49          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________is the process by which different cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture.
a. Multiculturalism
b. Ethnocentrism
c. Apoliticism
d. Assimilation
e. Cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Assimilation (II.D.i.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Maria wants to look at how immigrant communities in the United States come to acquire the dominant culture into which they have moved. She is studying the process of:
a. primitive accumulation
b. assimilation
c. cultural resistance
d. nationalism
e. multiculturalism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Assimilation (II.D.i.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Danny looks at U.S. culture differently than Maria. In turn, he studies how many different immigrant communities in the United States maintain more or less separate cultures but might still manage to participate equally in economic and political life. He is studying:
a. primitive accumulation
b. assimilation
c. cultural resistance
d. nationalism
e. multiculturalism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Multiculturalism (II.D.i.b)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Adherents to __________ acknowledge not only that certain central cultural values are shared by most people in a society, but also that certain important differences deserve to be preserved.
a. multiculturalism
b. ethnocentrism
c. apoliticism
d. assimilation
e. cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Multiculturalism (II.D.i.b)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. __________ might be defined as judging other cultures in terms of the standards of one’s own.
a. Multiculturalism
b. Ethnocentrism
c. Apoliticism
d. Assimilation
e. Cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Shannon notes that women in some cultures voluntarily alter their bodies with sometimes painful piercings that look weird from the point of view of her culture. She takes from this that women in those cultures must be horribly oppressed compared to women in her own culture. Shannon’s position might be best interpreted as:
a. social psychological
b. ethnocentrism
c. cultural relativism
d. historical materialism
e. bureaucratic collectivism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why do sociologists try to avoid judging other cultures based on their own cultural values?
a. because no culture could ever possibly be better than any other in any regard
b. because sociologists do not make value judgments
c. because first we must examine the institutions that give rise to these cultures
d. because human cultures vary so widely that people belonging to one culture frequently find it difficult to understand the ideas or behavior of those from a different culture
e. because human cultures cannot be reasonably compared, as each of them springs from the natural human condition

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Ethnocentrism (II.D.ii.a)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The practice of judging a society by its own standards is called:
a. multiculturalism
b. ethnocentrism
c. apoliticism
d. assimilation
e. cultural relativism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51

TOP:   Cultural Relativism (II.D.ii.b)         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sapphire studies differences between nations that are largely Islamic and those that are largely Christian. She takes great care in her research to examine the differences she finds neutrally and without value judgments. Sapphire’s position might be called:
a. social psychological
b. ethnocentrism
c. cultural relativism
d. historical materialism
e. bureaucratic collectivism

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 51

TOP:   Cultural Relativism (II.D.ii.b)         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, two cultural universals particularly stand out in human societies. They are __________ and __________ .
a. ways of expressing meaning; material goods
b. material goods; money
c. market relations; ways of expressing meaning
d. market relations; money
e. ways of expressing meaning; capital accumulation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Pages 53–54   TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Juanita is studying why some behaviors and social relations seem to be a part of every human society. She is researching:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. material culture
e. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Michelle claims that all human cultures are different and cannot be compared. How might sociologists critique her claim?
a. They would not. All cultures are different and cannot be meaningfully compared.
b. Sociologists would respond that we cannot talk about “human culture” because it is not separate from our natural environment.
c. They would criticize it on the grounds that it focuses on something as nebulous as human “culture” instead of our institutions.
d. They would critique it for ignoring the central role of the economy in shaping this thing that Michelle calls “human culture.”
e. Sociologists would point out that there are cultural universals that seem to be shared by all human cultures.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. __________ is one of the best examples for demonstrating both the unity and the diversity of human culture, because there are no cultures without it.
a. Dental care
b. Medicalization
c. Psychiatry
d. Monogamy
e. Language

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 54          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The book asserts that each of the following is a function of language EXCEPT:
a. Language gives permanence to a culture.
b. Language gives identity to a people.
c. Language is never used by some groups to dominate others in a collective.
d. Language is a representation of reality.
e. Language can be a source of cultural pride.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 57          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Karl notes that in all human societies, people use symbols to communicate ideas to one another. Karl is taking note of:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. political economy
e. ethnographic methods

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Language (II.E.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The __________ argues that the language we use influences our perceptions of the world.
a. theorem of symbolic order
b. hypothesis of communication
c. linguistic relativity hypothesis
d. structuration theory
e. hypothesis of symbolic codes

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 54

TOP:   Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (II.E.i.a)                        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Alan notes that some groups who have many different words for snow tend to perceive snow differently than groups who use English. Alan is noting __________ at work.
a. natural selection
b. the material representation of culture
c. structural determination
d. resource mobilization
e. the linguistic relativity hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 54

TOP:   Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (II.E.i.a)                        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Ana is studying the ways different societies socially sanction and formally approve of certain sexual relationships. She is researching:
a. language
b. morality
c. marriage
d. material culture
e. cultural universals

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Marriage (II.E.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, what percentage of human societies uses speech?
a. 100 percent
b. 75 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 25 percent
e. 15 percent

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 57          TOP:   Speech and Writing (II.E.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, writing serves all of the following functions EXCEPT:
a. It can be a means of storing information.
b. It can serve the administrative needs of society.
c. It can be used to pass information on to other species.
d. It can allow societies to locate themselves in a particular time and space.
e. It can allow for documents that record information about the past.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Speech and Writing (II.E.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A __________ is used to describe any vehicle of meaning—any set of elements used to communicate, including all types of communication.
a. language
b. signifier
c. gesture
d. word
e. script

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Signifier (II.E.iv.a)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Danny studies winks, waves, language, smiles, frowns, laughs, and any other kind of symbolic communication. What is he is researching?
a. material culture
b. signifiers
c. tools
d. cultural relativism
e. functionalism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Signifier (II.E.iv.a)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Alice studies how subcultures use verbal and nonverbal cues to produce meanings in opposition to the dominant culture. Her studies would best be described as:
a. cultural relativism
b. functionalism
c. semiotics
d. material culture
e. linguistics

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 58          TOP:   Semiotics (II.E.iv.b)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Hector is doing research on a tribe called the Malagasians. This group organizes itself in highly participatory ways, moves around a lot, and affords older people a lot of respect within the group. This group could be described as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. hunter–gatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 60

TOP:   The Earliest Societies: Hunters and Gatherers (III.A)      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, compared with larger societies—particularly modern societies, such as the United States—most hunting and gathering groups were:
a. egalitarian
b. brutish
c. nasty
d. authoritarian
e. complex

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 60

TOP:   The Earliest Societies: Hunters and Gatherers (III.A)      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Societies whose subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals are called __________societies.
a. agrarian
b. industrialized
c. postmodern
d. pastoral
e. millenarian

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Pastoral Societies (III.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Ricky notes in his comparative historical research that one group he studied was not fully industrialized and relied primarily on domesticated livestock for its livelihood. This group would best be classified as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. hunter–gatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Pastoral Societies (III.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Societies whose means of subsistence are based on agricultural production (crop growing) are called __________ societies.
a. pastoral
b. urban
c. agrarian
d. industrialized
e. nomadic

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Agrarian Societies (III.B.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Rosa notes in her comparative historical research that one group she studied was sedentary but was not fully industrialized and relied primarily on crops as its means of livelihood. This group would best be classified as:
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. hunter–gatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 61          TOP:   Agrarian Societies (III.B.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Medina is looking at the historical period in which smaller groupings of humans developed into much larger societies, often ruled by kings, queens, and emperors with the creation of cities and increasing inequality. She is studying the birth of what most sociologists call:
a. currency
b. religion
c. spirituality
d. art
e. civilization

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   Traditional Societies or Civilizations (III.C)                               MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The book refers to the emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources (such as steam or electricity) as:
a. capitalism
b. communization
c. feudal progression
d. linearity
e. industrialization

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   How Has Industrialization Shaped Modern Society? (IV)          MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Frank notices that at some point in relatively recent times, humans in some places began using machines powered by non-human means such as steam and coal. Frank is noting what process?
a. stone-cutting
b. communization
c. industrialization
d. state formation
e. political process

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 62

TOP:   How Has Industrialization Shaped Modern Society? (IV)          MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Chen studies the process through which Brazil is shifting from workers mostly working in fields and living in rural villages to people living in cities and working in factories, offices, and the like. He is noting how Brazil is becoming a(n) __________ society?
a. pastoral
b. agrarian
c. industrial
d. hunter–gatherer
e. postmodern

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63

TOP:   The Industrialized Societies (IV.A)                                 MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories is called:
a. McDonaldization
b. cultural appropriation
c. ethnocentrism
d. colonialism
e. Manifest Destiny

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63          TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sweta studies how Britain came to control large parts of India before the Indian independence movement. It could be said that she is studying:
a. liberation theology
b. nationalization
c. primitivism
d. anarchist economics
e. colonialism

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 63          TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Sociologists often refer to less developed societies, in which industrial production is either virtually nonexistent or only developed to a limited degree, as:
a. the developing world
b. core nations
c. McDonaldized societies
d. nontraditionalist societies
e. trade bureaucracies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 64          TOP:   Developing World (IV.B.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jia Yin notes that in many countries, industrial development is, more or less, nonexistent. She is taking note of the:
a. Appalachian Trail
b. McDonaldization of society
c. industrializing of countries
d. developing world
e. urban core

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 64          TOP:   Developing World (IV.B.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Although the majority of developing countries lag well behind societies of the West, some have now successfully embarked on a process of industrialization. These are sometimes referred to as:
a. newly industrializing economies
b. McDonaldizing societies
c. emergent cities
d. sustainable developments
e. Korean models

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 66

TOP:   The Newly Industrializing Economies (IV.D)                  MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Deric studies Singapore and the process through which it has begun developing a strong industrial base. It might be said that he is studying:
a. newly industrializing economies
b. the sequestration of human experience
c. micro-finance
d. core countries
e. agrarian economies

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 66

TOP:   The Newly Industrializing Economies (IV.D)                  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why might sociologists criticize the idea that the world is contemporarily made up of many different, isolated cultures?
a. The idea assumes that we can provide a reasonably coherent definition of “culture.”
b. Sociologists might note the rise of the Internet and globalization as features of different cultures being connected.
c. Sociologists would likely criticize the idea because of its underlying multiculturalism.
d. The idea suggests that human communities actually have different cultures, when we have empirically shown that culture is the same everywhere.
e. Sociologists would suggest that first we need to look at universal conceptions of gender since culture is an effect of gender.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 67

TOP:   Does the Internet Promote a Global Culture? (V.A)        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Juliana notes in her research that new means of communicating seem to be creating the possibilities for a new global culture and have even been helpful in organizing protests and social movement actions in places such as Tunisia, Egypt, and Kuwait. It is likely that Juliana will be studying __________ as part of this research project.
a. telegraphs
b. the rise of snail mail
c. the Internet
d. Morse code
e. indigeneity

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Pages 67–68

TOP:   Does the Internet Promote a Global Culture? (V.A)        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. __________ is a sense of identification with one’s people that is expressed through a common set of strongly held beliefs. Sometimes these include the belief that the people of a particular nation have historical or God-given rights that supersede those of other people.
a. Conflict theory
b. Nationalism
c. Ethnic enclaving
d. Disidentification
e. Self-reflection

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 71          TOP:   Nationalism (V.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Shannon studies the fact that globalization seems to spread largely Western values, but some communities stress belonging to a given national community even more—at times, seemingly, as a response to the rise of globalizing processes. Shannon is studying:
a. nationalism
b. the balance of class forces
c. social stratification
d. state gendering projects
e. selectivity filters

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 71          TOP:   Nationalism (V.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What is culture?

 

ANS:

The book gives a few tools for dealing with this question. Students might write about the guiding norms and values of a given society. They might write about material culture in the form of art, clothing, food, and the like. They might refer to culture as a sort of “tool kit” or design for living that can be juxtaposed with instinct. The best responses will combine all of these functions and highlight that culture gives us symbolic representations to communicate, to guide us in our lives, and to express both similarities (with other people and groups) and differences in terms of how we live our lives and how we think about ourselves and our relationships with each other and the world around us.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Pages 43–44  TOP:   Defining “Culture” (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Describe the difference between values and norms. What are some examples of each?

 

ANS:

The text answers this pretty directly. Students should highlight that values are abstract ideals that are widely held by people in a given social grouping. Norms, on the other hand, are the agreed upon dos and don’ts in such groupings. Examples of values, then, might include such abstract principles as monogamy, industriousness, a strong work ethic, an aversion to violence, etc. Norms would be focused on specific behaviors. For example, people should not cheat on their spouses, lie on their tax returns, punch someone for no reason, etc. It should be noted that, depending on the cultural context, these values and norms might be reversed.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Values (I.A.i) | Norms (I.A.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The book asserts that material goods can carry with them powerful cultural and social meanings. What are some ways that clothing expresses social values and culture?

 

ANS:

Students could go in many directions with this question. Students might write about the social significance of the niqab (the veil worn by many Muslim women that covers face and hair, leaving only the eyes showing) in various contexts, as the book does. Some might consider the niqab a sign of women’s position in certain social groups. Others might view it as a sign of nationalism or anti-imperialism, particularly in the French context where it has been outlawed. But clothes communicate a wide swath of values. We perform our gender through our clothing. Subcultural identity can be communicated with clothes. Some clothes carry with them explicit political messages (shirts with the American flag, for example, or with slogans) while others might show loyalty to various brands—both in terms of companies and in terms of ideology and belief. The best responses will be creative and likely combine any number of these things.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 43          TOP:   Material Goods (I.A.iii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How does instinct differ from culture, and why is the distinction important to sociologists?

 

ANS:

Instinct is genetic and is a fixed pattern that is exhibited in all normal members of a given species. Culture, however, is learned and typically differs widely between human communities. The distinction is important to sociologists for two main reasons: (1) Studying what might be instinct gives sociologists—particularly those interested in sociobiology—an idea of what might be “human nature.” (2) The distinction is important because sociologists use it to construct debates referred to as “nature vs. nurture” in attempts at mapping the social from the biological.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 44          TOP:   Instinct (I.A.iv)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What are societies, and what role does culture play within them?

 

ANS:

The text defines a society as a group of people who live in a particular territory, are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups. Students might note a few different functions that culture serves in societies. Culture gives us the building blocks to create group identities that bind societies together and set the parameters of who “belongs” and who does not. Culture also gives people within societies ways to differentiate themselves from each other, often through subcultures. Culture guides the process of norm creation and enforcement and gives members a tool kit for understanding themselves, their place in the world, and their relationships with others. The best of essays will note all of these functions.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 45          TOP:   Society (I.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is the “nature/nurture” debate, and why are sociologists concerned with it?

 

ANS:

Students should point out that this debate is centered on which characteristics of humans are biological and which are social. Students might also point out that there are large areas of study within sociology, such as sociobiology, that look at the ways that nature and nurture—the biological and the social—interact to affect human characteristics. Students might suggest that sociologists are concerned with this because it is part of what defines the province of sociology against biology and genetics. Similarly, an innate “human nature” might put limits on the kinds of social organization that humans are capable of and the kinds of worlds that we can construct. Finally, students might point out that sociologists are concerned with it because, as sociologists, we are concerned with the “drivers” behind human behaviors and parsing the differences between instinct and culture gives us a better idea about what those drivers are and in what contexts they matter.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 47          TOP:   Nature or Nurture (II.B)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What are subcultures, and why are they important for sociological studies?

 

ANS:

Students might mention that smaller societies tend to be culturally uniform while larger societies, particularly industrial societies, are composites of many different cultures. Subcultures, then, are those composites that are different than what a given society’s mainstream culture is. Sociologists believe that subcultures are important for study because they are a constituent part of our larger societies. Further, studies of subcultures can show us where social antagonisms might arise (the book mentions, for example, colonization, immigration, etc.). Similarly, studies of subcultures allow us to investigate processes such as assimilation or resistance strategies that some subcultures might deploy.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 49          TOP:   Subcultures (II.D.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is multiculturalism, and why does it matter?

 

ANS:

The text defines multiculturalism as the viewpoint according to which ethnic groups can exist separately and share equally in economic and political life. The book does not offer a lot on why it is important, but students might go in either sociological or ethical directions with their responses. Sociologically, multiculturalism is often used as a way of intervening in research that is ethnocentric or as a tool for self-reflection to make sure one does not allow ethnocentric views to cloud one’s analysis. Ethically, students might focus on how multiculturalism is necessary in a globalized world with many different cultures living side by side in order to honor differences and create a just social order.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 50          TOP:   Multiculturalism (II.D.i.b)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. What is cultural relativism, and what are some possible benefits and pitfalls of it?

 

ANS:

The book defines cultural relativism as judging a culture’s practices by its own standards. Student responses to benefits and pitfalls will likely center on two main themes. First, the main benefit of cultural relativism is the ability to avoid bias in analysis—particularly bias that comes from a person in a position of privilege. The book uses the example of clitoridectomies to show how cultural frames of “genital mutilation” are used to analyze and talk about the practice and often refer to it as “barbaric,” “backward,” and the like. This example also shows a possible pitfall to cultural relativism—that is, critics of cultural relativism often argue that it can hide practices that are harmful and are, perhaps, better made visible by outsiders. Students may use similar examples, but the larger frame stands as a tension between avoiding bias and having clear standards for human behavior.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 51          TOP:   Cultural Relativism (II.D.ii.b)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What are some cultural universals, and what can they tell us about human societies?

 

ANS:

Student responses should highlight cultural features of all human societies. The book lists many of them, including language, marriage, religious rituals, and property rights. Responses about what they tell us about human societies will likely differ depending on the answers given, but students should note that because these are cultural universals, they show some of the things that define us as human beings.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 52          TOP:   Cultural Universals (II.E)

MSC:  Factual

CHAPTER 8: Global Inequality

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The text defines global inequality as:
a. the difference in gross domestic product between nations
b. the systematic differences in wealth and power that exist between countries
c. the structural difference in access to political power between continents
d. the systematic ability of a given nation to exert influence over another
e. income difference between citizens of different nations

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 238

TOP:   What Is Global Inequality? (I)        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. One reason that sociologists might criticize a study that makes claims about all humans based on data collected only in the United States is that:
a. the United States is so unique that one cannot make comparisons about people there with people from other countries
b. the United States is a very wealthy nation, yet most people do not live in high-income countries, which makes those kinds of sweeping claims problematic
c. the United States’s authoritarianism will influence people to report less honestly on surveys and in interviews there than elsewhere
d. one cannot make global claims about humans
e. studies in the United States are typically under strict control from the government

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 238

TOP:   What Is Global Inequality? (I)        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Many economic measures focus on the average income of citizens in a given country. Why might this measure be problematic?
a. It can hide income inequality within a given country.
b. It tries to quantify human relations, which are unquantifiable.
c. It attempts to make broad statements based on narrow collections of data.
d. It does not take into account religion and its effects on income.
e. It ignores whether certain populations are naturally thriftier than others, thus requiring different metrics for making meaningful comparisons.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 238

TOP:   What Is Global Inequality? (I)        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The World Bank classifies nations as low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, or high income based on their per person gross national income, or GNI—a number that reflects the average income in those nations. Why might sociologists find this form of classification problematic?
a. Making cross-national comparisons of income ignores the role of culture in making some groups used to poverty.
b. A GNI makes high-production countries look better than they actually are; since their numbers are higher, people tend to think they are more ethical.
c. Because the number is an average of incomes in a country, it can mask inequality within a specific nation.
d. Global economic comparisons need to take into account the mode of production in every given nation.
e. Too many people lie about their incomes to make the number useful.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 238

TOP:   What Is Global Inequality? (I)        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to the text, generally, high-income countries are those countries that:
a. skipped the feudal stage of development
b. were the first ever to experiment with democracy
c. are largely based on socialist economic policies
d. were the first to industrialize
e. were colonized by other nations

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 238        TOP:   High-Income Countries (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, high-income countries comprise about 15 percent of the world’s population; however, they lay claim to over __________ of the world’s annual output.
a. 5 percent
b. 15 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 45 percent
e. 65 percent

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 240        TOP:   High-Income Countries (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Mary studies countries that were among the first to industrialize. It is likely that she is studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 238        TOP:   High-Income Countries (I.A)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Liu lives in a country that largely provides adequate housing, food, and drinkable water. It is likely that he lives in a __________ country.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 240        TOP:   High-Income Countries (I.A)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Jennifer lives in a country that, despite its relatively small population, consumes an alarming percentage of the world’s resources. She likely lives in a __________ country.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 240        TOP:   High-Income Countries (I.A)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The middle-income countries are primarily located in:
a. North America
b. Continental Europe
c. East and Southeast Asia
d. indigenous lands in the United States
e. the global North

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 240

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The ranks of the middle-income countries expanded significantly between 1999 and 2000. Why?
a. The global grain supply increased dramatically.
b. China was reclassified from low to middle income because of its economic growth.
c. There was a general shift of buying power from the global North to the global South.
d. Supply rose in Western nations, which resulted in the lowering of market prices globally.
e. The United States was reclassified to middle income due to the decline of its middle class and living standards more generally.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Manuel is doing a political economic analysis of the countries that formerly made up the Soviet Union. He is studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Sonyuchka studies countries that are located primarily in East and Southeast Asia, the oil-rich countries of the Middle East and North Africa, the Americas (Mexico, Central America, Cuba and other countries in the Caribbean, and South America), and the once-communist republics that formerly made up the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies. She is likely studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Mike believes that since the majority of the world’s population lives in middle-income countries, it stands to reason that middle-income countries are to blame for overconsumption. Why might sociologists critique this idea?
a. They would note that the world’s resources are infinite.
b. They would respond that human creativity can create synthetic alternatives to replace whatever we might use up due to so-called “overconsumption.”
c. Sociologists would reply that studying the economy is a useless exercise in abstraction—preferring instead to focus on culture.
d. Sociologists would point out that the high-income countries, despite having fewer people than middle-income countries, consume more resources.
e. They would suggest that we cannot worry about finitude on the planet with advanced space programs in place to explore other worlds and possibilities.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Svet lives in a highly industrialized country but one that does not belong to the high-income grouping of nations. In the last two decades, his country has seen a steady erosion in its standard of living. It is likely that Svet lives in which country?
a. The United States of America
b. Great Britain
c. France
d. Russia
e. Italy

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 240

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Juanita studies the countries where the vast majority of the world’s population lives. She is studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. tribal
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Middle-Income Countries (I.B)       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Fertility rates tend to be highest in what kind of countries?
a. Low-income countries
b. Highly industrialized countries
c. Middle-income countries
d. High-income countries
e. Western countries

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, how is housing changing in low-income countries?
a. People are leaving cities to dwell in farmland.
b. Masses of people are beginning to own homes solely for themselves.
c. Hundreds of millions of people are moving into huge, densely populated cities.
d. Large segments of these populations now have air-conditioned homes.
e. There is a growing trend toward moving onto houseboats.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, low-income countries tend to have __________ economies.
a. highly egalitarian
b. industrialized
c. largely cooperative
d. developed but highly unequal
e. agricultural

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Ranjeet studies much of eastern, western, and sub-Saharan Africa; Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and a few other East Asian countries; India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan in South Asia; East and Central European countries such as Georgia and Ukraine; and Haiti and Nicaragua in the Western Hemisphere. She is studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. James lives in a country that has a mostly agricultural economy and has only recently begun to industrialize. He lives in a __________ country.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Selma studies countries where fertility rates are much higher than the rest of the world. She is likely studying __________ countries.
a. high-income
b. highly homogenous
c. middle-income
d. complete hunter–gatherer
e. low-income

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 241        TOP:   Low-Income Countries (I.C)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The global standard of living has done what during the last thirty years, according to the text?
a. rapidly increased
b. slowly increased
c. rapidly decreased
d. slowly decreased
e. remained stagnant

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 241

TOP:   Growing Global Inequality: The Rich Get Richer, the Poor Get Poorer (I.D)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Nate notes that it can be deceptive to talk about how the global standard of living has steadily risen over the last thirty years. Why might he hold that position?
a. The global standard of living has actually fallen over the last thirty years.
b. The global standard of living obscures the widening wealth gap between rich and poor countries and fails to account for the fact that some poorer countries have actually seen a decrease in standard of living over the last couple of decades.
c. The global standard of living has stagnated over the last thirty years.
d. Sociologists cannot measure things like “standards of living” in a meaningful way that has descriptive power.
e. An analysis of standards of living should go back at least one hundred years to have any accuracy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Pages 241–42

TOP:   Growing Global Inequality: The Rich Get Richer, the Poor Get Poorer (I.D)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. If Sandra notes that the average income in the world has gone up over the last few decades to show the progress humanity has made, what evidence might a sociologist give to contradict her?
a. The average income has actually declined.
b. The average income has fluctuated consistently over the years.
c. The average income has stagnated for the last three decades.
d. Americans have worked harder than the rest of the people in the world over the last few decades.
e. Despite a rise in average global income, there is still huge inequality between people in high-income nations and the rest of the world.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 242

TOP:   Growing Global Inequality: The Rich Get Richer, the Poor Get Poorer (I.D)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Bidya wonders if the best way to improve the lives of the world’s poor people in low-income countries is to write a book about her studies of them and distribute it in low-income countries. Why might she be worried about that?
a. Rates of literacy among the world’s poor are much lower than among wealthier people.
b. Studies of poor populations are always colonizing and paternalistic.
c. Books are not helpful ways of spreading important analysis.
d. People living in low-income countries are much more likely to read high literature.
e. Only people in high-income countries can solve poverty.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 243

TOP:   What Is Daily Life Like in Rich versus Poor Countries? (II)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. More than 40 percent of all urban residents in developing countries live in:
a. squats
b. occupied factories
c. slums
d. government housing
e. urban farms

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 243

TOP:   What Is Daily Life Like in Rich versus Poor Countries? (II)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Stefano suggests that it is problematic to analyze poverty in developing countries from the perspective of dominant racial, ethnic, and religious groups while ignoring subordinate racial, ethnic, and religious groups. Why might he hold this position?
a. Sociological studies are never done from the perspective of dominant groups.
b. Focusing on subordinate groups yields more accurate results in sociological studies.
c. Poverty is often at least a partial result of belonging to subordinate racial, ethnic, and religious groups in these countries.
d. Studies of dominant groups account for the smallest numbers of people and, therefore, yield nongeneralizable results.
e. All groups are subordinate in low-income countries.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 243

TOP:   What Is Daily Life Like in Rich versus Poor Countries? (II)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, all of the following are true about people living in low-income countries EXCEPT:
a. People living in low-income countries tend to have inadequate health facilities compared to people living in high-income countries.
b. People living in low-income countries tend to have higher literacy rates than people in high-income countries.
c. People living in low-income countries often lack proper sanitation.
d. People living in low-income countries often must drink polluted water.
e. People living in low-income countries are more likely to suffer from starvation than people in high-income countries.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 243        TOP:   Health (II.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Magda’s family is poor and lives in a low-income nation. One day, she becomes very ill. Magda’s family would likely prefer her to be seen by medical personnel in France rather than her home country for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
a. Low-income countries generally suffer from inadequate health facilities.
b. Hospitals and clinics rarely serve the poorest people in low-income countries.
c. People in low-income countries often lack proper sanitation.
d. There are no doctors in low-income countries.
e. People in low-income countries tend to have weakened health and immune systems and, thus, medical facilities might house more infected persons.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 243        TOP:   Health (II.A)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In 2008, nearly 200 million children under age five in poor countries were stunted by a lack of nutrients in their food. More than 90 percent of those children live in:
a. South America and Asia
b. Africa and South America
c. North America and Africa
d. Africa and Asia
e. Asia and North America

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 244

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, all of the following are contributing factors to food shortages and hunger throughout the globe EXCEPT:
a. the unsustainable, largely vegetarian diets of most of the world
b. internal warfare
c. the AIDS epidemic
d. drought
e. the inability to pay for new technologies that would increase food production

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 245

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sanjay studies global hunger, particularly in Bangladesh, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. Why might she focus specifically on these countries?
a. Hunger does not affect other countries significantly.
b. Each of these countries are highly developed and rapidly addressing food insecurity.
c. These countries have the same cultural practices around food.
d. Foreign aid to these countries has all but stopped.
e. Two-thirds of people who go hungry every day live in these countries.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 244

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Pepe believes that we need to consider more than just natural forces, such as natural disasters, when we talk about global inequality. Why might he have that analysis?
a. Social forces also play a factor in why large groupings of people go without food.
b. Sociologists have a responsibility to document how God has punished certain groups of people.
c. Considering only natural forces does not take into account the power of positive and negative thinking in terms of people’s structures of opportunity.
d. Pepe must be a Marxist, because only Marxists try to catalog factors for inequality that are not naturally occurring.
e. Pepe understands that natural forces do not affect global hunger.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 244

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Chantelle notes that the HIV/AIDS epidemic contributes to food shortages in some countries. Why might this be the case?
a. HIV-infected food passes on the virus.
b. Money that could be spent on food is spent on medications.
c. The virus kills many working-age adults who might otherwise contribute to food production.
d. The epidemic pushes scientists out of those countries into nations where they can conduct food research without worrying about it.
e. The epidemic has sparked a general strike throughout many of these nations, which has contributed to a lack of harvesting.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 245

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Christopher concludes a journal article he has written with this sentence: “This irony points out that hunger is probably not a problem of production; it is a problem of distribution.” What irony is Christopher likely referring to?
a. There really is not enough food to go around.
b. Food production has been steadily increasing, often in countries experiencing widespread hunger.
c. The gendered nature of hunger disproportionately affects men.
d. While often seen as a privileged group, poor whites constitute the largest segment of hungry people in the world.
e. Even large chunks of wealthy people suffer from the effects of famine.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 245

TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Sociologists cite all of the following as reasons for the recent economic advances of the East Asian newly industrializing economies (NIEs) EXCEPT:
a. Most were part of colonial situations that, while imposing many hardships, also helped to pave the way for economic growth.
b. The East Asian region benefited from a long period of world economic growth between the 1950s and the mid-1970s.
c. Economic growth in this region took off at the high point of the cold war, when the United States and its allies, in erecting a defense against communist China, provided generous economic aid that fueled investment in such new technologies as transistors, semiconductors, and other electronics, which contributed to the development of local industries.
d. Dictatorial controls allowed for smoothly run, centrally planned economies that eschewed democratic planning as well as market mechanisms.
e. Many of the East Asian governments followed strong policies that favored economic growth: keeping labor costs low, encouraging economic development through tax breaks and other economic policies, and offering free public education.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 247

TOP:   Can Poor Countries Become Rich? (III)                          MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The textbook cites all of the following as problems associated with rapid economic growth in East Asia EXCEPT:
a. the violent repression of labor and civil rights
b. terrible factory conditions
c. a highly exploited increasingly female workforce
d. the rise of methamphetamine addiction
e. widespread environmental degradation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 246

TOP:   Can Poor Countries Become Rich? (III)                          MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jian Mei explains in her work that philosophy led to economic development in many of East Asia’s newly industrializing economies. She is likely referring to:
a. the role of Confucianism in encouraging obedience, loyalty, and thrift
b. the ways that Zen stresses letting go of emotion
c. how Christianity spread to East Asia through European missionaries
d. the development of world religions from Zoroaster
e. the enforced atheism of communist China and its stress on the importance of money

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 247

TOP:   Can Poor Countries Become Rich? (III)                          MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to the text, market-oriented theories of global inequality assume that the best possible economic consequences will result if:
a. the state heavily regulates the corporate sector
b. individuals are free—uninhibited by any form of governmental constraint—to make their own economic decisions
c. cooperative enterprises replace privately owned businesses to create egalitarian markets
d. the public is provided with free access to public education
e. markets are carefully regulated by competent politicians

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Market-Oriented Theories (IV.A)   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Salvatore studies the debate around universal healthcare in the United States. He prefers economic theories that suggest that the best possible outcomes in healthcare happen when the government does not interfere in economic decisions. Lorenzo prefers what theory or set of theories?
a. dependency theories
b. state-centered theories
c. world-systems theory
d. modernization theory
e. market-oriented theories

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Market-Oriented Theories (IV.A)   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Keynesian economists begin with the assumption that the state should regulate economic policy for everyone’s benefit. Why might sociologists who use market-oriented theories be critical of this idea?
a. They believe that markets without state interference lead to the best economic outcomes.
b. Market-oriented theorists think that the state should control all markets.
c. They think that higher taxation rates for the poor are the best way to curb welfare provisions.
d. They believe that markets should be abolished in favor of a planned economy.
e. They believe that the state should regulate every business transaction, not just major economic policy.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Market-Oriented Theories (IV.A)   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Modernization theory argues that:
a. rapid industrialization, at any cost, is the key to economic development
b. low-income countries must preserve their traditional cultures to develop
c. high-income countries have a responsibility to give free resources to low-income countries
d. low-income societies can develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment
e. state-run economies are most efficient for creating modernized countries

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Modernization Theory (IV.A.i)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Alyssa is a fierce advocate for indigenous rights and ways of life. Why might she be critical of the modernization theory of development?
a. Modernization theory typically suggests that traditional societies must abandon their traditional ways and embrace modern economic institutions.
b. Modernization theory suggests that the state should run the economy, which leaves no place for indigenous involvement.
c. Modernization theory treats indigenous people like noble savages who have all of the correct answers to life’s problems.
d. Modernization theory focuses too much on the role of women in economic development, and indigenous communities already have prescribed roles for women.
e. Modernization theory suggests that supply and demand should be strictly regulated by a central planning administration.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Modernization Theory (IV.A.i)       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Modernization theorist W. W. Rostow viewed economic growth as going through several stages, which he likened to the journey of an airplane. All of the following are stages in his theory EXCEPT:
a. traditional stage
b. takeoff to economic growth
c. drive to technological maturity
d. investment into nascent industries
e. high mass consumption

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 249

TOP:   Modernization Theory (IV.A.i)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Ida studies the economic landscape of Bolivia. Her research has led her to believe that Bolivia will never develop until it abandons its traditional culture and instead focuses on productive investment. Her view is best described by what theory or set of theories?
a. dependency theories
b. state-centered theories
c. world-systems theory
d. modernization theory
e. market-oriented theories

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 248

TOP:   Modernization Theory (IV.A.i)       MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Neoliberalism asserts that:
a. free-market forces, achieved by minimizing governmental restrictions on business, provide the only route to economic growth
b. economic development can only occur if accompanied by liberal social values, such as securing a woman’s right to abortion and supporting same-sex marriage
c. state involvement in the economy should be relatively high, even at times running entire industries
d. social democratic programs, such as generous welfare policies and free education provided by the state, are the bedrock of economic growth
e. development depends on retaining highly democratic, cooperative industries

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Neoliberalism (IV.A.ii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Lloyd has been studying Uganda for decades. Based on his research, he believes that barriers to trade, minimum wage laws, and environmental regulations that affect Ugandan businesses are getting in the way of development and should be minimized or eliminated. His view is best described as:
a. Marxism
b. social democracy
c. neoliberalism
d. anarchism
e. democratic planning

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Neoliberalism (IV.A.ii)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why might dependency theorists criticize modernization theory?
a. They would point out that the only way for traditional societies to develop is to shed their traditional ways.
b. They would argue that modernization theory ignores the fact that markets, if freed from state intervention, will develop any society.
c. They would point out that traditional societies are typically low income because of a history of colonialism and oppression.
d. They would suggest that in recent history, historically exploited nations have actually become the new exploiters through global welfare schemes.
e. They would assert that traditional societies should model their institutions after the United States if they want to develop.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Dependency theories can be described as:
a. structural theories that show how people on welfare and other forms of social assistance become dependent on it and are thus unable to develop economically
b. Marxist theories of economic development arguing that the poverty of low-income countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations that are based in wealthy countries
c. a set of theories suggesting that the only way to explain global inequality is to root that inequality in the development of the spinning wheel
d. cultural theories that suggest that some cultures are simply not fit for economic development
e. explanations for how families with many dependents force countries into economic downturns

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The doctrine of neoliberalism asserts that underdeveloped countries can develop by freeing up markets and allowing foreign corporations to operate within their borders. Why might dependency theorists critique this idea?
a. Dependency theorists would argue that the only way for underdeveloped nations to develop is to borrow from foreign banks and not rely on corporations.
b. Dependency theorists would argue that foreign states provide a much more stable source for income for underdeveloped nations.
c. Dependency theorists would respond that low-income nations need revolutionary changes that would push out, rather than welcome, foreign corporations.
d. Dependency theorists would argue that the legacy of colonialism has already led to positive forms of development in low-income countries.
e. Dependency theorists would suggest that before foreign corporations can make an impact in underdeveloped countries, those countries first need to develop a more modern culture.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 252        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Alejandra believes that poverty in Colombia is largely due to exploitation by the United States and multinational corporations originating in the United States. Her view is best described as corresponding to what theory or set of theories?
a. dependency theories
b. state-centered theories
c. neoliberalism
d. modernization theory
e. market-oriented theories

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories is called:
a. socialism
b. Manifest Destiny
c. colonialism
d. Southern hegemony
e. internal development

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Yessenia studies mid-twentieth century India. In her studies, she notes how Great Britain established direct rule over India for profit. She is taking note of what process?
a. colonialism
b. participatory planning
c. assembly-making
d. communization
e. feudal return

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Colonialism (IV.B.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Morgan takes the common view that economics must be viewed as independent nations engaged in diplomatic and economic relations with one another. Why would world-systems theorists critique this idea?
a. World-systems theorists would argue that we must not view the world as independent nations, but rather as continents of nations that compete for continental dominance of the market in the world system.
b. World-systems theorists would suggest that Morgan’s view runs the risk of delegitimizing the neoliberal project of creating world market systems that could develop the entire globe.
c. World-systems theorists would assert that the world capitalist system is not merely a collection of independent nations but must be understood as a single world system.
d. World-systems theorists would respond that the current world system is actually a competition largely between the global North and the global South.
e. World-systems theorists would argue that the world system should actually be analyzed by looking at global finance as a competition between independent cities, with London and New York City as the world’s centers of international finance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 252

TOP:   World-Systems Theory (IV.C)        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. ________ argues that the world capitalist economic system is not merely a collection of independent countries engaged in diplomatic and economic relations with one another but rather must be understood as a single unit.
a. Neoliberalism
b. Postmodernism
c. Structuration theory
d. World-systems theory
e. String theory of economy

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 252

TOP:   World-Systems Theory (IV.C)        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. After studying the political economy of modern Germany, Fran concludes that we must consider the world capitalist economy as a single unit instead of looking at individual countries. Her view is best described by what theory or set of theories?
a. dependency theories
b. state-centered theories
c. world-systems theory
d. modernization theory
e. market-oriented theories

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 252

TOP:   World-Systems Theory (IV.C)        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The United States would be considered one of the ________ countries in world-systems theory.
a. peripheral
b. subordinate
c. semiperipheral
d. socialist
e. core

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 253        TOP:   Core Countries (IV.C.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Mustafa is a world-systems theorist who studies the world’s most powerful countries and outlines how those nations take the largest shares of the world’s wealth. He is studying what kind of countries?
a. core
b. peripheral
c. semiperipheral
d. futuristic
e. sustainable

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 253        TOP:   Core Countries (IV.C.i)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Carolina is using world-systems theory to research countries that have resources that tend to flow to the most wealthy nations, which then sell them back to those countries for a profit. She is studying what kind of countries?
a. core
b. peripheral
c. semiperipheral
d. futuristic
e. sustainable

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 254

TOP:   Peripheral Countries (IV.C.ii)         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Francesco uses world-systems theory to study countries that extract profits from the world’s poorest countries and yield profits for the world’s wealthiest countries. He is studying what kind of nations?
a. core
b. peripheral
c. semiperipheral
d. futuristic
e. sustainable

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 253

TOP:   Semiperipheral Countries (IV.C.iii)                                            MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Hektor is looking at how air conditioners are manufactured. He notes that parts of them are produced in China, Argentina, and Uruguay, and their assembly takes place at different points throughout the world. Hektor is studying:
a. McDonaldization
b. national franchising
c. branding
d. global commodity chains
e. national production incentives

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 253

TOP:   Global Commodity Chains (IV.C.iv)                                         MSC:   Applied

 

  1. State-centered theories of global inequality and economic development argue:
a. that state involvement in the economy interferes with prosperity
b. that appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic development but rather can play a key role in bringing it about
c. that the state is constructed in such a way that it must impede development
d. that any economic theory should be focused solely on state actors and political action
e. that politicians and political action committees are key to understanding development

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 254

TOP:   State-Centered Theories (IV.D)      MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why would state-centered theorists be critical of market-oriented theorists?
a. State-centered theorists see state intervention as the major cause of underdevelopment and global inequality.
b. State-centered theorists view the market as the natural and best method for economic development.
c. State-centered theorists think that historical evidence shows that men tend to be better suited to be economic players than women.
d. State-centered theorists are critical of theories that contribute to social welfare policies.
e. State-centered theorists think that state intervention into the economy can play a key role in development.

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 254

TOP:   State-Centered Theories (IV.D)      MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Afiya has been doing research on austerity policies in Western Europe. She concludes that appropriate state policies have played a key role in economic development there. What theory or sets of theories describes her position best?
a. dependency theories
b. state-centered theories
c. world-systems theory
d. modernization theory
e. market-oriented theories

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 254

TOP:   State-Centered Theories (IV.D)      MSC:  Applied

 

ESSAY

 

  1. How does the World Bank measure global inequality, and what are some of the problems with measuring global inequality in this way?

 

ANS:

The GNI (per person gross national income) is a measure of a country’s yearly output of goods and services per person. Since GNI figures are overall averages, they hide the substantial differences between countries. This means that the increasing gap between poor and rich countries is hidden when the GNI is used to measure global inequality. Also, the GNI includes only goods and services that are produced for cash sale. This excludes people who work and trade in the informal economy. The statistics used in the GNI do not account for these types of transactions. More generally, this measurement assumes a country’s worth based solely on the economy and ignores noneconomic indicators. Students might also mention that this measure can also hide inequalities between people within the countries it is measuring.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 238        TOP:   What Is Global Inequality? (I)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Famine and hunger are caused by both natural and social forces. What are some of the social forces that cause hunger, malnutrition, and starvation?

 

ANS:

The text highlights that conflict and warfare are major causes of starvation and food shortages. The AIDS epidemic has caused the death of millions of working-age men and women. Without this labor force, food production decreases and leaves the elderly and young without enough food to properly nourish themselves. There is more than enough food to feed everyone adequately, but food is not distributed in a way that takes care of everyone’s needs. This leaves an overproduction of food while people are starving. So students might also point to the institutional pressures that lead to hunger—particularly the global economy.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 244        TOP:   Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine (II.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Many countries are considered newly industrialized economies (NIEs), including a handful in Eastern Asia whose growth is considered extraordinary compared to other NIEs. What are some of the problems that have accompanied NIEs in this part of the world?

 

ANS:

Students should point out that social problems that have accompanied NIEs, including the prevalent and violent repression of labor and civil rights, terrible factory conditions, the exploitation of an increasingly female workforce, the exploitation of immigrant workers from impoverished neighboring countries, and widespread environmental degradation. These are all specifically mentioned in the text. Students might also think creatively and add other potential problems associated with rapid industrialization and economic expansion.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 246        TOP:   Can Poor Countries Become Rich? (III)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of the four competing sociological theories that explain global inequality.

 

ANS:

Market-oriented theories recommend the adoption of modern capitalist institutions to promote economic development. They further argue that countries can develop economically only if they open their borders to trade. But market-oriented theories have been criticized for failing to take into account the various economic ties between poor countries and wealthy ones—ties that can impede economic growth under some conditions and enhance it under others. They tend to blame low-income countries themselves for their poverty rather than looking to the influence of outside factors, such as the business operations of more powerful nations. Dependency theories address the market-oriented theories’ neglect in considering poor countries’ ties with wealthy countries by focusing on how wealthy nations have economically exploited poor ones. However, they are unable to explain the occasional success stories among such low-income countries as Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico or the rapidly expanding economies of East Asia. World-systems theory seeks to overcome the shortcomings of both market-oriented and dependency theories by analyzing the world economy as a whole. Within the world-systems framework, the concept of global commodity chains takes this notion one step further by focusing on global businesses and their activities rather than relationships between countries. World-systems theory is thus well suited to understanding the global economy at a time when businesses are increasingly free to set up operations anywhere, which results in economic importance that rivals that of many countries. Yet this is also a weakness of the commodity chains approach: It tends to emphasize the importance of business decisions over other factors, such as the roles that both workers and governments play in shaping a country’s economy. State-centered theories stress the governmental role in fostering economic growth. They thus offer a useful alternative to both the prevailing market-oriented theories, with their emphasis on states as economic hindrances, and dependency theories, which view states as allies of global business elites in exploiting poor countries. When combined with the other theories—particularly world-systems theory—state-centered theories can explain the radical changes now transforming the world economy.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 257

TOP:   How Do Sociological Theories Explain Global Inequality? (IV)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How do market-oriented theories explain global inequality?

 

ANS:

Market-oriented theories suggest that unbridled capitalism will allow for the highest economic growth. They suggest that the best economic possibilities will occur if individuals are free and unencumbered by governmental restraint. Students might also mention that these ideas can be found in modernization theory and neoliberalism and were predominantly argued for by theorists in the United States.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 248        TOP:   Market-Oriented Theories (IV.A)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How do dependency theorists explain global inequality?

 

ANS:

Dependency theories are Marxist theories of economic development that argue that the poverty of low-income countries stems directly from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations (MNCs) that are based in wealthy countries. They argue that this exploitation began with colonialism, a political-economic system under which powerful countries establish, for their own profit, rule over weaker peoples or countries. These theories are typically argued for by sociologists and economists from the low-income countries of Latin America and Africa who reject the idea that their countries’ economic underdevelopment is due to their own cultural or institutional failings. Since dependency theorists believe that exploitation has kept their countries from achieving economic growth, they typically call for revolutionary changes that would push foreign corporations out of their countries altogether.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 249        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What are some ways we might address exploitative child labor practices?

 

ANS:

International organizations, such as the United Nations’ International Labor Organization (ILO), have outlined a set of standards for child labor laws to follow to address these problems. In June 1999, the ILO adopted Convention 182, which called for the abolition of the “worst forms of child labor.” These are defined as including: all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, and forced or compulsory labor, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict; the use, procuring, or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography, or for pornographic performances; the use, procuring, or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; and work that, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety, or morals of children (ILO 1999). Students also might mention that countries could provide free public education and require that children attend school full-time, which the text identifies as a method of addressing the exploitation of children.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 251        TOP:   Dependency Theories (IV.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How does world-systems theory explain global inequality?

 

ANS:

World-systems theory, pioneered by Immanuel Wallerstein, argues that the world capitalist economic system is not merely a collection of independent countries engaged in diplomatic and economic relations with one another but rather must also be understood as a single unit. World-systems theory carves up the world into three unequal economic zones, with the wealthier zones exploiting the poorer ones. World-systems theorists term these three economic zones “core,” “periphery,” and “semiperiphery.” All countries in the world system are said to fall into one of the three categories. The major point students should focus on here, however, is that the world economic system must be understood as a single unit—and analyzed as such. So poverty is not a result of the bad decisions of individual nations. Rather, it must be analyzed in the context of the global economy.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 252        TOP:   World-Systems Theory (IV.C)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. How do state-centered theories explain global inequality?

 

ANS:

Some of the most recent explanations of successful economic development emphasize the role of state policy in promoting growth. Differing sharply from market-oriented theories, state-centered theories argue that appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic development but rather can play a key role in bringing it about. Thus, students should focus on the positive role the state might play in development and economic policy when explaining state-centered theories.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 254        TOP:   State-Centered Theories (IV.D)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is the role of technology in deepening existing global inequalities?

 

ANS:

The technology gap that divides rich and poor countries, which today appears to be widening, makes it even more difficult for poor countries to catch up. This gap is a result of the disparity in wealth between nations, but it also reinforces those disparities and widens the gap between rich and poor countries. Poor countries cannot easily afford modern technology, yet, in the absence of modern technology, they face major barriers to overcoming poverty. They are caught in a downward spiral from which it is difficult to escape.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 258

TOP:   How Does Global Inequality Affect Your Life? (V)       MSC:  Applied

CHAPTER 16: Globalization in a Changing World

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Globalization is:
a. rapidly diminishing the amount of human interaction
b. a single world order with increasing interdependence
c. simply the expansion of a global economy
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Globalization (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Globalization affects which part of our daily lives?
a. our work patterns
b. our sense of individualism
c. popular culture
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Globalization (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The process of ________ means that our lives are influenced by people, organizations, and events around the world.
a. globalization
b. social change
c. warfare
d. protesting
e. economic decline

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Globalization (I.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of social change?
a. more people buying homes at a younger age
b. changing your clothes each day and washing them in a washing machine
c. fewer social events on college campuses today
d. the growing interconnection of national economies around the world
e. the decline of beer consumption around the world

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Your textbook defines social change as:
a. the transformation of the physical world
b. the increase in protests around the world
c. the transformation of social institutions and culture of a society over time
d. social order in social institutions
e. social transformations caused by natural forces

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Transformation of the social institutions and culture of a society over time is called:
a. forced change
b. social continuation
c. social change
d. evolution
e. collective behavior

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following factors has consistently influenced social change over time?
a. the physical environment
b. political organization
c. cultural factors
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 510        TOP:   Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is included in the cultural factors that might influence social change?
a. religion
b. communication systems
c. spread of popular culture
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 513        TOP:   Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jared Diamond’s explanation of the collapse of Rwandan society is criticized for placing too much emphasis on:
a. ethnic tensions
b. cultural and political explanations at the expense of environmental factors
c. environmental factors at the expense of the political and cultural factors
d. the government
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 512        TOP:   Physical Environment (I.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Jared Diamond argued that there are five factors that contributed to the collapse of Rwandan society. Among these five, he emphasizes:
a. environmental factors
b. economic factors
c. political and cultural factors
d. warfare
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 511        TOP:   Physical Environment (I.B.i)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What role has the modern state played in the process of globalization?
a. encouraging protests
b. speeding up patterns of change in the modern world
c. being less involved in social life and the economy
d. limiting the movement of people through immigration policy
e. none of the above; the modern state has not played a major role

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 513

TOP:   Political Organization (I.B.ii)          MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Some sociologists, such as Juergensmeyer, believe that the biggest cultural conflicts in the twenty-first century will be between those who believe that truth is derived from __________ versus those who believe it is derived from __________.
a. religious faith; science
b. religious faith; political leadership
c. political leadership; science
d. modern state; religious faith
e. democracy; theocracy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 514        TOP:   Culture (I.B.iii)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The most far-reaching economic influence on social change has been the:
a. technology of the agrarian revolution
b. invention of the wheel
c. technology encouraged by capitalism
d. invention of money
e. effects of the warfare

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Economic Factors (I.B.iv)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Capitalism stimulates social change in an unprecedented way because it:
a. involves the constant expansion of production
b. involves the ever-increasing accumulation of wealth
c. promotes constant revision of the technology of production, which increasingly draws science into the process
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Economic Factors (I.B.iv)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The manufacture of material goods is no longer the basis of production in many countries today. What is?
a. the consumption of material goods
b. the development and dissemination of information and knowledge
c. agriculture
d. warfare
e. fishing

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Information Society (II)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Samuel’s father was laid off from his job at the auto part manufacturing plant after it closed. Samuel currently works at Starbucks, and he is going to night school at the local community college to learn computer programming. Samuel’s experience reflects which of the following:
a. service society
b. industrial society
c. information society
d. both a and b
e. both a and c

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 515

TOP:   Information Society (II) | Service Society (III)                MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which term has been used to describe the new society that is no longer based on industrialism?
a. information society
b. service society
c. knowledge society
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 515

TOP:   Information Society (II) | Service Society (III) | Knowledge Society (IV)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The growth of jobs in the retail and food service sector and the decline in manufacturing jobs is referred to as:
a. service society
b. industrial society
c. information society
d. low-wage society
e. contingent labor society

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Service Society (III)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In a knowledge-based economy, many industrial workers have been left unemployed and without the skills required to find good jobs. This is due to:
a. new social problems, such as long-term unemployment
b. new types of education, which are training workers for the knowledge economy
c. long-standing employment patterns
d. global trade and new forms of technology
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Knowledge Society (IV)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In a postindustrial society, professionals such as lawyers, engineers, and computer programmers will become the leading groups in society because, according to Daniel Bell, they possess and disseminate what?
a. post-secondary degrees
b. a global value system
c. nanotechnology
d. codified information
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postindustrial Society (V)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to Daniel Bell, the white-collar worker is the most essential type of employee in:
a. technology society
b. industrial society
c. postindustrial society
d. urban society
e. agricultural society

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postindustrial Society (V)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Postindustrial society is one based on the production of ________ rather than material goods.
a. information
b. food
c. services
d. financial goods
e. computers

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postindustrial Society (V)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Who would argue that there is no such thing as history?
a. postmodernists
b. postindustrialists
c. skeptics
d. religious extremists
e. transformationalists

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postmodernism (VI)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The belief that society is constantly in flux and that there is no “grand narrative” that guides society is called:
a. postindustrialism
b. postmodernism
c. historicity
d. posthistoricity
e. progressivism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postmodernism (VI)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. A collective attempt to further a common interest or secure a common goal through action outside the sphere of established institutions is:
a. a social movement
b. collective behavior
c. a riot
d. revolution
e. war

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 517        TOP:   Social Movements (VII)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Many contemporary social movements, such as the Arab Spring, rely heavily on:
a. information technology
b. unions
c. riots
d. violence
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 517        TOP:   Social Movements (VII)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Karl Marx, the primary source of conflict that leads to revolution is:
a. change in the forces of production
b. change in the minds of the bourgeoisie
c. change in the minds of the proletariat
d. the political system
e. religion

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 518

TOP:   Economic Deprivation (VII.A)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. James Davies argues that relative deprivation, not absolute deprivation, is what motivates revolution. Relative deprivation is the discrepancy between:
a. those who believe society should be guided by religious faith and those who believe that capitalism should be the focus
b. those who own the means of production and workers
c. the educated and those with less skills
d. the lives people are forced to lead and what they think could realistically be achieved
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 518

TOP:   Economic Deprivation (VII.A)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of collective action, according to Charles Tilly?
a. organization
b. mobilization
c. common interests
d. opportunity
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 519

TOP:   Resource Mobilization (VII.B)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Charles Tilly, mobilization is one of the main factors of collective action. Mobilization is:
a. how word of social protests spreads
b. a type of social protest
c. the size of the crowd
d. how people are transported to protest sites
e. the ways in which a group acquires sufficient resources to make collective action possible

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 519

TOP:   Resource Mobilization (VII.B)       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Neil Smelser, social movements are motivated by:
a. political breakdown
b. clashes of goals
c. an inspirational leader
d. a response to social conditions
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 520        TOP:   Structural Strain (VII.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What would be an example of a precipitating factor in Neil Smelser’s theory of social movements?
a. Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi setting himself on fire in protest of the local police’s confiscation of his wares
b. demonstration and riots in Tunisia
c. the spread of social movements labeled the “Arab Spring”
d. the overthrow of Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi
e. the use of the Internet to organize social movements

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Pages 519–20

TOP:   Structural Strain (VII.C)                  MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Alain Touraine’s concept of “historicity” in reference to social movements means:
a. one must understand the past of urban areas to understand the present
b. there are more social movements in the modern world because individuals and groups know that social activism can be used to achieve social goals and to reshape society
c. social movements are generally furthered by people whose emotions are totally out of control
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 520        TOP:   Fields of Action (VII.D)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Alain Touraine’s theory of social movements, the reason there are more social movements in the modern world is because:
a. social movements are irrational responses to social injustices
b. individuals and groups believe that social movements are an effective way to reshape society
c. people can communicate more easily with the Internet
d. social movements almost always become institutionalized
e. people are more likely to work in groups

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 520        TOP:   Fields of Action (VII.D)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to Alain Touraine’s theory of social movements, the connections between a social movement and the forces or influences opposing it are referred to as:
a. network conflict
b. mutual compromise
c. the field of action
d. social movement institutionalization
e. social change

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 520        TOP:   Fields of Action (VII.D)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Seen as a unique product of late modern society, __________ differ significantly in methods, motivations, and orientations from the collective action of earlier times.
a. liberal democracies
b. nation-states
c. civil society goals
d. new social movements
e. welfare states

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 521

TOP:   New Social Movements (VIII.A)    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following might be labeled a new social movement rather than a conventional social movement?
a. union movement
b. gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender movement
c. democracy movement
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 522

TOP:   New Social Movements (VIII.A)    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Participation in new social movements is seen as __________ whereby participants make a statement about who they are.
a. “social obligation”
b. “moral expression”
c. “personal expression”
d. “expressive logic”
e. “civic engagement”

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 522

TOP:   New Social Movements (VIII.A)    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. New social movements are at the heart of __________, the sphere between the state and the marketplace occupied by family, community associations, and other noneconomic institutions.
a. civil society
b. structural strain
c. institutional control
d. social mobilization
e. relative deprivation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 522

TOP:   New Social Movements (VIII.A)    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. American society has a strong set of noneconomic institutions, and most people socialize and interact in spaces structured by family, community associations, and schools. Therefore, according to sociologists, American society has a strong:
a. anti-market belief system
b. civil society
c. institutional control structure
d. protest culture
e. institutional bias

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 522

TOP:   New Social Movements (VIII.A)    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In recent years, participants in social movements have shown an ability to do something that is particularly worrisome to oppressive governments. This is the ability to:
a. develop charismatic leadership
b. coordinate international political campaigns by using the Internet and other technology
c. make phone calls to their elected representatives
d. charter buses to transport demonstrators to rallies
e. organize big petition drives in major metropolitan centers

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 523

TOP:   Technology and Social Movements (IX)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Jon and Huong are friends attending college in different states. They keep in contact through e-mail, instant messaging, and social networking Web sites. Based on this example, technology has the capacity to do what?
a. overcome cultural differences
b. link economic and cultural gains
c. overcome the move toward the service economy
d. create interdependence
e. compress time and space

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 524

TOP:   What Factors Contribute to Globalization? (X)                MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The biggest contribution to accelerating and deepening the process of globalization has been made by the rapid development and diffusion of __________ technologies, which have enhanced the so-called compression of time and space.
a. communication
b. transportation
c. manufacturing
d. accounting
e. energy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 524        TOP:   Information Flows (X.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, globalization is being driven by the integration of the world economy, which is now dominated by activity that is weightless. This weightless economy is one in which products have their basis in:
a. the Internet
b. service
c. information
d. consumption
e. financial services

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 524        TOP:   Information Flows (X.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the text, among the most significant political causes of globalization was:
a. the development of a socialist alternative to the capitalist world market
b. the rise of Islamic fundamentalism as a response to Western political influence in the Arab world
c. the collapse of the Soviet bloc and the end of isolation for the former second world
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 525        TOP:   Political Changes (X.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Among the political changes contributing to the intensification of globalization has been the growing influence of:
a. international and regional mechanisms of government
b. intergovernmental organizations
c. international nongovernmental organizations
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 525        TOP:   Political Changes (X.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Transnational corporations account for __________ of all world trade.
a. two-thirds
b. one-third
c. half
d. nine-tenths
e. one-tenth

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 529

TOP:   Transnational Corporations (X.C)   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is the best example of a transnational corporation?
a. a software company in Silicon Valley that employs about 200 people from around the United States using telecommuting technology
b. College Cleaners, the janitorial service that cleans the university buildings
c. Gooden, Brogan, Cangas, and Romero, a law firm with two thousand employees in three countries
d. Max’s Grille and Bar, a small bistro about two miles from your house
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 529

TOP:   Transnational Corporations (X.C)   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which perspective in the globalization debate argues that regionalization within the world economy produces less integration and that national governments continue to play a vital role in the economy?
a. the skeptics
b. the hyperglobalizers
c. the transformationalists
d. the critics
e. the anti-globalizers

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 530        TOP:   Skeptics (XI.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to globalization “skeptics,” compared with patterns of trade a century ago:
a. the world economy has not changed much
b. the world economy is more global and less regionalized
c. the world economy is less global and more regionalized
d. there is less trade because there are too many different types of currency
e. there is less trade because of difficulties communicating because of the many languages spoken around the world

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 530        TOP:   Skeptics (XI.A)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following perspectives on globalization believes that globalization is challenging the power of nation-states?
a. the hyperglobalizers
b. the transformationalists
c. the skeptics
d. the believers
e. the transitionists

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 531        TOP:   Hyperglobalizers (XI.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which perspective on globalization, exemplified by Kenichi Ohmae, argues that globalization is producing a borderless world in which national governments are no longer in control of their own economies?
a. the skeptics
b. the hyperglobalizers
c. the transformationalists
d. the critics
e. the hyperventilators

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 531        TOP:   Hyperglobalizers (XI.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which perspective in the globalization debate takes a middle position and sees many old patterns persisting while the broader global order is being transformed in a dynamic process that is open to influence and change?
a. the skeptics
b. the hyperglobalizers
c. the critics
d. the transformationalists
e. the hyperventilators

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 532        TOP:   Transformationalists (XI.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to the transformationalist perspective on globalization, the political structures of countries are adapting to challenges from:
a. new forms of economic and social organization
b. a declining world economy
c. resistant citizens
d. terrorist organizations
e. an increase in wars around the world

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 532        TOP:   Transformationalists (XI.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to transformationalists, globalization is a dynamic and open process that is subject to influence and change. Which attributes are associated with this view?
a. Globalization is a two-way flow of images, information, and influences.
b. Globalization is a decentered and self-aware process characterized by links and cultural flows that work in a multidimensional way.
c. We no longer live in a state-centric world; instead, governments must adopt a more active outward-looking stance because of the process of globalization.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 532        TOP:   Transformationalists (XI.C)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In terms of people’s working lives, globalization makes it more likely that individuals will experience:
a. a labor market that values skills in manual labor
b. a career in the manufacturing industry
c. working for one company over the course of their lives
d. a self-made career path, with several employment changes over their lifetime
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 534        TOP:   Work Patterns (XII.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Globalization has the biggest impact on work patterns through:
a. new patterns of international trade
b. a move toward a knowledge economy
c. the growth of service sector jobs
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 534        TOP:   Work Patterns (XII.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Some sociologists worry that globalization is leading to the creation of a global culture in which the values of the most powerful and affluent overwhelm the strength of local customs and tradition. This process is called:
a. hyperglobalization
b. cultural imperialism
c. Westernization
d. differentiation
e. hybrid identity formation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 536        TOP:   Popular Culture (XII.C)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans and other parts of the Gulf Coast. The government response to Hurricane Katrina created a social problem; however, according to sociologists the hurricane itself is considered a:
a. manufactured risk
b. external risk
c. natural risk
d. environmental disaster
e. social issue

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 536        TOP:   External Risk (XII.D.i)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the past, humans experienced famine and floods, or __________; today, as a result of globalization, humans now face __________ created by the effects of our own knowledge and technology on the natural world.
a. external risk; manufactured risk
b. manufactured risk; external risk
c. natural risk; manufactured risk
d. hyper-risk; manufactured risk
e. evolutionary risk; global risk

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 536

TOP:   External Risk (XII.D.i) | Manufactured Risk (XII.D.ii)    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered a manufactured risk according to German sociologist Ulrich Beck?
a. Florida being pummeled with four hurricanes during 2004
b. the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear disaster in Pennsylvania
c. the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina
d. the smog and toxic gases released by the eruption of Washington State’s Mount St. Helens in 1980 and 2004
e. the destruction of Pompeii

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 537

TOP:   Manufactured Risk (XII.D.ii)         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The increased risk of skin cancer is a manufactured risk that is likely related to:
a. people not wearing enough sunscreen
b. mad cow disease
c. the depletion of the ozone layer
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 537

TOP:   Manufactured Risk (XII.D.ii)         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Globalization is an uneven process, and because of this, the disparity between the developed world and the developing world is:
a. greater than ever
b. decreasing rapidly
c. growing but is still less than it was in the nineteenth century
d. slowly shrinking
e. none of the above; globalization has little effect on the development of countries

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 540

TOP:   Globalization and Inequality (XIII)           MSC:              Factual

 

  1. A 2006 study conducted by the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University found that the richest 1 percent of adults in the world owned __________ of global assets in the year 2000, yet the bottom half of the world adult population owned barely __________.
a. 40 percent; 20 percent
b. 70 percent; 1 percent
c. 10 percent; 10 percent
d. 50 percent; 50 percent
e. 40 percent; 1 percent

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 540

TOP:   Inequality and Global Divisions (XIII.A)                        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How would you best describe the gap in economic growth between the poorest and the richest countries?
a. Technological changes have allowed the poorest countries to catch up to their wealthier neighbors.
b. The disparity between the developed and the developing worlds widened steadily over the course of the twentieth century and is now the largest it has ever been.
c. The gap between the world’s richest and poorest countries has narrowed significantly in the last twenty-five years.
d. The increase in international trade has made the gap between the richest and poorest countries almost disappear.
e. The United States and other wealthy countries have provided resources to poorer countries, which has resulted in a gap of minimal consequence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 540

TOP:   Inequality and Global Divisions (XIII.A)                        MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Those who are critical of the World Trade Organization claim it is:
a. undemocratic
b. more concerned with corporate profits than human rights
c. dominated by the United States
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Page 542

TOP:   Campaign for Global Justice (XIII.B)                              MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The World Trade Organization protesters argue that trade rules should be oriented, first and foremost, to protecting __________, not to ensuring larger profits for already rich corporations.
a. human rights
b. the environment
c. labor rights
d. local economies
e. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Page 542

TOP:   Campaign for Global Justice (XIII.B)                              MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of the World Trade Organization ruling in favor of profits and against human rights?
a. It voted to allow Monsanto to dispose of chemical waste in Newfoundland Sound.
b. It insisted that European countries import beef from the United States even though U.S. beef is treated with potentially carcinogenic hormones.
c. It demanded that African countries pay a tariff for importing non-brand name drugs.
d. It asked the United Nations to send troops to protect World Trade Organization members against the onslaught of violent protesters.
e. It removed twenty-five countries as members because their economic expansion lagged behind that of other countries.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 542

TOP:   Campaign for Global Justice (XIII.B)                              MSC:  Applied

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What are the four major influences on social change in modern history? Which of these influences do you think has the largest impact on social change today? Use examples to support your answer.

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students must first define social change as the transformation over time of the institutions and culture of a society. Next, they should list and explain the four major influences: physical environment, political organization, economic factors, and culture. For physical environment, they should point out that both extreme environmental conditions and less extreme weather conditions and environments affect the way people organize themselves and the process through which they make a living. For political organization, students should explain that the types and ways that societies are politically organized strongly affects the course of development a society takes. For culture, students should include communication systems, religious and other belief systems, and popular culture. And finally, for economic factors, they should discuss the ways in which societies organize production and how consumption influences other factors that affect social change such as technological innovation. Finally, students should pick one of these factors and explain why they think it will have the greatest impact on social change today.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Pages 510–15                                            TOP:    Social Change (I.B)

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. According to Daniel Bell, we are entering a phase of development beyond the industrial era called the “postindustrial society.” Discuss the changes that have brought about a postindustrial society and what characterizes such a society.

 

ANS:

Students should begin by defining what Bell called a postindustrial society. The term postindustrial society refers to the sense that we are moving beyond the old forms of industrial development to a society defined by the significance of information or knowledge. Our way of life throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, based in large part on the manufacture of material goods in factories, is being displaced by one in which information is the basis of the production system. Students should point out that this is also referred to as information society or knowledge society. The postindustrial order, Bell argues, is distinguished by a growth of service occupations at the expense of jobs that produce material goods. The blue-collar worker, employed in a factory or workshop, is no longer the most essential type of employee. White-collar (clerical and professional) workers outnumber blue-collar (factory) workers, with professional and technical occupations growing fastest of all. People working in higher-level white-collar occupations specialize in the production of information and knowledge. The production and control of what Bell calls “codified knowledge” are society’s main resources. Those who create and distribute this knowledge—scientists, computer specialists, economists, engineers, and professionals of all kinds—increasingly become the leading social groups and replace the industrialists and entrepreneurs of the old system. The postindustrial society has also been labeled a service society, since employment in the service sector also dominates such a society.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 515        TOP:   Postindustrial Society (V)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. According to postmodernists, there is “no such thing as history.” What do they mean by this statement? Do you agree or disagree with their view of globalization?

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should start with an explanation of the postmodernists’ view. Postmodernism is a movement beyond modernity—the attitudes and ways of life associated with modern societies, such as our belief in progress, the benefits of science, and our capability to control the modern world. The advocates of postmodernity claim that modern societies took their inspiration from the idea that history has a shape—it “goes somewhere” and leads to progress—and that now this notion has collapsed. Not only is there no general notion of progress that can be defended, but there is also no such thing as history. The postmodern world is thus a highly pluralistic and diverse one. We come into contact with many ideas and values, but these have little connection with the history of the areas in which we live, or indeed with our own personal histories. Everything seems constantly in flux. In this sense, postmodernists also believe that there is no guiding set of values to motivate social reform. To conclude, the student should provide an argument for why they agree or disagree with the views of postmodernists.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Page 516        TOP:   Postmodernism (VI)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to Charles Tilly’s model, what are the four main components of collective action? Provide detailed examples of each component to fully illustrate your understanding of Tilly’s model.

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should begin with an overview of Charles Tilly’s analysis of social movements. Tilly argued that collective action is taken to contest or overthrow an existing social order. The textbook uses the example of the Russian Revolution, but students can use other examples. According to Tilly, collective action has four main components:

(1) The organization of the group or groups involved. Protest movements are organized in many ways, including the spontaneous formation of crowds and tightly disciplined revolutionary groups. The Russian Revolution, for example, began as a small group of activists.

(2) Mobilization refers to the ways in which a group acquires sufficient resources to make collective action possible. Such resources may include material goods, political support, and weaponry. In the Russian Revolution, Vladimir Lenin was able to acquire material and moral support from a sympathetic peasantry.

(3) Another component is the common goals and interests of those engaging in collective action, what they see as the gains and losses likely to be achieved by their policies. Lenin managed to weld together a broad coalition of support because many people had a common interest in removing the existing government.

(4) Opportunity. Chance events may occur that provide opportunities to pursue revolutionary aims. There was no inevitability to Lenin’s success, which depended on a number of contingent factors—including success in battle. If Lenin had been killed, would there have been a revolution?

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 518        TOP:   Resource Mobilization (VII.B)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What role do social movements play in social change? Using the Arab Spring as an example, explain how globalization has affected social movements.

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should begin with a definition of social movements and explain their relationship to social change. In addition to economics, technology, politics, and culture, one of the most common ways social change occurs is through social movements. Social movements are collective attempts to further a common interest or secure a common goal (such as forging social change) through action outside the sphere of established institutions. Many people believe that what has been called the “Arab Spring” began on December 17, 2010, when Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire to protest the local police’s confiscation of his wares and the harassment and humiliation that he experienced at the hands of a local government bureaucrat. This initial catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution, or the demonstrations and riots that erupted in protest of widespread corruption and inequality in the country, triggered the Arab Spring: In the following months, protests spread quickly throughout Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, and elsewhere in the Middle East during the spring of 2011.

The easy flow of information through communication technology is one of the main ways that globalization impacts social movements. Through the use of Twitter, Facebook, and Internet chat rooms, protesters could report in “real time” what they did and saw. These messages were transmitted not only to their peers and fellow protesters, but also to captivated viewers worldwide. The nature and causes of the protests varied across countries, yet most were led by educated but discontented young people who sought to fight against dictatorships, human rights violations, government corruption, economic declines, unemployment, and extreme poverty. As of September 2011, these revolutions have led to the overthrow of three heads of state: Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, and Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. Unlike revolutions and protests at earlier points in history, the Arab Spring was facilitated by the Internet and the compression of time and space that characterizes globalization.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Pages 520–21

TOP:   Technology and Social Movements (IX)                         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Explain how information technology and the flow of information play a role in propelling the process of globalization.

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should explain how information technology has compressed communication in time and space and thus changed the way we interact as well as the way production is organized around the world.

The process of globalization and the explosion in global communications have been facilitated by some important advances in technology and the world’s telecommunications infrastructure. In the post–World War II era, there has been a profound transformation in the scope and intensity of telecommunications flows. Traditional telephone communication, which depended on analog signals sent through wires and cables, has been replaced by integrated systems in which vast amounts of information are compressed and transferred digitally. Today a network of more than two hundred satellites is in place to facilitate the transfer of information around the globe.

The impact of these communications systems has been very significant. In countries with highly developed telecommunications infrastructures, homes and offices now have multiple links to the outside world, including telephones (both landlines and mobile phones), fax machines, digital and cable television, electronic mail, and the Internet. The Internet has emerged as the fastest-growing communication tool ever developed. These forms of technology facilitate the compression of time and space: Two individuals located on opposite sides of the planet not only can hold a conversation in real time, but also can send documents and images to one another with the help of satellite technology.

Widespread use of the Internet and mobile phones is deepening and accelerating processes of globalization. More and more people are becoming interconnected through the use of these technologies and are doing so in places that have previously been isolated or poorly served by traditional communications. Although the telecommunications infrastructure is not evenly developed around the world, a growing number of countries now have access to international communications networks in a way that was previously impossible.

Globalization is also being driven forward by the electronic integration of the world economy. The global economy is increasingly dominated by activity that is weightless and intangible. This weightless economy is one in which products have their base in information, as is the case with computer software, media and entertainment products, and Internet-based services. The emergence of the knowledge society has been linked to the development of a broad base of consumers who are technologically literate and eagerly integrate new advances in computing, entertainment, and telecommunications into their everyday lives. In order to be competitive in globalizing conditions, businesses and corporations have restructured themselves to be more flexible and less hierarchical in nature. Production practices and organizational patterns have become more flexible, partnering arrangements with other firms have become commonplace, and participation in worldwide distribution networks has become essential for doing business in a rapidly changing global market.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Pages 523–25

TOP:   What Factors Contribute to Globalization? (X)                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Compare and contrast the three perspectives in the globalization debate. Which position do you find most compelling? Why?

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should identify the schools of thought on globalization: skeptics, hyperglobalizers, and transformationalists. The skeptics believe that present levels of economic interdependence are not unprecedented. Pointing to nineteenth-century statistics on world trade and investment, they contend that modern globalization differs from the past only in the intensity of interaction between nations. The skeptics agree that there may now be more contact between countries than in previous eras, but in their eyes, the current world economy is not sufficiently integrated to constitute a truly globalized economy. To skeptics, the growth of regionalization is evidence that the world economy has become less integrated rather than more. Compared with the patterns of trade that prevailed a century ago, they argue, the world economy is less global in its geographical scope and more concentrated on intense pockets of activity. According to the skeptics, national governments continue to be key players because of their involvement in regulating and coordinating economic activity. For example, they are the driving force behind many trade agreements and policies of economic liberalization.

Hyperglobalizers, on the other hand, take an opposing position to that of the skeptics. They argue that globalization is a very real phenomenon with consequences that can be felt almost everywhere. They see globalization as producing a new global order, swept along by powerful flows of cross-border trade and production. Much of the analysis of globalization offered by hyperglobalizers focuses on the changing role of the nation-state. It is argued that individual countries no longer control their economies because of the vast growth in world trade. Some hyperglobalizers believe that the power of national governments is also being challenged from above—by new regional and international institutions, such as the European Union.

Finally the transformationalists take more of a middle position. They see globalization as the central force behind a broad spectrum of changes currently shaping modern societies. In this view, the global order is being transformed, but many of the old patterns remain. Governments, for instance, retain a good deal of power in spite of the advance of global interdependence. These transformations are not restricted to economics alone but are equally prominent within the realms of politics, culture, and personal life. Transformationalists contend that the current level of globalization is breaking down established boundaries between internal and external, international and domestic. In trying to adjust to this new order, societies, institutions, and individuals are being forced to navigate contexts where previous structures have been shaken up. Unlike hyperglobalizers, transformationalists see globalization as a dynamic and open process that is subject to influence and change. Globalization is not a one-way process, as some claim, but a two-way flow of images, information, and influences. Rather than losing sovereignty, as the hyperglobalizers argue, countries are seen by transformationalists as restructuring in response to new forms of economic and social organization that are nonterritorial in basis. They argue that we are no longer living in a state-centric world; governments are being forced to adopt a more active, outward-looking stance. The students should conclude their essays with an explanation of which perspective they agree with the most and why.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Pages 530–32                                            TOP:    Globalization Debate (XI)

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Discuss the cultural impacts of globalization. Do you think these are more a matter of “cultural imperialism” or “fragmentation of cultural forms”? Justify your position.

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should begin by explaining the two main views on the cultural impacts of globalization. The cultural impacts of globalization are widespread, as images, ideas, goods, and styles are now disseminated around the world more rapidly than ever before. Trade, new information technologies, the international media, and global migration have all contributed to the free movement of culture across national borders. Many people believe that we now live in a single information order—a massive global network where information is shared quickly and in great volumes.

There are generally two views on the cultural impacts of globalization. First, some people worry that globalization is leading to the creation of a global culture in which the values of the most powerful and affluent—in this instance, Hollywood filmmakers—overwhelm the strength of local customs and tradition. According to this view, globalization is a form of cultural imperialism in which the values, styles, and outlooks of the Western world are being spread so aggressively that they smother individual national cultures. By contrast, others claim that global society is now characterized by an enormous diversity of cultures existing side by side. They argue that there is an increasing fragmentation of cultural forms. Local traditions are joined by a host of additional cultural forms from abroad, which presents people with a bewildering array of lifestyle options from which to choose. Rather than a unified global culture, what we are witnessing is the fragmentation of cultural forms. Established identities and ways of life grounded in local communities and cultures are giving way to new forms of hybrid identity composed of elements from contrasting cultural sources.

Students should conclude the essay with an argument supporting one of these views.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Page 513        TOP:   Popular Culture (XII.C)

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to Ulrich Beck, globalization brings about a “risk society.” Explain a “risk society” and the kinds of risks that are being “manufactured.” What specific risks are you most concerned about? Why?

 

ANS:

To answer the question, students should begin by explaining the risk society and defining manufactured risks. The German sociologist Ulrich Beck sees manufactured risks contributing to the formation of a global risk society. Manufactured risks are created by the impact of our own knowledge and technology on the natural world. There are many environmental and health risks facing contemporary societies that are the outcomes of our own interventions into nature. Some of the clearest illustrations of manufactured risks are the environmental risks we face such as the depletion of the ozone layer and genetically modified foods. The risk society, Beck argues, is not limited to environmental and health risks; it includes a whole series of interrelated changes within contemporary social life: shifting employment patterns, heightened job insecurity, the erosion of traditional family patterns, and the democratization of personal relationships. As technological change progresses more and more rapidly and produces new forms of risk, we must constantly respond and adjust to these changes. The new risks have presented individuals with new choices and challenges in their everyday lives. Because there is no road map for these new dangers, individuals, countries, and transnational organizations must negotiate risks as they make choices about how lives are to be lived. Because personal futures are much less fixed than they were in traditional societies, decisions of all kinds present risks for individuals. According to Beck, an important aspect of the risk society is that its hazards are not restricted spatially, temporally, or socially. To conclude, the students should explain which risks they think will impact their lives.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Pages 536–38

TOP:   Manufactured Risk (XII.D.ii)         MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Compare and contrast the ways in which the “global justice movement” and organizations like the World Trade Organization view the relationship between free trade and global inequality. Which view do you agree with and why?

 

ANS:

To answer this question, students should begin by explaining the World Trade Organization and the “global justice movement.” The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international trade organization with 153 member countries that agree on measures to liberalize conditions for global trade and investment in agriculture and forest products, among other issues. The global justice movement is a social movement that is challenging the WTO and other organizations that the movement believes contribute to global inequality. Free trade is seen by the WTO and similar organizations as the key to economic development and poverty relief. Organizations such as the WTO work to liberalize trade regulations and to reduce barriers to trade between the countries of the world. Free trade across borders is viewed as a win–win proposition for developed and developing countries alike. While the industrialized economies are able to export their products to markets around the world, it is claimed that developing countries will also benefit by gaining access to world markets. This, in turn, is supposed to improve their prospects for integration into the global economy. The global justice movement, on the other hand, does not see free trade as the solution to poverty and global inequality but as a source of these issues. Supporters of this movement argue that free trade is a rather one-sided affair that benefits those who are already well off and exacerbates existing patterns of poverty and dependency within the developing world. Recently, much of this criticism has focused on the activities and policies of the WTO, which is at the forefront of efforts to increase global trade. Protesters against the WTO and other international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund argue that exuberance over global economic integration and free trade is forcing people to live in an economy rather than a society. Many are convinced that such moves will further weaken the economic position of poor societies by allowing transnational corporations to operate with few or no safety and environmental regulations. Commercial interests, they claim, are increasingly taking precedence over concern for human well-being. To conclude their essays, students need to explain which argument regarding free trade they support.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Pages 542–43

TOP:   Campaign for Global Justice (XIII.B)                              MSC:  Factual

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