Essentials of Life Span Development 2Nd ed by Santrock-Test Bank

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Essentials of Life Span Development 2Nd ed by Santrock-Test Bank

2
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The study of human evolution was first explored by:
A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Charles Darwin.
C. Stephen Hawking.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.
2. According to evolutionary theory, there is a specific reason that certain animals live in the regions that
they do. Polar bears, for instance, are found only in the Arctic regions of the world. An evolutionary
theorist would say that the polar bear was best adapted for this type of environment, unlike a grizzly bear,
who would freeze to death. In this case, the polar bear is a good example of:
A. how to keep warm.
B. adaptive coloration.
C. natural selection.
D. the idea that all creatures have their own niche.
3. Evolutionary psychology suggests that the way in which people develop is:
A. adaptive.
B. maladaptive.
C. random and based on chance.
D. based on their particular genetics.
4. Which of the following animals has the largest brain?
A. Lemur
B. Gibbon
C. Rhesus
D. Gorilla
5. Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are
_________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual’s makeup.
A. cephalocaudal in pattern
B. domain-specific
C. adaptive in contemporary society
D. bidirectional
6. As a criticism of evolutionary psychology, Albert Bandura proposed a:
A. directional view.
B. bidirectional view.
C. unidirectional view.
D. quasi-directional view.
7. In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad
range of ________ possibilities.
A. human
B. creative
C. diverse
D. cultural
8. The units of hereditary information that are compromised of short segments of DNA are ______.
A. RNA
B. chromosomes
C. genes
D. genomes
9. A complex molecule that has a double-helix shape and contains genetic information is:
A. a chromosome.
B. RNA.
C. DNA.
D. a gene.
10. Although it was originally thought that human beings have around _______ genes, recent research into
the human genome suggests that we probably have more like _______ different genes.
A. limitless; two to three billion
B. one million; 20,000
C. 30,000; 100,000
D. 100,000; 20,000
11. Except for the sperm and the egg, all cells in a normally developed human body have ______ pairs of
chromosomes.
A. 2
B. 4
C. 23
D. 46
12. Meiosis is the process by which a cell divides and then divides again, leaving:
A. four cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
B. three cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
C. six cells with 16 paired chromosomes.
D. four cells with 16 paired chromosomes.
13. Pat’s 23rd chromosome pair contains one X and one Y chromosome. This indicates that Pat:
A. has Down syndrome.
B. is male.
C. likely had a mother who used drugs and/or alcohol during her pregnancy.
D. may develop PKU if his/her diet is not carefully monitored.
14. Women have a ________ chromosome pairing, and men have a ________ chromosome pairing.
A. XX; XY
B. XY; XX
C. YY; XX
D. XX; YY
15. After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):
A. fetus.
B. zygote.
C. amoeba.
D. embryo.
16. A person’s ________ refers to all of an individual’s genetic material, including that which has and has not
yet been expressed.
A. genome
B. genotype
C. phenotype
D. genetic allele set
17. A phenotype can consist of ________ as well as ________ characteristics.
A. physical; environmental
B. conscious; unconscious
C. genetic; social
D. physical; psychological
18. When one gene overrides the potential of another gene to be expressed, masking it in a way, this gene is
exerting a ________ influence.
A. susceptibility
B. longevity
C. mutation-based
D. dominant
19. A recessive gene can only assert itself when:
A. both genes in a pair are recessive.
B. it is a stronger gene.
C. the environment is right.
D. there is an interaction between nature and nurture.
20. When it comes to the inheritance of an X-linked disease, which group has the best chance for inheritance?
A. females
B. males
C. European Americans
D. African Americans
21. It is virtually impossible to locate the genetic factors involved in most psychological characteristics
because of the concept of:
A. polygenic dominance.
B. polygenic inheritance.
C. polygenic influence.
D. polygenic counseling.
22. Which of the following explains a reason why chromosome abnormalities occur?
A. Chromosomes do not separate properly in meiosis.
B. The processes of mitosis and meiosis get reversed.
C. Environmental influences cause a zygote to form without the fusion of a sperm and egg.
D. None of these can explain why chromosomal abnormalities occur.
23. River has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over her eyelids, a thickened tongue, short
limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities. She is likely to have been born with:
A. Fragile X syndrome.
B. Klinefelter syndrome.
C. Down syndrome.
D. XYY syndrome.
24. With what sex-linked syndrome does a man have an extra X chromosome?
A. Down syndrome.
B. Fragile X syndrome.
C. Klinefelter syndrome.
D. Turner syndrome.
25. Hans is tall and has undeveloped testes and developed unusually large breasts for a man. What sex-linked
disorder does he have?
A. Fragile X syndrome
B. Down syndrome
C. Klinefelter syndrome
D. Turner syndrome
26. Fragile X syndrome is usually characterized by some sort of mental deficiency. This deficiency could
include having:
A. mental retardation.
B. a short attention span.
C. a learning disability.
D. any of these.
27. Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and
was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:
A. Turner syndrome.
B. Fragile X syndrome.
C. Klinefelter syndrome.
D. XXO syndrome.
28. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ______, which is an amino
acid.
A. ketonuria.
B. phenylalanine.
C. phenamoxide.
D. ketonalanine.
29. Mateo is on a strict diet because his parents are aware that he cannot metabolize a certain amino acid.
Buildup of this amino acid in his system could result in mental retardation. Mateo has:
A. Down syndrome.
B. Phenylketonuria (PKU).
C. Sickle-cell anemia.
D. Huntington disease.
30. In this genetic disorder, the body’s red blood cells take on a hook shape instead of the normal round
shape.
A. hemophilia.
B. sickle-cell anemia.
C. thrombocytopenia.
D. agranulocytosis.
31. Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his
blood. Emanuel has:
A. hemophilia.
B. sickle-cell anemia.
C. thrombocytopenia.
D. agranulocytosis.
32. Which of the following is NOT a gene-linked abnormality mentioned by your textbook?
A. diabetes
B. hemophilia
C. Tay-Sachs disease
D. autistic disorder
33. Lindsay wants to study a field where she will be able to discover the influence of heredity and the
environment on individual differences in human traits and development. She has a particular interest in
studying the differences between identical and fraternal twin pairs. Her advisor should suggest that she
apply to a graduate program in ______.
A. behavioral genetics
B. evolutionary developmental psychology
C. experimental psychiatry
D. molecular biophysics.
34. Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both develop a
conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that, clearly, conduct
disorder is determined by one’s genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use caution when
interpreting these findings because:
A. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
B. parents and other adults may stress the differences between identical twins more than those of fraternal
twins.
C. identical twins may be less likely to play with each other than are fraternal twins.
D. identical twins may share a secret language.
35. Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books
to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of
correlation between heredity and environment?
A. passive genotype-environment correlation
B. evocative genotype-environment correlation
C. influential genotype-environment correlation
D. active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation
36. Jessica is a very attractive teenager with beautiful brown eyes and high cheekbones. She is constantly
receiving compliments about her looks and being asked out on dates. Her genes have influenced her
environment in the following manner:
A. There is passive genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
B. There is evocative genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
C. There is an influential genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
D. There is an active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her
environment.
37. People seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup. For example, outgoing
children may join the drama club or speech/debate team. This is an example of a(n):
A. passive genotype-environment correlation.
B. evocative genotype-environment correlation.
C. influential genotype-environment correlation.
D. active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation.
38. Which view, proposed by Gilbert Gottlieb, suggests that development is an ongoing bidirectional
interaction between heredity and the environment?
A. epigenetic
B. biosocial
C. sociogenetic
D. epidemiographic
39. While Sally’s mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol, which adversely affected
Sally’s lung development. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents
who smoked. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder. The
development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of:
A. the biomedical model.
B. the biopsychosocial model.
C. the epigenetic view.
D. the medicopsychological theory.
40. Some recent research discussed by your author has found that individuals who have a genetic
predisposition to develop depression only have an elevated risk if they also lives that are high in stress.
This research supports the theory of a _________ interaction.
A. genotype x phenotype
B. polygentic
C. gene x environment
D. passive evocative
41. Which of the following is a correct statement regarding heredity-environment interaction?
A. The relative contributions of heredity and of environment are additive.
B. Genetic loading and complex environments combine in development.
C. Full genetic expression happens once, around conception or at birth.
D. Genes produce proteins over life in only a few certain environments.
42. The current view that people may have a propensity for a particular developmental trajectory (or path) is
called:
A. epigenetics.
B. biobehaviorism.
C. biodevelopment.
D. genetic loading.
43. The germinal period of development takes place in the ________ after conception.
A. first 2 weeks
B. first week
C. 3 days
D. first week and a half
44. The period of development that includes the creation of the zygote, attachment to the uterine wall, and
continued cell division is known as the ________ period.
A. gamete
B. cytocyst
C. blastocyst
D. germinal
45. Approximately 1 week after conception, the developing organism is called a(n):
A. trophoblast.
B. blastocyst.
C. endoblast.
D. cytocyst.
46. Implantation of the blastocyst to the uterine wall occurs at about ________ days after conception.
A. 6
B. 8
C. 14
D. 21
47. Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception?
A. embryonic
B. fetal
C. placental
D. metastatic
48. The outermost layer of the embryo, which becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors, and skin, is
called the:
A. mesoderm.
B. cytoderm.
C. endoderm.
D. ectoderm.
49. When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects in
his eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan’s problems came from defects in the formation of the:
A. ectoderm.
B. endoderm.
C. mesoderm.
D. trophoblast.
50. A group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join
is the:
A. amnion.
B. placenta.
C. embryo.
D. umbilical cord.
51. Juanita is having a normal pregnancy, and everything is developing well. She has, however, recently
picked up an infection, and bacteria have accumulated in her bloodstream. We know that most likely:
A. many of these bacteria will be passed on to her fetus.
B. the bacteria will be eliminated inside of the amniotic fluid.
C. the bacteria will latch on to the ectoderm layer in the fetus.
D. the bacteria cannot cross the placenta to reach the fetus.
52. Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough oxygen
or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the:
A. placenta.
B. embryo.
C. umbilical cord.
D. amnion.
53. The structure that contains clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats is called the:
A. amnion.
B. placenta.
C. embryo.
D. umbilical cord.
54. The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.
A. 4
B. 5
C. 2
D. 3
55. By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.
A. 3 ounces
B. 6 ounces
C. 16 ounces (1 pound)
D. 32 ounces (2 pounds)
56. Sidney is expecting her first child. She has just recently begun to feel kicking movements. Sidney is most
likely in the ________ month of her pregnancy.
A. second
B. fourth
C. sixth
D. seventh
57. The earliest point at which a fetus can have a chance to survive outside the womb is at:
A. around 12 weeks.
B. around 18 weeks.
C. around 24 weeks.
D. around 28 weeks.
58. At birth, the average American baby weighs ________ pounds and is approximately ________ inches
long.
A. 7½ pounds; 20 inches
B. 6½ pounds; 18 inches
C. 5½ pounds; 15 inches
D. 8½ pounds; 22 inches
59. By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons.
A. 10 million
B. 100 million
C. 1 billion
D. 100 billion
60. At what period of prenatal development do neurons begin to develop connections with each other?
A. at the moment of conception
B. when the zygote implants in the uterine wall
C. around 23 weeks of development near the age of viability
D. around 38 weeks, just before birth occurs
61. This is a prenatal medical procedure where high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women’s
abdomen.
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. triple screen
C. amniocentesis
D. ultrasound sonography
62. Which of the following is the most invasive prenatal test?
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. ultrasound sonography
C. amniocentesis
D. fetal MRI
63. This is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested
for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. triple screen
C. amniocentesis
D. ultrasound sonography
64. Maternal blood screening identifies pregnancies that have an elevated risk for birth defects such as:
A. Down syndrome
B. spina bifida.
C. both Down syndrome and spina bifida.
D. neither Down syndrome nor spina bifida.
65. Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine
whether her fetus has this defect?
A. ultrasound
B. in vitro fertilization test
C. chorionic villus sampling
D. maternal blood screening
66. Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for infertility in a woman?
A. a lack of ovulation
B. blocked fallopian tubes
C. alcohol use
D. a condition that prevents implantation of a fertilized ovum into the uterus.
67. David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician’s guidance, they decide
to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly’s eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband’s
sperm. What procedure is this?
A. gamete transfer
B. intracytoplasmic sperm injection
C. zygote intrafallopian transfer
D. in vitro fertilization
68. Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they’ve decided to try in-vitro
fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should
know about is that:
A. at least half of all children conceived via IVF will have some form of developmental delay.
B. 25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.).
C. the rate of miscarriage from IVF is nearly 20 times that from traditional conception.
D. IVF ordinarily takes two to three years to result in a successful conception.
69. A teratogen is any agent that can cause:
A. early birth.
B. birth defects.
C. fetal movement.
D. maternal discomfort.
70. During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural
defect because of the effects of a teratogen?
A. at conception
B. during the germinal period
C. during the embryonic period
D. during the fetal period
71. Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just
discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to:
A. continue to take Accutane for her acne until she is 4 months pregnant.
B. stop taking Accutane immediately.
C.continue to take Accutane but be sure to come to her prenatal appointments for regular monitoring of
the development of her baby.
D. stop taking Accutane right now, and resume taking it when she is 7 months pregnant.
72. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a psychoactive drug?
A. It is always addictive.
B. It can change moods.
C. It can modify perceptions.
D. It acts on the nervous system.
73. ________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and
change moods.
A. Psychotropic
B. Psychiatric
C. c, Psychologic
D. Psychoactive
74. Research suggests that mothers who drink 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day increase their risk
of:
A. nothing; this amount of caffeine is safe.
B. having a miscarriage.
C. having a stillborn baby.
D. having a baby that later dies of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
75. The Food and Drug Administration recommends the following:
A. Pregnant women should consume no caffeine or consume it sparingly.
B. Exposure of the mother to secondhand smoke will not harm the fetus.
C. Pregnant women can safely drink one glass of wine or beer per day.
D. Cocaine used in the last months of pregnancy will not harm the fetus.
76. Sequoia is pregnant and drinks heavily 3 to 4 days a week. Her unborn child is at a high risk for
developing:
A. embryonic poisoning.
B. a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
C. infantile amnesia.
D. sudden infant death syndrome.
77. Koko has decided to continue smoking while pregnant. She is placing her baby at risk for all of the
following, EXCEPT:
A. sudden infant death syndrome.
B. respiratory problems.
C. low birth weight.
D. mild mental retardation.
78. Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?
A. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. mental retardation
C. autism spectrum disorder
D. reactive attachment disorder
79. Angelo is 5 years old and has a poor attention span. He often fidgets and is impulsive. It is possible that
Angelo’s mother used _______ when pregnant.
A. nicotine
B. cocaine
C. caffeine
D. marijuana
80. All of the following are alternative possible contributors to problems found in the children of cocaine
users, EXCEPT:
A. marijuana use.
B. poverty.
C. alcohol use.
D. mental illness.
81. Michael was adopted at birth. His adoptive parents notice that Michael cries all the time. His body often
shakes, and he reacts slowly to the things around him. They suspect that Michael’s mother was using
_______ when pregnant with him.
A. heroin
B. caffeine
C. alcohol
D. marijuana
82. Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:
A. the fetus will need a blood transfusion immediately after birth.
B. the fetus’s immune system will attack the mother’s blood during the fetal stage.
C. Jasmine has type A blood, while her fetus has type B blood.
D. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.
83. Syphilis is different from rubella in that syphilis:
A. attacks only the nervous system.
B. does not affect organogenesis.
C. mainly scars the circulatory system.
D. affects organogenesis.
84. About ________ of all children who are born through the birth canal of a mother infected with active
genital herpes die.
A. one-third
B. one-half
C. one-fourth
D. one-fifth
85. Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a
fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:
A. beef.
B. pork.
C. fish.
D. chicken.
86. Alissa is 30 pounds overweight and just learned that she is pregnant. Her fetus runs the risk of:
A. low birth weight.
B. anemia.
C. prematurity.
D. intrauterine death.
87. What does Popeye have in common with a pregnant woman?
A. They both benefit by eating spinach
B. They both have a problem with bulging muscles
C. They both have a tattoo of an anchor
D. They both like to hang out on boats
88. Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 to 34 years old?
A. Bell’s palsy
B. Down syndrome
C. Klinefelter syndrome
D. Turner syndrome
89. Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby’s:
A. intelligence.
B. language development.
C. heart rate.
D. growth rate.
90. The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____.
A. emergence of the child’s head; delivery of the placenta
B. opening of the cervix; delivery of the child out of the mother
C. movement of the child’s head through the cervix; emergence of the child out of the mother
D. opening of the cervix; delivery of the placenta
91. The third stage of childbirth consists of:
A. expulsion of placenta and umbilical cord.
B. the introduction of the child to the mother.
C. the complete delivery of the infant.
D. the cutting of the umbilical cord.
92. In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a
midwife as opposed to a physician?
A. Holland
B. Japan
C. The United States
D. Kuwait
93. As opposed to physicians, doulas tend to:
A. spend more time with mothers and give more emotional support.
B. spend less time with mothers but give more emotional support.
C. give less emotional support but spend more time with mothers.
D. play mostly an educational role, giving some emotional support.
94. Gisela is having her first baby and has received a drug that will numb the entire lower area of her body
during labor. Gisela has been given a(n):
A. epidural block.
B. oxytocic.
C. analgesic.
D. hormone.
95. Natural childbirth consists of all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. education.
B. breathing.
C. relaxation.
D. medication.
96. The Apgar scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would:
A. indicate that the newborn’s condition is good.
B. signal that there may be some developmental difficulties.
C. signal an emergency because the baby’s survival is in doubt.
D. indicate that the evaluator has not made a proper reading.
97. The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given within
minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and observation.
A. Apgar scale
B. preterm outcome test
C. Rogers-Randall Assessment
D. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
98. Dakota was born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighed 4 pounds. Dakota would be considered:
A. a preterm infant.
B. very low birth weight.
C. of low birth weight.
D. normal or average.
99. Malorie was born in her mother’s 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a ________
baby.
A. preterm
B. small for date
C. low birth weight
D. normal
100.Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:
A. preterm.
B. premature.
C. low birth weight.
D. small for date.
101.Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. heartbeat.
B. temperature.
C. sleeping.
D. breathing.
102.When compared with preterm infants who do not receive massage, preterm infants who receive
massage:
A. have better overall health.
B. have the same health.
C. have worse overall health.
D. have varying degrees of health problems.
103.Asia is very tired after the birth of her baby, and she wants the baby to stay in the nursery so that she can
sleep and recover. Research on bonding suggests that if the baby does spend time in the nursery away
from Asia, then:
A. the opportunity to bond will be lost.
B. Asia can still bond with her baby.
C. the baby may bond more with the father than with Asia.
D. Asia may bond with the baby, but the baby will not bond with Asia.
104.Michael and Jessica are having their first child and have told their physician they would like a rooming-in
arrangement during their hospital stay. This means that:
A. Michael can stay overnight in Jessica’s room.
B. Jessica’s hospital room will be more like a nursery.
C. Jessica’s newborn baby will stay with her in her room.
D. Jessica’s family members can stay in her room and visit.
105.The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known as:
A. plastication.
B. homeostasis.
C. elastation.
D. involution.
106.Judy has a new baby at home. During this postpartum period, Judy will need to:
A. rely as little as she can on external family supports.
B. ignore her other children and give her baby most of her attention.
C. learn to let the father take care of the baby, because she will be unable.
D. learn how to take care of the baby and feel good about herself as a mother.
107.Mariah had a new baby last month. Mariah cries and worries a lot, is depressed, and has trouble coping
with her daily activities. Given what researchers know about the postpartum period, Mariah:
A. is having a normal reaction.
B. will score low on the Apgar scale.
C. should relax and help herself adjust.
D. should seek professional counseling or assistance.
108.Duvon’s wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born, Duvon
may feel:
A. no postpartum reaction.
B. fearful about his newfound responsibilities.
C. angry that his baby demands so much time.
D. upset that the baby comes first.
109.This theorist suggested that development is an ongoing bidirectional interaction between heredity and the
environment. This position is called the epigenetic view.
110.This French obstetrician developed the prepared childbirth method.
111.A psychological perspective that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival of
the fittest” in shaping behavior.
112.A complex molecule, with a double helix shape, that contains genetic information.
113.Threadlike structures that contain DNA. Arranged in pairs, the normal human body contains 23 of these
structures.
114.Short segments of DNA located on the chromosomes. These are considered to be the basic units of
hereditary information.
115.The observable characteristics of an individual’s genetic makeup.
116.The interaction of many different genes to produce an inherited characteristic.
117.A chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21. A person with this
disorder typically has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over the eyelids, a protruding
tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities.
118.A sex-linked chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by a male having an extra X chromosome
(XXY). A man with this disorder typically has undeveloped testes and develops enlarged breasts.
119.A sex-linked chromosomal disorder resulting from an abnormality in the X chromosome which often
becomes constricted and may break. This disorder occurs more frequently in males than in females. A
person with this disorder typically has some sort of mental deficiency such as mental retardation, a short
attention span, or a learning disability.
120.A sex-linked chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing (XO) or part
of one X chromosome is deleted. Females with this disorder are usually short in stature, have a webbed
neck, and are often infertile.
121.A genetic disorder in which the individual cannot effectively metabolize phenylalanine (an amino acid).
If a child’s diet is not modified to prevent an excess accumulation of the phenylalanine, this amino acid is
stored, resulting in mental retardation and hyperactivity.
122.A genetic disorder, occurring primarily in African Americans, in which the body’s red blood cells take
on a hook shape instead of the normal round shape. This abnormally shaped blood cell is unable to carry
oxygen properly, so the affected individual usually develops anemia.
123.A heredity-environment correlation where individuals seek out environments consistent with their genetic
makeup.
124.The prenatal period of development takes place in the first 2 weeks after conception. It includes the
creation of the zygote, cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.
125.The period of prenatal development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception. During this time, the rate
of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.
126.The prenatal period of development that begins 2 months after conception and lasts for 7 months.
127.One of the three layers of cells of the embryo. This is the inner layer of cells that will develop into the
digestive and respiratory systems.
128.This is one of the life-support systems of the embryo. It contains two arteries and one vein connecting the
baby to the placenta.
129.This is one of the life-support systems of the embryo. It is a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small
blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine. Oxygen, water, salt, and food from the
mother’s blood are passed to the embryo. Carbon dioxide and digestive wastes from the embryo pass to
the mother.
130.The name given to the process of organ formation during the first 2 months of prenatal development.
131.A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. With this procedure, highfrequency
sound waves are directed into the women’s abdomen. The echo from the sounds is transformed
into a visual representation of the fetus’s inner structures.
132.A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. With this procedure, a sample
of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
133.Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes
of the developing baby.
134.Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change
moods.
135.A cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink heavy amounts of alcohol
during pregnancy.
136.A kind of drug used late in the first stage of labor and during expulsion of the baby to block
consciousness or to block sensation in part of the mother’s body. An epidural block is one example.
137.A kind of drug used to stimulate contractions in a pregnant woman.
138.The baby’s position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the
vagina.
139.A delivery in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision (made by the
doctor) in her abdomen.
140.A widely used method to asses the health of newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. It is used to evaluate
such things as the infants’ heart rate, body color, and reflex irritability.
141.An infant that weighs less than 5½ pounds at birth.
142.An infant that is born 3 or more weeks before the pregnancy has reached its full term.
143.A way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact.
144.The period immediately after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to
the process of childbirth.
145.The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth.
146.A major depressive episode that typically occurs in mothers about 4 weeks after delivery of a baby. It is
characterized by strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair.
147.List and briefly explain three of the ideas proposed by evolutionary developmental
psychology.
148.List four genetic disorders associated with sex-chromosome
abnormalities.
149.List the three ways in which behavior geneticists believe heredity
and environment interact, and describe/define the nature of these
interactions.
150.Describe the three layers of cells that develop at the beginning of the embryonic
period.
151.List the three periods of prenatal
development.
152.List the three life-support systems that develop during the embryonic period for
babies.
153.List at least three possible causes of infertility in women and in
men.
154.List three factors that influence the severity of the damage from
teratogens.
155.List at least five general categories of
teratogens.
156.List at least three effects of nicotine on fetal
development.
157.List at least three environmental hazards that can endanger the
fetus.
158.List at least two paternal factors that can impact fetal
development.
159.Name and briefly define/describe the three stages of the birthing
process.
160.List the four methods of
delivery.
161.List four of the five health signs evaluated by the Apgar
scale.
162.List and define/describe the three different types of low birth weight infants. Note: Low, very low, and
extremely low birth weights would count as one of the three answers. You may not use all three to answer
this question.
163.List at least four potential negative outcomes associated with low birth weight in
babies.
164.List at least three signs that indicate a woman in the postpartum stage of pregnancy may need
professional counseling.
165.Briefly describe why males are more likely to show the signs of an X-linked disorder, and name one.
166.Describe the three main periods of prenatal development.
167.Define fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and list two (physical and/or mental) abnormalities in
the child that are associated with FAS.
2 Key
1. The study of human evolution was first explored by:
A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Charles Darwin.
C. Stephen Hawking.
D. Wilhelm Wundt.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior
Santrock – Chapter 02 #1
2. According to evolutionary theory, there is a specific reason that certain animals live in the regions that
they do. Polar bears, for instance, are found only in the Arctic regions of the world. An evolutionary
theorist would say that the polar bear was best adapted for this type of environment, unlike a grizzly
bear, who would freeze to death. In this case, the polar bear is a good example of:
A. how to keep warm.
B. adaptive coloration.
C. natural selection.
D. the idea that all creatures have their own niche.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior
Santrock – Chapter 02 #2
3. Evolutionary psychology suggests that the way in which people develop is:
A. adaptive.
B. maladaptive.
C. random and based on chance.
D. based on their particular genetics.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Evolutionary Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #3
4. Which of the following animals has the largest brain?
A. Lemur
B. Gibbon
C. Rhesus
D. Gorilla
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #4
5. Evolutionary developmental psychology argues that many evolved psychological mechanisms are
_________, which means that they apply only to a specific part of an individual’s makeup.
A. cephalocaudal in pattern
B. domain-specific
C. adaptive in contemporary society
D. bidirectional
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #5
6. As a criticism of evolutionary psychology, Albert Bandura proposed a:
A. directional view.
B. bidirectional view.
C. unidirectional view.
D. quasi-directional view.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #6
7. In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a
broad range of ________ possibilities.
A. human
B. creative
C. diverse
D. cultural
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #7
8. The units of hereditary information that are compromised of short segments of DNA are ______.
A. RNA
B. chromosomes
C. genes
D. genomes
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #8
9. A complex molecule that has a double-helix shape and contains genetic information is:
A. a chromosome.
B. RNA.
C. DNA.
D. a gene.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #9
10. Although it was originally thought that human beings have around _______ genes, recent research
into the human genome suggests that we probably have more like _______ different genes.
A. limitless; two to three billion
B. one million; 20,000
C. 30,000; 100,000
D. 100,000; 20,000
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #10
11. Except for the sperm and the egg, all cells in a normally developed human body have ______ pairs of
chromosomes.
A. 2
B. 4
C. 23
D. 46
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization
Santrock – Chapter 02 #11
12. Meiosis is the process by which a cell divides and then divides again, leaving:
A. four cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
B. three cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.
C. six cells with 16 paired chromosomes.
D. four cells with 16 paired chromosomes.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization
Santrock – Chapter 02 #12
13. Pat’s 23rd chromosome pair contains one X and one Y chromosome. This indicates that Pat:
A. has Down syndrome.
B. is male.
C. likely had a mother who used drugs and/or alcohol during her pregnancy.
D. may develop PKU if his/her diet is not carefully monitored.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization
Santrock – Chapter 02 #13
14. Women have a ________ chromosome pairing, and men have a ________ chromosome pairing.
A. XX; XY
B. XY; XX
C. YY; XX
D. XX; YY
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization
Santrock – Chapter 02 #14
15. After fertilization of the egg by a sperm, a single cell is created that is known as a(n):
A. fetus.
B. zygote.
C. amoeba.
D. embryo.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization
Santrock – Chapter 02 #15
16. A person’s ________ refers to all of an individual’s genetic material, including that which has and has
not yet been expressed.
A. genome
B. genotype
C. phenotype
D. genetic allele set
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sources of Variability
Santrock – Chapter 02 #16
17. A phenotype can consist of ________ as well as ________ characteristics.
A. physical; environmental
B. conscious; unconscious
C. genetic; social
D. physical; psychological
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sources of Variability
Santrock – Chapter 02 #17
18. When one gene overrides the potential of another gene to be expressed, masking it in a way, this gene
is exerting a ________ influence.
A. susceptibility
B. longevity
C. mutation-based
D. dominant
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Dominant and Recessive Genes
Santrock – Chapter 02 #18
19. A recessive gene can only assert itself when:
A. both genes in a pair are recessive.
B. it is a stronger gene.
C. the environment is right.
D. there is an interaction between nature and nurture.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Dominant and Recessive Genes
Santrock – Chapter 02 #19
20. When it comes to the inheritance of an X-linked disease, which group has the best chance for
inheritance?
A. females
B. males
C. European Americans
D. African Americans
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Genes
Santrock – Chapter 02 #20
21. It is virtually impossible to locate the genetic factors involved in most psychological characteristics
because of the concept of:
A. polygenic dominance.
B. polygenic inheritance.
C. polygenic influence.
D. polygenic counseling.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Polygenic Inheritance
Santrock – Chapter 02 #21
22. Which of the following explains a reason why chromosome abnormalities occur?
A. Chromosomes do not separate properly in meiosis.
B. The processes of mitosis and meiosis get reversed.
C. Environmental influences cause a zygote to form without the fusion of a sperm and egg.
D. None of these can explain why chromosomal abnormalities occur.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #22
23. River has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over her eyelids, a thickened tongue,
short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities. She is likely to have been born with:
A. Fragile X syndrome.
B. Klinefelter syndrome.
C. Down syndrome.
D. XYY syndrome.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Down Syndrome
Santrock – Chapter 02 #23
24. With what sex-linked syndrome does a man have an extra X chromosome?
A. Down syndrome.
B. Fragile X syndrome.
C. Klinefelter syndrome.
D. Turner syndrome.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #24
25. Hans is tall and has undeveloped testes and developed unusually large breasts for a man. What sexlinked
disorder does he have?
A. Fragile X syndrome
B. Down syndrome
C. Klinefelter syndrome
D. Turner syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #25
26. Fragile X syndrome is usually characterized by some sort of mental deficiency. This deficiency could
include having:
A. mental retardation.
B. a short attention span.
C. a learning disability.
D. any of these.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #26
27. Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and
was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:
A. Turner syndrome.
B. Fragile X syndrome.
C. Klinefelter syndrome.
D. XXO syndrome.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #27
28. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ______, which is an
amino acid.
A. ketonuria.
B. phenylalanine.
C. phenamoxide.
D. ketonalanine.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #28
29. Mateo is on a strict diet because his parents are aware that he cannot metabolize a certain amino acid.
Buildup of this amino acid in his system could result in mental retardation. Mateo has:
A. Down syndrome.
B. Phenylketonuria (PKU).
C. Sickle-cell anemia.
D. Huntington disease.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #29
30. In this genetic disorder, the body’s red blood cells take on a hook shape instead of the normal round
shape.
A. hemophilia.
B. sickle-cell anemia.
C. thrombocytopenia.
D. agranulocytosis.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #30
31. Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his
blood. Emanuel has:
A. hemophilia.
B. sickle-cell anemia.
C. thrombocytopenia.
D. agranulocytosis.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #31
32. Which of the following is NOT a gene-linked abnormality mentioned by your textbook?
A. diabetes
B. hemophilia
C. Tay-Sachs disease
D. autistic disorder
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #32
33. Lindsay wants to study a field where she will be able to discover the influence of heredity and the
environment on individual differences in human traits and development. She has a particular interest
in studying the differences between identical and fraternal twin pairs. Her advisor should suggest that
she apply to a graduate program in ______.
A. behavioral genetics
B. evolutionary developmental psychology
C. experimental psychiatry
D. molecular biophysics.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Behavior Genetics
Santrock – Chapter 02 #33
34. Using a twin study, Professor Jones has just found that identical twins were more likely to both
develop a conduct disorder than were fraternal twins. He has decided to announce to the world that,
clearly, conduct disorder is determined by one’s genes. His colleagues suggested, however, that he use
caution when interpreting these findings because:
A. the environments of identical twins may be more similar than the environments of fraternal twins.
B. parents and other adults may stress the differences between identical twins more than those of
fraternal twins.
C. identical twins may be less likely to play with each other than are fraternal twins.
D. identical twins may share a secret language.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Behavior Genetics
Santrock – Chapter 02 #34
35. Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many
books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to
this type of correlation between heredity and environment?
A. passive genotype-environment correlation
B. evocative genotype-environment correlation
C. influential genotype-environment correlation
D. active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Heredity-Environment Correlations
Santrock – Chapter 02 #35
36. Jessica is a very attractive teenager with beautiful brown eyes and high cheekbones. She is constantly
receiving compliments about her looks and being asked out on dates. Her genes have influenced her
environment in the following manner:
A. There is passive genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
B. There is evocative genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
C. There is an influential genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her environment.
D. There is an active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation between her genes and her
environment.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Heredity-Environment Correlations
Santrock – Chapter 02 #36
37. People seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup. For example, outgoing
children may join the drama club or speech/debate team. This is an example of a(n):
A. passive genotype-environment correlation.
B. evocative genotype-environment correlation.
C. influential genotype-environment correlation.
D. active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Heredity-Environment Correlations
Santrock – Chapter 02 #37
38. Which view, proposed by Gilbert Gottlieb, suggests that development is an ongoing bidirectional
interaction between heredity and the environment?
A. epigenetic
B. biosocial
C. sociogenetic
D. epidemiographic
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Epigenetic View
Santrock – Chapter 02 #38
39. While Sally’s mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol, which adversely affected
Sally’s lung development. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents
who smoked. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder.
The development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of:
A. the biomedical model.
B. the biopsychosocial model.
C. the epigenetic view.
D. the medicopsychological theory.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Epigenetic View
Santrock – Chapter 02 #39
40. Some recent research discussed by your author has found that individuals who have a genetic
predisposition to develop depression only have an elevated risk if they also lives that are high in
stress. This research supports the theory of a _________ interaction.
A. genotype x phenotype
B. polygentic
C. gene x environment
D. passive evocative
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Gene X Environment (G X E) Interaction
Santrock – Chapter 02 #40
41. Which of the following is a correct statement regarding heredity-environment interaction?
A. The relative contributions of heredity and of environment are additive.
B. Genetic loading and complex environments combine in development.
C. Full genetic expression happens once, around conception or at birth.
D. Genes produce proteins over life in only a few certain environments.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Conclusions About Heredity-Environment Interaction
Santrock – Chapter 02 #41
42. The current view that people may have a propensity for a particular developmental trajectory (or path)
is called:
A. epigenetics.
B. biobehaviorism.
C. biodevelopment.
D. genetic loading.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Conclusions About Heredity-Environment Interaction
Santrock – Chapter 02 #42
43. The germinal period of development takes place in the ________ after conception.
A. first 2 weeks
B. first week
C. 3 days
D. first week and a half
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Germinal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #43
44. The period of development that includes the creation of the zygote, attachment to the uterine wall, and
continued cell division is known as the ________ period.
A. gamete
B. cytocyst
C. blastocyst
D. germinal
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Germinal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #44
45. Approximately 1 week after conception, the developing organism is called a(n):
A. trophoblast.
B. blastocyst.
C. endoblast.
D. cytocyst.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Germinal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #45
46. Implantation of the blastocyst to the uterine wall occurs at about ________ days after conception.
A. 6
B. 8
C. 14
D. 21
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Germinal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #46
47. Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception?
A. embryonic
B. fetal
C. placental
D. metastatic
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #47
48. The outermost layer of the embryo, which becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors, and skin, is
called the:
A. mesoderm.
B. cytoderm.
C. endoderm.
D. ectoderm.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #48
49. When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects
in his eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan’s problems came from defects in the formation of
the:
A. ectoderm.
B. endoderm.
C. mesoderm.
D. trophoblast.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #49
50. A group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not
join is the:
A. amnion.
B. placenta.
C. embryo.
D. umbilical cord.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #50
51. Juanita is having a normal pregnancy, and everything is developing well. She has, however, recently
picked up an infection, and bacteria have accumulated in her bloodstream. We know that most
likely:
A. many of these bacteria will be passed on to her fetus.
B. the bacteria will be eliminated inside of the amniotic fluid.
C. the bacteria will latch on to the ectoderm layer in the fetus.
D. the bacteria cannot cross the placenta to reach the fetus.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #51
52. Marta recently went to see her doctor and learned that her unborn child was not receiving enough
oxygen or nutrients from her. She was informed that there was a problem with the:
A. placenta.
B. embryo.
C. umbilical cord.
D. amnion.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #52
53. The structure that contains clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats is called the:
A. amnion.
B. placenta.
C. embryo.
D. umbilical cord.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #53
54. The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.
A. 4
B. 5
C. 2
D. 3
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #54
55. By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.
A. 3 ounces
B. 6 ounces
C. 16 ounces (1 pound)
D. 32 ounces (2 pounds)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #55
56. Sidney is expecting her first child. She has just recently begun to feel kicking movements. Sidney is
most likely in the ________ month of her pregnancy.
A. second
B. fourth
C. sixth
D. seventh
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #56
57. The earliest point at which a fetus can have a chance to survive outside the womb is at:
A. around 12 weeks.
B. around 18 weeks.
C. around 24 weeks.
D. around 28 weeks.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #57
58. At birth, the average American baby weighs ________ pounds and is approximately ________ inches
long.
A. 7½ pounds; 20 inches
B. 6½ pounds; 18 inches
C. 5½ pounds; 15 inches
D. 8½ pounds; 22 inches
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #58
59. By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons.
A. 10 million
B. 100 million
C. 1 billion
D. 100 billion
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Brain
Santrock – Chapter 02 #59
60. At what period of prenatal development do neurons begin to develop connections with each other?
A. at the moment of conception
B. when the zygote implants in the uterine wall
C. around 23 weeks of development near the age of viability
D. around 38 weeks, just before birth occurs
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Brain
Santrock – Chapter 02 #60
61. This is a prenatal medical procedure where high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women’s
abdomen.
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. triple screen
C. amniocentesis
D. ultrasound sonography
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #61
62. Which of the following is the most invasive prenatal test?
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. ultrasound sonography
C. amniocentesis
D. fetal MRI
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #62
63. This is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and
tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.
A. chorionic villus sampling
B. triple screen
C. amniocentesis
D. ultrasound sonography
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #63
64. Maternal blood screening identifies pregnancies that have an elevated risk for birth defects such
as:
A. Down syndrome
B. spina bifida.
C. both Down syndrome and spina bifida.
D. neither Down syndrome nor spina bifida.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #64
65. Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine
whether her fetus has this defect?
A. ultrasound
B. in vitro fertilization test
C. chorionic villus sampling
D. maternal blood screening
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Prenatal Test
Santrock – Chapter 02 #65
66. Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for infertility in a woman?
A. a lack of ovulation
B. blocked fallopian tubes
C. alcohol use
D. a condition that prevents implantation of a fertilized ovum into the uterus.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Factual
Page Reference: Infertility and Reproductive Technology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #66
67. David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician’s guidance, they
decide to undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly’s eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her
husband’s sperm. What procedure is this?
A. gamete transfer
B. intracytoplasmic sperm injection
C. zygote intrafallopian transfer
D. in vitro fertilization
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Infertility and Reproductive Technology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #67
68. Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they’ve decided to try in-vitro
fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should
know about is that:
A. at least half of all children conceived via IVF will have some form of developmental delay.
B. 25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets,
etc.).
C. the rate of miscarriage from IVF is nearly 20 times that from traditional conception.
D. IVF ordinarily takes two to three years to result in a successful conception.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Infertility and Reproductive Technology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #68
69. A teratogen is any agent that can cause:
A. early birth.
B. birth defects.
C. fetal movement.
D. maternal discomfort.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: General Principles
Santrock – Chapter 02 #69
70. During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural
defect because of the effects of a teratogen?
A. at conception
B. during the germinal period
C. during the embryonic period
D. during the fetal period
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: General Principles
Santrock – Chapter 02 #70
71. Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just
discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to:
A. continue to take Accutane for her acne until she is 4 months pregnant.
B. stop taking Accutane immediately.
C.continue to take Accutane but be sure to come to her prenatal appointments for regular monitoring
of the development of her baby.
D. stop taking Accutane right now, and resume taking it when she is 7 months pregnant.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs
Santrock – Chapter 02 #71
72. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a psychoactive drug?
A. It is always addictive.
B. It can change moods.
C. It can modify perceptions.
D. It acts on the nervous system.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Psychoactive Drugs
Santrock – Chapter 02 #72
73. ________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and
change moods.
A. Psychotropic
B. Psychiatric
C. c, Psychologic
D. Psychoactive
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Psychoactive Drugs
Santrock – Chapter 02 #73
74. Research suggests that mothers who drink 200 milligrams or more of caffeine a day increase their risk
of:
A. nothing; this amount of caffeine is safe.
B. having a miscarriage.
C. having a stillborn baby.
D. having a baby that later dies of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Caffeine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #74
75. The Food and Drug Administration recommends the following:
A. Pregnant women should consume no caffeine or consume it sparingly.
B. Exposure of the mother to secondhand smoke will not harm the fetus.
C. Pregnant women can safely drink one glass of wine or beer per day.
D. Cocaine used in the last months of pregnancy will not harm the fetus.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Caffeine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #75
76. Sequoia is pregnant and drinks heavily 3 to 4 days a week. Her unborn child is at a high risk for
developing:
A. embryonic poisoning.
B. a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
C. infantile amnesia.
D. sudden infant death syndrome.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Alcohol
Santrock – Chapter 02 #76
77. Koko has decided to continue smoking while pregnant. She is placing her baby at risk for all of the
following, EXCEPT:
A. sudden infant death syndrome.
B. respiratory problems.
C. low birth weight.
D. mild mental retardation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Nicotine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #77
78. Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?
A. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
B. mental retardation
C. autism spectrum disorder
D. reactive attachment disorder
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Nicotine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #78
79. Angelo is 5 years old and has a poor attention span. He often fidgets and is impulsive. It is possible
that Angelo’s mother used _______ when pregnant.
A. nicotine
B. cocaine
C. caffeine
D. marijuana
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Cocaine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #79
80. All of the following are alternative possible contributors to problems found in the children of cocaine
users, EXCEPT:
A. marijuana use.
B. poverty.
C. alcohol use.
D. mental illness.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cocaine
Santrock – Chapter 02 #80
81. Michael was adopted at birth. His adoptive parents notice that Michael cries all the time. His body
often shakes, and he reacts slowly to the things around him. They suspect that Michael’s mother was
using _______ when pregnant with him.
A. heroin
B. caffeine
C. alcohol
D. marijuana
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Heroin
Santrock – Chapter 02 #81
82. Jasmine and her fetus are Rh incompatible. This means that:
A. the fetus will need a blood transfusion immediately after birth.
B. the fetus’s immune system will attack the mother’s blood during the fetal stage.
C. Jasmine has type A blood, while her fetus has type B blood.
D. Jasmine may produce antibodies that will attack the fetus.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Incompatible Blood Types
Santrock – Chapter 02 #82
83. Syphilis is different from rubella in that syphilis:
A. attacks only the nervous system.
B. does not affect organogenesis.
C. mainly scars the circulatory system.
D. affects organogenesis.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Maternal Diseases
Santrock – Chapter 02 #83
84. About ________ of all children who are born through the birth canal of a mother infected with active
genital herpes die.
A. one-third
B. one-half
C. one-fourth
D. one-fifth
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Maternal Diseases
Santrock – Chapter 02 #84
85. Mara is pregnant, and she recently watched a news program about the negative effects of mercury on a
fetus. To alleviate her fears about mercury poisoning, Mara should limit eating:
A. beef.
B. pork.
C. fish.
D. chicken.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Maternal Diet and Nutrition
Santrock – Chapter 02 #85
86. Alissa is 30 pounds overweight and just learned that she is pregnant. Her fetus runs the risk of:
A. low birth weight.
B. anemia.
C. prematurity.
D. intrauterine death.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Maternal Diet and Nutrition
Santrock – Chapter 02 #86
87. What does Popeye have in common with a pregnant woman?
A. They both benefit by eating spinach
B. They both have a problem with bulging muscles
C. They both have a tattoo of an anchor
D. They both like to hang out on boats
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Maternal Diet and Nutrition
Santrock – Chapter 02 #87
88. Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 to 34 years old?
A. Bell’s palsy
B. Down syndrome
C. Klinefelter syndrome
D. Turner syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Maternal Age
Santrock – Chapter 02 #88
89. Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby’s:
A. intelligence.
B. language development.
C. heart rate.
D. growth rate.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Emotional States and Stress
Santrock – Chapter 02 #89
90. The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____.
A. emergence of the child’s head; delivery of the placenta
B. opening of the cervix; delivery of the child out of the mother
C. movement of the child’s head through the cervix; emergence of the child out of the mother
D. opening of the cervix; delivery of the placenta
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Stages of Birth
Santrock – Chapter 02 #90
91. The third stage of childbirth consists of:
A. expulsion of placenta and umbilical cord.
B. the introduction of the child to the mother.
C. the complete delivery of the infant.
D. the cutting of the umbilical cord.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Stages of Birth
Santrock – Chapter 02 #91
92. In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a
midwife as opposed to a physician?
A. Holland
B. Japan
C. The United States
D. Kuwait
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Midwives
Santrock – Chapter 02 #92
93. As opposed to physicians, doulas tend to:
A. spend more time with mothers and give more emotional support.
B. spend less time with mothers but give more emotional support.
C. give less emotional support but spend more time with mothers.
D. play mostly an educational role, giving some emotional support.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Doulas
Santrock – Chapter 02 #93
94. Gisela is having her first baby and has received a drug that will numb the entire lower area of her body
during labor. Gisela has been given a(n):
A. epidural block.
B. oxytocic.
C. analgesic.
D. hormone.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Medication
Santrock – Chapter 02 #94
95. Natural childbirth consists of all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. education.
B. breathing.
C. relaxation.
D. medication.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Natural and Prepared Childbirth
Santrock – Chapter 02 #95
96. The Apgar scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would:
A. indicate that the newborn’s condition is good.
B. signal that there may be some developmental difficulties.
C. signal an emergency because the baby’s survival is in doubt.
D. indicate that the evaluator has not made a proper reading.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: The Transition from Fetus to Newborn
Santrock – Chapter 02 #96
97. The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given
within minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and
observation.
A. Apgar scale
B. preterm outcome test
C. Rogers-Randall Assessment
D. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: The Transition from Fetus to Newborn
Santrock – Chapter 02 #97
98. Dakota was born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighed 4 pounds. Dakota would be considered:
A. a preterm infant.
B. very low birth weight.
C. of low birth weight.
D. normal or average.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #98
99. Malorie was born in her mother’s 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a ________
baby.
A. preterm
B. small for date
C. low birth weight
D. normal
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #99
100. Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be
considered:
A. preterm.
B. premature.
C. low birth weight.
D. small for date.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #100
101. Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. heartbeat.
B. temperature.
C. sleeping.
D. breathing.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Nurturing Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #101
102. When compared with preterm infants who do not receive massage, preterm infants who receive
massage:
A. have better overall health.
B. have the same health.
C. have worse overall health.
D. have varying degrees of health problems.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Nurturing Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #102
103. Asia is very tired after the birth of her baby, and she wants the baby to stay in the nursery so that she
can sleep and recover. Research on bonding suggests that if the baby does spend time in the nursery
away from Asia, then:
A. the opportunity to bond will be lost.
B. Asia can still bond with her baby.
C. the baby may bond more with the father than with Asia.
D. Asia may bond with the baby, but the baby will not bond with Asia.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Bonding
Santrock – Chapter 02 #103
104. Michael and Jessica are having their first child and have told their physician they would like a
rooming-in arrangement during their hospital stay. This means that:
A. Michael can stay overnight in Jessica’s room.
B. Jessica’s hospital room will be more like a nursery.
C. Jessica’s newborn baby will stay with her in her room.
D. Jessica’s family members can stay in her room and visit.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Bonding
Santrock – Chapter 02 #104
105. The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth is known
as:
A. plastication.
B. homeostasis.
C. elastation.
D. involution.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Physical Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #105
106. Judy has a new baby at home. During this postpartum period, Judy will need to:
A. rely as little as she can on external family supports.
B. ignore her other children and give her baby most of her attention.
C. learn to let the father take care of the baby, because she will be unable.
D. learn how to take care of the baby and feel good about herself as a mother.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Emotional and Psychological Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #106
107. Mariah had a new baby last month. Mariah cries and worries a lot, is depressed, and has trouble
coping with her daily activities. Given what researchers know about the postpartum period,
Mariah:
A. is having a normal reaction.
B. will score low on the Apgar scale.
C. should relax and help herself adjust.
D. should seek professional counseling or assistance.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Emotional and Psychological Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #107
108. Duvon’s wife has just given birth to their son. It is possible that in the weeks after the son is born,
Duvon may feel:
A. no postpartum reaction.
B. fearful about his newfound responsibilities.
C. angry that his baby demands so much time.
D. upset that the baby comes first.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Emotional and Psychological Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #108
109. This theorist suggested that development is an ongoing bidirectional interaction between heredity and
the environment. This position is called the epigenetic view.
Gilbert Gottlieb
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Epigenetic View
Santrock – Chapter 02 #109
110. This French obstetrician developed the prepared childbirth method.
Ferdinand Lamaze
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Natural and Prepared Childbirth
Santrock – Chapter 02 #110
111. A psychological perspective that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival
of the fittest” in shaping behavior.
evolutionary psychology
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Evolutionary Psychology
Santrock – Chapter 02 #111
112. A complex molecule, with a double helix shape, that contains genetic information.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #112
113. Threadlike structures that contain DNA. Arranged in pairs, the normal human body contains 23 of
these structures.
chromosomes
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #113
114. Short segments of DNA located on the chromosomes. These are considered to be the basic units of
hereditary information.
genes
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Genetic Foundations of Development
Santrock – Chapter 02 #114
115. The observable characteristics of an individual’s genetic makeup.
phenotype
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sources of Variability
Santrock – Chapter 02 #115
116. The interaction of many different genes to produce an inherited characteristic.
polygenic inheritance.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Polygenic Inheritance
Santrock – Chapter 02 #116
117. A chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21. A person
with this disorder typically has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over the eyelids, a
protruding tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities.
Down syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Down Syndrome
Santrock – Chapter 02 #117
118. A sex-linked chromosomal abnormality that is characterized by a male having an extra X chromosome
(XXY). A man with this disorder typically has undeveloped testes and develops enlarged breasts.
Klinefelter syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #118
119. A sex-linked chromosomal disorder resulting from an abnormality in the X chromosome which often
becomes constricted and may break. This disorder occurs more frequently in males than in females.
A person with this disorder typically has some sort of mental deficiency such as mental retardation, a
short attention span, or a learning disability.
Fragile X syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #119
120. A sex-linked chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing (XO) or
part of one X chromosome is deleted. Females with this disorder are usually short in stature, have a
webbed neck, and are often infertile.
Turner syndrome
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #120
121. A genetic disorder in which the individual cannot effectively metabolize phenylalanine (an amino
acid). If a child’s diet is not modified to prevent an excess accumulation of the phenylalanine, this
amino acid is stored, resulting in mental retardation and hyperactivity.
phenylketonuria (PKU)
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #121
122. A genetic disorder, occurring primarily in African Americans, in which the body’s red blood cells take
on a hook shape instead of the normal round shape. This abnormally shaped blood cell is unable to
carry oxygen properly, so the affected individual usually develops anemia.
sickle-cell anemia
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Santrock – Chapter 02 #122
123. A heredity-environment correlation where individuals seek out environments consistent with their
genetic makeup.
active (niche-picking) correlation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Heredity-Environment Correlations
Santrock – Chapter 02 #123
124. The prenatal period of development takes place in the first 2 weeks after conception. It includes the
creation of the zygote, cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.
germinal period
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Germinal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #124
125. The period of prenatal development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception. During this time, the
rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.
embryonic period
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #125
126. The prenatal period of development that begins 2 months after conception and lasts for 7 months.
fetal period
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Fetal Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #126
127. One of the three layers of cells of the embryo. This is the inner layer of cells that will develop into the
digestive and respiratory systems.
endoderm
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #127
128. This is one of the life-support systems of the embryo. It contains two arteries and one vein connecting
the baby to the placenta.
umbilical cord
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #128
129. This is one of the life-support systems of the embryo. It is a disk-shaped group of tissues in which
small blood vessels from the mother and the offspring intertwine. Oxygen, water, salt, and food from
the mother’s blood are passed to the embryo. Carbon dioxide and digestive wastes from the embryo
pass to the mother.
placenta
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #129
130. The name given to the process of organ formation during the first 2 months of prenatal
development.
organogenesis
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Embryonic Period
Santrock – Chapter 02 #130
131. A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. With this procedure,
high-frequency sound waves are directed into the women’s abdomen. The echo from the sounds is
transformed into a visual representation of the fetus’s inner structures.
ultrasound sonography
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #131
132. A prenatal test designed to assess whether a fetus is developing normally. With this procedure,
a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic
disorders.
amniocentesis
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Prenatal Tests
Santrock – Chapter 02 #132
133. Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral
outcomes of the developing baby.
teratogen
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: General Principles
Santrock – Chapter 02 #133
134. Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change
moods.
psychoactive drugs
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Psychoactive Drugs
Santrock – Chapter 02 #134
135. A cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink heavy amounts of
alcohol during pregnancy.
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Alcohol
Santrock – Chapter 02 #135
136. A kind of drug used late in the first stage of labor and during expulsion of the baby to block
consciousness or to block sensation in part of the mother’s body. An epidural block is one
example.
anesthesia
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Medication
Santrock – Chapter 02 #136
137. A kind of drug used to stimulate contractions in a pregnant woman.
oxytocin
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 59
Santrock – Chapter 02 #137
138. The baby’s position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the
vagina.
breech position
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Medication
Santrock – Chapter 02 #138
139. A delivery in which the baby is removed from the mother’s uterus through an incision (made by the
doctor) in her abdomen.
Cesarean
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cesarean Delivery
Santrock – Chapter 02 #139
140. A widely used method to asses the health of newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. It is used to
evaluate such things as the infants’ heart rate, body color, and reflex irritability.
Apgar scale
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: The Transition from Fetus to Newborn
Santrock – Chapter 02 #140
141. An infant that weighs less than 5½ pounds at birth.
low birth weight infant
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #141
142. An infant that is born 3 or more weeks before the pregnancy has reached its full term.
preterm infant
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Incidence and Causes of Low Birth Weight
Santrock – Chapter 02 #142
143. A way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact.
kangaroo care
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Nurturing Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants
Santrock – Chapter 02 #143
144. The period immediately after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically,
to the process of childbirth.
postpartum period
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Physical Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #144
145. The process by which the uterus returns to its prepregnant size 5 to 6 weeks after birth.
involution
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Physical Adjustments
Santrock – Chapter 02 #145
146. A major depressive episode that typically occurs in mothers about 4 weeks after delivery of a baby. It
is characterized by strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair.
postpartum depression
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 64-65
Santrock – Chapter 02 #146

16
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, “How do you want to
be remembered?” Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, “I want to be remembered
by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but who my children and
grandchildren are.” Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Widaman-Gibbs’s sense
of:
A. identity.
B. intimacy.
C. integrity.
D. autonomy.
2. Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more
likely to experience ________ in later adulthood.
A. despair
B. inferiority
C. shame and doubt
D. identity diffusion
3. What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
A. death versus dying
B. integrity versus despair
C. immortality versus death
D. independence versus dependence
4. Erik Erikson believed that people who experience intimacy and generativity in earlier adulthood are more
likely to develop ________ in later adulthood.
A. trust
B. integrity
C. autonomy
D. identity foreclosure
5. Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by:
A. care.
B. fidelity.
C. wisdom.
D. hope.
6. Daria is a 75-year-old widow who loves children. When schoolchildren walk by her house, she gives
them flowers from her garden to take to their mothers. All the children in the neighborhood affectionately
call her the “flower lady,” and they stop by at every chance for a cookie or a story from Daria. Erik
Erikson would describe Daria as being in a state of:
A. trust.
B. integrity.
C. autonomy.
D. intimacy.
7. Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate
their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
A. life review.
B. identity resolution.
C. integrity formation.
D. retrospective spirit.
8. In Erikson’s theory, a life review that leads to a positive outcome will result in a sense of:
A. trust.
B. integrity.
C. autonomy.
D. identity foreclosure.
9. Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?
A. activity
B. disengagement
C. social reconstruction
D. selective optimization with compensation
10. Which of the following is NOT one of the regrets that low-income older adults reported more as a result
of their life review?
A. education
B. careers
C. marriage
D. religion
11. Which of the following is likely to engender the most intense regret in a low-income older individual who
is engaged in a life review?
A. education
B. family conflict
C. marriage
D. careers
12. As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, the Reverend Douglas creates many
roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:
A. disengagement theory.
B. socioemotional selectivity theory.
C. evangelical theory.
D. activity theory.
13. Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
A. activity theory
B. socioemotional selectivity theory
C. social discontinuity theory
D. disengagement theory
14. Now that Nastasya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she will:
A. become more socially withdrawn as she prepares for death.
B. continue to actively make new friends.
C. spend most of her time with familiar friends.
D. emotionally invest in peripheral relationships.
15. Which two theories are most opposite?
A. activity theory and Erikson’s stage theory
B. selective optimization with compensation theory and socioemotional selectivity theory
C. activity theory and socioemotional selectivity theory
D. social isolation theory and selective optimization with compensation theory
16. Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?
A. socioemotional selectivity theory
B. activity theory
C. Erikson’s stage theory
D. social breakdown theory
17. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—
emotion-related and _______ -related.
A. spiritual
B. practical
C. relation
D. knowledge
18. According to Baltes and his colleagues, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and:
A. elaboration.
B. flexibility.
C. adjustment.
D. compensation.
19. Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three
main factors:
A. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration.
B. option, compensation, and optimization.
C. selection, optimization, and compensation.
D. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.
20. The model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to three
main factors. Which of these factors is based on the concept that, in old age, there are reduced capacity
and loss of functioning which mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?
A. selection
B. optimization
C. compensation
D. remuneration
21. The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults fare better
when they:
A. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.
B. use technology to broaden and increase their daily activities and efforts.
C. develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
D. limit the scope of their social networks and concentrate on only a few friendships.
22. Ron is a retired college professor. Ron’s arthritis is getting worse, but he wants to remain active and use
the skills he has developed. Which of the following would Ron do if his actions were consistent with the
model of selective optimization with compensation?
A. continue with his job as he did before he retired
B. discontinue all of his academic work completely
C. continue doing all aspects of his former job, but do all these activities less frequently than before
D.
focus on continuing one aspect of his former job, such as teaching, at a reduced rate and discontinue
the rest
23. According to some research, older adults (35 to 84 years of age) focus on ________ whereas the oldest
adults (85 to 105 years of age) tend to focus on _______.
A. family; thinking about life
B. friends; family
C. cognitive fitness; physical fitness
D. family; health
24. One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found that
as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those facets?
A. impulse control
B. reliability
C. hostility
D. conventionality
25. Which of the personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an
earlier death)?
A. high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion
B. low religiosity and high materialism
C. low agreeableness and high neuroticism
D. low extroversion and low openness
26. Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too
rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost-effective are examples
of:
A. eldercare.
B. ageism.
C. generational inequity.
D. age incongruity.
27. Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All of his applications have
been turned down, however, even though Don has many years of experience and an excellent work record
and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing:
A. ageism.
B. disengagement.
C. generational inequity.
D. eldercare discrimination.
28. Stereotypes of old age common among young, middle-aged, and elderly adults:
A. express both positive and negative images of the elderly.
B. portray the elderly mainly as incapable and easy to push to the side.
C. express a longing for a sweet old age characterized by vigor and wisdom.
D. portray the elderly as kindly but limited in ability.
29. Which of the following has been found to be the most frequent form of ageism?
A. making assumptions that older people are incapable of learning new skills
B. making assumptions that older people are necessarily frail
C. opting not to hire an older job applicant
D. acting disrespectfully toward older adults
30. Which factor most contributes to the surging health care costs of our elderly population?
A. the rising number of people living longer
B. the number of adults who retire without full health benefits
C. inadequacies in Social Security benefits
D. the rising costs of prescription drugs
31. When it comes to helping elderly patients with chronic health conditions, medical services should
emphasize ________ rather than _______.
A. care; cure
B. cure; care
C. Social Security; Medicare
D. Medicare; Social Security
32. Although older adults (over the age of 65) make up only ____% of the U.S. population, some estimates
suggest that ______ of the total health bills for the United States go to care for that group of citizens.
A. 5; one-fourth
B. 10; one-fifth
C. 12; one-third
D. 15; one-half
33. Lizeanne is a 67-year-old retired teacher. Under the current governmental programs, her health care costs
will be paid, at least in part, by:
A. Medicaid.
B. Medicare.
C. Social Security.
D. Section VII.
34. As of 2006, the percentage of older people living in poverty was about ________.
A. 10%.
B. 25%.
C. 33%.
D. 40%.
35. Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina
often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is
providing ________ for her aunt.
A. outpatient service
B. adult day care
C. eldercared. generational equity
36. What percentage of elderly women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 12
B. 18
C. 25
D. 44
37. What percentage of elderly African-American women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 30
B. 40
C. 50
D. 60
38. What percentage of elderly Latina women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 30
B. 40
C. 50
D. 60
39. Which of the following women who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?
A. an oldest-old African-American woman
B. a young-old African-American woman
C. an oldest-old Latina-American woman
D. a young-old Latina-American woman
40. Which of the following individuals who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?
A. an African-American man
B. an African-American woman
C. a Latino-American man
D. A Latina-American woman
41. If Ruth is like most older adults, she is less likely to have a computer in her home than younger
individuals. If she has a computer, however, she probably spends about ___ hours per week “cruising” the
internet!
A. 5
B. 8
C. 12
D. 22
42. A 2004 study found that ________ were the most satisfied with their marriages.
A. young adults
B. older adults
C. middle-aged adults
D. married teenagers
43. Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?
A. newlyweds
B. younger adults
C. middle adults
D. older adults
44. Which of the following is NOT one of the consequences of divorce on older people noted by your author?
A. a loss of connection with social support systems
B. a weakening of kinship ties
C. a loss of financial resources
D. an increase in physical health problems
45. Currently, approximately __________ of older American adults cohabit (live together).
A. .5%
B. 1%
C. 3%
D. 10%
46. Cohabitation is increasing among ________ and is expected to continue to increase. Cohabitation for this
age group may be based on a need for companionship and a legal sharing of resources without finances
being legally joined.
A. young adults
B. older adults
C. middle-aged adults
D. All of these.
47. These days, approximately ____% of older adults are living in cohabiting situations for a wide variety of
reasons.
A. 3
B. 7
C. 13
D. 20
48. Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance
with:
A. finances and bill paying.
B. activities of daily living.
C. housework and food preparation.
D. transportation to and from social and medical appointments.
49. According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:
A. are associated with lower levels of depression for women.
B. are associated with lower levels of depression for men.
C. are associated with lower levels of depression for both men and women.
D.
are associated with lower levels of depression for the young-old (both men and women), but not for the
old-old (both men and women).
50. Rasulo, Christensen, and Tomassini (2005) reported that when persons over the age of 75 had close ties
with friends, they were less likely to:
A. die over seven years.
B. become incontinent.
C. suffer memory loss.
D. become mentally incompetent.
51. Social support is negatively correlated with:
A. happiness.
B. socioeconomic status.
C. longevity.
D. disease.
52. In the social _______ model of social relations, individuals go through life embedded in a personal
network of individuals to whom they give, and from whom they receive, social support.
A. cohort
B. peerage
C. convoy
D. connectivity
53. Research has found that older adults are the group most likely to volunteer their time, giving an average
of ____ hours in volunteer services per year.
A. 25
B. 50
C. 80
D. 100
54. Which of the following factors combine to form the “double jeopardy” that is noted in this chapter?
A. sexism and ageism
B. racism and sexism
C. ageism and racism
D. sexism and homophobia
55. Maria is an elderly Latina-American woman. Which of the following support systems is she most likely
to use to cope with the daily difficulties she faces?
A. local service organizations
B. the people in her religious community
C. federally subsidized counseling services
D. elder organizations such as the Gray Panthers
56. Which factor appears to be highly associated with greater poverty in old age?
A. place of living
B. years of work
C. ethnicity
D. number of children
57. How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist
society?
A. they rely on family networks and often the church
B. they rely on the kindness and generosity of whites and other Americans
C. they rely on government programs that make up for the discrimination
D. they rely on the extra welfare and Social Security they will receive for being minority poor
58. Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:
A. stubborn.
B. feminine.
C. masculine.
D. apathetic.
59. According to research evidence, gender roles in the elder years tend to:
A. become more stereotypically defined and divided.
B. stay about the same as they were in earlier adult years.
C. change, with only women becoming more masculine.
D. change, with only men becoming more feminine.
60. Luka is 72 years old. According to trends noticed in research about how gender roles may or may not
change with age, we can expect that Luka is now ________ she was when she was 50.
A. more feminine than
B. more masculine than
C. less feminine than
D. about as feminine as
61. What is the “triple jeopardy” faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income and
financial levels of support in the elder years?
A. ageism, sexism, and racism
B. Medicare, Medicaid, and welfare
C. unemployment, poverty, and insufficient Medicare
D. inadequate housing, job displacement, and lack of medical care
62. Who of the following is most likely to live in poverty during later adulthood?
A. a Japanese-American male
B. a Latino male
C. a white female
D. an African-American female
63. The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.
A. socialistic
B. competitive
C. collectivistic
D. individualistic
64. In general, successful aging requires:
A. a biological predisposition toward having long-lasting, excellent health.
B. the refusal to accept that there are any declines during older adulthood.
C. engaging in an extensive reevaluation of life’s meaning during middle age.
D. a commitment to be active
65. This theorist suggested that as we approach our death, we conduct a life review to determine whether the
time we had in our life has been well-spent. The two possible outcomes of this process are integrity and
despair.
66. This researcher on aging proposes that the process of looking toward death is the primary catalyst for
beginning a life review in old age.
67. This theorist suggested that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because they
place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.
68. This theorist proposed the “selective optimization with compensation theory” of aging.
69. According to Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is the name of the eighth and final stage of
development.
70. The process of looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, interpreting them, and often
reinterpreting them.
71. A type of therapy that involves discussing past activities and experiences with another individual or
group.
72. A theory of aging that suggests that the more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they
are to be satisfied with their lives.
73. A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because
they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.
74. Prejudice against individuals because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults.
75. The physical and emotional caretaking of older members of the family, whether that care is day-to-day
physical assistance or responsibility for arranging and overseeing such care.
76. List at least four false, negative stereotypes that people believe about older
adults.
77. Name and briefly discuss Erikson’s final stage of development.
78. Describe the socioemotional selectivity theory.
79. Describe the selective optimization with compensation model.
16 Key
1. Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, “How do you want to
be remembered?” Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, “I want to be remembered
by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but who my children
and grandchildren are.” Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Widaman-Gibbs’s
sense of:
A. identity.
B. intimacy.
C. integrity.
D. autonomy.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #1
2. Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are
more likely to experience ________ in later adulthood.
A. despair
B. inferiority
C. shame and doubt
D. identity diffusion
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #2
3. What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
A. death versus dying
B. integrity versus despair
C. immortality versus death
D. independence versus dependence
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #3
4. Erik Erikson believed that people who experience intimacy and generativity in earlier adulthood are
more likely to develop ________ in later adulthood.
A. trust
B. integrity
C. autonomy
D. identity foreclosure
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #4
5. Erikson’s last stage of development is characterized by:
A. care.
B. fidelity.
C. wisdom.
D. hope.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #5
6. Daria is a 75-year-old widow who loves children. When schoolchildren walk by her house, she
gives them flowers from her garden to take to their mothers. All the children in the neighborhood
affectionately call her the “flower lady,” and they stop by at every chance for a cookie or a story from
Daria. Erik Erikson would describe Daria as being in a state of:
A. trust.
B. integrity.
C. autonomy.
D. intimacy.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #6
7. Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and
evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
A. life review.
B. identity resolution.
C. integrity formation.
D. retrospective spirit.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #7
8. In Erikson’s theory, a life review that leads to a positive outcome will result in a sense of:
A. trust.
B. integrity.
C. autonomy.
D. identity foreclosure.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #8
9. Which theory holds the most positive view of the abilities of elderly adults?
A. activity
B. disengagement
C. social reconstruction
D. selective optimization with compensation
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Activity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #9
10. Which of the following is NOT one of the regrets that low-income older adults reported more as a
result of their life review?
A. education
B. careers
C. marriage
D. religion
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #10
11. Which of the following is likely to engender the most intense regret in a low-income older individual
who is engaged in a life review?
A. education
B. family conflict
C. marriage
D. careers
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #11
12. As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, the Reverend Douglas creates many
roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:
A. disengagement theory.
B. socioemotional selectivity theory.
C. evangelical theory.
D. activity theory.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Activity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #12
13. Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
A. activity theory
B. socioemotional selectivity theory
C. social discontinuity theory
D. disengagement theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #13
14. Now that Nastasya is in late adulthood, the socioemotional selectivity theory predicts that she
will:
A. become more socially withdrawn as she prepares for death.
B. continue to actively make new friends.
C. spend most of her time with familiar friends.
D. emotionally invest in peripheral relationships.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #14
15. Which two theories are most opposite?
A. activity theory and Erikson’s stage theory
B. selective optimization with compensation theory and socioemotional selectivity theory
C. activity theory and socioemotional selectivity theory
D. social isolation theory and selective optimization with compensation theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #15
16. Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?
A. socioemotional selectivity theory
B. activity theory
C. Erikson’s stage theory
D. social breakdown theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #16
17. According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—
emotion-related and _______ -related.
A. spiritual
B. practical
C. relation
D. knowledge
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #17
18. According to Baltes and his colleagues, successful aging is based on selection, optimization, and:
A. elaboration.
B. flexibility.
C. adjustment.
D. compensation.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #18
19. Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to
three main factors:
A. assortment, enhancement, and remuneration.
B. option, compensation, and optimization.
C. selection, optimization, and compensation.
D. remuneration, selection, and enhancement.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #19
20. The model of selective optimization with compensation proposes that successful aging is related to
three main factors. Which of these factors is based on the concept that, in old age, there are reduced
capacity and loss of functioning which mandate a reduction of performance in most domains of life?
A. selection
B. optimization
C. compensation
D. remuneration
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #20
21. The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults fare
better when they:
A. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.
B. use technology to broaden and increase their daily activities and efforts.
C. develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
D. limit the scope of their social networks and concentrate on only a few friendships.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #21
22. Ron is a retired college professor. Ron’s arthritis is getting worse, but he wants to remain active and
use the skills he has developed. Which of the following would Ron do if his actions were consistent
with the model of selective optimization with compensation?
A. continue with his job as he did before he retired
B. discontinue all of his academic work completely
C. continue doing all aspects of his former job, but do all these activities less frequently than before
D.
focus on continuing one aspect of his former job, such as teaching, at a reduced rate and
discontinue the rest
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #22
23. According to some research, older adults (35 to 84 years of age) focus on ________ whereas the
oldest adults (85 to 105 years of age) tend to focus on _______.
A. family; thinking about life
B. friends; family
C. cognitive fitness; physical fitness
D. family; health
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #23
24. One research study examined the changes in the personality factor called conscientiousness. It found
that as we age several facets of this factor increase. Which of the following was NOT one of those
facets?
A. impulse control
B. reliability
C. hostility
D. conventionality
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Personality
Santrock – Chapter 16 #24
25. Which of the personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an
earlier death)?
A. high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion
B. low religiosity and high materialism
C. low agreeableness and high neuroticism
D. low extroversion and low openness
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Personality
Santrock – Chapter 16 #25
26. Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived
as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost-effective are
examples of:
A. eldercare.
B. ageism.
C. generational inequity.
D. age incongruity.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Stereotyping of Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #26
27. Don is 68 years old and would like to work part time during his retirement. All of his applications
have been turned down, however, even though Don has many years of experience and an excellent
work record and is appropriate for the job. Don may be experiencing:
A. ageism.
B. disengagement.
C. generational inequity.
D. eldercare discrimination.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Stereotyping of Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #27
28. Stereotypes of old age common among young, middle-aged, and elderly adults:
A. express both positive and negative images of the elderly.
B. portray the elderly mainly as incapable and easy to push to the side.
C. express a longing for a sweet old age characterized by vigor and wisdom.
D. portray the elderly as kindly but limited in ability.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Stereotyping of Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #28
29. Which of the following has been found to be the most frequent form of ageism?
A. making assumptions that older people are incapable of learning new skills
B. making assumptions that older people are necessarily frail
C. opting not to hire an older job applicant
D. acting disrespectfully toward older adults
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Stereotyping of Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #29
30. Which factor most contributes to the surging health care costs of our elderly population?
A. the rising number of people living longer
B. the number of adults who retire without full health benefits
C. inadequacies in Social Security benefits
D. the rising costs of prescription drugs
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Health Care
Santrock – Chapter 16 #30
31. When it comes to helping elderly patients with chronic health conditions, medical services should
emphasize ________ rather than _______.
A. care; cure
B. cure; care
C. Social Security; Medicare
D. Medicare; Social Security
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Health Care
Santrock – Chapter 16 #31
32. Although older adults (over the age of 65) make up only ____% of the U.S. population, some
estimates suggest that ______ of the total health bills for the United States go to care for that group of
citizens.
A. 5; one-fourth
B. 10; one-fifth
C. 12; one-third
D. 15; one-half
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Health Care
Santrock – Chapter 16 #32
33. Lizeanne is a 67-year-old retired teacher. Under the current governmental programs, her health care
costs will be paid, at least in part, by:
A. Medicaid.
B. Medicare.
C. Social Security.
D. Section VII.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Health Care
Santrock – Chapter 16 #33
34. As of 2006, the percentage of older people living in poverty was about ________.
A. 10%.
B. 25%.
C. 33%.
D. 40%.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Status of the Economy and Income
Santrock – Chapter 16 #34
35. Gina is doing what she can to help her older aunt take care of herself and stay in her own home. Gina
often takes meals to her aunt and helps her clean, go shopping, and make visits to the doctor. Gina is
providing ________ for her aunt.
A. outpatient service
B. adult day care
C. eldercared. generational equity
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Eldercare
Santrock – Chapter 16 #35
36. What percentage of elderly women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 12
B. 18
C. 25
D. 44
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Status of the Economy and Income
Santrock – Chapter 16 #36
37. What percentage of elderly African-American women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 30
B. 40
C. 50
D. 60
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 411
Santrock – Chapter 16 #37
38. What percentage of elderly Latina women who live alone live in poverty?
A. 30
B. 40
C. 50
D. 60
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 411
Santrock – Chapter 16 #38
39. Which of the following women who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?
A. an oldest-old African-American woman
B. a young-old African-American woman
C. an oldest-old Latina-American woman
D. a young-old Latina-American woman
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 411
Santrock – Chapter 16 #39
40. Which of the following individuals who live alone is most likely to live in poverty?
A. an African-American man
B. an African-American woman
C. a Latino-American man
D. A Latina-American woman
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: 411
Santrock – Chapter 16 #40
41. If Ruth is like most older adults, she is less likely to have a computer in her home than younger
individuals. If she has a computer, however, she probably spends about ___ hours per week “cruising”
the internet!
A. 5
B. 8
C. 12
D. 22
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Technology
Santrock – Chapter 16 #41
42. A 2004 study found that ________ were the most satisfied with their marriages.
A. young adults
B. older adults
C. middle-aged adults
D. married teenagers
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Married Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #42
43. Which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to be satisfied with their marriage?
A. newlyweds
B. younger adults
C. middle adults
D. older adults
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Married Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #43
44. Which of the following is NOT one of the consequences of divorce on older people noted by your
author?
A. a loss of connection with social support systems
B. a weakening of kinship ties
C. a loss of financial resources
D. an increase in physical health problems
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Divorced and Remarried Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #44
45. Currently, approximately __________ of older American adults cohabit (live together).
A. .5%
B. 1%
C. 3%
D. 10%
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cohabiting Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #45
46. Cohabitation is increasing among ________ and is expected to continue to increase. Cohabitation for
this age group may be based on a need for companionship and a legal sharing of resources without
finances being legally joined.
A. young adults
B. older adults
C. middle-aged adults
D. All of these.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cohabiting Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #46
47. These days, approximately ____% of older adults are living in cohabiting situations for a wide variety
of reasons.
A. 3
B. 7
C. 13
D. 20
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Cohabiting Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #47
48. Adult daughters are three times more likely than adult sons to provide older adults with assistance
with:
A. finances and bill paying.
B. activities of daily living.
C. housework and food preparation.
D. transportation to and from social and medical appointments.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Older Adult Parents and Their Adult Children
Santrock – Chapter 16 #48
49. According to Antonucci, Lansford, and Akiyama (2001), friendships in late adulthood:
A. are associated with lower levels of depression for women.
B. are associated with lower levels of depression for men.
C. are associated with lower levels of depression for both men and women.
D.
are associated with lower levels of depression for the young-old (both men and women), but not for
the old-old (both men and women).
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Friendship
Santrock – Chapter 16 #49
50. Rasulo, Christensen, and Tomassini (2005) reported that when persons over the age of 75 had close
ties with friends, they were less likely to:
A. die over seven years.
B. become incontinent.
C. suffer memory loss.
D. become mentally incompetent.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Friendship
Santrock – Chapter 16 #50
51. Social support is negatively correlated with:
A. happiness.
B. socioeconomic status.
C. longevity.
D. disease.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Social Support and Social Integration
Santrock – Chapter 16 #51
52. In the social _______ model of social relations, individuals go through life embedded in a personal
network of individuals to whom they give, and from whom they receive, social support.
A. cohort
B. peerage
C. convoy
D. connectivity
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Social Support and Social Integration
Santrock – Chapter 16 #52
53. Research has found that older adults are the group most likely to volunteer their time, giving an
average of ____ hours in volunteer services per year.
A. 25
B. 50
C. 80
D. 100
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Altruism and Volunteerism
Santrock – Chapter 16 #53
54. Which of the following factors combine to form the “double jeopardy” that is noted in this chapter?
A. sexism and ageism
B. racism and sexism
C. ageism and racism
D. sexism and homophobia
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Conceptual
Page Reference: Ethnicity
Santrock – Chapter 16 #54
55. Maria is an elderly Latina-American woman. Which of the following support systems is she most
likely to use to cope with the daily difficulties she faces?
A. local service organizations
B. the people in her religious community
C. federally subsidized counseling services
D. elder organizations such as the Gray Panthers
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Ethnicity
Santrock – Chapter 16 #55
56. Which factor appears to be highly associated with greater poverty in old age?
A. place of living
B. years of work
C. ethnicity
D. number of children
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Ethnicity
Santrock – Chapter 16 #56
57. How do many African Americans cope with the challenges of growing older in a racist and ageist
society?
A. they rely on family networks and often the church
B. they rely on the kindness and generosity of whites and other Americans
C. they rely on government programs that make up for the discrimination
D. they rely on the extra welfare and Social Security they will receive for being minority poor
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Ethnicity
Santrock – Chapter 16 #57
58. Evidence offered by Turner suggests that as men reach late adulthood, they become more:
A. stubborn.
B. feminine.
C. masculine.
D. apathetic.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 16 #58
59. According to research evidence, gender roles in the elder years tend to:
A. become more stereotypically defined and divided.
B. stay about the same as they were in earlier adult years.
C. change, with only women becoming more masculine.
D. change, with only men becoming more feminine.
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 16 #59
60. Luka is 72 years old. According to trends noticed in research about how gender roles may or may not
change with age, we can expect that Luka is now ________ she was when she was 50.
A. more feminine than
B. more masculine than
C. less feminine than
D. about as feminine as
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 16 #60
61. What is the “triple jeopardy” faced by African-American and Latino women when it comes to income
and financial levels of support in the elder years?
A. ageism, sexism, and racism
B. Medicare, Medicaid, and welfare
C. unemployment, poverty, and insufficient Medicare
D. inadequate housing, job displacement, and lack of medical care
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Gender
Santrock – Chapter 16 #61
62. Who of the following is most likely to live in poverty during later adulthood?
A. a Japanese-American male
B. a Latino male
C. a white female
D. an African-American female
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Applied
Page Reference: Culture
Santrock – Chapter 16 #62
63. The more ________ a society is, the more respect is accorded to its elderly adults.
A. socialistic
B. competitive
C. collectivistic
D. individualistic
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Culture
Santrock – Chapter 16 #63
64. In general, successful aging requires:
A. a biological predisposition toward having long-lasting, excellent health.
B. the refusal to accept that there are any declines during older adulthood.
C. engaging in an extensive reevaluation of life’s meaning during middle age.
D. a commitment to be active
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Successful Aging
Santrock – Chapter 16 #64
65. This theorist suggested that as we approach our death, we conduct a life review to determine whether
the time we had in our life has been well-spent. The two possible outcomes of this process are
integrity and despair.
Erik Erikson
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #65
66. This researcher on aging proposes that the process of looking toward death is the primary catalyst for
beginning a life review in old age.
Robert Butler
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #66
67. This theorist suggested that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because
they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.
Laura Carstensen
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #67
68. This theorist proposed the “selective optimization with compensation theory” of aging.
Paul Baltes
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #68
69. According to Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory, this is the name of the eighth and final stage of
development.
integrity versus despair
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #69
70. The process of looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, interpreting them, and often
reinterpreting them.
life review
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #70
71. A type of therapy that involves discussing past activities and experiences with another individual or
group.
reminiscence therapy
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eriksons Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #71
72. A theory of aging that suggests that the more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they
are to be satisfied with their lives.
activity theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Activity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #72
73. A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks,
because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.
socioemotional selectivity theory
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Santrock – Chapter 16 #73
74. Prejudice against individuals because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults.
ageism
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Stereotyping of Older Adults
Santrock – Chapter 16 #74
75. The physical and emotional caretaking of older members of the family, whether that care is day-to-day
physical assistance or responsibility for arranging and overseeing such care.
eldercare
Author: Santrock
Blooms: Knowledge
Page Reference: Eldercare
Santrock – Chapter 16 #75

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