ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND -Test Bank

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ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 4TH EDITION By HAVILAND -Test Bank

Chapter_02_Biology_Genetics_and_Evolution_

True / False

 

1. Evolution is the central organizing principle of the biological sciences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

2. Linnaeus’s classificatory system reflected a new understanding of life on earth at that time.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

3. Humans are primates.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

4. The “system of nature” is an approach to classify all of animate and inanimate nature.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

5. Taxonomy is an ancient form of classification created by Linnaeus that is no longer used today.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

6. A bat’s wing is analogous to a human hand.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

7. Uniformitarianism is a more recent theory than catastrophism.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

8. Even prior to Darwin’s publication, many European naturalists accepted the idea that life had evolved.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

9. Mendel published his findings in a respectable scientific journal, but no one understood their significance until after his death.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

10. Genes are particulate, meaning that they are separate structures rather than portions of DNA.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

11. Darwin could not initially understand how variation occurred in living organisms.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

12. DNA provides the instruction for the thousands of proteins that keep us healthy every day.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

13. The complete sequence of human DNA is called the genome.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

14. If two body cells merge in meiosis, the result is a cell with 46 pairs of chromosomes.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

15. Testing for DNA is the best way to determine those who form part of an individual’s family.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

16. When two alleles on the same gene are not identical, they are called heterozygous.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

17. In the search for disease cures, scientists often predict an individual’s genotype.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

18. The only source of new genetic material is random drift.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

19. Founder effects are a kind of genetic drift.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

20. The existence of Homo sapiens as an interbreeding species is due to gene flow.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

21. Ultimately, all natural selection is measured in terms of reproductive success.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

22. In sickle-cell anemia, the individual does not produce any red blood cells.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

23. Cultural processes complicate studies of biological adaptation.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

24. Speciation always occurs quite rapidly.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

25. Cladogenesis is a sustained directional shift in a population’s gene pool.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Multiple Choice

 

26. How do anthropologists classify the Nez Perce story about Coyote and Wishpoosh?​

  a. ​apocalyptic myth
  b. ​salvation myth
  c. ​children’s myth
  d. ​creation myth

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

27. Which of the following describes the primary difference between creation stories and evolution?​

  a. ​Creation stories are particular to cultures, and evolution is bound by hypotheses and scientific language.
  b. ​Creation stories are cyclical in nature, and evolution is a linear theory.
  c. ​Evolution explains how things change, and creation stories do not change.
  d. ​Evolution is a Western theory, and creation stories are not found in the West.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

28. Evolution can be described as:​

  a. ​an anti-creationist account of the origin of life
  b. ​the foundation of culture in contemporary society
  c. ​the major organizing principle of the biological sciences
  d. ​the major organizing principle of the social sciences

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

29. All of the following are true of evolution except:​

  a. ​It provides an explanation for the diversity of life.
  b. ​It emphasizes human uniqueness and human origin.
  c. ​It utilizes hypotheses as a way of testing.
  d. ​It uses consistent scientific language.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

30. Which of the following statements is false?​

  a. ​Evolution explains diversity through scientific language using hypotheses.
  b. ​Evolution explains diversity through scientific language using theories.
  c. ​Evolution can explain diversity, and creation myths cannot.
  d. ​Creation myths and evolutionary accounts do not differ in any substantial way.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

31. Which scientist developed the Systema Naturae?​

  a. ​Aristotle
  b. ​Carolus Linnaeus
  c. ​Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  d. ​Charles Darwin

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

32. Which of the following is the smallest working unit in biological classification?​

  a. ​phylum
  b. ​mammal
  c. ​genus
  d. ​species

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

33. Linnaeus noted the similarities among humans, monkeys, and apes and classified them as:​

  a. ​hominids
  b. ​primates
  c. ​anthropoids
  d. ​apes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

34. Mammals have all of the following characteristics except:​

  a. ​They have body hair.
  b. ​They nurse their young.
  c. ​They do not give birth to live young.
  d. ​They include the primates.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

35. A reproductively isolated population or group capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring is a:​

  a. ​genus
  b. ​category
  c. ​family
  d. ​species

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

36. How would you best describe a genus?​

  a. ​a group of like species
  b. ​a subdivision of species
  c. ​a subspecies
  d. ​archaic forms of species

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

37. Linnaeus based his classificatory system on each of the following except:​

  a. ​sequence of bodily growth
  b. ​body structure
  c. ​body function
  d. ​body size

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

38. Homo describes a human:​

  a. ​order
  b. ​homology
  c. ​genus
  d. ​species

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

39. The comparison of the anatomical structures of wings on a bat to the wings on a butterfly is an example of:​

  a. ​homology
  b. ​taxonomy
  c. ​analogy
  d. ​phylogeny

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

40. The comparison of the anatomical structures of a human arm to the wing of a bat is an example of:​

  a. ​homology
  b. ​taxonomy
  c. ​analogy
  d. ​phylogeny

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

41. Invoking natural events, such as the great flood in the Book of Genesis, to account for species disappearance is an example of:​

  a. ​exploitation
  b. ​system of nature
  c. ​Great Chain of Being
  d. ​catastrophism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

42. The theory that maintains that although some changes in the earth’s surface are immediately observable and caused by erosion and other natural processes, other changes are caused by gradual processes over extremely long periods of time is called:​

  a. ​natural selection
  b. ​catastrophism
  c. ​linearism
  d. ​uniformitarianism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

43. Of the following, which is the widest (most broad and inclusive) taxonomic category?​

  a. ​family
  b. ​order
  c. ​phylum
  d. ​species

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

44. Darwin’s theory was known as the theory of:​

  a. ​natural selection
  b. ​natural variation
  c. ​animal evolution
  d. ​circumnavigation

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

45. Who proposed that animal populations remained stable over time because of the high proportion of animal offspring not surviving to maturity?​

  a. ​Gregor Mendel
  b. ​Charles Darwin
  c. ​Thomas Malthus
  d. ​Charles Lyell

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

46. Whose research developed the basic laws of heredity?​

  a. ​Gregor Mendel
  b. ​Charles Lyell
  c. ​Thomas Malthus
  d. ​Charles Darwin

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

47. Today, Darwin’s evolutionary theory is supported by data from all of the following except:​

  a. ​population genetics
  b. ​heredity
  c. ​molecular genetics
  d. ​protogenetics

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

48. What was scientific about Gregor Mendel’s approach to gardening?​

  a. ​He was a scientist and worked to create commercial plants.
  b. ​He took systematic notes and was able to identify patterns of heredity.
  c. ​He bred garden plants to obtain higher yields.
  d. ​He worked to breed garden plants to obtain better varieties.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   35
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

49. The principle that variants of genes for a particular trait retain their separate identities through the generations is called:​

  a. ​natural selection
  b. ​law of segregation
  c. ​law of heredity
  d. ​law of independent assortment

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

50. A portion of the DNA molecule containing a sequence of base pairs that encodes a particular protein is known as a:​

  a. ​gene
  b. ​allele
  c. ​double helix
  d. ​chromosome

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

51. Mendel discovered that inheritance was particulate, not:​

  a. ​blended
  b. ​separated
  c. ​molded
  d. ​selected

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

52. Alleles are:​

  a. ​the cell nucleus
  b. ​structures that carry specific proteins
  c. ​alternate forms of a single gene
  d. ​pieces of DNA

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

53. Sex cell division is called:​

  a. ​independent assortment
  b. ​segregation
  c. ​meiosis
  d. ​mitosis

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

54. Which of the following is not one of the four base pairs?​

  a. ​glucosamine
  b. ​cytosine
  c. ​adenine
  d. ​thymine

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

55. The process of transcription is related to:​

  a. ​the conversion of DNA into a protein
  b. ​the division of cells in a sister chromatid
  c. ​the replication of cells in segregation
  d. ​mutation events in reproduction

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

56. In protein synthesis, all of the following are involved except:​

  a. ​RNA
  b. ​ribosomes
  c. ​codon
  d. ​fovea centralis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

57. Cell division begins when chromosomal DNA replicates and each chromosome becomes a pair of:​

  a. ​nuclei
  b. ​sister chromatids
  c. ​mother chromatids
  d. ​eukaryotes

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

58. Cell division that involves exact replication of parent cells is called:​

  a. ​mitosis
  b. ​mitochondriosis
  c. ​meiosis
  d. ​cloning

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

59. Proteins are significant to the life of the organism in various ways. Those that initiate and direct chemical reactions are called:​

  a. ​enzymes
  b. ​protons
  c. ​codons
  d. ​ribosomes

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

60. Which of the following terms best describes the 3 billion chemical bases with 20,000 to 25,000 genes that define humans?​

  a. ​ribosome
  b. ​genome
  c. ​enzyme
  d. ​transcription

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

61. During meiosis, genes are divided into:​

  a. ​two new cells
  b. ​four new cells
  c. ​six new cells
  d. ​eight new cells

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

62. In the “Biocultural Connection,” why did the U.S. government support using DNA tests at the Dadaab refugee camp in Nairobi, Kenya?​

  a. ​to test individuals for basic health and determine carriers of disease
  b. ​to test asylum seekers to determine whether they were related to a U.S. citizen
  c. ​to test families to see if they were legitimate refugees in the U.S. facility there
  d. ​to test whether any of those seeking asylum has originated in the United States

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

63. What deficiencies were revealed in the DNA testing protocol among refugees in the Dadaab refugee camp in Nairobi, Kenya?​

  a. ​Family relationship is not solely constituted by biology.
  b. ​Families did not always carry the same types of genetic markers.
  c. ​Families did not understand why DNA was needed and often refused.
  d. ​Families did not want to live with relatives in the United States.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   41
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

64. If a young man has type A blood, this is his:​

  a. ​DNA
  b. ​genome
  c. ​phenotype
  d. ​genotype

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

65. Chimpanzees and humans share what percentage of DNA similarity?​

  a. ​90
  b. ​95
  c. ​97
  d. ​98

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   43
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

66. The chimp’s genome is estimated to be what percentage larger than the human’s?​

  a. ​50
  b. ​75
  c. ​10
  d. ​25

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   43
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

67. Because type O blood is codominant, a woman with type O blood knows that OO is her:​

  a. ​DNA
  b. ​genome
  c. ​phenotype
  d. ​genotype

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

68. Which of the following best describes polygenetic inheritance?​

  a. ​An individual receives multiple alleles from more than two parents.
  b. ​Characteristics resulting from polygenetic inheritance exhibit a wide variation in genotypic expression.
  c. ​Characteristics resulting from polygenetic inheritance exhibit a wide variation in phenotypic expression.
  d. ​Characteristics most commonly result in mutation.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

69. All of the following are evolutionary forces except:​

  a. ​genetic drift
  b. ​gene flow
  c. ​genetic cloning
  d. ​mutation

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

70. In evolutionary terms, what kind of force is mutation?​

  a. ​It is negative because mutation decreases chances for survival.
  b. ​It is positive because it provides variation for selection.
  c. ​It is neutral because variation does not matter in the long run.
  d. ​Mutation cannot be evaluated in these terms.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

71. What variable force is most important to adaptation over time?​

  a. ​founder effects
  b. ​genetic drift
  c. ​random mutation
  d. ​gene flow

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

72. Chance fluctuations of allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population are evidences of:​

  a. ​genetic drift
  b. ​gene flow
  c. ​mutation
  d. ​directional selection

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

73. Founder effects is a type of:​

  a. ​gene flow
  b. ​genetic drift
  c. ​natural selection
  d. ​environmental selection

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

74. A small group of people with several color-blind individuals moves from the mainland to a previously uninhabited, secluded island. Two hundred years later, 5 percent of the people of the island have color-blindness. This is an example of:​

  a. ​founder effects
  b. ​population bottleneck
  c. ​mutation
  d. ​gene flow

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

75. Interbreeding allows for:​

  a. ​gene flow
  b. ​genetic drift
  c. ​genetic cloning
  d. ​genetic testing

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

76. Which evolutionary force keeps populations from developing into separate species?​

  a. ​founder effects
  b. ​mutation
  c. ​random genetic drift
  d. ​gene flow

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

77. A painful disease in which oxygen-carrying red blood cells change into abnormal shapes is called:​

  a. ​anemia
  b. ​natural blood selection
  c. ​trisomy 21
  d. ​sickle-cell anemia

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

78. Adaptation can best be described as:​

  a. ​an inherited form of anemia caused by a mutation
  b. ​dominant characteristics in the gene pool
  c. ​a series of beneficial adjustments to the environment
  d. ​the introduction of alleles from the gene pool of a nonnative population

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

79. Ultimately all natural selection is biologically measured in terms of:​

  a. ​reproductive success
  b. ​environmental adaptation
  c. ​macroevolution
  d. ​random genetic frequency

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

80. The biological term fitness refers to:​

  a. ​physical and mental prowess
  b. ​physical stamina and longevity
  c. ​reproductive potential
  d. ​stabilizing influences

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

81. Each of the following commonly affects mutation rates except:​

  a. ​stress
  b. ​radiation
  c. ​antibiotics
  d. ​fitness

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

82. Which of the following statements about adaptation is incorrect?​

  a. ​Many traits have no adaptive function.
  b. ​Adaptations are adjustments to a specific environment.
  c. ​Adaptation at a genetic level reveals natural selection.
  d. ​Natural selection and adaptation always promote genetic change.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

83. When natural selection favors retention of an allele frequency because the population is well adapted, it is referred to as:​

  a. ​reproductive success
  b. ​stabilizing selection
  c. ​founder effects
  d. ​directional selection

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

84. Sickle-cell anemia is found in highest frequencies in populations from:​

  a. ​East Africa
  b. ​Central Arica
  c. ​South Africa
  d. ​North Africa

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

85. Scientists have found that carrying sickle-cell anemia (meaning, one is heterozygous) protects an individual from:​

  a. ​chicken pox
  b. ​malaria
  c. ​pneumonia
  d. ​common cold

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

86. The allele for sickle-cell anemia is believed to have originated in areas where there are large populations of mosquitoes bearing:​

  a. ​falciparum malaria
  b. ​parasitic dysentery
  c. ​smallpox
  d. ​yellow fever

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

87. The continuous gradation over space in the form or frequency of a genetic trait is known as a:​

  a. ​stabilizing selection
  b. ​codon
  c. ​cline
  d. ​transcription

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

88. Why does a bulky body tend to conserve more heat than a slender one?​

  a. ​It has less surface area relative to volume.
  b. ​It has more surface area relative to volume.
  c. ​It has more fat regulation.
  d. ​It is more layered, with fat covering muscles.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

89. Anthropologists study biological diversity among populations in terms of:​

  a. ​mutation
  b. ​gene flow
  c. ​clines
  d. ​inheritance

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

90. Which of the following is most likely to suffer effects from summer heat?​

  a. ​someone with a slender body build and relatively long extremities
  b. ​someone with a bulky body build and relatively short extremities
  c. ​someone with a slender body build and relatively short extremities
  d. ​someone with a bulky body build and rather long extremities

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

91. The formation of a new species is known as_______________while _______________focuses on the evolutionary relationships between related species.​

  a. ​macroevolution/microevolution
  b. ​macroevolution/speciation
  c. ​speciation/microevolution
  d. s​peciation/macroevolution

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

92. A sustained directional shift in a population’s average characteristics is called:​

  a. ​cladogenesis
  b. ​genetic drift
  c. ​anagenesis
  d. ​speciation

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

93. If two populations of primates were separated for a substantially long period of time by geographical changes, causing them, over time, to begin developing characteristics that distinguished them from each other, it could result in:​

  a. ​allelic homogeneity
  b. ​allelic homogeneity
  c. ​anagenesis
  d. ​cladogenesis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

94. What do we call the factors that separate two breeding populations?​

  a. ​fission factors
  b. ​isolating factors
  c. ​punctuated equilibria
  d. ​cladogenesis

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

95. Achromatopsia is a condition sometimes caused by founder effects. It is also known as:​

  a. ​river blindness
  b. ​color-blindness
  c. ​light sensitivity
  d. ​filter defect

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

96. Why is the genetic comparison between humans and chimpanzees sometimes misleading?​

  a. ​It ignores qualitative differences between genomes.
  b. ​It ignores quantitative differences between genomes.
  c. ​It ignores individual differentiation within genomes.
  d. ​It attempts to explain all diversity through a simple comparison.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   43
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

97. In a heterozygous individual, the dominance of one allele means that:​

  a. ​the recessive allele has been lost or damaged
  b. ​the recessive allele was not copied during mitosis
  c. ​the recessive allele is not being expressed
  d. ​the recessive allele is skipping generations

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

98. When two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic, it is known as:​

  a. ​punctuated equilibrium
  b. ​polygenetic inheritance
  c. ​clinal expression
  d. ​genetic drift

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

99. Which of the following best describes a karyotype?​

  a. ​It is the array of chromosomes found within a single cell.
  b. ​It is the sequence of amino acids expressed within a protein.
  c. ​It is a protein that directs chemical reactions.
  d. ​It is the complete structure of DNA for a species.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

100. Compared to other chromosomes, the Y chromosome is:​

  a. ​small and carries very little genetic information
  b. ​small and carries much more genetic information
  c. ​large and carries very little genetic information
  d. ​large and carries much more genetic information

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

Completion

 

101. A group of like species is a _______________.​

ANSWER:   genus​
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

102. The major organizing principle of biological science is _______________.​

ANSWER:   evolution​
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

103. The smallest working units of biological classification systems are _______________.​

ANSWER:   species​
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

104. The science of classification is called _______________.​

ANSWER:   taxonomy​
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

105. Sir Charles Lyell proposed a nonreligious theory to account for variations in the earth’s surface over extremely long periods of time. It is called __________.​

ANSWER:   catastrophism​
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

106. The wings of a bird and those of the butterfly are considered __________ structures.​

ANSWER:   analogous​
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

107. James Watson and Francis _______________ discovered the existence of DNA in 1953.​

ANSWER:   Crick​
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

108. Darwin’s theory is properly known as the theory of __________.​

ANSWER:   natural selection​
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

109. The Mendelian principle that variants of a gene retain their separate identities through generations is the law of __________.​

ANSWER:   segregation​
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

110. A sequence of chemical bases on a molecule of DNA constitutes a recipe for making ____________.​

ANSWER:   proteins​
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

111. The process of conversion of instructions from DNA to RNA is called __________.​

ANSWER:   transcription​
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

112. Sister chromatids are when two copies of the original chromosome are joined in the shape of a(n) __________.​

ANSWER:   X​
REFERENCES:   38
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

113. When a gene contains identical alleles it is referred to as being _______________.​

ANSWER:   homozygous​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

114. In the A-B-O blood system, an individual with type O has an OO _______________.​

ANSWER:   genotype​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

115. When neither allele is dominant, it is referred to as _______________.​

ANSWER:   codominance​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

116. The blood protein that carries oxygen is called _______________.​

ANSWER:   hemoglobin​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

117. The ultimate source of evolutionary change and all new genetic material is _____________.​

ANSWER:   mutation​
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

118. When an existing population splits up into two, the kind of genetic drift that occurs is called ________________________.​

ANSWER:   founder effects​
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

119. Adaptation is the outcome of _______________.​

ANSWER:   natural selection​
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

120. Heterozygotes for sickle-cell anemia protect against _______________.​

ANSWER:   malaria​
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

121. Anthropologists study biological diversity in terms of _______________.​

ANSWER:   clines​
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

122. Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a mutation in the __________ protein.​

ANSWER:   hemoglobin​
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

123. Factors that separate breeding populations and lead to the creation of new species are called __________ mechanisms.​

ANSWER:   isolating​
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

124. The macroevolutionary model of change called __________ suggests that evolution occurs via long periods of stability and then periods of rapid change.​

ANSWER:   punctuated equilibrium​
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

125. The four evolutionary forces are natural selection, gene flow, mutation, and __________.​

ANSWER:   genetic drift​
REFERENCES:   44
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

126. What criteria did Linnaeus use to establish his classificatory system?​

ANSWER:   Linnaeus based his classification on body structure, body function, and sequence of body growth.​
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

127. Distinguish analogies from homologies.​

ANSWER:   Analogies identify anatomical features of similar function across species, and homologies are structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development but which have different functions.​
REFERENCES:   32
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

128. What distinguishes a creation story from the theory of evolution?​

ANSWER:   Evolution explains the diversity of life in a consistent scientific language using hypotheses.​
REFERENCES:   31
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

129. Explain the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.​

ANSWER:   This theory argues that behavior brings about changes in organisms’ forms.​
REFERENCES:   33
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

130. Describe the theory of natural selection.​

ANSWER:   There exists natural variation and the capacity for population to exceed capacity; thus, there is a struggle for existence in which nature selects the most advantageous variations so that species can evolve.​
REFERENCES:   34
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

131. Define Mendel’s “law of independent assortment.”​

ANSWER:   This law states that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.​
REFERENCES:   36
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

132. In genetics, what does the term translation mean?​

ANSWER:   It is the process of conversion of RNA instructions into proteins.​
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

133. Briefly describe the process of protein synthesis and the involvement of codons.​

ANSWER:   In protein synthesis, a codon specifies production of a particular amino acid, and the directions are converted into RNA that travels to the ribosomes where anticodons of transfer RNA transport it to the corresponding mRNA codons. The amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds forming a new protein.​
REFERENCES:   37
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

134. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.​

ANSWER:   Genotype is the genetic composition for a trait, whereas the phenotype is the expressed physical characteristic.​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

135. Define polygenetic inheritance, and give one example of it.​

ANSWER:   This is when there are multiple genes that control a physical trait, such as body build, skin color, or susceptibility to disease.​
REFERENCES:   42
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

136. Genetic drift and gene flow can be easily confused because of the similarities in their names. What is the difference between genetic drift and gene flow?​

ANSWER:   Genetic drift refers to chance fluctuations of allele frequencies of a population and can be seen in both founder’s effect and population bottlenecks where a small group of people is isolated from a larger population and there is an increase in the expression of a certain gene. By contrast, gene flow refers to the introduction of alleles of one population into another. An example here would be an immigrant population who interbreeds with the existing population.​
REFERENCES:   44-46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

137. Choose one kind of evolutionary force and explain it.​

ANSWER:   Students may choose and describe mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, or natural selection.​
REFERENCES:   42-46
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

138. What are founder effects, and what can result from this?​

ANSWER:   Founder effects are a type of genetic drift that occurs when a small founding population, which does not possess all of the alleles present in the original population, breaks off. This can result in speciation.​
REFERENCES:   45
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

139. What are some factors that increase the frequency of gene flow?​

ANSWER:   Interbreeding, migration, and geographical and social factors can increase gene flow.​
REFERENCES:   46
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

140. What is adaptation, and what is its role in natural selection?​

ANSWER:   Adaptation is a series of beneficial adjustments to the environment that can change the organism over time.​
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Applied
NOTES:   Pickup

 

141. What is sickle-cell anemia, and how is it adaptive?​

ANSWER:   This is a disease of misshapen red blood cells that clog the circulatory system. It is primarily carried by those of African ancestry who come from areas where malaria rates are high; carriers of sickle cells have an ability to better survive malaria.​
REFERENCES:   47
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

142. Describe some of the genetic variation that is most common to people native to colder regions of the world.​

ANSWER:   Individuals adapted to colder regions of the world tend to have bulkier bodies, a lower density of sweat glands, some circulatory system modifications, and shorter stature.​
REFERENCES:   48
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

143. Compare and contrast cladogenesis with anagenesis.​

ANSWER:   Both are processes of speciation, but in cladogenesis, the original species branches out and separates, and in anagenesis, the original species itself changes over time into a new species.​
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

144. How does punctuated equilibrium differ from the Darwin model of gradual change over time?​

ANSWER:   Punctuated equilibrium is a model that argues that periods of stable change are occasionally punctuated by periods of rapid change.​
REFERENCES:   49
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

Essay

 

145. Creationism has changed shape over the past decade. Discuss some of the major disagreements between creationism and evolution. Has your study of evolution in this chapter changed your understanding of this debate?​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

146. Although human populations are subject to the same laws of natural selection as other species, humans also have extensive and elaborate culture. Choose and discuss two examples of cultural processes that complicate simple environmental adaptation.​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

147. Discuss protein synthesis and the various ways that biological variation can (and does) occur within the individual organism during this process.​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

148. Describe how each of the four evolutionary forces contributes to an organism’s adaptation.​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

149. How does speciation occur? Use examples and discuss the evolutionary processes that are involved.​

ANSWER:   will vary
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

Chapter_16_Global_Changes_and_the_Role_of_Anthropology

True / False

 

1. Modernization is a biased Western development concept.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   337
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

2. Traditional societies tend to be disrupted under modernization.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   337
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

3. The invention of the steam engine launched the Industrial Revolution.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

4. Our planet today is constantly under satellite surveillance.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   339
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

5. Accommodation is a more radical term for “acculturation.”​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

6. Pluralistic societies tend to be more stable over time.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

7. All pluralistic societies have adopted a public policy of multiculturalism.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

8. Multiculturalism is more common than cultural pluralism.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

9. A devolution movement is evident in numerous nationalist movements today.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

10. When foreign-born individuals migrate to another country, it is known as external migration.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

11. Hard power is coercive.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

12. Power refers to the ability of groups to impose their will upon others.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

13. The global leaders in military spending in descending order are the United States, Japan, Britain, and France.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

14. Israel, Britain, and India are all considered to be nuclear states.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

15. Megacorporations are controlled by outside market forces exclusively.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

16. Globalization has expanded and intensified structural violence.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

17. Globally, although there is structural violence, equality is increasing rapidly.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

18. About 6 billion people in the world are undernourished.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

19. The efficiency of the atmosphere in retaining heat is increasing.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

20. More than 1.1 billion people worldwide are overweight.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

21. There are developed pockets of resistance in the global order.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

22. The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is largely a symbolic document.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

23. Anthropologists are as interested in the future as they have been in the past.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   352
354
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

24. Paul Farmer works with issues of structural violence in Haiti.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   355
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

25. Toxic breast milk among the Inuit has not been found to be a result of structural violence.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Multiple Choice

 

26. Which of the following is not a subprocess of modernization?​

  a. ​industrialization
  b. ​agricultural development
  c. ​urbanization
  d. ​politicization

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   337-338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

27. Telecommunication, technological development, and industrialization are some of the processes associated with:​

  a. ​urbanization
  b. ​modernization
  c. ​globalization
  d. ​nationalization

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   337-338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

28. Modernization is associated with each of the following except:​

  a. ​a Western-based culture-bound concept
  b. ​a major influence worldwide
  c. ​associated with technological development
  d. ​linked to maintaining cultural diversity

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   337
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

29. Scientific knowledge and techniques mainly borrowed from the industrialized West are primarily associated with the modernization subprocess of:​

  a. ​telecommunication
  b. ​technological development
  c. ​urbanization
  d. ​agricultural development

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   337
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

30. The current world population, half of which lives in urban areas today, is estimated at:​

  a. ​1 billion
  b. ​7 billion
  c. ​11 billion
  d. ​23 billion

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   336
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

31. The first circumnavigation of the globe was achieved by which explorer?​

  a. ​Marco Polo
  b. ​Christopher Columbus
  c. ​Ferdinand Magellan
  d. ​Francisco Pizarro

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

32. Under modernization, urbanization is particularly marked by:​

  a. ​the movement of population from rural to urban areas
  b. ​the development of densely populated internal migrations within cities
  c. ​the migration of transnationals from one to another urban area
  d. ​the concentration of production within urban areas

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

33. The adaptation process by which a people resists assimilation by modifying its traditional cultural in response to pressures by a dominant society to preserve its distinctive ethnic identity is known as:​

  a. ​acculturation
  b. ​cultural evolution
  c. ​accommodation
  d. ​ethnocide

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

34. Which of the following statements is not correct?​

  a. ​The invention of electrical generators and the incandescent light bulb occurred in the mid-1800s.
  b. ​Major innovations in telecommunications occurred in the 20th century.
  c. ​The introduction of gasoline-fueled internal combustion engines occurred in the 1840s.
  d. ​The discovery of nuclear fission occurred in the late 1930s.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   338-339
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

35. Although nuclear energy has benefitted many, it also represents a global threat. Approximately how many stockpiled nuclear warheads exist worldwide?​

  a. ​10,500
  b. ​5,000
  c. ​7,500
  d. ​500

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   339
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

36. The homogenization of the world’s different cultures is sometimes referred to as:​

  a. ​Google Earth
  b. ​McDonaldization
  c. ​accommodation
  d. ​WalMart-ization

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   339
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

37. The “Blue Marble” was the name for:​

  a. ​the first photograph of our planet from space
  b. ​the first circumnavigation of the globe
  c. ​the earliest version of Google Earth
  d. ​an urbanization program associated with modernization

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   339
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

38. How many countries are members of the European Union?​

  a. ​9
  b. ​31
  c. ​14
  d. ​28

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

39. Which of the following is a public policy for managing a society’s multiple ethnicities in a manner of respect and tolerance?​

  a. ​ethnoculturalism
  b. ​diversity
  c. ​pluralism
  d. ​multiculturalism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

40. Two or more neighboring ethnic groups maintaining a loose political union while retaining their own cultural identities is referred to as a:​

  a. ​pluralistic society
  b. ​ethnocentric society
  c. ​international society
  d. ​multicultural society

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

41. Which of the following is the opposite of multiculturalism (a multicultural public policy)?​

  a. ​ethnocide
  b. ​assimilation
  c. ​enculturation
  d. ​ethnocentrism

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

42. Worldwide, integrative forces traditionally include all of the following except:​

  a. ​Doctors Without Borders
  b. ​Olympics
  c. ​World Health Organization
  d. ​U.S. Army

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   340
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

43. Which of the following industries generates about $3.5 billion in receipts daily and is considered a global industry?​

  a. ​tourism
  b. ​oil extraction
  c. ​rice production
  d. ​stock market

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   340
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

44. In India, McDonald’s makes its Big Mac with:​

  a. ​beef
  b. ​lamb
  c. ​pork
  d. ​fish

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   340
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

45. Since about 5,000 years ago:​

  a. ​ethnic groups have organized themselves into independent states
  b. ​world exploration has occurred by land and space
  c. ​domestication of plants and animals has opened world trade networks
  d. ​ethnic groups have developed into functioning societies

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

46. Throughout time, all large states have a tendency to:​

  a. ​break up
  b. ​modernize
  c. ​become more stable
  d. ​experience a rise in prosperity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

47. Approximately how many millions of people are in flux today as refugees?​

  a. ​2
  b. ​27
  c. ​11
  d. ​15

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

48. In almost all parts of the world, nation building:

  a. ​results in the destruction of multiethnic societies
  b. ​results in the preservation of multiethnic societies
  c. ​results in the increased development of ethnic societies
  d. ​has no effect on multiethnic societies

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

49. Individuals who earn their living in one country while maintaining citizenship in another country are referred to as:​

  a. ​internal migrants
  b. ​external migrants
  c. ​transnationals
  d. ​economic refugees

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

50. What is a diasporic community?​

  a. ​a group of people who come from the same part of the world, but now live in another place
  b. ​a group of people who share the same culture and traditions based on their status and class
  c. ​a community that forms because of urbanization and transnationalism
  d. ​a community that suffers the effects of xenophobia worldwide because of their low status

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

51. Which of the following statements about mass migration is correct?​

  a. ​About 20 percent of the people living in France today are foreign-born immigrants.
  b. ​Most immigrants to the United States come from Asia and Africa.
  c. ​About 11 percent of the world’s population today lives outside their countries of birth.
  d. ​Immigration from the Caribbean to the United States is rapidly increasing.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

52. All of the following conditions tend toward the development of separatist movements except:​

  a. ​extensive territory within state borders
  b. ​lack of adequate transportation networks within the state
  c. ​lack of transnational communities within the state
  d. ​lack of unifying forces within state borders

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

53. The fear or hatred of strangers or anything foreign is called:​

  a. ​culturophobia
  b. ​xenophobia
  c. ​plasticophobia
  d. ​sociopathology

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   344
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

54. Structural power:​

  a. ​has decreasing significance in the new global order
  b. ​diverts attention from the relationship between the new global order and political institutions
  c. ​fails to capture the complex new cultural formation in the world
  d. ​applies to regional political organizations

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   344-345
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

55. Globalization involves all of the following except:​

  a. ​restructured social field of force
  b. ​controlled profit growth
  c. ​development of new commercial markets
  d. ​struggle for scarce natural resources

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   344
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

56. Power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic interaction within and among societies is an example of:​

  a. ​structural power
  b. ​hard power
  c. ​soft power
  d. ​sanctions

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

57. In sub-Saharan Africa, 72 percent of the urban population:​

  a. ​is made up of refugees
  b. ​lives in slums
  c. ​works for a multinational corporation
  d. ​serves in the armed forces of their country

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   344
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

58. The news media are examples of:

  a. ​global order
  b. ​soft power
  c. ​hard power
  d. ​structural power

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   348
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

59. Which of the following has the largest slum dwelling in the world currently?​

  a. ​Mumbai, India
  b. ​Mexico City, Mexico
  c. ​Lagos, Nigeria
  d. ​Cairo, Egypt

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   344
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

60. Which of the following would be considered a macro level of world power?​

  a. ​hard power
  b. ​soft power
  c. ​structural power
  d. ​economic power

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

61. Power that coerces through economic or military force is known as:​

  a. ​soft power
  b. ​rigid power
  c. ​hard power
  d. ​global power

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

62. Which country spends the most overall on military hardware?​

  a. ​Saudi Arabia
  b. ​Europe
  c. ​Iran
  d. ​United States

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

63. What threats do megacorporations pose to national governments?​

  a. Megacorporations have their own governments and do not work in national countries.
  b. ​It is challenging for governments to find the sufficient workers for the corporations.
  c. ​Global corporations prefer to make all foreign policy decisions without laws.
  d. ​It is difficult for governments to get information from them for informed policy decisions.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   346-347
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

64. Which of the following is currently the largest megacorporation?​

  a. ​McDonald’s
  b. ​General Electric
  c. ​Wal-Mart
  d. ​Hyundai

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

65. Which of the following countries does not have nuclear-weapon capability?​

  a. ​United States
  b. ​India
  c. ​China
  d. ​Spain

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

66. Which of the following is home to more global corporations than any other country?​

  a. ​China
  b. ​India
  c. ​United States
  d. ​Switzerland

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

67. Each of the following corporations is a megacorporation except:​

  a. ​Shell
  b. ​Toyota
  c. ​General Electric
  d. ​Harley Davidson

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   346
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

68. The total value of all goods and services produced within a country per year is its:​

  a. ​gross domestic product
  b. ​net national product
  c. ​GINI indicator
  d. ​export and international trade value

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

69. The global media environment today:​

  a. ​is primarily digital-electronic
  b. ​is decreasingly important
  c. ​is dominated by developing countries
  d. ​wields hard power only

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   348
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

70. Physical and psychological harm caused by economic systems is:​

  a. ​sanctionary violence
  b. ​cultural violence
  c. ​structural violence
  d. ​structural coercion

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

71. The collapse of local markets due to subsidized foreign imports is an example of:​

  a. ​hard power
  b. ​structural violence
  c. ​structural coercion
  d. ​external coercion

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

72. The Gini Index directly measures:​

  a. ​income inequality
  b. ​gross domestic product
  c. ​economic hard power
  d. ​military hard power

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

73. According to the Gini Index:​

  a. ​40 percent of the people in the world live on less than $2 a day
  b. ​50 percent of the people in the world are malnourished
  c. ​43 percent of the people in the world do not have access to healthcare
  d. ​16 percent of the people in the world currently are refugees due to poverty or politics

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

74. Approximately how many children die yearly due to hunger?​

  a. ​5 million
  b. ​1 billion
  c. ​2 million
  d. ​6 million

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

75. On the Gini Index, what number represents perfect equality?​

  a. ​100
  b. ​50
  c. ​0
  d. ​33

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

76. All of the following regarding hunger and poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are true except:​

  a. ​Families are uprooted from their traditional food sources.
  b. ​Small-scale farmers have been relocated away from productive lands.
  c. ​Cash crop production has increasingly been converted to subsistence farming.
  d. ​Famine is often fueled by global food production.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

77. What is the current number of people worldwide who are considered to be overweight?​

  a. ​347 million
  b. ​1.1 billion
  c. ​1.9 billion
  d. ​2.3 billion

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

78. All of the following countries are showing the highest rates of obesity per capita currently except:​

  a. ​Fiji
  b. ​Samoa
  c. ​India
  d. ​Tonga

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

79. What is a “global mediascape”?​

  a. ​global flow of information
  b. ​dominance of structural power through the media
  c. ​dominance of one country over another in global media
  d. ​existence of a “third way,” which is the media empire

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   348
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

80. The top producer of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide is currently:

  a. ​France
  b. ​China
  c. ​United States
  d. ​Germany

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

81. The highest U.S. rates of obesity are among:​

  a. ​Caucasian females
  b. African American females
  c. ​Caucasian males
  d. ​Hispanic males

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

82. Which is a predicted effect of global warming?​

  a. ​lowering temperatures
  b. ​rising sea levels
  c. ​decrease in respiratory illnesses
  d. rapidly increasing world population

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

83. Among what indigenous population have scientists found the highest levels of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)?​

  a. ​Maya
  b. ​Yanomamo
  c. ​Inuit
  d. ​Pashto

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

84. Canadian Inuit face health problems related to high levels of what contaminant in sea mammals?​

  a. ​methane
  b. ​mercurial triphenyls
  c. ​polychlorinated biphenyls
  d. ​diestrogen polychromate

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

85. Why are polychlorinated biphenyls toxic to humans? All of the following are consequences except:​

  a. ​They weaken the immune system.
  b. ​They cause liver damage.
  c. ​They cause brain damage to children exposed in the womb.
  d. ​They cause skin cancer.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

86. Why are the Inuit people so exposed to toxic elements?​

  a. ​They rely on seafood that is poisoned by toxic water runoff.
  b. ​They use utensils and technology that rely on unstable chemical compounds.
  c. ​They eat poisoned nuts and berries as a supplement to their diet.
  d. ​They do not routinely seek medical help and thus store toxic elements in their bodies.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

87. Which continent produces the least carbon emissions per capita?​

  a. ​Africa
  b. ​Asia
  c. ​North America
  d. ​South America

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

88. Indigenous peoples sought to establish the World Council of Indigenous Peoples for all of the following reasons except:​

  a. ​seek self-determination for their societies
  b. ​challenge violations of human rights occurring to them
  c. ​resist acculturation
  d. ​establish ethnocentrism

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

89. How is the incidence of toxic breast milk among Inuit an issue of structural violence?​

  a. ​Because of poverty, the Inuit are not able to obtain alternative (and healthy) foods.
  b. ​Because of their status as indigenous peoples, it is considered a human rights violation.
  c. ​It is the hazardous pollution from industrial waste that is causing it.
  d. ​It is industrialized countries that force the Inuit to use these materials.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

90. Each of the following is a direct form of resistance against globalization except:​

  a. ​rise of fundamentalism
  b. ​development of revitalization movements
  c. ​rise of traditionalism
  d. ​consistent rise of poverty

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

91. Approximately how many groups of people defining themselves as nations exist worldwide?​

  a. ​5,000
  b. ​1,750
  c. ​1,000
  d. ​750

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

92. The universal Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted by the United Nations in:​

  a. ​2007
  b. ​1968
  c. ​1998
  d. ​1938

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   354
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

93. Which of the following is not an article in the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?

  a. ​restructure current national governments
  b. ​rights of self-determination
  c. ​recognition of indigenous land titles
  d. ​respect for indigenous cultural heritages

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   354
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

94. What is the relationship between globalization and local culture?​

  a. ​Larger nation-states are less affected by global forces than small ones.
  b. ​Cultures respond differently to the processes of globalization.
  c. ​Globalization tends to affect poorer nations more than wealthy ones.
  d. ​Cultures all respond violently to global initiatives and integration.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   354
356
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

95. Paul Farmer works in Haiti with issues of health and structural violence. He is classified as an applied anthropologist in the field of:​

  a. ​medical anthropology
  b. ​molecular anthropology
  c. ​economic anthropology
  d. ​development anthropology

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   355
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

96. The movement of manufacturing and hazardous waste disposal to developing countries is caused by the availability of all of the following except:​

  a. ​higher safety standards in developing countries
  b. ​cheaper labor in developing countries
  c. ​larger profits for the corporation in developing countries
  d. ​lower production costs

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

97. Paul Farmer argues that “inequality is our modern plague.” What does he mean by this?​

  a. ​that the inability of poor people to compete for resources means they cannot gain access to opportunities
  b. ​that the lack of resources causes environmental destruction to all people
  c. ​that poverty and the lack of resources is the primary reason that indigenous people cannot compete globally
  d. ​that poverty and inequality are the primary causes of many infectious diseases

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   355
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

98. Paul Farmer works in each of the following areas except:​

  a. ​medicine
  b. ​anthropology
  c. ​economics
  d. ​human rights

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   354-355
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

99. Anthropology provides many advantages as a perspective for global challenges, such as:​

  a. ​holistic perspective
  b. ​cross-cultural understanding of globalization
  c. ​interdisciplinary approach
  d. ​all of these are advantages of Anthropology

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   356
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

100. Which anthropologist is famous for saying, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed it’s the only thing that ever has”?​

  a. ​Paul Farmer
  b. ​Franz Boas
  c. ​Margaret Mead
  d. ​Edward Evans-Pritchard

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   356
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Completion

 

101. The most recent subprocess of modernization is _______________.​

ANSWER:   telecommunication​
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

102. The process of economic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the social and political characteristics of Western industrial societies, is called ____________.​

ANSWER:   modernization​
REFERENCES:   337
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

103. The adaptation process by which a people resist assimilation by modifying traditional culture so that they can respond to dominant pressures and also maintain some of their original identity is called __________.​

ANSWER:   accommodation​
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

104. The beginning of the Industrial Revolution was launched by the invention of the __________.​

ANSWER:   steam engine​
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

105. The interconnection of the world into a vast interrelated and all-encompassing system is known as __________.​

ANSWER:   globalization​
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

106. The public policy most opposite assimilation is __________, which stresses mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences.​

ANSWER:   multiculturalism​
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

107. A sporting event based on ancient Greek games and held every four years for thousands of athletes all over the world is the _________.​

ANSWER:   Olympics​
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

108. Groups of migrants who remain in touch with their home countries both socially and economically are _______________ communities.​

ANSWER:   diasporic​
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

109. Migration movement within the boundaries of a country is called ____________.​

ANSWER:   internal migration​
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

110. ​The breakaway of the Crimean Peninsula from the Ukraine because of politics is an example of a _______________ movement.

ANSWER:   separatist​
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Modify

 

111. The ability of individuals or groups to impose their will upon others and make them do things even against their will is _______________.​

ANSWER:   power​
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

112. Pressing others through attraction and persuasion to change their beliefs is called ___________________________.​

ANSWER:   soft power​
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

113. GDP stands for __________.​

ANSWER:   gross domestic product​
REFERENCES:   347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

114. In billions of dollars, the world’s largest major global corporation is __________.​

ANSWER:   Wal-Mart​
REFERENCES:   347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

115. Corporations that conduct transnational capitalist operations are called __________.​

ANSWER:   megacorporations​
REFERENCES:   346-347
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

116. The physical and psychological harm caused by an exploitative system is called ________________.​

ANSWER:   structural violence​
REFERENCES:   349
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

117. Social media is an example of __________ power.​

ANSWER:   soft (structural)​
REFERENCES:   348
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

118. Fossil fuel use has dramatically increased the levels of __________ in the atmosphere.​

ANSWER:   carbon dioxide​
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

119. The efficiency of the atmosphere in retaining heat is referred to as the __________.​

ANSWER:   greenhouse effect​
REFERENCES:   351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

120. Today __________ million people face chronic hunger.​

ANSWER:   850​
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

121. Muslim fundamentalists who rose to power in Afghanistan in the 1990s after helping to force out the Russian army are known as _______________.​

ANSWER:   Taliban​
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

122. The number of national groups that exist in the world today is estimated to be ______________.​

ANSWER:   5,000​
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

123. Toxic breast milk found among the Inuit is mainly due to their consumption of __________.​

ANSWER:   fish​
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

124. The primary cause of health problems from breast milk among the Inuit today is the toxic chemical called__________.​

ANSWER:   polychlorinated biphenyls​
REFERENCES:   353
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

125. The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was adopted in 2007 by the __________.​

ANSWER:   United Nations​
REFERENCES:   354
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

126. What are the subprocesses of modernization?​

ANSWER:   They are industrialization, technological development, agricultural development, urbanization, and telecommunication.​
REFERENCES:   337-338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

127. Define globalization.​

ANSWER:   It is the worldwide process of accelerated modernization in which all parts of the earth are becoming interconnected in one vast interrelated and all-encompassing system.​
REFERENCES:   338
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

128. What are the principle challenges that a pluralistic society faces?​

ANSWER:   In a pluralistic society, the population shares no common cultural identity and heritage, and often not even the same language or religion. This can cause tense political relationships.
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

129. Define multiculturalism.​

ANSWER:   It is the public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a country’s borders.​
REFERENCES:   341
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

130. Name the two primary types of migration and explain each, providing an example of what you mean.​

ANSWER:   Internal migration is movement within a country, perhaps for job opportunities or family responsibilities. External migration, voluntary or involuntary, is movement outside of one’s original country and may be for economic opportunity or freedom.​
REFERENCES:   342
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

131. How are transnationals different from refugees or immigrants?​

ANSWER:   They are in another country to earn a living while remaining citizens of another.​
REFERENCES:   343
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

132. What is structural power?​

ANSWER:   It is power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values, and beliefs on the other.​
REFERENCES:   345
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   New

 

133. Why does xenophobia often accompany migrants?​

ANSWER:   In general, they compete for scarce resources, pose a threat to security, and are different from those around them.​
REFERENCES:   344
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

134. How does the United States promote its business interests worldwide?​

ANSWER:   It promotes its business interests through the use of structural power, hard power, and soft power.​
REFERENCES:   344-347
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

135. What is structural violence? Give an example.​

ANSWER:   Structural violence is physical or psychological harm caused by impersonal, exploitative, and unjust social, political, and economic systems. Examples include poverty, hunger, obesity, malnutrition, pollution, and global warming.​
REFERENCES:   349-351
OTHER:   Factual
NOTES:   Modify

 

136. How do news organizations serve as global soft power?​

ANSWER:   They choose the images to project and stories to tell and influence global perception and action.​
REFERENCES:   348
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

137. What is the primary cause of rising global obesity rates? Explain how this exhibits structural violence.​

ANSWER:   Prime causes include the high sugar and fat content of mass-marketed foods and the lack of availability and affordability of local foods. This is structural violence because the food markets are almost totally controlled by capitalist corporations.​
REFERENCES:   350
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

138. What is the World Council of Indigenous Peoples?​

ANSWER:   It is a nongovernmental group founded in 1975 that presents cases of indigenous peoples before the world community.
REFERENCES:   352
354
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

139. How can anthropologists and the anthropological approach contribute to a better world?​

ANSWER:   They can study and better understand the connections between power and consequences, work to assist and advocate for besieged communities and cultural groups, and put into practice what they have learned about the long-term needs and development of the human species.​
REFERENCES:   354
356
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

140. What reactions can populations have against globalization? Name at least three ways that groups rise up against this global force.​

ANSWER:   They can develop a revitalization movement or show a rise in fundamentalism or a rise in traditionalism.​
REFERENCES:   352
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

Essay

 

141. Although ethnic resurgence is in part a response to the negatives of globalization, a lot of very intricate issues are embedded within this resurgence process. Discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of this process.

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

142. The resistance to globalization is varied, ranging from boycotts to protests to reorganizing how groups and communities live. Think back to the study of revitalization movements as part of religious movements. How might revitalization movements be harnessed as a response to globalization?​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

143. ​Clearly not all aspects of globalization are negative. Some promising results have been born from globalization, everything from international aid to refugee assistance to pharmaceuticals. Examine some of the benefits of globalization. When attempting to decide whether something is a benefit, make sure that you do not examine it only from your perspective (that is, remember that although something might be good for you, it might prove harmful for somebody else).

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

144. Many people consider that a homogeneous worldwide culture would be a positive development. Discuss the negatives and positives that might result from such a common culture.​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   Pickup

 

145. Anthropology is a perspective that studies all aspects of being human. From what you have learned in this last chapter and the areas that you have studied prior, what do you think are the primary contributions that anthropology can make to our world today? Make at least three primary points with evidentiary support.​

ANSWER:   will vary​
OTHER:   Conceptual
NOTES:   New

 

 

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