EARTH2 2nd Edition by Hendrix – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

EARTH2 2nd Edition by Hendrix – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

1. ____________________ are the building blocks of rocks.

ANSWER:   Minerals

 

2. The two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust are ____________________ and ____________________.

ANSWER:   oxygen; silicon

silicon; oxygen

O; Si

Si; O

 

3. ____________________ are atoms with an electrical charge.

ANSWER:   Ions

 

4. The tendency of some minerals to break along flat surfaces is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   cleavage

 

5. ____________________ is the characteristic shape of an individual crystal.

ANSWER:   Crystal habit

 

6. Mohs Scale is used to measure the ____________________ of a mineral.

ANSWER:   hardness

 

7. ____________________ is the color of a fine powder of a mineral.

ANSWER:   Streak

 

8. ____________________ is an element commonly used to extract gold and silver from ore.

ANSWER:   Mercury

 

9. Minerals whose chemical elements include carbon and oxygen as a major part of their chemical composition are called ____________________.

ANSWER:   carbonates

 

10. ____________________ is the weight of a substance relative to that of an equal volume of water.

ANSWER:   Specific gravity

 

11. A(n) ____________________ is a pyramidal-shaped structure that is the fundamental building block of all silicate minerals.

ANSWER:   silica tetrahedron

 

12. The most common silicate mineral is ____________________.

ANSWER:   feldspar

plagioclase feldspar

 

13. A(n) ____________________ is a mineral that is prized for its rarity and beauty.

ANSWER:   gem

 

14. ____________________ is a disease found in coal miners that causes them to have difficulty breathing.

ANSWER:   Black lung

 

15. A group of minerals that crystallize as long, thin fibers and are carcinogenic is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   asbestos

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. Quartz shows distinctive ____, meaning that it breaks along smooth, curved surfaces.

a. cleavage
b. crystal habit
c. conchoidal fracture
d. specific fracture

 

ANSWER:   c

 

17. A(n) ____ is a fundamental unit of matter that cannot be broken down by ordinary means..

a. mineral
b. element
c. gem
d. crystal

 

ANSWER:   b

 

18. The silicate tetrahedron consists of ____ surrounded by ____.

a. four central silicon ions; one oxygen ion
b. four central oxygen ions; four silicon ions
c. one central oxygen ion; three silicon ions
d. one central silicon ion; four oxygen ions

 

ANSWER:   d

 

19. Two ore minerals that are commonly comprised of pure metals and contain only a single element are native ____ and ____.

a. gold; silver
b. galena; silver
c. quartz; gold
d. silver; olivine

 

ANSWER:   a

 

20. Two common carbonate minerals are ____ and ____.

a. calcite; feldspar
b. calcite; dolomite
c. quartz; galena
d. dolomite; quartz

 

ANSWER:   b

 

21. Quartz is composed of ____.

a. silicon and oxygen
b. silicon and iron
c. iron and oxygen
d. silicon and aluminum

 

ANSWER:   a

 

22. ____ are solid elements or compounds with atoms arranged in a highly ordered structure.

a. Pure substances
b. Ions
c. Lattices
d. Crystals

 

ANSWER:   d

 

23. Quartz and other minerals come in a variety of colors because of ____.

a. varying cleavage directions
b. chemical impurities
c. slight differences in hardness
d. radioactive reactions

 

ANSWER:   b

 

24. Halite, or table salt, is an example of a(n) ____ mineral.

a. ore
b. carbonate
c. industrial
d. volcanic

 

ANSWER:   c

 

25. ____ are the most common group of minerals on Earth.

a. Sulfides
b. Carbonates
c. Feldspars
d. Silicates

 

ANSWER:   d

 

26. There are approximately ____ different minerals on Earth.

a. 50
b. 1,000
c. 3,500
d. 11,200

 

ANSWER:   c

 

27. Radon forms by the radioactive decay of ____.

a. gold
b. sodium
c. platinum
d. uranium

 

ANSWER:   d

 

28. On the Mohs hardness scale, the hardest mineral is ____.

a. gypsum
b. feldspar
c. quartz
d. diamond

 

ANSWER:   d

 

29. ____ are minerals from which metals and other elements can be extracted.

a. Gemstones
b. Industrial minerals
c. Ore minerals
d. Native elements

 

ANSWER:   c

 

30. The most common ore forming minerals belong to the ____ and ____ groups.

a. silicate; sulfide
b. oxide; sulfide
c. oxide; carbonate
d. silicate; carbonate

 

ANSWER:   b

 

31. Minerals are ____.

a. naturally occurring organic solids with a characteristic chemical composition and a crystalline structure
b. formed when organic material decomposes into a solid crystalline structure
c. naturally occurring inorganic solids with a characteristic chemical composition and a crystalline structure
d. synthetic solids with a characteristic chemical composition and a crystalline structure

 

ANSWER:   a

 

32. How many chemical elements occur naturally in Earth’s crust?

a. 8
b. 40
c. 88
d. 108

 

ANSWER:   c

 

33. Which of the following best describes an element?

a. A small, dense, positively charged subatomic particle
b. A fundamental form of matter that can be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes
c. A fundamental form of matter that cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes
d. A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a characteristic chemical composition and a crystalline structure

 

ANSWER:   c

 

34. Crystal faces and cleavage surfaces differ because ____.

a. cleavage will be present even if a mineral is broken
b. cleavage occurs in rocks, and crystal faces are found on minerals
c. only crystal faces are perfectly flat
d. multiple crystal faces may be present, but there is only one direction of cleavage

 

ANSWER:   a

 

35. Which physical properties distinguish a particular mineral from all others?

a. fracture and faceting
b. specific gravity
c. chemical composition and crystalline structure
d. streak and luster

 

ANSWER:   c

 

36. If Mineral A scratches Mineral B, that means ____.

a. Mineral B will also scratch Mineral A
b. Mineral A is softer than Mineral B
c. Mineral B is harder than Mineral A
d. Mineral A is harder than Mineral B

 

ANSWER:   d

 

37. Hardness is ____.

a. the resistance of a mineral to fracture
b. the resistance of a mineral to shattering
c. dependent on a mineral’s flexibility
d. the resistance of a mineral to scratching

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. For the purpose of mineral identification, place the following physical properties in order, from most useful to least useful.

a. hardness, habit, streak
b. color, hardness, streak
c. streak, luster, cleavage
d. hardness, cleavage, color

 

ANSWER:   d

 

39. The least useful physical characteristic for identifying minerals is ____.

a. streak
b. color
c. cleavage
d. luster

 

ANSWER:   b

 

40. Acid mine drainage results from inadequate pollution controls when mining ____.

a. sulfide minerals
b. phosphate minerals
c. silicate minerals
d. carbonate minerals

 

ANSWER:   a

 

41. Smelting gold and silver often causes the toxic metal ____ to be released into the atmosphere, where it accumulates in the food chain.

a. cadmium
b. radon
c. mercury
d. uranium

 

ANSWER:   c

 

42. Water is not a mineral because ____.

a. it is inorganic
b. it is a liquid
c. it has a definite chemical composition
d. it is organic

 

ANSWER:   b

 

43. Which group of minerals are silicates?

a. calcite, aragonite, and dolomite
b. hematite and corundum
c. olivine, pyroxene, and mica
d. halite and fluorite

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. Carbonate minerals can be readily identified by which unique physical property?

a. distinctive color
b. effervescence in acid
c. three strong planes of cleavage
d. attraction to magnets

 

ANSWER:   b

 

45. Breathing silica dust over long periods of time may cause ____.

a. liver failure
b. memory loss
c. scarring of lung tissue
d. decreased brain function

 

ANSWER:   c

 

46. It is not necessary for a substance to be a solid to be a mineral.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

47. Ice is a mineral.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

48. Minerals rarely have perfect habit because of restrictions on growing space.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

49. An element cannot be broken into smaller substances by ordinary chemical processes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

50. Carbonate minerals contain chains of carbon tetrahedra linked together.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

51. Only eight elements (oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) make up more than 98 percent of Earth’s crust.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

52. Most rocks and minerals in their natural states are harmless to humans and other organisms.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

53. Only atoms with a positive charge are called ions.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

54. A substance in which atoms are arranged without a regular, orderly, periodically repeated pattern is called a crystal.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

55. Cleavage is the tendency of some minerals to break along flat surfaces.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

56. Regardless of mineral color, all samples of the same mineral (i.e., all samples of hematite) will have the same streak color.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

57. Calcite is the hardest mineral.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

58. Mercury is biomagnified in the food chain, meaning animals at the bottom of the food chain have greater concentrations of mercury than animals at the top of the food chain.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

59. Radon levels tend to be higher in areas underlain by granite or shale rocks.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

60. Most scientists believe that asbestos poses no danger when undisturbed, and is only harmful during removal processes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

1. During a(n) ____________________, many life-forms on Earth die out suddenly.

ANSWER:   mass extinction

 

2. Volcanic eruptions eject ____________________ into the atmosphere, a greenhouse gas that can cause warming.

ANSWER:   carbon dioxide

 

3. ____________________ are the longest unit of geologic time, and ____________________ are the shortest units of geologic time.

ANSWER:   Eons, Ages

 

4. The ____________________ consists of all the rocks on Earth and reveals the history of our planet.

ANSWER:   rock record

 

5. ____________________ is the biological theory that explains how and why the physical and genetic characteristics of organisms change with time.

ANSWER:   Evolution

 

6. The fact that sedimentary rocks usually become younger from bottom to top is the principle of ____________________.

ANSWER:   superposition

 

7. The supercontinent ____________________ formed at the end of the Mesozoic Era.

ANSWER:   Pangaea

 

8. ____________________ are the traces of past life found in sedimentary rocks.

ANSWER:   Fossils

 

9. Matching rocks of similar ages from different localities is ____________________.

ANSWER:   correlation

 

10. ____________________ ____________________ come from organisms that are abundantly preserved in rocks and are useful for dating.

ANSWER:   Index fossils

 

11. The thin, sooty iridium-rich layer found at the end of the Permian is an example of a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   key bed

 

12. The amount of time required for half of the atoms in a radioactive sample to decompose is the ____________________.

ANSWER:   half life

 

13. In order to determine the absolute ages of rocks, ____________________ relies on measuring the relative amounts of parent and daughter isotopes.

ANSWER:   radiometric dating

 

14. The ____________________ encompasses approximately the first four billion years of Earth’s history.

ANSWER:   Precambrian

 

15. The Mesozoic Era is sometimes referred to as the “Age of the _____________________.”

ANSWER:   Reptiles

Dinosaurs

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. The biggest mass extinction in Earth’s history occurred at the end of the ____ Period.

a. Ordovician
b. Permian
c. Cretaceous
d. Tertiary

 

ANSWER:   b

 

17. The volcanic gas sulfur dioxide forms small particles called ____ that reflect sunlight and cool Earth.

a. chlorofluorocarbons
b. mistulas
c. spherules
d. aerosols

 

ANSWER:   d

 

18. ____ describes how species succeed each other in a recognizable order thereby enabling the age of rocks to be determined.

a. Faunal succession
b. Relative dating
c. Evolution
d. Fossil sequencing

 

ANSWER:   a

 

19. Scientists have evidence that a meteorite impacts at the end of the Cretaceous period occurred in the ____.

a. Balkans
b. Yucatan Peninsula
c. Philippines
d. Ural Mountains

 

ANSWER:   b

 

20. In an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, ____.

a. the oldest rocks are on top
b. the youngest rocks are on top
c. the igneous rocks will be older than the sedimentary rocks
d. it is impossible to determine the relative age of the rocks

 

ANSWER:   b

 

21. A gap in the rock record is a(n) ____.

a. unconformity
b. corollary
c. conformity
d. discontinuity

 

ANSWER:   a

 

22. A(n) ____ is a formally defined, mappable rock unit that occurs in a specific region.

a. conformity
b. formation
c. corollary
d. site locality

 

ANSWER:   b

 

23. Geologists establish the age relationship of rocks from different locations through the process of ____.

a. conformation
b. invention
c. information
d. correlation

 

ANSWER:   d

 

24. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years. How old is a sample that is 75% daughter isotope and 25% parent isotope?

a. 2,865 years
b. 11,460 years
c. 17,190 years
d. There is not enough information to determine the age.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

25. The earliest fossils have been found from the ____ Eon.

a. Proterozoic
b. Phanerozoic
c. Hadean
d. Archean

 

ANSWER:   d

 

26. Earth is currently in the ____ Eon.

a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Phanerozoic

 

ANSWER:   d

 

27. Over time, the amount of parent isotope in a sample ____, and the amount of daughter isotope ____.

a. increases; decreases
b. increases; increases
c. decreases; increases
d. decreases; decreases

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. Fish, amphibians, and reptiles all evolved during the ____ Era/Eon.

a. Cenozoic
b. Mesozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Proterozoic

 

ANSWER:   c

 

29. Humans evolved during the ____ Era/Eon.

a. Cenozoic
b. Proterozoic
c. Paleozoic
d. Mesozoic

 

ANSWER:   a

 

30. An unconformity in which tectonic activity tilted older sedimentary rock layers before younger sediment accumulated is ____.

a. an angular unconformity
b. a disconformity
c. conformable
d. a nonconformity

 

ANSWER:   a

 

31. What must happen for an unconformity to develop?

a. unusually high rates of volcanic activity
b. tilting of rocks
c. faunal succession
d. erosion

 

ANSWER:   d

 

32. In the oceans, vertical mixing occurs when ____ lower density water ____, and ____ higher density water ____.

a. cold; sinks; warm; rises
b. cold; rises; warm; sinks
c. warm; sinks; cold; rises
d. warm; rises; cold; sinks

 

ANSWER:   d

 

33. In which type(s) of rock will the best preserved fossils be found?

a. igneous only
b. sedimentary only
c. metamorphic only
d. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

 

ANSWER:   b

 

34. A magmatic intrusion cutting through sedimentary layers ____.

a. must be younger than these sedimentary layers.
b. must be older than these sedimentary layers.
c. is of exactly the same age as these sedimentary layers.
d. cannot be used for any relative age measurements.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

35. ____ dating is the best method to determine an absolute age for organic material.

a. Carbon-14
b. Potassium-40
c. Uranium-238
d. Rubidium-87

 

ANSWER:   a

 

36. What is meant by the principle of original horizontality?

a. All rocks were originally horizontal.
b. Each layer of rock is older than the one above it.
c. Layers of sediment are deposited in nearly horizontal orientation.
d. The original crust of Earth was flat.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

37. In a sedimentary rock with inclusions of metamorphic rock, the inclusions must be ____.

a. older than the sedimentary rock
b. younger than the sedimentary rock
c. parallel to the sedimentary rock
d. below the sedimentary rock

 

ANSWER:   a

 

38. Imagine that you found two sandstone beds about 200 kilometers apart. The rock in one region was similar to the rock in the other, but one bed was several million years older than the other. From this information, what would be the best conclusion?

a. The two beds were time correlated.
b. Both beds would contain the same index fossils.
c. The two beds were lithologically correlated.
d. The two beds were time correlated and both beds would contain the same index fossils.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

39. To be useful, an index fossil is produced by an organism that ____.

a. is not well preserved
b. existed for a relatively short time
c. existed for a very long time
d. lived in one place only

 

ANSWER:   b

 

40. Relative dating is ____.

a. establishing that something happened
b. establishing a sequence of events
c. placing a specific date on an event
d. based on radioactive decay

 

ANSWER:   b

 

41. Isotopes with long half lives give good ages for ____.

a. old rocks, because not enough daughter material is present in young rocks
b. young rocks, because not enough daughter material is present in old rocks
c. old rocks, because not enough parent material is present in young rocks
d. young rocks, because not enough parent material is present in old rocks

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. The half-life of a radioactive isotope is ____.

a. the time it takes for half the atoms of the radioactive isotope in one sample to decay
b. half of one radioactive atom
c. the time it takes for all atoms of the radioactive isotope in one sample to decay
d. the electron of one radioactive atom

 

ANSWER:   a

 

43. The geologic time scale was originally developed based on ____.

a. absolute dates
b. 100 million year increments
c. relative dating
d. sedimentation rates

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. Which principle frequently uses faults and dikes to establish the sequence of events?

a. cross-cutting relationships
b. faunal succession
c. included fragments
d. superposition

 

ANSWER:   a

 

45. More fossils are found in rocks from the Phanerozoic because ____.

a. fewer extinctions have occurred
b. erosion rates have decreased
c. Earth has become warmer
d. organisms developed shells and skeletons

 

ANSWER:   d

 

46. Many scientists believe that a giant meteorite impact caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

47. Volcanic eruptions can influence the climate both by cooling as well as by warming the atmosphere.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

48. Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons, but different numbers of electrons.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

49. Younger layers of sediment always accumulate on top of older layers.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

50. A lack of fossils from Precambrian time means scientists must conclude life did not yet exist.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

51. The principle of superposition assures us that sedimentary rocks formed continuously from 2 billion to 200 million years ago.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

52. The principle of crosscutting relationships states that fossil organisms succeeded one another through time in a definite and recognizable order and that the relative ages of rocks can therefore be recognized from their fossils.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

53. The longer the time span that a species existed, the more precisely an index fossil can be used to determine the age of a rock.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

54. The half-lives of uranium-238 and other types of radioactive isotopes have changed over Earth’s history.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

55. Rock layers in the Grand Canyon are lithologically and time-correlated.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

56. Mass extinctions generally coincide with unusually high rates of volcanic activity and meteorite impacts.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

57. Because every continent has a unique rock assemblage and geologic history, every continent also has a different geologic time scale.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

58. The age of rocks in a lithologically correlated layer is the same everywhere.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

59. Fossil remains first became very abundant during the Cambrian Period.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

60. All isotopes are naturally radioactive.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

 

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