Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg

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Discovering Psychology the Science of Mind 1e by Cacioppo Freberg

Chapter Two: The Measure of Mind – Methods of Psychology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Science comes from the Latin scientia, which means “knowledge.” According to your text, which of the following best describes “science” today?
a. A study of the physical world through objective and subjective observations
b. A method of assessment that uses all of a researcher’s senses
c. A special way of learning about reality through systematic observation and experimentation
d. A process of investigation through thoughtful and personal reflection

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. One important difference between science and everyday observations is that science relies on ____.
a. objectivity c. perspective
b. introspection d. subjectivity

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Soma and Biresh are debating about the best places to live after college. Soma states that the Northeast offers a healthier lifestyle than the Southwest and insists that she is basing her conclusions on facts, without any influence of personal emotion or bias. In other words, Soma believes that she is showing ____.
a. subjectivity c. objectivity
b. neutrality d. perspective

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Deena, a licensed practical nurse, is assisting a psychology professor with a research study on the physiological and psychological reactions to violence in blockbuster films. After a participant views a film clip, she administers some basic tests. Which of the following is the most subjective result?
a. The participant’s blood pressure is 140/90.
b. The participant describes the level of film violence as 8 on a scale of 0 to 10.
c. The participant’s heart rate is 75.
d. The participant has perspiration on her brow and her pupils are dilated.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Any observation by a human being is, by definition, ____.
a. objective c. inferential
b. falsifiable d. subjective

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is a research design that controls for placebo effects in which neither the participant nor the experimenter observing the participant knows whether the participant was given an active substance or treatment, or a placebo?
a. clinical trial c. double-blind procedure
b. Phase IV trial d. prospective cohort study

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. An inactive substance or treatment that cannot be distinguished from a real, active substance or treatment is called a ____.
a. measure c. variable
b. placebo d. sample

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Mayra is participating in a double-blind study on the effectiveness of a new time-release antidepressant medication. Once a week, she receives a small white pill from Dr. Stanley, which she takes immediately. The first “blind” aspect of this study is that ____.
a. Dr. Stanley does not know if Mayra is being given a real substance or placebo until the experiment is over
b. Mayra does not know the purpose of the study
c. Dr. Stanley does not know the purpose of the study
d. Mayra does not know whether she has taken a real substance or a placebo

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. When we make conclusions based on observations of our immediate circle of acquaintances, friends and loved ones, we are engaging in ____.
a. systematic observations c. interpreted observations
b. repeated observations d. hit or miss observations

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Emily grew up in Boston and attends college there. She often notices clusters of people smoking outside of office buildings as she walks to class. Which of the following sources would provide the most reliable information regarding the prevalence of smoking in Boston?
a. A detailed personal study of the history of her extended family
b. Interviews with her classmates and professors
c. A review of her professor’s behavioral statistics study drawn from census data
d. Observations of campus fraternity and sorority life

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Researchers found that “the widespread and highly publicized stereotype about female talkativeness is unfounded” (Mehl, Vazire, Ramírez-Esparza, Slatcher, & Pennebaker, 2007). This conclusion illustrates that science relies primarily on ____.
a. strongly held beliefs c. observable, repeatable evidence
b. clinically conducted tests d. laboratory experiments

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. According to your text, which of the following best describes scientific knowledge?
a. historical and progressive c. qualitative and definitive
b. stable and changing d. quantitative and procedural

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. The ability to think clearly, rationally, and independently is called ____.
a. moral reasoning c. free thinking
b. authoritative reasoning d. critical thinking

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Critical thinking is ____.
a. a skill people need to learn c. genetically determined
b. set before the teenage years d. based on cultural norms

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Which of the following questions demonstrates critical thinking?
a. What is your immediate reaction to this information?
b. What political party is expressing this point of view?
c. What evidence supports this position?
d. What did the professor give as the answer?

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. You and your roommate are supporting different presidential candidates. You frequently debate the claims that each candidate makes against the other on various issues. Which of the following would be a sign that you are not thinking critically?
a. You question what you are being asked to believe by either candidate.
b. You think of alternative ways to interpret the claims of either candidate.
c. You consider the need for additional evidence or information to assess the claims of either candidate.
d. You are loyal to your candidate and defend the claims with evidence provided by the campaign.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

  1. The news headline, “Recession Spurs Young in U.S. to Forgo or Delay Marriage,” described ____.
a. a study that found a causal link between the U. S. recession and the decisions of young adults to marry
b. census data that indicated poverty was a primary cause of decreased marriage rates
c. data that could have been explained by the trend for Americans to marry at later ages
d. a study of historical data on marriage rates

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. A set of facts and relationships between facts that can explain and predict related phenomena is called a(n) ____.
a. theory c. descriptive method
b. hypothesis d. experiment

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The best scientific theories not only explain and organize known facts, but they also generate new ____.
a. guesses c. hunches
b. predictions d. particulars

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. As Sir Isaac Newton noted, scholars stand ____.
a. on shifting sands
b. beneath the tree of knowledge
c. on the shoulders of giants
d. at the intersection of history and knowledge

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. A proposed explanation for a situation, usually taking the form “if A happens then B will be the result” is called a(n) ____.
a. theory c. experiment
b. research proposal d. hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Scientific hypotheses must be both ____.
a. falsifiable and testable c. falsifiable and reliable
b. valid and replicable d. valid and testable

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Falsifiable is a characteristic of a scientific hypothesis in which ____.
a. the hypothesis is predicted to be wrong from the outset
b. you can imagine situations in which the hypothesis might be false
c. you can imagine situations in which the hypothesis cannot be false
d. the hypothesis is not testable

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following statements would be most difficult to falsify?
a. All swans are white. c. All men are mortal.
b. All women are immortal. d. All birds fly.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What feature of a hypothesis means that it can be evaluated using known scientific methods?
a. replicable c. reliable
b. testable d. valid

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. How frequently can scientists prove that their hypotheses are true?
a. never c. sometimes
b. always d. often

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Jeanine, a research psychologist, has developed a falsifiable and testable hypothesis. Her next step is to ____.
a. interpret the data necessary to evaluate it
b. conduct the statistical analysis
c. undergo peer review of her hypothesis
d. collect the data necessary to evaluate it

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Arthur has developed a hypothesis and now is designing a study to test it. Which of the following can provide the best guidance regarding his choice of measures, types of data to be collected, and methods for interpreting the data?
a. Hypotheses from other, similar studies
b. The scientific literature in his area of interest
c. The independent variables used in his previous study
d. His personal observations during the development phase

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

  1. Professor Frankel is an editor for a psychology journal. She is considering which submissions to send out for peer review. Which of the following submissions is likely to receive the strongest consideration based on its research methods?
a. A professor from Utah who used well-established methods
b. A researcher from California who developed novel methods
c. A professor from Illinois who employed rarely-used methods
d. A postdoctoral fellow from Texas who used a controversial method

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Science is best described as a(n) ____ enterprise.
a. socialist c. hierarchical
b. vastly collaborative d. solitary

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The process of having other experts examine research prior to its publication is called ____.
a. quality assurance c. peer review
b. jury evaluation d. validation

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Keith feels that the results of his research study in autism among the elderly is finally ready for submission to a journal. For the journal editor to recommend his article for publication, what must the peer reviewers conclude?
a. His research is important, accurate, and explained thoroughly.
b. His methods are novel and could contribute to the field.
c. His statistical analysis is cutting edge.
d. His findings are the first of their kind and therefore replicable.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. During the peer review process, whose work is most likely to be accepted rapidly into the body of scientific knowledge?
a. Dr. Gupta’s, whose research led to unexpected and unique results
b. Dr. Koch’s, whose results fit with existing knowledge in her field
c. Dr. Anton’s, who used novel research methods and produced unconventional findings
d. Dr. Dunn’s, whose results are unreplicated in previous reports in his field

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Dr. Snape was skeptical after reading a study concluding that chocolate truffles reduced the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Therefore, he initiated a similar study to determine whether he would achieve the same results. Dr. Snape’s study would be termed a ____.
a. statistical sampling c. regressive analysis
b. validity test d. replication

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Science?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Research methods designed for making careful, systematic observations are called ____.
a. correlational methods c. experimental methods
b. inferential methods d. descriptive methods

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Which of the following lends itself to the use of a descriptive method?
a. Daniel seeks to test his hypothesis that stress in early childhood is positively related to heart disease in adulthood.
b. Bina would like to find whether there is a correlation between stress in early childhood and learning difficulties in school.
c. Jonathan would like to develop a hypothesis regarding the role of parental expression of affection in reducing toxic stress in early childhood.
d. Heather is conducting data analysis regarding health disparities and depression among children from different socio-economic and racial groups.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Dr. Crane is studying patients who are in the residual phase of schizophrenia. His colleague, Dr. Mellus, takes detailed notes during a series of interviews and interactions that Dr. Crane has with one such patient for later analysis. What research method are these doctors employing?
a. experimental study c. correlational study
b. case study d. experiential study

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Professor Scott conducts research on teenage risk-taking behavior. He would like to develop a hypothesis on the parental influence on teenage risk-taking at the extreme end of the spectrum, with a focus on teenagers who sail around the world alone. Would a case study be an appropriate first step, and why or why not?
a. Yes, because Professor Scott already knows that parents are the driving influence behind teenage circumnavigation.
b. No, because it will not generate a sufficient amount of data to be tested statistically.
c. Yes, because teenage circumnavigators are rare and the data will help generate new, or possibly falsify existing, hypotheses.
d. No, because case studies are too idiosyncratic and lack scientific rigor.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. You decide to study weekend dorm life for a sociology term paper. In order to do this, you attend several fraternity parties at a large university, week after week. What method of research are you employing?
a. case study c. survey
b. naturalistic observation d. experiential observation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

 

 

  1. What is one advantage of using naturalistic observation over the case study method?
a. Looking at a much larger group supports application of the results to the general population.
b. Observing individuals in their natural setting without their knowledge is the most accepted form of research.
c. Observing individuals outside of their everyday circumstances encourages candor.
d. Looking at a much larger group supports hypothesis testing as well as hypothesis generation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Seth, a psychologist, would like to conduct research in the form of naturalistic observation of drug sales and use among teenagers in his city’s poorest neighborhood without their knowledge. What problem does this raise?
a. The research may be unethical.
b. People often behave differently when they know they are being observed.
c. His sample is insufficiently representative for naturalistic observation.
d. Study participants tend to want to appear socially appropriate.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Naturalistic observation is best suited for ____.
a. testing hypotheses
b. establishing a correlation between two concepts
c. developing hypotheses
d. establishing whether the relationship between two concepts is positive or negative

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. A survey is a descriptive method in which the participants are asked ____.
a. open-ended questions
b. to journal their own thoughts
c. the same questions
d. to converse with other survey members

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of survey research?
a. Survey participants are easy to recruit since the typical sample is small.
b. Survey participants are more likely to be truthful than participants of other research methods.
c. Surveys provide insight into real-world behaviors in their natural setting.
d. Surveys provide large amounts of data quickly and relatively inexpensively.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

 

 

 

  1. A subset of a population being studied is called a ____.
a. sample c. demographic
b. cohort d. cluster

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Surveys results can be influenced by people’s natural tendency to want to appear socially appropriate because surveys rely on ____.
a. later publication c. peer review
b. public funding d. self-report

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. Participants in the following surveys are guaranteed that their answers will remain confidential and anonymous. In which case are survey respondents least likely to shade the truth?
a. A survey regarding personal displays of racial prejudice
b. A survey regarding sexual infidelity
c. A survey regarding preferences as to online news sources
d. A survey regarding the purchase, sale, or use of illegal drugs

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. The text described a survey that asked a representative sample of middle school students to respond to seventeen motives for playing violent video games on a four-point scale. Surprisingly, approximately 25% of boys indicated that they liked to play these games in order to ____.
a. make new friends c. feel less bored
b. help get their anger out d. teach others to play

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO3

 

  1. A measure of the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables is called ____.
a. statistical power c. standard deviation
b. its distribution d. a correlation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A factor that has a range of values is called a ____.
a. measure c. set
b. variable d. parameter

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A measure is a method for describing a variable’s ____.
a. quantity c. fluctuation
b. reliability d. deviation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A newspaper headline states “Autism correlation to wealth affirmed.” Researchers found that affluent youngsters were almost twice as likely as the poorest children in the study to have autism. This is a ____.
a. positive correlation c. negative correlation
b. reciprocal correlation d. zero correlation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A correlational study found that affluent youngsters were almost twice as likely as the poorest children in the study to have autism. What is the likely reason?
a. Autism and the traits of high achievers lie on the same continuum.
b. The reason is impossible to determine from this correlation.
c. Wealthier parents tend to put off child-bearing until they’re older, which increases the risk of autism.
d. Poorer children have less access to diagnosis and services for autism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Consider the following relationships between two variables. Which pair is most likely to have the weakest correlation?
a. hair color and intelligence c. salary and educational level
b. height and weight d. age and verbal ability up to age 20

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Consider the observation that many school shootings have been perpetrated by people who had been bullied relentlessly by others. What is the third variable in this scenario?
a. The school shootings
b. The experience of having been bullied
c. The tendency to engage in aggressive behavior
d. The permissiveness of the environment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. In his study of American cities, Professor Smith finds a strong positive correlation between the number of preschools and the number of bars. What is the most likely explanation of this relationship?
a. Parents of small children need to take an occasional break.
b. The relationship is due to a third variable, population size.
c. The relationship is due to a third variable, socio-economic status.
d. People who regularly frequent bars often meet their life partner and procreate.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

 

 

  1. A newspaper headline reads “Are intellectual pursuits key to preventing Alzheimer’s disease?” The researchers in the cited study scanned the brains of healthy seniors with no memory loss and asked the seniors to recall how much reading, writing, and game-playing they did in their childhood. The researchers found that those who reported doing daily brain activities from a young age had very low levels of amyloid plaques, which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Which of the following best describes this study?
a. This study found a positive correlation between intellectual pursuits and the presence of amyloid plaques.
b. This study controlled for all potential third variables.
c. This study is proof that intellectual pursuits prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
d. This study found a negative correlation between intellectual pursuits and the presence of amyloid plaques.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Which of the following is the most appropriate research method for studying the effects of moderate to heavy parental smoking on infants from birth to one year old?
a. experimental study c. correlational study
b. naturalistic observation d. case study

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. In their study, Anderson and Dill found that the physical aggression score was positively correlated with long-term exposure to video game violence and with the amount of recently recorded playing time. Based on these results, we know that ____.
a. having an aggressive personality leads to spending more time playing violent video games
b. a third variable contributes to both physical aggression and choice of violent video games
c. playing violent video games leads to more physical aggression
d. it is possible that both relationships are true: an aggressive personality may lead to more video game time or playing violent video games may lead to more aggression

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A research method that tests hypotheses and allows researchers to make conclusions about causality is called a(n) ____.
a. case study c. descriptive method
b. experiment d. correlational study

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. In an experimental study on the effects of sleep deprivation on depression, the number of hours that a participant stays awake is represented by the ____.
a. random variable c. dependent variable
b. independent variable d. control variable

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

 

  1. An experimental study focuses on the effects that the amount of exercise has on the number of calories consumed per day. The number of calories that a participant consumes is represented by the ____.
a. independent variable c. continuous variable
b. confounding variable d. dependent variable

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A group that experiences all experimental procedures with the exception of exposure to the independent variable is called a ____.
a. control group c. variable group
b. random group d. dynamic group

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A group of participants that is exposed to the independent variable is called a(n) ____.
a. control group c. random group
b. experimental group d. non-experimental group

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Random assignment is the procedure in which each participant’s chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment is ____.
a. dependent on their relevant personal qualities
b. hypothetical
c. equal
d. dependent on the size of the control group

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A variable that is irrelevant to the hypothesis being tested and can alter a researcher’s conclusions is called a(n) ____.
a. confounding variable c. dependent variable
b. independent variable d. third variable

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Participants in an experiment on stress management are given stress reduction techniques and then measured for the effect. What is the role of the control group in this experiment?
a. They receive no techniques, and they are not measured.
b. They receive a random technique.
c. They receive no techniques at all, but they are measured.
d. They receive the same techniques as the experimental group, and they are measured.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

 

 

 

  1. Dr. Segal is testing the hypothesis that television watching in children under the age of two enhances the development of language skills. In her study, the randomization process ____.
a. ensures that the dependent variable reflects the personal qualities of the participants
b. addresses situational confounding variables, such as the time of day or weather conditions
c. ensures that the independent variable reflects the outcomes of the dependent variables
d. tends to cancel out individual differences among participants in the experimental group and the control group

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Dr. Segal is studying the effects of television watching on the language development of children under the age of two. Because of room scheduling issues, the children in the experimental group underwent testing in the morning and the children in the control group underwent testing in the afternoon. This is a ____.
a. random assignment
b. situational confounding factor
c. confounding factor due to individual differences
d. randomization error

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. A limitation of the experimental method is that ____.
a. participants know that they are in a research study and may vary their behavior accordingly
b. causation cannot be established
c. the results are rarely accepted by scientific peers
d. experiments involving fear, panic, and stress may be so realistic that participants are harmed

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Defining variables in practical terms is called ____.
a. regression c. operationalization
b. validity d. variability

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. In Dr. Segal’s study of the effects of television watching on the language development of children under the age of two, which of the following would you recommend to operationalize the dependent variable?
a. The cumulative amount of time spent watching television during the study
b. A count of the number of words each child knows at the end of the study
c. The amount of time per session spent watching television
d. A count of the number of words each child knows at the beginning and end of the study

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

 

 

  1. A statistical analysis of many previous experiments on a single topic is called a ____.
a. meta-analysis c. deviation analysis
b. modal analysis d. regression analysis

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. Conducting a meta-analysis often provides a ____.
a. clearer picture of a phenomenon than single experiments observed in isolation
b. narrow view of a phenomenon
c. random sampling of a phenomenon
d. less discrete picture of a phenomenon than that of single experiments

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?                                OBJ:    LO4

 

  1. What is an experimental design for assessing age-related changes in which data are obtained simultaneously from people of differing ages?
a. longitudinal study c. cross-sectional study
b. mixed longitudinal study d. correlational study

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Study the Effects of Time?                         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. The cross-sectional method is subject to the generational effects of having been born at a particular point in history, which is called the ____.
a. generational correlation c. historical bias
b. cohort effect d. age-related differences

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Study the Effects of Time?                         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. An experimental design for assessing age-related changes in which data are obtained from the same individuals at intervals over a long period is called a ____.
a. cross-sectional study c. correlational study
b. longitudinal study d. mixed longitudinal study

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Study the Effects of Time?                         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which of the following is a drawback of longitudinal studies?
a. They are subject to cohort effects.
b. They cannot be used to discuss causality.
c. Participants may drop out of the study over time.
d. They have limited generalizability.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Study the Effects of Time?                         OBJ:   LO5

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A method for assessing age-related changes that combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches by observing a cross-section of participants over a relatively limited period of time is called a ____.
a. mixed longitudinal study c. cohort study
b. longitudinal study d. limited longitudinal study

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Study the Effects of Time?                         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. A quality of a measure that leads to valid conclusions (i.e., the measure measures the concept it was designed to measure) is called ____.
a. reliability c. statistical significance
b. variability d. validity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO6

 

  1. The SAT II single subject achievement test shows the highest positive correlation with first-year college grades compared to both the SAT I aptitude test and high school grade point average. This indicates that of the three tests, it is the most ____.
a. valid c. reliable
b. generalizable d. operational

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO6

 

  1. The consistency of a measure, including test-retest, inter-rater, inter-method, and internal consistency, is called ____.
a. significance c. validity
b. reliability d. testability

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO6

 

  1. Tomoko is developing a survey regarding anger management. Respondents rate their level of agreement with each item on a scale of one to five. Item 4 states: “Given enough provocation, I may swear at a friend or family member.” Item 12 states: “I can think of no good reason for ever swearing at a friend or family member.” These questions seek to determine ____.
a. inter-rater consistency c. inter-method consistency
b. internal consistency d. test-retest consistency

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO6

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. A measure cannot be reliable without being valid.
b. Numerical measures are rarely valid.
c. A measure cannot be valid without being reliable.
d. Numerical measures are always reliable.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO6

 

 

  1. Statistical methods that organize data into meaningful patterns and summaries, such as finding the average value, are called ____.
a. inferential statistics c. descriptive statistics
b. measures d. modes

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Callie has gathered extensive data regarding the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers in five U.S. cities, including their annual income. She arranges the data from low to high and notes how many workers are in each category using a histogram. This is called a ____.
a. standard deviation c. normal distribution
b. frequency distribution d. median

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. The mean, median, and mode are all measures of a data set’s ____.
a. frequency distribution c. variability
b. numerical average d. central tendency

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. The numerical average of a set of scores is the ____.
a. mean c. mode
b. median d. norm

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. The halfway mark in a set of data, with half of the scores above and half below, is the ____.
a. norm c. median
b. mode d. mean

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. The most frequently occurring score in a set of data is the ____.
a. mean c. median
b. norm d. mode

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Callie’s data set regarding the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers contains housing expenses. The average is surprisingly low, but then she realizes that many workers are live-in employees and report zero housing expense. A more useful measure of central tendency would be the ____.
a. median c. normal distribution
b. frequency d. mean

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Neil has gathered data regarding self-report of successful smoking cessation. He finds that one of the eight methods used by study participants accounts for a high proportion of the successes. The most useful measure of central tendency to report would be the ____.
a. distribution c. frequency
b. mode d. mean

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. In statistics, the extent to which scores differ from one another or from their mean; often measured using the standard deviation, is called ____.
a. variability c. distribution
b. frequency d. correlation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. A measure of how tightly clustered a group of scores is around their mean is called the ____.
a. variability c. standard deviation
b. mode d. frequency

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Using her data set regarding the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers, Callie has calculated the standard deviation of their housing expenses in two ways, with and without the workers who have zero housing expense. When she includes all workers, the standard deviation is ____.
a. smaller c. the same
b. larger d. scattered

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. A symmetrical probability function is called a ____.
a. standard deviation c. frequency distribution
b. cumulative distribution d. normal distribution

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. In the ideal normal curve, 95% of the population falls within ____.
a. one standard deviation of the mean c. three standard deviations of the mean
b. two standard deviations of the mean d. four standard deviations of the mean

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. To illustrate the relationship between two variables, one can use a ____.
a. normal curve c. scatter plot
b. histogram d. bar graph

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

 

  1. Which correlational coefficient represents the strongest relationship?
a. -.95 c. .75
b. -.75 d. 1.25

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Statistical methods that allow experimenters to extend conclusions from samples to larger populations are called ____.
a. descriptive statistics c. representative samples
b. probability distributions d. inferential statistics

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. A standard for deciding whether an observed result is due to chance is called ____.
a. randomization c. the null hypothesis
b. statistical significance d. reasonable doubt

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Like most sciences, psychology has accepted as a standard for statistical significance the odds of 5 out of 100 that an observed result is ____.
a. true c. due to chance
b. due to error d. false

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. Analysis of SAT test data shows that the differences on the mathematics portion of the SAT test between male and female test-takers are ____.
a. attributable to chance
b. precisely correlated with performance in college mathematics courses
c. unreliable
d. statistically significant

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

  1. One critique of Professor Bem’s recent study of extrasensory perception (ESP) is that ____.
a. he exposed undergraduates to erotic photographs without their consent
b. he changed his research methods in the middle of the experiment without explanation
c. he coerced students into participating by implying that he would lower their grades
d. he failed to compensate the students for their participation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Draw Conclusions From Data?                              OBJ:    LO7

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Researchers working in universities and other agencies must receive the approval of institutional review boards (IRBs) for human participant research and institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) before conducting research, ____.
a. if their institution receives federal funding
b. if their institution receives private funding
c. only if their research involves vulnerable populations
d. only if their research has a questionable purpose

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. At the core of ethical standards for human research is the idea that participation should involve ____.
a. positive experiences c. substantial compensation
b. no coercion d. minimization of pain and suffering

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. While people who volunteer to participate in research are probably quite different in important ways from those who don’t volunteer, most psychologists have chosen to prioritize ____.
a. the generalizability of research results over research ethics
b. validity over reliability
c. reliability over validity
d. research ethics over the generalizability of research results

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. In Callie’s study of the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers, which of the following would be the most reasonable form of compensation for each interviewee?
a. A cup of tea
b. An amount that approximates the domestic worker’s hourly rate
c. One hundred dollars for a one hour interview
d. Two bottles of wine

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. Permission obtained from a research participant after the risks and benefits of an experimental procedure have been thoroughly explained is called ____.
a. informed consent c. IRB approval
b. assumption of risk d. parental assent

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Noreen is a graduate student in psychology. She is designing a study regarding health care decision-making among teenagers. Which of the following research participants can legally provide his or her own informed consent?
a. An eighteen year old male with HIV/AIDS
b. A nineteen year old female with profound developmental disabilities
c. A seventeen year old female with chronic kidney disease
d. An eighteen year old male with schizophrenia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. Dr. Harmon has conducted a study of social networks and health within an isolated community. Which of the following would breach a research participant’s right to confidentiality?
a. The completed surveys are stored in a locked file cabinet to which only Dr. Harmon has access.
b. Dr. Harmon’s report avoids the use of identifying information.
c. As part of the study, Dr. Harmon reviewed each participant’s medical record.
d. Dr. Harmon stored the completed surveys and the key linking names and code numbers on his laptop, to which only he and his wife have the password.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. Dr. Harmon has conducted a study of social networks and health within an isolated community. Which of the following would breach a research participant’s right to privacy?
a. As part of the study, Dr. Harmon reviewed each participant’s medical record.
b. Dr. Harmon’s report contains some potentially identifiable information.
c. Dr. Harmon conducted his interviews at the health clinic in an examining room separated from the waiting room by a curtain.
d. Dr. Harmon stored the completed surveys and the key linking names and code numbers on his laptop, to which only he and his wife have the password.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. In the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, researchers from the U.S. Public Health Service ____.
a. studied the progression of syphilis in a group of African American men without providing diagnosis or treatment
b. poured bacteria on scrapes made on prisoners’ faces and arms to transmit syphilis for the purposes of study
c. hired syphilis-infected prostitutes to sleep with soldiers to study the progression of the disease
d. exposed prisoners, soldiers, and mental patients to syphilis and gonorrhea to test the effectiveness of penicillin

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Research using animals must demonstrate a(n) ____.
a. physical or financial benefit to humans
b. clear scientific purpose
c. clear benefit to other animals
d. absence of discomfort or invasive procedures

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

  1. According to the American Psychological Association’s guidelines, research animals ____.
a. may be euthanized in accordance with veterinary standards
b. must be provided with housing, food, and veterinary care until their natural end
c. may be killed only after individual review and certification of need
d. may not be killed

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Apply your critical thinking skills to the accompanying research study description. Use the five critical thinking questions provided in the text as a basis for your response.

 

What am I being asked to believe or accept?

What evidence supports this position?

Are there other ways this evidence could be interpreted?

What other evidence would I need to evaluate these alternatives?

What are the most reasonable conclusions?

 

A newspaper headline reads “Intellectual pursuits key to preventing Alzheimer’s disease?” The researchers scanned the brains of healthy seniors with no memory loss and asked the seniors to recall how much reading, writing, and game-playing they did when they were growing up. The researchers found that those who reported doing daily brain activities from a young age had very low levels of amyloid plaques, which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The study involved fewer than 100 participants and could not account for certain factors that may have confounded the results, including socio-economic factors, diet, and overall health behaviors that might also contribute to amyloid plaque formation and Alzheimer’s risk. It also asked participants, whose average age was 76, to recall how much reading, writing, and game-playing they did when they were in elementary school, high school, and as young adults.

 

 

ANS:

Answers will vary. Students should organize their answers around the five critical thinking questions in the text:

 

What am I being asked to believe or accept?

What evidence supports this position?

Are there other ways this evidence could be interpreted?

What other evidence would I need to evaluate these alternatives?

What are the most reasonable conclusions?

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is Science?, How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?

OBJ:   LO1 | LO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the basic structure of a research experiment. Include the definition and purpose of the hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, control group, experimental group, and random assignment.

 

ANS:

A researcher begins designing an experiment with a hypothesis, which can be viewed as a highly educated guess based on systematic observations, a review of previous research, or a scientific theory. A hypothesis takes this form: “If I do this, that will happen.” To test the hypothesis, the researcher manipulates or modifies one or more variables and observes changes in others. The variable controlled and manipulated by an experimenter (“If I do this . . . .”) is known as the independent variable. We need some way to evaluate the effects of this manipulation. We use a dependent variable, defined as the observed result of the manipulation of the independent variable, to tell us “that will happen” as a result of the independent variable. Like the independent variable, our choice of dependent variable is based on our original hypothesis.

 

In most experiments, we want to know how simply going through the procedures of being in an experiment influences our dependent variable. Perhaps the hassle of going to a laboratory and filling out paperwork changes our behavior. To evaluate these effects, we assign some of our participants to a control group, or a group that experiences all experimental procedures with the exception of exposure to the independent variable. The experience of the control group should be as similar as possible to that of the experimental groups, who do experience the independent variable.

 

We want to ensure that our dependent variables reflect the outcomes of our independent variables, instead of individual differences among the participants’ personalities, abilities, motivations, and other similar factors. To prevent these individual differences from masking or distorting the effects of our independent variable, we randomly assign participants to experimental or control groups. Random assignment means that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment. With random assignment, any differences we see between the behavior of one group and that of another is unlikely to be the result of the individual differences among the participants, which tend to cancel each other out.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Professor Wyler has obtained a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to study the effects of violence in film on attitudes towards aggression among teenagers. He would like to study the effects in a range of socio-economic settings, from impoverished to very wealthy communities. Should he obtain approval from his institutional review board? Why or why not? Discuss potential ethical issues that he should consider related to research in an impoverished community.

 

ANS:

Professor Wyler needs approval of his institutional review board because his university receives federal funding. He must assure that participation is voluntary; for example, any incentives should be at an appropriate level that does not make it difficult to decline to participate. Each participant must provide informed consent. Consent forms should be written in plain language. Depending on age and literacy levels, there may be some difficulty in reading consent forms. Assistance may need to be provided. Teenagers age 18 and above likely can consent for themselves. Younger teenagers would need parental consent as well as their own. Professor Wyler must take care that the content of the films cannot do harm to the participants. He must plan for protection of the participants’ privacy during the study and for protection of the confidentiality of their data. Students may raise other issues.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   Research Ethics

OBJ:   LO8

 

Chapter Sixteen: The Healthy Mind – Stress and Coping, Health Psychology, and Positive Psychology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Stress is defined as an unpleasant emotional state that results from ____.
a. exposure to an evolutionary trigger
b. overstimulation of the hippocampus
c. the release of the neurotransmitter serotonin
d. the perception of danger

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is a stressor?
a. A byproduct of stress
b. A stimulus that serves as a source of stress
c. A negative life event that causes physical illness or psychological disorder
d. Any event that generates a statistically uniform response among a general population

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Which expression best illustrates the idiosyncratic nature of stress?
a. “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.”
b. “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.”
c. “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.”
d. “A penny saved is a penny earned.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
a. Walter Cannon’s three-stage model for homeostasis
b. B.B. Skinner’s three-stage model for learned behaviors through operant conditioning
c. Hans Selye’s three-stage model for an organism’s response to stressors
d. Albert Bandura’s three-stage model for the development of aggression in children

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
a. resistance c. exhaustion
b. an alarm reaction d. heightened confusion

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Who appears to be in the resistance stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
a. Jorge, who had a near miss as he merged onto the highway and is breathing rapidly, but feels very alert and focused
b. Henry, who has been caring for his disabled wife for over two years, and is having feelings of hopelessness and difficulties sleeping and eating
c. Esther, who has just noticed the man she has long admired from afar is walking straight towards her at a party, and feels her heart pound and hands become sweaty
d. Alana, who has been juggling her classes, job, and partial care of her younger siblings, and has recently made an unusually poor choice of a boyfriend

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Who appears to be in the exhaustion stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
a. Henry, who has been caring for his disabled wife for over two years, and is having feelings of hopelessness and difficulties sleeping and eating
b. Alana, who has been juggling her classes, job, and partial care of her younger siblings, and has recently made an unusually poor choice of boyfriend
c. Jorge, who had a near miss as he merged onto the highway and is breathing rapidly, but feels very alert and focused.
d. Esther, who has just noticed the man she has long admired from afar is walking straight towards her at a party, and feels her heart pound and hands become sweaty

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the second stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
a. Coping with ongoing stress
b. Sympathetic arousal and mental clarity
c. Alternation between periods of calm and periods of arousal
d. Depletion of physical and psychological resources

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Stella, who notices that a man is walking behind her as she returns to her dormitory at night, quickly assesses the situation to determine if there might be any danger. She realizes with relief that it is someone she knows from class. She is using a(n) ____
a. standard appraisal model c. cognitive appraisal model
b. emotion-based appraisal model d. introspective appraisal model

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The text refers to a study (Pietrzak, Goldstein, Southwick, and Grant,  2011) that asked participants with and without post-traumatic stress disorder to identify the “worst trauma they had ever experienced.” Based on this study, who is most likely to have had PTSD?
a. Nathan, who watched many hours of television coverage of the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center
b. Ashley, who helped care for her mother during her final stages of cancer
c. Luis, whose brother was in a near fatal car accident
d. Jessica, who was sexually assaulted in a parking garage at night

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. As preschoolers, the children born to the women who were diagnosed with both PTSD and depression following the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center showed evidence of higher reactivity to stimuli and more aggressive behavior than did children of terrorism-exposed mothers who did not develop these disorders. What is the likely source?
a. The ability of cortisol and other stress hormones to cross the placenta
b. Learned behaviors based on the observation of PTSD symptoms in others
c. Operant conditioning that rewarded such behaviors among these families
d. The inhibition of serotonin and dopamine during brain development

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Three weeks after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, prevalence of PTSD among children in Sri Lanka ranged between 14% and 39% and could be predicted by variables such as family loss and severity of exposure. This finding indicates that ____.
a. children in Sri Lanka were below the norm of expected levels of PTSD
b. children are particularly susceptible to stress and PTSD
c. tsunamis are far more of a source of PTSD for children than being injured in an automobile accident
d. tsunamis are far less of a source of PTSD for children than being injured in an automobile accident

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. The Holmes and Rahe scales have been used to predict vulnerability to physical illness and psychological disorder due to different stressors that are ____.
a. negative life events c. negative and positive changes in life
b. natural and political disasters d. the result of the actions of others

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember     REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Jeanette is having one of those days. She spilled her coffee all over her research materials for her final paper, she is running late for a meeting with her professor about the paper, and she needs to be at the airport soon for a flight to her best friend’s wedding. These events ____.
a. are considered to be too minor to cause psychological stress
b. could have the cumulative impact of a major life event
c. are likely to cause the same level of psychological stress for all of us
d. are considered simply to be the hassles of everyday life

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Is Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. While hiking with a friend in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, Lenny comes face-to-face with a young bear on the trail. Lenny rapidly enters the first stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome. His brainstem initiates the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which increases his vigilance and fear. This is part of his ____.
a. cognitive response c. emotional response
b. behavioral response d. physical response

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. When Lenny came face-to-face with a young bear while hiking in the Sierra Nevada mountains, sensory input traveled to his cerebral cortex and to his amygdala. In what order was the sensory input initiated?
a. first the cerebral cortex, and then the amygdala
b. simultaneously
c. first the cerebral cortex, and then if a certain threshold was reached, the amygdala
d. first the amygdala, and then the cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Lloyd, who was watching television in his apartment late at night, heard a door creak and his heart started to pound before he even realized what was happening. What is the reason for this?
a. Sensory information can reach the cortex rapidly along routes that are separate from the pathways for information going to the amygdala.
b. Sensory information reaches the hypothalamus, which is responsible for our initial physical reaction, before the amygdala and cortex
c. Sensory information can reach the amygdala rapidly along routes that are separate from the pathways for information going to the cortex.
d. Sensory information can be transmitted incorrectly when the stimuli is not easily understood.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Once the amygdala has identified a stimulus as potentially dangerous, it communicates with the ____.
a. hypothalamus c. adrenal glands
b. hippocampus d. cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the circuit that responds to perceived stressors by initiating the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream?
a. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
b. general adaptation system
c. cortisol receptor network
d. sympathetic adrenal-medullary system

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Beth, while riding her bicycle down a city street, was nearly knocked into traffic by the abrupt opening of a parked car door. What did her hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do in response to the perceived stressor?
a. The hypothalamus communicated with the adrenal glands, which told the pituitary gland to release testosterone into the bloodstream.
b. The hypothalamus communicated with the pituitary gland, which told the adrenal glands to release cortisol into the bloodstream.
c. The hypothalamus communicated with the pituitary gland, which told the adrenal glands to release norepinephrine into the bloodstream.
d. The hypothalamus communicated with the adrenal glands, which told the pituitary gland to release adrenaline into the bloodstream.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is cortisol?
a. A neurotransmitter associated with learning and memory
b. A hormone released into the bloodstream from the pituitary gland
c. A hormone released into the bloodstream from the adrenal glands
d. A neurotransmitter associated with movement, reward, and pleasure

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Amber and her three-year-old daughter Madison are walking along the beach on a beautiful summer day. Suddenly Madison’s foot starts bleeding heavily after having stepped on a piece of glass in the sand. Amber tries to stop the bleeding with a t-shirt and hurries back towards the parking lot with Madison in her arms. What is the role of cortisol in this situation?
a. It boosts the energy available to Amber for dealing with a stressor.
b. It suppresses Madison’s pain response to the trauma.
c. It helps reduce the blood flow from Madison’s wound.
d. It triggers fight-or-flight responses in Amber, including a pounding heart and rapid breathing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. One of the possible outcomes of chronic stress is prolonged high levels of circulating cortisol. What harmful effects might result?
a. The death of neurons and the inhibition of neurogenesis
b. An increase in the activity of lymphocytes accompanied by acute pain
c. An enlarged hippocampus and the potential for bipolar disorder
d. A constant state of arousal with intermittent incidences of mania

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Normally, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is regulated by a feedback loop that reduces the release of cortisol. What is the order of signaling by which this reduction takes place?
a. Hypothalamus to pituitary gland to adrenal glands
b. Hypothalamus to hippocampus to adrenal glands
c. Hippocampus to pituitary gland to adrenal glands
d. Hippocampus to hypothalamus to adrenal glands

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. George has gone into a deep depression after the death of his wife, for whom he had provided daily care for over two years after her first stroke. What role might cortisol play?
a. Over-response of the hippocampus may have led to reduced cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with depression.
b. Under-response of the hippocampus may have led to reduced cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with depression.
c. Consistently elevated levels of cortisol due to stress can overwhelm the hippocampus’s feedback loop and lead to excess levels of cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with depression.
d. Erratic levels of cortisol due to stress can disrupt the hippocampus’s feedback loop and lead to erratic levels of cortisol in the bloodstream, which is associated with manic depression.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. Extreme stress can cause the hypothalamus to inhibit cortisol release.
b. Continued stress can damage the hippocampus.
c. Continued stress can damage the hypothalamus.
d. Extreme stress can cause the amygdala to inhibit cortisol release.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Which of the following rat pups were bolder (i.e., less stressed) than the others in the open field test (Francis, Diorio, Liu, & Meaney, 1999)?
a. The pups with a Low-LG mother fostered by a Hi-LG mother
b. The pups that were left undisturbed with their own Low-LG mothers
c. The pups that were removed and put back with their own Low-LG mothers
d. The pups with a Hi-LG mother fostered by a Low-LG mother

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. Stress resulting from maternal care provides no survival advantage.
b. Stress resulting from maternal care can increase survival.
c. Stress resulting from maternal care provides a survival advantage only in the animal kingdom.
d. Stress resulting from maternal care predisposes offspring to be less responsive to stressors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the response to stress that is possibly more characteristic of females and is associated with the release of oxytocin?
a. fight or flight c. the SAM system
b. low lick groom d. tend and befriend

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Having the long or short version of the gene related to serotonin function interacts with life stress to produce, among other things, different levels of activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, which can be associated with depression. This is an example of ____.
a. fight or flight response c. Epigenetics
b. emotion-focused coping d. Resistance

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?                 OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Very short-term bursts of stress can have a beneficial effect on many biological systems, including your body’s frontline defense against infection and cancer, ____.
a. the immune system c. the circulatory system
b. the nervous system d. the respiratory system

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Alicia is tired and stressed from working two jobs as a nurse’s aide. Under these circumstances, her immune system ____.
a. boosts its response
b. maintains a static state to conserve resources
c. does not perform well
d. directs its response to vulnerable areas

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Carson has been very stressed while pulling numerous all-nighters to complete his final exams and papers. He comes down with the flu the very next day after his last exam. What is a likely reason for his illness?
a. His stress hormones activated his lymphocytes.
b. His stress hormones suppressed the activity of his lymphocytes.
c. His anxiety level was not severe enough to trigger his lymphocytes.
d. His anxiety level was too severe to trigger his lymphocytes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

  1. Based on a meta-analysis of almost 300 studies and about 20,000 participants (Segerstrom & Miller, 2004), who is most likely to suffer the greatest suppression of his or her immune system?
a. Santiago, who lost his job as an associate in a law firm during the economic downturn
b. Andrew, whose wife fell in love with his best friend and initiated divorce proceedings
c. Edith, who is very stressed that she has not yet lost enough weight to fit into her wedding dress
d. Charlotte, who worries about how she is going to get all her class exams and papers graded by the posting deadline

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Wendy is an extremely competitive post-doctoral fellow in a cancer research laboratory. She works late each night and sometimes through the night. She is quick to anger at the college and graduate students assisting in the lab when she feels they are not meeting the lab’s high standards. Her personality is ____.
a. Type A c. Type C
b. Type B d. Type D

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Who is likely to have the greatest increase in risk of heart disease?
a. William, a Type B personality who spends much of the work day chatting with his colleagues
b. Carmen, a Type A personality who works close to 80 hours a week
c. Sarah, a Type B personality who never gets her work done on time
d. Fred, a Type A personality who is resentful and suspicious of his co-workers

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. How does stress affect the cardiovascular system?
a. It increases internal deposits that clog the arteries.
b. It causes the blood vessels to stiffen over time.
c. It decreases the ability of the blood vessels to expand when necessary.
d. It causes blood pressure to drop, which can lead to heart attacks or stroke.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. Disruptions of sleep due to stress are particularly hazardous to health.
b. Disruptions of sleep due to stress may mildly affect one’s mood.
c. Sleep quantity, but not quality, is associated with health and cognitive outcomes.
d. Sleep quality, but not quantity, is associated with health and cognitive outcomes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

  1. If Ethan experiences a big jolt of cortisol due to a stressor late in the evening, how will his sleep likely be affected?
a. He will sleep heavily and have difficulty waking up.
b. He likely will have difficulty falling asleep and may wake frequently during the night.
c. He will sleep lightly but soundly.
d. He will fall asleep promptly but may wake frequently during the night.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What was a finding in a study regarding the interaction of sleep and diet (Nedeltcheva, Kilkus, Imperial, Schoeller, and Penev, 2010)?
a. Participants who slept 8.5 hours per night lost about equal amounts of lean body mass and body fat.
b. Participants who slept 8.5 hours per night lost significantly less weight.
c. Participants who slept 5.5 hours per night lost significantly more body fat than lean body mass.
d. Participants who slept 5.5 hours per night lost significantly less weight.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Research indicates that some people experiencing substantial stress enjoy good health, while others suffer from its harmful effects. How does the text suggest we reconcile these results?
a. Consider the interactions between an individual’s genes and experience during childhood.
b. Analyze personal experiences at micro and macro levels.
c. Study the intersection of nature and nurture within the family context.
d. Look at the whole person within his or her environment over the entire life span.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The text presents an interactive view of stress and health based on a study (Juster, McEwen, and Lupien, 2010). Which of the following pairs correctly matches a system and a component within it?
a. microsystem and individual c. exosystem and economic systems
b. mesosystem and social networks d. macrosystem and culture

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Stress Affect Our Health?                              OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. People rarely adapt to stress over time.
b. Stress is inevitable.
c. Most people would rather have their stresses of today than those of five years ago.
d. There is little we can actively do about stress except to endure it.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In a study at Stanford University (Walton & Cohen, 2011), what was the result of a one-time treatment that framed the stress of fitting into the college experience as common and limited in duration?
a. It significantly improved the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of European American students at Stanford University three years later.
b. It significantly reduced the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of just European American students at Stanford University three years later.
c. It significantly improved the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of African American students at Stanford University three years later.
d. It significantly reduced the grade point averages (GPAs), happiness ratings, and health of African American students at Stanford University three years later.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Ellie, a sophomore in college, is feeling very stressed about keeping up with her coursework, part-time job, extracurricular activities, social scene, and friends and family at home. What is the first step she should take?
a. Delay communicating with people at home until exams are over.
b. Visit an animal or homeless shelter to work as a volunteer.
c. Add a rigorous exercise program to her daily activities.
d. Consider whether any stressors can be eliminated.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Juan received a challenging health diagnosis. He responded by educating himself about his health condition and participating fully in decisions about his treatment. What major variable that predicts our response to stress does this exemplify?
a. A sense of control c. Spirituality
b. Underlying physical fitness d. Social connectedness and support

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Viktor Frankl, a Holocaust survivor, recommends that people cope with unforeseen disasters by asking what question?
a. “Why did this disaster happen to me?”
b. “How can I face this disaster with courage and responsibility?”
c. “How can I avoid this in the future?”
d. “What can I do to accept my destiny in life?”

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Which form of exercise appears to be especially helpful in stress management?
a. weight training c. gardening
b. yoga d. regular aerobic exercise

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following best explains why people living in lower income neighborhoods often experience more stress and have higher rates of depression?
a. social disconnection c. fewer companion animals
b. inadequate aerobic exercise d. less religious involvement

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Elizabeth’s boss removes her from a project team working on an important presentation because of repeated tardiness. Her response is to leave the office immediately and drown her sorrows by eating a pint of her favorite ice cream. This is an example of ____.
a. negative problem-focused coping c. positive problem-focused coping
b. positive relationship-focused coping d. negative relationship-focused coping

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Elizabeth’s boss removes her from a project team working on an important presentation because of repeated tardiness. Elizabeth schedules a meeting to discuss with him why it was difficult for her to get to meetings on time. He agrees to schedule the meetings at times that coincide with her bus schedule. This is an example of ____.
a. positive relationship-focused coping c. negative problem-focused coping
b. positive problem-focused coping d. negative relationship-focused coping

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Caleb feels very discouraged upon learning that he had been cut from the varsity football team and now will play with the junior varsity. Which of the following would be the most positive emotion-focused coping response?
a. He has several beers with his friends who do not play football.
b. He takes a brisk run until he is completely exhausted.
c. He contemplates life by himself, at home, with a bottle of wine.
d. He and a friend go to see a comedy at the movie theater.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. During the year preceding his parents’ divorce, Kevin found himself frequently arguing with his father. Now when he visits his father, Kevin tries to engage him in conversations about their favorite sports teams. This is an example of ____.
a. positive problem-focused coping c. positive relationship-focused coping
b. negative relationship-focused coping d. negative problem-focused coping

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Lucas is someone who would score high on the Big Five trait of neuroticism. When dealing with interpersonal stress, with whom would he be most likely to use a positive relationship-focused coping method, such as empathy?
a. his brother c. his barista
b. his best friend d. his girlfriend

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

  1. How does the text define resilience?
a. The ability to adapt to life’s challenges in positive ways
b. The ability to view stressors as challenges and maintain a sense of control
c. The ability to ignore feelings of sadness and stress and focus on the future
d. The ability to maintain a positive mood despite difficult circumstances

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Hailey plans a family reunion at the lake and wants it to be perfect. With over fifty people attending, though, things do not go exactly according to plan and Hailey is highly stressed all day. Which of the following would most help Hailey reduce her stress levels for future events?
a. Avoid commitments of this type. c. Delegate the responsibilities.
b. Be flexible with new situations. d. Prepare a schedule for all guests.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Some psychologists refer to individual differences in the ability to cope with stress as resulting from a personality trait of hardiness. Which aspect of hardiness reflects seeing the world as interesting and seeking involvement rather than withdrawal?
a. control c. Challenge
b. commitment d. Compassion

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. In a study among college students (Hystad et al., 2009), the trait of hardiness ____.
a. was positively correlated with grades
b. was negatively correlated with grades
c. was positively correlated with health complaints within the high academic stress group
d. was negatively correlated with health complaints within the high academic stress group

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Can We Cope Effectively With Stress?                   OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. What is the branch of psychology that investigates the relationships between psychological variables and health?
a. positive psychology c. clinical psychology
b. biopsychology d. health psychology

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In the biopsychosocial model of health, which of the following factors are within the “bio” portion of the model?
a. lifestyle, stress, and health beliefs c. genetics, infection, and injury
b. culture, family, and social support d. political, legal, and economic systems

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In 1948, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the following definition of health: “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being ____.”
a. and the absence of communicable disease
b. and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
c. for men, women, and children of all races and creeds
d. with health care for all

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. The significant causes of health burdens in the United States have been evolving. As described in the text, in what order has this shifted over the past one hundred years?
a. age-related conditions – non-communicable diseases – communicable diseases
b. non-communicable diseases – communicable diseases – age-related conditions
c. communicable diseases – age-related conditions – non-communicable diseases
d. communicable diseases – non-communicable diseases – age-related conditions

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. What is the common link between the lack of exercise and developing heart disease – and the lack of hand washing and developing the flu?
a. an infectious agent c. the behavioral component
b. the social component d. sleep disruptions

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In the Consumer Reports survey regarding everyday safety behaviors (Consumerreports.com, 2009), in which of the following categories did participants report the highest percentage of safe behavior?
a. Clean the lint trap in the dryer after each use.
b. Wear a bike helmet.
c. Have a rubber mat in the shower.
d. Have a carbon monoxide detector in the home.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Molly, a college student, has never smoked, jogs about three miles per day, and, while not a vegetarian, emphasizes fruits and vegetables in her diet. What is the fourth health habit that would help her reduce her overall risk of chronic disease by 78%?
a. Avoiding alcohol use
b. Engaging in stress reduction techniques such as meditation
c. Maintaining a non-obese weight
d. Sleeping between 7.0 and 8.5 hours per night

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which of the following is considered to be the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and directly responsible for one out of five deaths each year?
a. alcohol consumption c. inadequate nutrition
b. cigarette smoking d. insufficient exercise

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In which country does the highest percentage of the world’s smokers live?
a. United States c. China
b. India d. France

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In the United States, which of the following persons is most likely to smoke?
a. Matthew, who is Asian American, has a law degree, and works as a patent lawyer in a large law firm
b. Lydia, who is of Irish and Italian descent, has an associate’s degree, and works as a certified nursing assistant in a nursing home
c. Paula, who is Mexican American, has a college degree, and is currently at home with their small children while her husband works long hours as a cardiologist
d. John, who is from a multi-racial background, has difficulty finding and keeping jobs, has not attended college, and is starting to show signs of paranoia

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the attraction of smoking?
a. Most tobacco users begin smoking in their mid-twenties as a way of feeling fully independent.
b. Nicotine has the ability to stimulate the dopamine reward circuits of the brain and to produce a particularly unpleasant set of withdrawal symptoms.
c. Young people who start smoking are usually trying to rebel and look “different” from their peers and family.
d. Nicotine has the ability to increase alertness temporarily without any side effects.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In the United States, tobacco use among people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses is ____.
a. less than half the level of use in the general population
b. more than three times as high as the use in the general population
c. about the same as the use in the general population
d. roughly double the use in the general population

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

  1. Blake is trying very hard to quit smoking but his friend Javier still smokes, often while they watch sports events together on the TV. Just the smell of Javier’s cigarette makes him crave a cigarette. What should he do?
a. End his friendship with Javier.
b. Avoid seeing Javier until he quits smoking as well.
c. Avoid situations where Javier will light a cigarette to avoid conditioned stimuli.
d. Try again later to quit smoking, when he and Javier are no longer spending so much time together.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Samantha meets with a counselor at her college health clinic to discuss ways to stop her smoking habit, which is up to a pack a day now. The counselor recommends basing her cessation program on the self-reference effect. In this approach, the counselor would ____.
a. refer her to a support group of like-minded people
b. combine use of a nicotine patch with acupuncture
c. recommend self-hypnosis
d. ask her questions regarding her daily routine, triggers for smoking, personal interests and stress reduction techniques, as well as potential obstacles to stopping

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Jenna has been smoking since she was 17 years old. She is now 26. If she quits before the age of 30, ____.
a. her life expectancy will be the same as for someone who has never smoked
b. her risk of lung cancer is cut in half
c. her risk of stroke is the same as for nonsmokers
d. her life expectancy will increase by 1.73 years

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Nutrition plays a significant part in overall physical development, including brain development, and is believed to be responsible for many differences in psychological and health outcomes ____.
a. related to socioeconomic status c. related to country of origin
b. between boys and girls d. on standardized tests

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In 1960, about 13% of American adults were obese (having a BMI greater than or equal to 30). In 2008, that number was about ____.
a. 18% c. 34%
b. 27% d. 50%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

  1. Which of the following is true regarding obesity?
a. Obesity increases the rates of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and breast and colon cancers.
b. The increase in obesity since 1960 is the result of an over-reliance on processed foods.
c. Under-nutrition and obesity cannot occur at the same time.
d. Maintaining a BMI above 30 is one of the four protective factors associated with much lower risk of disease.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Sarah is on a very limited budget. Her two kids want to go downtown for a snack. Where can she get “the most bang for the buck,” that is, the most filling snack for the least amount of money?
a. farmer’s market c. fast food restaurant
b. ice cream truck d. juice bar

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Kimberly learns that each of her three best friends has a BMI of 30 or greater, which means that they are obese. She herself is overweight, with a BMI of 27, but is not obese. Which of the following is true?
a. Her BMI suggests that she does not have a genetic predisposition towards obesity.
b. Her BMI places her at a 37% risk for morbid obesity.
c. Having obese friends is unrelated to her own weight level.
d. Having obese friends increases her risk of obesity by 57%.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010), more than half of the American adult public reported drinking alcohol in the last 30 days and five percent reported drinking heavily, which is defined as ____.
a. four drinks on a single occasion for women and five for men
b. more than three drinks per day of beer or wine or two drinks per day of hard liquor
c. more than one drink per day for women or two for men
d. more than two drinks per day for women or four for men

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Alcohol contributes to an enormous loss of potential years of life due to ____.
a. poor nutrition and obesity
b. automobile crashes, homicides, and suicides
c. liver damage and lung cancer
d. concurrent tobacco use and unsafe sex

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

  1. Jack has been drinking daily for many years. He finds that over time, he has had to increase the amount he drinks to feel the same buzz. This is an example of ____.
a. Abuse c. tolerance
b. dependence d. withdrawal

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding biology and alcohol use?
a. Genes related to the body’s ability to break down alcohol in the liver are distributed evenly across the world’s populations.
b. Native Americans have much higher rates of alcohol dependence than many other ethnic groups in the United States because they lack “protective” genes.
c. Certain types of genes found primarily in Europeans are correlated with higher rates of alcohol tolerance.
d. Certain types of genes found primarily in Asians are correlated with lower rates of alcohol dependence.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. According to a review published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, members of which of the following groups consistently outlive members of the other three groups, and are less likely to be hospitalized, less likely to be disabled, and less likely to miss work because of stress?
a. People who do not drink at all
b. People who drink less than one drink per week
c. People who drink one to two drinks per day
d. People who drink more than an average of one to two drinks per day

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Many studies indicate that some alcohol consumption can have positive health effects; however, there are a number of limitations to these studies. Which of the following is one of the problems cited by the text?
a. Most studies place previous drinkers in a separate category, which removes their health status from the calculation of mortality risk caused by drinking.
b. The health benefits are mostly related to the reduction of cancers, which may be offset by cardiovascular problems.
c. The studies are not true experiments in which people would be randomly assigned to drinking or nondrinking groups.
d. About 73% of the adult population falls into the heavy drinker category because the threshold of consumption is so low.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following teenagers appears to have the lowest risk for alcohol abuse?
a. Julian, who is anxious in social settings, particularly where girls are involved, and feels more confident while drinking
b. Audrey, who just moved to town and sees that the most popular kids drink together on weekends
c. Tommy, who enjoys risk-taking of all types and has an older brother who drinks a lot
d. Maya, whose parents emphasize good food, good conversation, and good wine, in moderation, at dinner time

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Treatment for very heavy drinkers often requires medical supervision because withdrawal from alcohol ____.
a. causes nausea and headaches c. may necessitate the use of restraints
b. can produce life-threatening seizures d. may lead to unconsciousness

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. For our hunter-gatherer ancestors to survive, physical activity was essential. Today, what do children and adults in the United States spend an average of 55% of their day doing?
a. reading c. sleeping
b. standing d. sitting

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Sitting predicts risk of death independently from a person’s level of exercise. Based on the average person who sits 55% of their day, how many in that group would have died after thirteen years of follow-up?
a. about 7% c. about 13%
b. about 9% d. about 19%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Oscar is 75 years old. His doctor has encouraged him to walk briskly each day in order to maintain or improve his cognitive performance. What is the most likely reason for this?
a. Exercise may boost neurogenesis, particularly in the amygdala.
b. Exercise may reduce excess “noise” in his neural activity.
c. A fit cardiovascular system may increase delivery of oxygen to the brain.
d. Brisk walking may prevent neural decay, particularly in the amygdala.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

  1. The United States, despite its high standard of living, ranks 36th among countries of the world in terms of life expectancy (United Nations, 2007). What does this suggest?
a. The major variable regarding life expectancy is related to poverty.
b. The variables for life expectancy are static across the world.
c. More money needs to be spent on health care.
d. Wealth alone is not sufficient to guarantee good health.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. In the United States, how does the life expectancy of Black Americans compare to the life expectancy of White Americans?
a. Blacks have a life expectancy of 4.6 years less than Whites.
b. Blacks have a life expectancy of 2.3 years more than Whites.
c. The life expectancies of Blacks and Whites are roughly equal.
d. The discrepancy in life expectancy between Blacks and Whites is increasing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Poverty, discrimination, and violence are among the possible variables that account for increased mental health problems among minorities in the United States. Which of the following statements is true in this regard?
a. Mental health researchers have focused almost exclusively on the experiences of minorities.
b. People living at the lowest levels of the socioeconomic scale experience two to three times greater rates of psychological disorder.
c. People living in poverty generally have adequate access to mental health services.
d. Minorities generally have lower rates of stress-related health problems and disorders than non-minorities because of the trait of hardiness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. There are many interactions among the variables of stress, sleep, nutrition, smoking, alcohol use, and exercise. Which of these behaviors are affected by our social context?
a. none of these c. smoking and alcohol use
b. nutrition and exercise d. all of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010b) is using an integrated model of health to address gaps in understanding about the relationships between social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and prior ____.
a. alcohol and drug use
b. diseases, disability, and social problems
c. risky health behaviors
d. childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Positive psychology is an approach to psychology that emphasizes ____.
a. forgiveness and sacrifice
b. the benefits of conflict avoidance
c. the reinforcement of moral actions
d. normal behavior and human strengths

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Who foreshadowed the development of positive psychology by considering what makes some people “healthy-minded” and others to have a “sick soul” in his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience?
a. Abraham Maslow c. William James
b. Mary Baker Eddy d. Aaron Beck

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which group encouraged the shift from the study of the abnormal and unhealthy in psychology to the study of outstanding individuals and self-actualization?
a. the humanists c. the behaviorists
b. the structuralists d. the functionalists

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Martin Seligman, whose experiments led to the theory of learned helplessness, also proposed that one can learn to ____.
a. inhibit the fight or flight response c. think positively about the future
b. apply problem-focused coping d. engage in tragic optimism

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. What is one of the ways in which positive psychology differs from humanism?
a. It emphasizes scientific reasoning and research.
b. It emphasizes trait theory and personality types.
c. It emphasizes stages of psychosexual development and defense mechanisms.
d. It emphasizes human growth and fulfillment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding happiness?
a. Happiness is most effectively improved by wealth and purchasing power.
b. Happiness is determined by a set point that rarely varies.
c. Happiness is easily enhanced and increased.
d. Happiness may increase or decrease due to changes in circumstances but the effect is temporary.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. What is a critical factor in people’s happiness that is consistent with the text’s emphasis on social context?
a. The interaction of nature and nurture
b. The strength of interpersonal relationships
c. The power of genetic predisposition
d. The importance of critical thinking

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. According to a study of over 42, 000 Americans beginning in 1972 (Davis, Smith, & Marsden, 2006), who is most likely to report being “very happy”?
a. Noah, age 28, who has been married for four years
b. James, age 37, who has not married
c. Michael, age 42, who is now divorced
d. Jacob, age 40, who has remarried after his divorce

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Who faces an especially high risk of premature death?
a. Grace, age 41, who has not married
b. Elias, age 43, who is married
c. Nicole, age 47, who is married
d. Adam, age 45, who has not married

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. What does research (Luo, Zhang, Watson, & Snider, 2010) indicate is the major source of marital happiness?
a. How you perceive your partner
b. How long you have been married
c. How you see yourself perceived by your partner
d. How happy you were before your marriage

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The relationship between happiness and wealth is largely undetermined.
b. Once basic needs are met, additional money does not guarantee happiness.
c. A low socioeconomic status is not correlated with unhappiness.
d. Great wealth is correlated with great happiness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Researchers found that happiness predicted bigger increases in income, while higher income did not predict increases in happiness. What was the basic explanation for the former?
a. Happy people form better relationships.
b. Happy people are better educated.
c. Happy people are more competent.
d. Happy people are healthier.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Results from the Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of all people on the planet, showed that social psychological “wealth” predicted ____.
a. global measures of life satisfaction
b. the presence of positive emotions like happiness
c. the respect a person receives
d. how people choose to spend their time

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of increasing happiness through living a “good life”?
a. Chris, whose favorite hobby is tasting different beers from U.S. microbreweries
b. Melanie, who has participated as a volunteer in the Big Sister program in her city for seven years
c. Linda, whose favorite way to spend a relaxing evening is knitting while watching TV
d. Jackson, who is an engineer by day and a talented guitarist in a bluegrass band on nights and weekends

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. What is one of the reasons that those who score highest on the “pleasant life,” without comparable scores on either the “good life” and/or the “meaningful life,” tend to be less happy (Seligman, 2002; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000)?
a. The sense of pleasure can always be improved or strengthened.
b. One’s sense of pleasure varies extensively over the life course.
c. The response to pleasure tends to be highly heritable.
d. High scores of all three require multitasking.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

 

 

  1. What is the term used to describe complete absorption in a current activity, such as work, problem solving, or creativity?
a. an altered state c. a high
b. the zone d. flow

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. When do people experience flow?
a. During activities that contribute to the pleasant life
b. Following activities that contribute to the meaningful life
c. During activities that contribute to the good life
d. Following activities that contribute to the good life

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Which of the following is most accurate regarding the trait of hope?
a. Hope is largely independent of motivation and planning.
b. Hopeful people withstand more pain and stress because they believe the future will be better.
c. Hope may lead to limited problem solving due to false optimism.
d. Hopeful people prefer independent living as opposed to strong social networks.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Resilience can lead to growth following a traumatic experience. Among the positive changes associated with post-traumatic growth is a(n) ____.
a. increased appreciation of the material aspects of life
b. decreased sense of self-efficacy
c. decreased need to rely on family and friends
d. increased compassion for others

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Some people achieve meaningfulness through religious practice. Although participation in religious or spiritual activities is a behavior, it is strongly predicted by a person’s ____.
a. genetics c. cognitive abilities
b. need for deeper meaning d. development over the life course

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Psychologist Gordon Allport (1964) defines “value” as “a belief ____.”
a. upon which a person acts by preference
b. imposed by family or society
c. implemented to perpetuate cultural norms
d. intended to encourage healthful conduct

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

 

  1. How do humanists and positive psychologists approach the concept of “values”?
a. Only the humanists take a judgmental approach to values.
b. Both the humanists and positive psychologists take judgmental approaches to values.
c. Only the positive psychologists take a judgmental approach to values.
d. Neither the positive psychologists or the humanists take a judgmental approach to values.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding positive institutions?
a. They have a very small impact on the well-being of the community.
b. They feature a reciprocal caring by the institution for its members and by the members for the institution.
c. They have few, if any, rules.
d. Their institutional goals are malleable depending on the persons currently in power.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which of the following people is most likely employed in a “calling”?
a. Levi, who works as a computer programmer for his family’s security, but would rather be involved in the educational field
b. Harry, who works as a social worker at a nursing home for a low salary, but loves helping the residents and their families through difficult transitions
c. Jane, who is a corporate lawyer and enjoys a high salary and status in her community in spite of the often repetitive work
d. Naomi, who is an administrative assistant in an office and secretly finds her work boring

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. What does the text suggest would be a fruitful area of emphasis when viewing schools as positive institutions in their communities?
a. Leadership issues in the school system
b. Teacher satisfaction with the school system
c. Student satisfaction with  the school system
d. Levels and types of problem behaviors in the school system

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the criticisms of positive psychology?
a. It is over-inclusive in the scope of its study of individuals interacting with their environments.
b. It fails to recognize the importance of depression and other disorders to the creative arts and the humanities.
c. It ignores history, which has always been more shaped by the negative than the positive.
d. It implies that people who face medical and psychological issues could improve their condition simply by maintaining a positive attitude.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Positive Psychology?         OBJ:   LO5

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the process by which excess cortisol can accumulate in the bloodstream due to chronic stress, after its release by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. What are some of the adverse health effects of excess cortisol?

 

ANS:

Normally, activity of the HPA axis is regulated by a feedback loop involving the hippocampus. As the text analogizes, the hippocampus works like a “rev limiter” in an automobile engine that prevents the driver from going over a certain speed. The hippocampus contains large numbers of receptors for cortisol and other stress hormones. When the hippocampus detects high levels of these hormones, it signals the hypothalamus, which in turn tells the adrenal glands to reduce the release of cortisol, and arousal in response to perceived stressors dissipates. Consistently elevated levels of cortisol due to chronic stress can overwhelm the hippocampus’s feedback loop, leading instead to the continuous release of cortisol and constant arousal.

 

Students may describe some of the following adverse health effects:

 

Long-term exposure to cortisol can produce a number of harmful effects, including the death of neurons. When rats received daily injections of the rat equivalent of cortisol, neural death began to occur in just a few weeks. Identical amounts of neural death occurred if the rats were stressed daily instead of receiving the injections, suggesting that the action of cortisol is responsible for most of the neural damage observed to result from stress. Studies in humans who have a medical condition (Cushing’s disease) that results in unusually high cortisol levels suggest that cortisol abnormalities might contribute to reduced hippocampus volume, memory problems, abnormal sleep patterns, and depression. Not only can high levels of cortisol damage neurons, but these same levels appear to inhibit the neurogenesis, or birth of new neurons, that might help to offset the damage.

 

Continued stress can damage the hippocampus further. The stressed lower status baboons mentioned in the text, who had been placed in cages with higher status baboons by Kenyan farmers to protect their crops, experienced neural death, particularly in the hippocampus, in addition to their other medical problems. People with post-traumatic stress disorder also show evidence of having a smaller than average hippocampus. Having a smaller than average hippocampus might make a person exposed to trauma more vulnerable to the development of PTSD, or elevated levels of cortisol could reduce the size of the hippocampus, or both.

 

The role of the hippocampus as the rev limiter of the HPA axis might be the bridge between extreme stress and depression. Many cases of depression are preceded by unusually stressful events. Consistently elevated levels of cortisol due to stress can overwhelm the hippocampus’s feedback loop, leading instead to the continuous release of cortisol and constant arousal. Without the regulation of cortisol usually provided by the hippocampus acting as a rev limiter, a person can begin to experience depression. Patients who are treated with cortisol and similar stress hormones for medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis are often troubled by deep depression, reinforcing the role of excess cortisol in depressed mood.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Are the Biological Correlates of Stress?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

  1. Many people start smoking and/or drinking alcohol as teenagers. Choose either drinking or smoking as an example and explain why this age is a particularly vulnerable time to initiate these behaviors. Develop a behavioral intervention for a teenager who has a problem with excess smoking or drinking.

 

ANS:

Related to smoking:

 

Most tobacco users begin smoking in childhood or early adolescence, long before decision making abilities are mature. Due to the addictive nature of nicotine, about half of those who experiment with tobacco will continue to use it. In addition to its action on synapses where the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released, nicotine has the ability to stimulate the dopamine reward circuits of the brain and to produce a particularly unpleasant set of withdrawal symptoms. Developmentally, adolescence is also a time in which people try out new roles and learn important skills for getting along with peers, making them frequently susceptible to peer pressure. Teens often overestimate how many other people are using tobacco, so they might begin using it to avoid looking “different.” Finally, most smokers have friends and parents who also smoke, suggesting a role for social learning.

 

The text notes that a very troubling aspect of the initiation of smoking is the prevalence of tobacco use among people with diagnosed psychological disorders. Tobacco use among people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses is about 70% in the United States, more than 3 times as high as the 20% of users in the general population as reported by the CDC. Evidence has begun to emerge supporting a causal role for nicotine in the development of some psychological disorders, especially depression.

 

The social nature of people also plays a role in quitting smoking. A person’s chances of successfully quitting are reduced by 67% if a spouse smokes, 25% if a sibling smokes, 36% if a friend smokes, and 34% if a coworker smokes. In order to quit, it may be necessary to physically separate oneself from family and friends when they smoke, which may be difficult for a teenager to do.

 

Related to drinking alcohol:

 

Many of the same factors that encourage teens to begin smoking also operate to encourage drinking. Most people who go on to abuse alcohol are drinking heavily by late adolescence, and most cases of alcohol dependence are well established by the age of 30 years. This timeline provides insight into when prevention programs are likely to be most effective. Peer pressure, the need to fit in or look cool, overestimates of “everybody’s doing it,” modeling the behavior of parents and other family members, and the teen’s characteristic sense of being immune to harm from risky behaviors can contribute to decisions to begin drinking. Because alcohol reduces anxiety, socially anxious teens are especially at risk for problem drinking. If teens feel more socially competent while drinking, they are likely to continue this practice due to operant conditioning. Reduced feelings of anxiety are rewarding, so a person is likely to repeat the behavior (alcohol consumption in this case) that is associated with this reward.

 

Among the environmental influences on problem drinking is the age at which a person takes his or her first drink. Individuals exposed to alcohol at earlier ages show a much higher rate of alcohol dependence later in life. The age of first drink interacts with a person’s genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence. In an example of epigenetic mechanisms, early exposure to alcohol might impact the expression of genes related to problem drinking. Another similar interaction is found between child maltreatment and neglect and genetic vulnerability to alcohol dependence. Not all children who are maltreated go on to become dependent on alcohol, although many do. The maltreated children who do not develop drinking problems are likely to be protected by combinations of genetic predisposition and the presence of peer and parental support.

 

Students’ proposed behavioral interventions will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is the Relationship Between Psychology and Health?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Relationships don’t always turn out in the ways people expect. People do hurt each other. People can choose to respond with either negative strategies or positive strategies of behavior. Describe unforgiveness and forgiveness as coping strategies and discuss your own thoughts on which is most healthy and why.

 

ANS:

Among the unforgiveness strategies people use are seeking retaliation or revenge, pursuing justice, seeking restitution, or demanding an apology. Others attempt to move on with their lives, or they use denial and avoidance to cope. Forgiveness can take two forms — decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Decisional forgiveness leads to a person’s treating the transgressor the same way he or she did prior to the betrayal, but can leave anger and other negative emotions still in place. Emotional forgiveness involves the use of empathy, sympathy, compassion, and love to neutralize feelings of unforgiveness.

 

As was noted in the text, it was not necessarily the workaholic Type As who were susceptible to heart disease, but, rather, hostile people who were more vulnerable. Studies of forgiveness provide some insight into why hostility impacts health in negative ways. Healthy young people prompted to think in unforgiving ways about people who had hurt them personally showed elevated heart rate, skin conductance, muscle tension, and blood pressure compared to participants who were prompted to think about their transgressors with empathy and forgiveness. Just a short period of thinking in unforgiving ways could make these physical changes. It is likely that spending years nursing a grudge could have significant negative impacts on health.

 

Forgiveness is just one of a number of emotion-focused and relationship-focused coping strategies that might be used to handle relationship stress, and it is not equally effective for every individual. It is likely that the use of forgiveness interacts with personality, relationship quality, social support, and religion to buffer health in response to a betrayal.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   Interpersonal Relationships From the Health Psychology Perspective

OBJ:   LO5

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