Corrections From Research to Policy to Practice by Stohr – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Corrections From Research to Policy to Practice by Stohr – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 2: Early Corrections: From Ancient Times to Colonial Jails and Prisons

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. In 1831, which pair came to America with the intention to study the newly minted prison system?
  2. Bentham and Beccaria
  3. Howard and Penn
  4. Beaumont and Tocqueville
  5. Dix and Maconochie

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-1: Explain the origins of corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following was a benefit when examining the extent of punishment among tribal groups?
  2. Gender
  3. Wealth
  4. Status
  5. Both A and C
  6. Both B and C

Ans: E

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What was the first type of correctional facility to develop?
  2. Day reporting centers
  3. Prisons
  4. Jails
  5. Bridewells

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In Ancient Greece and Rome, Citizens who broke the law might be subjected to:
  2. fines
  3. exile
  4. imprisonment
  5. death
  6. all of these

Ans: E

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. King Henry II required that gaols be built for the purpose of:
  2. extorting fine money from citizens
  3. removing the poor from the streets
  4. holding the accused for trial
  5. all of these

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Catholic church had their greatest influence on punishment during:
  2. The Middle Ages
  3. Elizabethan England
  4. The Reform Era
  5. None of these

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Galley slavery was used more regularly:
  2. By the ancient Greeks and Romans
  3. By the late Middle Ages
  4. In the American colonies
  5. In Norfolk Island, Australia

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Galley Slavery

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. After the disintegration of feudalism, what sparked government entities to increasingly respond in a more severe fashion in the demand for resources?
  2. Crime
  3. Prostitution
  4. Poverty
  5. War

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Early workhouses that were built to hold and whip “beggars, prostitutes, and nightwalkers”, were known as:
  2. gaols
  3. reformatories
  4. prisons
  5. bridewells

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The removal of those deemed as criminal to other locations such as the American colonies or Australia is known as:
  2. the marks system
  3. galley slavery
  4. transportation
  5. corporal punishment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a benefit associated with the practice of transportation?
  2. The removal of criminal classes
  3. Exploitation of labor to satisfy a growing need
  4. Humane treatment of criminals
  5. Both A and B
  6. Both A and C

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer personally experienced incarceration while he was a prisoner of war?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: John Howard

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer wrote in his book On Crimes and Punishment that “it is essential that [punishment] be public, speedy, necessary, the minimum possible in the given circumstances, proportionate to the crime, and determined by law?”
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bentham and Beccaria

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer was the Sheriff of Bedford, in England?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: John Howard

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer created the panopticon?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bentham and Beccaria

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer sought reform in every gaol throughout England and Europe?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: John Howard

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer was also influenced by his Quaker religious principles?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who developed the “mark’s system” that later was the basis of “good time” to rewards inmates behavior?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. Alexander Maconochie
  6. None of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer instituted his Great Law, which deemphasized the use of corporal and capital punishment for all but the most serious crimes?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which Enlightenment Period influenced reformer was imprisoned in the Great Tower of London for his promotion of his religion and defiance of the English Crown?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. William Penn

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The influence of religion on early prison operations in the United States is primarily due to:
  2. The Shakers
  3. The Quakers
  4. Enlightenment thinkers
  5. Presbyterians

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The first jail in America, built around 1606, was located in:
  2. Jamestown, Virginia
  3. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  4. Ossining, New York
  5. Barnstable, Massachusetts

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One of the earliest American makeshift prisons known as Newgate prison in Simsbury, Connecticut started as a:
  2. well
  3. cave
  4. dungeon
  5. mine

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Derelict Naval Vessels that were transformed into prisons were known as:
  2. hulks
  3. bridewells
  4. Cuttleships
  5. galleys

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-6: Compare early American prisons with early European and British prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early European and British Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. It is believed that about ______ convicts were deposited on American shores from English gaols.
  2. 100,000
  3. 50,000
  4. 25,000
  5. 2,000

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who is known for their reform efforts on the labor colony that was 1000 miles off the coast of Australia?
  2. Jeremy Bentham
  3. Cesare Beccaria
  4. John Howard
  5. Alexander Maconochie

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What was the name of the penal labor colony established in 1788 of the coast of Australia?
  2. Norfolk Island
  3. Madagascar
  4. New Zealand
  5. Garcia’s Island

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the text, the Enlightenment period is compared to which occurrence in Star Trek?
  2. Waking up from a dream
  3. Eating forbidden fruit
  4. Breathing in magical spore
  5. Hypnotized by a cult

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Spock Falls in Love

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Jails that did exist in the 18th century were run on a ______ model with the jailer and his family residing on the premises. The inmates were free to dress as they liked, to walk around freely and to provide their own food and other necessities.
  2. household
  3. institution
  4. religious
  5. education

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Tower of London was used as a prison as far back as:
  2. 1100
  3. 1425
  4. 1680
  5. 1820

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Tower of London

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. Beaumont and Tocqueville came to the United States but did not observe anything wrong with the systems that they studied.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-1: Explain the origins of corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction: The Evolving Practice of Corrections

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One of the constant themes in corrections is that money, or a lack thereof is a factor that exerts over virtually all correctional policy decisions.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-2: Discuss how what we do now in corrections is often grounded in historical experience (or a repeat of it).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Prisons and other such institutions serve as a social control mechanism.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-2: Discuss how what we do now in corrections is often grounded in historical experience (or a repeat of it).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Religious influence is not one of the themes that are apparent in corrections history.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-2: Discuss how what we do now in corrections is often grounded in historical experience (or a repeat of it).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Among tribal groups, the wealthy and poor were treated equally under the eyes of punishment.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Punishments in Westernized Countries

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The use of imprisonment can be traced as far back as the Old Testament in the Bible.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Protestant church had its greatest influence on punishment in the Middle Ages.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Galley slavery was only used to get the poor off the streets.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Galley Slavery

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under 18th century England, a person could receive the death penalty for rioting over wages or food.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Bridewells provided a location to send poor people in order to remove them from the streets.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The practice of transportation was short-lived in the correctional system.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The English continued to transport their prisoners to America well after the Revolutionary War.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Progressive period was the era that spelled out major changes in correctional reform and gave rise to such great thinkers as Cesare Beccaria.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Spock Falls in Love

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. John Howard believed that English gaols treated inmates inhumanely and needed to be reformed.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: John Howard

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. William Penn is credited with creating the panopticon, which was the first prison ever to be constructed.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. William Penn proposed the Great Law, which deemphasized the use of corporal punishment and capital punishment for all crimes, but the most serious.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One of the oldest American prisons was a copper mine.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The first jail built in America was in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in 1790.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rotary jails were like squirrel cages that were segmented into small “pie-shaped cells,” were secured to the floor, and could be spun at will by the sheriff.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Tower of London was used as a prison for over 1000 years.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Tower of London

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What are constant themes that have been seen throughout the history of corrections?

Ans: The influence of money, political sentiments, the desire to make change, and an evolving sense of compassion.

Learning Objective: 2-2: Discuss how what we do now in corrections is often grounded in historical experience (or a repeat of it).

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to the text, along with widespread use in England, who else maintained a form of jails and prisons during the Middle Ages?

Ans: The Catholic Church.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to the text the Riot Act, created during 18th century England, allowed the use of capital punishment for what behavior?

Ans: Rioting over food or wages.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Where did bridewells get their name?

Ans: Bishop Ridley’s place at St. Bridget’s Well.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why did transportation from England to the American colonies end?

Ans: The Revolutionary War.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. John Howard’s genius was his main insight regarding corrections. What was this insight?

Ans: Corrections should not be privatized in the sense that jailers were “paid” by inmates a fee for their food, clothing, and housing.

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: John Howard

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Though they created separate deterrence theories, on what specifics did both Bentham and Beccaria agree?

Ans: They agreed that punishments should be proportional and certain over fast and severe.

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bentham and Beccaria

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Bentham believed that his creation, the panopticon, would greatly enhance management of inmates by melding which two ideas?

Ans: Improved supervision and architecture.

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Bentham and Beccaria

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What did William Penn’s Great Law seek to achieve?

Ans: To de-emphasize the use of corporal and capital punishment except in only the most extreme instances.

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: William Penn

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The reforms instituted by Alexander Maconochie were such a success that upon release his prisoners became to known as

Ans: Maconochie’s Gentleman.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss ALL of the themes noted in the text that underlie correctional practice.

Ans: There are some themes that have been almost eerily constant, vis-à-vis corrections, over the decades and even centuries. Some such themes are obvious, such as the influence that money, or its lack, exerts over virtually all correctional policy decisions. Political sentiments and the desire to make changes also have had tremendous influence over the shape of corrections in the past. Other themes are less apparent, but no less potent in their effect on correctional operation. For instance, there appears to be an evolving sense of compassion or humanity that, though not always clear in the short term, in practice, or in policy or statute, has underpinned reform-based decisions about corrections and its operation, at least in theory, throughout its history in the United States. The creation of the prison, with a philosophy of penitence (hence the penitentiary), was a grand reform itself, and as such it represented in theory, at least, a major improvement over the brutality of punishment that characterized early English and European law and practice (Orland, 1995). Some social critics do note, however, that the prison and the expanded use of other such social institutions also served as a “social control” mechanism to remove punishment from public view, while making the state appear more just (Foucault, 1979; Welch, 2004). Therefore, this is not to argue that such grand reforms in their idealistic form, such as prisons, were not primarily constructed out of the need to control, but rather that there were philanthropic, religious, and other forces aligned that also influenced their creation and design, if not so much their eventual and practical operation (Hirsch, 1992). Also of note, the social control function becomes most apparent when less powerful populations such as the poor, the minority, the young, or the female are involved, as will be discussed in the following chapters. Other than the influence of money and politics and a sense of greater compassion/humanity in correctional operation, the following themes are also apparent in corrections history: the question of how to use labor and technology (which are hard to decouple from monetary considerations); a decided religious influence; the intersection of class, race, age, and gender in shaping one’s experience in corrections; architecture as it is intermingled with supervision; methods of control; overcrowding; and finally the fact that good intentions do not always translate into effective practice. Though far from exhaustive, this list contains some of the most salient issues that become apparent streams of influence as one reviews the history of corrections. As was discussed in Chapter 1, some of the larger philosophical (and political) issues, such as conceptions of right and wrong and whether it is best to engage in retribution or rehabilitation (or both, or neither, along with incapacitation, deterrence, and reintegration) using correctional sanctions, are also obviously associated with correctional change and operation.

Learning Objective: 2-2: Discuss how what we do now in corrections is often grounded in historical experience (or a repeat of it).

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes: Truths That Underlie Correctional Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What key events as described in the text facilitated the widespread use of gaols in England?

Ans: Early versions of gaols (or jails) and prisons existed in English castle keeps and dungeons and Catholic monasteries. The use of these early forms of jails was reportedly widespread in England, even a thousand years ago. By the 9th century, Alfred the Great had legally mandated that imprisonment might be used to punish (Irwin, 1985). King Henry II in 1166 required that where no gaol existed in English counties, one should be built (Zupan, 1991) “[i]n walled towns and royal castles,” but only for the purpose of holding the accused for trial (Orland, 1975, pp. 15–16). In Elizabethan England, innkeepers made a profit using their facility as a gaol. The Catholic Church’s influence on the development of westernized corrections was intense in the Middle Ages (medieval Europe from the 5th to the 15th centuries) and might be felt even today. As a means of shoring up its power base vis-à-vis feudal and medieval lords and kings, the Catholic Church maintained not only its own forms of prisons and jails, but also its own ecclesiastical courts (Garland, 1990). Though proscribed from drawing blood, except during the Inquisition, the Church often turned its charges over to secular authorities for physical punishment. But while in their care and in their monasteries for punishment, the Catholic Church required “solitude, reduced diet, and reflection, sometimes for extended periods of time” (Johnston, 2009, p. 14S).

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The First Jails

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the history of gallery slavery from its first uses to its end as well as the rationale behind it.

Ans: Galley slavery, was used sparingly by the ancient Greeks and Romans, but more regularly in the late Middle Ages in Europe and England, and stayed in use until roughly the 1700s. Under Elizabeth I, in 1602, a sentence to galley servitude was decreed as an alternative to the death sentence (Orland, 1975). Pope Pius VI (who was pope from 1775–1799) also reportedly employed it (Johnston, 2009, p. 12S). Galley slavery was used as a sentence for crimes or as a means of removing the poor from the streets. It also served the twin purpose of providing the requisite labor—rowing—needed to propel ships for seafaring nations interested in engagement in trade and warfare. For instance, these galley slaves were reportedly used by Columbus (Johnston, 2009). The “slaves” were required to row the boat until they collapsed from exhaustion, hunger, or disease; often they sat in their own excrement (Welch, 2004). Under Pope Pius, galley slaves were entitled to bread each day, and their sentences ranged from 3 years to life (Johnston, 2009). Although we do not have detailed records of how such a sentence was carried out, and we can be sure that its implementation varied to some degree from vessel to vessel, the reports that do exist indicate that galley slavery was essentially a sentence to death. Galley slavery ended when the labor was no longer needed on ships because of the technological development of sails.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Galley Slavery

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss Bridewells, what lead to their creation, and why they prospered.

Ans: Poor began to congregate in towns and cities in the Middle Ages. Feudalism, and the order it imposed, was disintegrating; wars (particularly the Crusades prosecuted by the Catholic Church) and intermittent plagues did claim thousands of lives, but populations were stabilizing and increasing and there were not enough jobs, housing, or food for the poor. As the cities became more urbanized and as more and more poor people congregated in them, governmental entities responded in an increasingly severe fashion to the poor’s demands for resources (Irwin, 1985). These responses were manifested in the harsh repression of dissent, increased use of death sentences and other punishments as deterrence and spectacle, the increased use of jailing to guarantee the appearance of the accused at trial, the development of poorhouses or bridewells and debtors’ prisons, and the use of “transportation,” (Foucault, 1979; Irwin, 1985). Bridewells, or buildings constructed to hold and whip “beggars, prostitutes, and nightwalkers” (Orland, 1975, p. 16) and later as places of detention, filled this need; their use began in London in 1553 (Kerle, 2003; Orland, 1975) The name came from the first such institution, which was developed at Bishop Ridley’s place at St. Bridget’s Well; all subsequent similar facilities were known as bridewells. Bridewells were also workhouses, used as leverage to extract fines or repayment of debt or the labor to replace them. Such facilities did not separate people by gender or age or criminal and noncriminal status, nor were their inmates fed and clothed properly, and sanitary conditions were not maintained. As a consequence of these circumstances, bridewells were dangerous and diseased places where if one could not pay a “fee” for food, clothing, or release, the inmate, and possibly his or her family, might be doomed (Orland, 1975; Pugh, 1968). The use of bridewells spread through—out Europe and the British colonies, as it provided a means of removing the poor and displaced from the streets while also making a profit (Kerle, 2003). Such a profit was made by the wardens, keepers, and gaolers, the administrators of bridewells, houses of correction (each county in England was authorized to build one in 1609), and gaols, who, though unpaid, lobbied for the job as it was so lucrative. They made money by extracting it from their inmates. If an inmate could not pay, he or she might be left to starve in filth or be tortured or murdered by the keeper for nonpayment (Orland, 1975, p. 17).

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Poverty and Bridewells, Debtors’ Prisons, and Houses of Correction

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the history of transportation from its first uses to its end as well as the rationale behind it.

Ans: Another means of “corrections” that was in use by Europeans for roughly 350 years, from the founding of the Virginia Colony in 1607, was transportation (Feeley, 1991). Also used to rid cities and towns of the chronically poor or the criminally inclined, transportation, as with bridewells and gaols, involved a form of privatized corrections, whereby those sentenced to transportation were sold to a ship’s captain. He would in turn sell their labor as indentured servants, usually to do agricultural work, to colonials in America (Maryland, Virginia, and Georgia were partially populated through this method) and to white settlers in Australia. Transportation ended in the American colonies with the Revolutionary War, but was practiced by France to populate Devil’s Island in French Guiana until 1953 (Welch, 2004). In America, transportation provided needed labor to colonies desperate for it. “Following a 1718 law in England, all felons with sentences of 3 years or more were eligible for transport to America. Some were given a choice between hanging or transport” (Johnston, 2009, p. 13S). It is believed that about 50,000 convicts were deposited on American shores from English gaols. If they survived their servitude, which ranged from 1 to 5 years, they became free and might be given tools or even land to make their way in the new world (Orland, 1975, p. 18). Once the American Revolution started, such prisoners from England were transported to Australia, and when settlers there protested the number of entering offenders, the prisoners were sent to penal colonies in that country as well as in New Zealand and Gibraltar (Johnston, 2009).

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What was the significance of the enlightenment on correctional thinking?

Ans: The Enlightenment period, lasting roughly from the 17th through the 18th century in England, Europe, and America, spelled major changes in thought about crime and corrections. But then, it was a time of paradigmatic shifts in many aspects of the Western experience as societies became more secular and open. Becoming a more secular culture meant that there was more focus on humans on earth, rather than in the afterlife, and, as a consequence, the arts, sciences, and philosophy flourished. In such periods of human history, creativity manifests itself in innovations in all areas of experience; the orthodoxy in thought and practice is often challenged and sometimes overthrown in favor of new ideas and even radical ways of doing things (Davis, 2008). Additionally, the writings of John
Locke (1632–1704) and his conception of liberty and
human rights provided the philosophical underpinnings for the Declaration of Independence as penned
by Thomas Jefferson. As a result of the Enlightenment,
the French Revolution beginning in 1789 was also
about rejecting one form of government—the
absolute monarchy—for something that was to be
more democratic and liberty based. Those who experienced the Enlightenment period, much like reformers and activists of the Progressive (1880s to the 1920s) and Civil Rights (1960s and 1970s) Eras
in the United States that were to follow centuries
later, experienced a paradigm shift regarding crime
and justice. Suddenly, as if magic spores had fundamentally reshaped thought and suffused it with
kind regard, if not love for others, humans seemed
to realize that change in crime policy and practice
was called for, and they set about devising ways to
 accomplish it.

Learning Objective: 2-4: Identify some of the key Enlightenment thinkers, their ideas, and how they changed corrections.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Spock Falls in Love

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the impact Maconochie had on Norfolk Island.

Ans: One of the most well-documented such penal colonies was Norfolk Island, 1,000 miles off the Australian coast. Established in 1788 as a place designated for prisoners from England and Australia, it was regarded as a brutal and violent island prison where inmates were poorly fed, clothed, and housed and were mistreated by staff and their fellow inmates (Morris, 2002). Morris, in his semi-fictional account of Alexander Maconochie’s effort to reform Norfolk, notes that Machonochie, an ex-naval captain, asked to be transferred to Norfolk, usually an undesirable placement, so that he could put into practice some ideas he had about prison reform. He served as the warden there from 1840 to 1844. What was true in this story was that “in four years, Maconochie transformed what was one of the most brutal convict settlements in history into a controlled, stable, and productive environment that achieved such success that upon release his prisoners came to be called ‘Maconochie’s Gentlemen’” (Morris, 2002, book jacket). Maconochie’s ideas included the belief that inmates should be rewarded for good behavior through a system of marks, which could lead to privileges and early release; that they should be treated with respect; and that they should be adequately fed and housed. Such revolutionary ideas, for their time, elicited alarm from Maconochie’s superiors, and he was removed from his position after only 4 years. His ideas, however, were adopted decades later when the concepts of “good time” and parole were developed in Ireland and the United States. In addition, his ideas about adequately feeding and clothing inmates were held in common by such reformers, who came before him, as John Howard and William Penn and those who came after him, such as Dorothea Dix.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Transportation

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Pick one of the four Enlightenment Period reformers discussed in detail from the text. What did they believe in regard to reforming corrections? How did they propose to promote such reform?

Ans: Answer will vary depending on individual chosen. Please reference text.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Various Pages

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the history and significance of the Tower of London in regard to corrections.

Ans: There are few international iconic prison images as prominent as that of the Tower of London, located on the River Thames in the center of London, England. Begun after 1066 when William the Conqueror captured the Roman city of Saxon London in the Norman invasion, the centerpiece of this castle complex, the White Tower, was completed in roughly 1080 (Impey & Parnell, 2011). The Tower of London today has a number of buildings, including the White Tower, along with several towers and gates on its double walls. At one time it included a moat, which has since been filled in. Sited in old London, today it is surrounded by modern buildings and near ancient structures alike. Over the centuries it has been added to by various kings and used to defend the city, as a royal palace and a symbol of power for royalty, as a mint for royal coinage, as an armoury, as a treasury for the royal jewels, as a conservator of the King’s Court’s records, as a kind of zoo for exotic animals gifted to the royalty, as a tourist attraction for centuries, and for our purposes, as a prison and a place of execution. Its role as a prison began early in 1100 and lasted until the 1820s and then again during World War II (Impey & Parnell, 2011). For the most part there were no separate prison quarters for its mostly exalted prisoners, other than a shed constructed in 1687 for prison soldiers. Therefore, political and other prisoners were just accommodated in whatever quarters were available. For instance, Ann Boleyn who was Henry the VIII’s second wife was both married at the Tower, executed there 3 years later in 1526 and buried there too. The young Princess Elizabeth (Anne’s daughter) was also held at the Tower by her half-sister Queen Mary I until Elizabeth seceded to the throne as Elizabeth I. Sir Thomas Moore (1534) spent a year imprisoned in the Tower before his execution and Sir Walter Raleigh (1603) spent 15 years imprisoned in the Tower, both allegedly for treason. Notably, William Penn, discussed in other parts of this book, was imprisoned at the Tower for 7 months in 1668–1669 for pamphleteering his Quaker religion. Their incarceration in the Tower, as well as many others of rank and wealth, was not as hard as it would have been if they had been sent to public prisons of the time and sometimes included luxurious accommodations and servants. Torture did happen at the Tower (the use of the rack and manacles, etc.), but its use was relatively rare as it had to be sanctioned by a special council. Executions occurred inside the walls of the Tower of London, but most occurred on nearby Tower Hill or someplace else near the complex.

Learning Objective: 2-3: Compare the different types of corrections used historically.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Tower of London

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the colonial jails and prisons; highlight how they differed from English or European institutions.

Ans: The first jail in America was built in Jamestown, Virginia, soon after the colony’s founding in 1606 (Burns, 1975; Zupan, 1991). Massachusetts built a jail in Boston in 1635, and Maryland built a jail for the colony in 1662 (Roberts, 1997). The oldest standing jail in the United States was built in the late 1600s and is located in Barnstable, Massachusetts (Library of Congress, 2010). It was used by the sheriff to hold both males and females, along with his family, in upstairs, basement, and barn rooms. Both men and women were held in this and other jails like it, mostly before they were tried for both serious and minor offenses, as punishment for offenses, or to ensure they were present for their own execution. Such an arrangement as this—holding people in homes, inns, or other structures, that were not originally designated or constructed as “jails”—was not uncommon in early colonial towns (Goldfarb, 1975; Irwin, 1985; Kerle, 2003). As in England, inmates of these early and colonial jails were required to pay a “fee” for their upkeep (the same fee system that John Howard opposed). Those who were wealthier could more easily buy their way out of incarceration, or if that was not possible because of the nature of the offense, they could at least ensure that they had more luxurious accommodations (Zupan, 1991). Even when jailers were paid a certain amount to feed and clothe inmates, they might be disinclined to do so, being that what they saved by not taking care of their charges they were able to keep (Zupan, 1991). As a result, inmates of early American jails were sometimes malnourished or starving. Moreover, in the larger facilities they were crammed into unsanitary rooms, often without regard to separation by age, gender, or offense, conditions that also led to early death and disease. Though, Irwin (1985) does remark that generally Americans fared better in colonial jails than their English and European cousins did in their own, as the arrangements were less formal and restrictive in the American jails and were more like rooming houses. Relatedly, Goldfarb (1975) remarks, Jails that did exist in the 18th century were run on a household model with the jailer and his family residing on the premises. The inmates were free to dress as they liked, to walk around freely and to provide their own food, and other necessities. (p. 9). As White people migrated across the continent of North America, the early western jails were much like their earlier eastern and colonial cousins, with makeshift structures and cobbled together supervision serving as a means of holding the accused over for trial (Moynihan, 2002). In post–Civil War Midwestern cities, disconnected outlaw gangs (such as the Jesse James Gang) were responded to in a harsh manner. Some communities even built rotary jails, which were like human squirrel cages. Inside a secure building, these rotating steel cages, segmented into small “pie-shaped cells” were secured to the floor and could be spun at will by the sheriff (Goldfarb, 1975, p. 11). Of course, without prisons in existence per se (we will discuss the versions of such institutions that did exist shortly), most punishments for crimes constituted relatively short terms in jails, or public shaming (as in the stocks), or physical punishments such as flogging or the pillory, or banishment. Executions were also carried out, usually but not always for the most horrific of crimes such as murder or rape, though in colonial America, many more crimes qualified for this punishment (Zupan, 1991). As in Europe and England at this time, those who were poorer or enslaved were more likely to experience the harshest of punishments (Irwin, 1985; Zupan, 1991). Similar to Europe and England in this era, jails also held the mentally ill, along with debtors, drifters, transients, the inebriated, runaway slaves or servants, and the criminally involved (usually pretrial; Cornelius, 2007).

Learning Objective: 2-5: Describe colonial jails and early prisons in America and how they operated.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Colonial Jails and Prisons

Difficulty Level: Hard

Chapter 4: Ethics and Corrections

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following are key to preventing ethical abuses?
  2. Codes of ethics
  3. Professionalization of staff
  4. Routinization of policies and procedures
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following was not found by Kirkham (2013)?
  2. Staff reported fights and assaults to avoid scrutiny and the possible loss of contracts
  3. Staff abused youth in the facilities by hitting and choking them, sometimes to the point of fracturing bones
  4. Turnover of staff was high
  5. Food was restricted, prepared incorrectly, or in an unsanitary manner, and youth were encouraged to gamble with others to win their food portions

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Lack of Ethics: Florida’s YSI Private Prisons for Youth

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following systems is concerned with whether the act itself is good?
  2. Teleological ethical systems
  3. Deontological ethical systems
  4. Ethical formalism
  5. Utilitarianism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is known as what is right or wrong.
  2. Ethics
  3. Morality
  4. Utilitarianism
  5. None of these

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following are philosophical touchstones that are referenced as guides to human decision-making?
  2. Ethical formalism
  3. Religion
  4. Natural law
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is not a philosophical touchstone that is referenced as a guide to human decision-making?
  2. Ethical formalism
  3. Religion
  4. Subculture
  5. Ethics of virtue

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Adherents of a(n) ______ ethical framework believe that: “What is good is that which is natural.”
  2. religious perspective
  3. natural law
  4. ethics of care
  5. none of these

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Natural Law

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A framework centered on good acts is known as which of the following?
  2. Religious perspective
  3. Natural law
  4. Ethics of care
  5. Egoism

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics of Care

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which framework is based on the belief that the needs of self are most important?
  2. Ethics of care
  3. Religious perspective
  4. Natural law
  5. Egoism

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Egoism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes the ability to make choices and to act or not act on them?
  2. Discretion
  3. Subculture
  4. Official deviance
  5. Noble cause

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Noble-Cause Corruption

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes a subset of a larger culture with its own norms, values, beliefs, traditions, and history of a group of people?
  2. Discretion
  3. Subculture
  4. Noble cause
  5. Official deviance

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Subculture

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How many people were arrested for a marijuana law violation in 2014?
  2. 851,894
  3. 689,056
  4. 700,993
  5. 598,768

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What percentage of individuals were arrested for possession of marijuana in 2014?
  2. 65%
  3. 78%
  4. 82%
  5. 88%

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How many students have lost federal financial aid eligibility because of a drug conviction?
  2. 200,000+
  3. 300,000+
  4. 400,000+
  5. 500,000+

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. YSI reported what percentage of cases that indicated excessive force and injured youth in Florida?
  2. 9%
  3. 15%
  4. 19%
  5. 24%

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Lack of Ethics: Florida’s YSI Private Prisons for Youth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How many correctional workers have been prosecuted for assaults on inmates in the past 5 years?
  2. 5
  3. 10
  4. 15
  5. 20

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mentally Ill Inmate Dies at Rikers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Ethical formalism falls under a ______ system as the focus is on the act and its rightness (or wrongness) rather than on the consequences of the act.
  2. deontological system
  3. utilitarianism
  4. teleological system
  5. none of these

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which philosopher believed that individuals participated in utilitarian calculus when making a decision?
  2. Aristotle
  3. Bentham
  4. Plato
  5. Pollock

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Utilitarianism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Utilitarian calculus weights which of the following?
  2. The possible pleasure of a decision
  3. The possible pain of a decision
  4. The possible pleasure and pain of a decision
  5. The right and wrong of a decision

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Utilitarianism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Utilitarianism falls under which system?
  2. Religious perspective
  3. Natural law
  4. Deontological system
  5. Teleological system

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Utilitarianism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Ethics of virtue focuses on where a person is ______.
  2. right
  3. wrong
  4. good
  5. bad

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethics of Virtue

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which framework is the ethics of care system based on?
  2. Deontological system
  3. Teleological system
  4. Religious perspective
  5. Natural law

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ethics of Care

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Kirkham (2013) found which of the following to be true in regard to the Youth Services International?
  2. There was low staff turnover
  3. Juveniles has access to meals
  4. Reports of assaults and fighting were accurately reported
  5. None of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Lack of Ethics: Florida’s YSI Private Prisons for Youth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Actions taken by officials which violate the law and/or the formal rules of the organization, but which are clearly oriented toward the needs and goals of the organization, as perceived by the official, and thus fulfill certain informal rules of the organization is known as ______.
  2. noble cause
  3. official deviance
  4. personal gain
  5. none of these

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Official Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a barrier to ethical practice?
  2. Do not be sympathetic toward clients.
  3. Hire people who are less likely to be motivated by personal gains.
  4. Pay people a professional wage.
  5. Encourage professional development of employees.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Subcultural Values of Probation and Parole Officers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Kauffman and Pollock discuss which of the following as barriers in ethical practice?
  2. Always come to the aid of a coworker.
  3. Never rat on coworkers.
  4. Always cover for a coworker in front of clients.
  5. All of these.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Subcultural Values of Probation and Parole Officers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. “Always support the decision of a coworker regarding a client” is a ______ in ethical practice.
  2. objective
  3. rule
  4. barrier
  5. goal

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subcultural Values of Probation and Parole Officers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is not a behavior that promotes ethical behavior?
  2. Encourage involvement of outsider review and professional engagement.
  3. Encourage whistle-blowing.
  4. Promote ethical behavior.
  5. All of these are behaviors that promote ethical behavior.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is an explanation as to why individuals may behave unethical?
  2. Personal gain
  3. Out of selfishness
  4. Official deviance
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why People Behave Unethically

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a “noble cause” theme that may explain police officer behavior?
  2. Official deviance
  3. The tower
  4. Personal gain
  5. Selfishness

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Noble-Cause Corruption

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. A majority of correctional workers are ethical in their work practices.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Organizations and agencies do not have strategies to reduce unethical practices.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: To Do the Right Thing!

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The YSI supported the political campaigns of Florida and other states’ politicians with hefty donations.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Lack of Ethics: Florida’s YSI Private Prisons for Youth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Ethics is the study of what is right and wrong.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Morality is concerned with what is right or wrong in the professional sphere.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Systems focused on the consequences of the act are known ethical formalism.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Formalism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Ten jail complexes make up Riker’s Island in New York City.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mentally Ill Inmate Dies at Rikers

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The religious perspective is a perspective that weighs what is right or wrong based on one’s religion and covers all facets of living and relationships with others.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Religious Perspective

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Pollock defined egoism as “what is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative”.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Egoism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Moral behavior is shaped by both deontological and teleological ethical systems.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Youth Services International operates 18% of juvenile facilities in Florida.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Lack of Ethics: Florida’s YSI Private Prisons for Youth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Teleological ethical systems are systems focused on the consequences of the act.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Negative subculture is a key feature of correctional environments that would make staff and management more prone to unethical behavior.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subculture

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The United States has the second highest incarceration rate in the world.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: War on Drugs = Attack on Ethics?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under the ethical formalism system, there is the belief that there is a universal law that includes clear rights and wrongs.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Formalism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most religions include a universal set of rights and wrongs.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Religious Perspective

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under a religious perspective the rights and wrongs are just clear and knowable through reason.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Religious Perspective

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Natural laws about what is rights and wrong are relative to time and place.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Natural Law

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Women are more likely to be concerned about the care of others as guiding how they behave.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ethics of Care

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Openness is more likely to reduce unethical behavior and defuse the power of negative subcultures.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 4-4: Identify why corrections workers might be prone to ethics violations and how they might be prevented.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Define the term ethics.

Ans: Ethics is the study of what is right and wrong, and to be ethical is to practice in your work what is “right” behavior.

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term deontological ethical system.

Ans: Deontological ethical systems are systems concerned with whether the act itself is good.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term teleological ethical system.

Ans: Teleological ethical systems are systems focused on the consequences of the act.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term ethical formalism.

Ans: Ethical formalism is what is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. Under this system, there is a belief that there is a universal law that includes clear rights and wrongs.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethical Formalism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is utilitarianism?

Ans: Utilitarianism is defined as what is good is that which results in the greatest utility for the greatest number.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Utilitarianism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the religious perspective?

Ans: The religious perspective is a belief that what is good is that which conforms to God’s will.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Religious Perspective

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define ethics of care.

Ans: An ethics of care framework is centered on good acts. What is good is that which meets the needs of those concerned.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethics of Care

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is discretion?

Ans: Discretion is the ability to make choices and to act or not act on them.

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Noble-Cause Corruption

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is a subculture?

Ans: A subculture is a subset of a larger culture with its own norms, values, beliefs, traditions, and history of a group of people.

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Subculture

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the framework of egoism.

Ans: Under this framework, the needs of self are most important. So acting to satisfy one’s own wants and needs under this framework is acting ethically.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Egoism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Discuss a time that you were faced with an ethical dilemma. What happened? What did you do?

Ans: Answer is subjective

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Various Pages

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the concepts of ethics and morality. Which concept do you believe is more important?

Ans: Ethics is the study of what is right and wrong, and to be ethical is to practice in your work what is “right” behavior. While morality and ethics are similar, they are still different. Morality is concerned with what is right or wrong in the personal sphere and ethics is concerned with the professional sphere.

Second part of essay is subjective

Learning Objective: 4-1: Explain the differences between ethics and morality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Defining Ethics: What Is Right (and Wrong)?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain what deontological and teleological approaches to ethics are. Which one do you believe in?

Ans: Deontological ethical systems are concerned with whether the act itself is good. Teleological ethical systems are focused on the consequences of the act. If the act itself is moral or ethical, then someone who is guided by a deontological framework is not concerned about the consequences of the act. It is enough to just act in a moral fashion. Someone who is guided by a teleological ethical system does not care so much about the rightness or the wrongness of the act, but about whether the consequences of the act are good.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Essay

 

  1. List the 10 barriers in ethical practice discussed by Kauffman and Pollock.

Ans: (i) Always come to the aid of a coworker.

(ii) Never rat on coworkers.

(iii) Always cover for a coworker in front of clients.

(iv) Always support the coworker over clients in a disagreement.

(v) Always support the decision of a coworker regarding a client.

(vi) Do not be sympathetic toward clients. Instead be cynical about them (to be otherwise is to be naïve).

(vii) Probation/parole officers is the “us,” and everyone else is the “them,” including the administration, the media, and the rest of the community.

(viii) Help your coworkers by completing your own work and then assisting them if they need it.

(ix) Since you aren’t being paid much or appreciated by the public or the administration, do not be a rate buster (i.e., do not do more than the minimum amount of work).

(x) Handle your own work and do not allow interference.

Learning Objective: 4-3: Analyze why people are motivated to commit ethical violations.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Subcultural Values of Probation and Parole Officers

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss 6 of the 12 practices that prevent unethical behavior. Which practices do you believe are most useful?

Ans: (A) Hire people who are less likely to be motivated by personal gain. To do this, correctional organizations need a well-developed selection process with extensive background checks on potential hires (Stohr & Collins, 2014).

(B) Pay people a professional wage as then they will be less likely to be tempted to engage in unethical behavior for personal gain.

(C) Encourage professional development of employees through further education, training, and engagement in professional organizations as employees who are immersed in a professional and learning subculture are more likely to encourage positive change in others and improve the workplace, and they may be less likely to be tolerant of a workplace subculture that fosters unethical behavior.

(D) Develop an ethics code with employee input and review it regularly in the department. By involving a cross section of staff in the development of an ethics code, more staff are likely to feel like they “own it” and therefore support it.

(E) Require extensive training in ethics at the beginning of employment and throughout the employee’s career. More and ongoing training will reinforce the need to behave ethically, and it will undercut negative subcultural influences.

(F) Supervise people sufficiently and check up on what they are doing and how they are doing it.

(G) Provide support for positive changes in the workplace that will enhance the ability of workers to do the job right. Sometimes staff will claim that they cannot act ethically because there are not enough resources (e.g., time, staff) to do so; by ensuring there are enough resources—and this is hard to do in the public sector these days—managers make it possible for employees to do the work the right and the ethical way.

(H) Discipline violators of ethics, and if the violation of the rules or law is serious enough, fire them. Doing this will reinforce a positive subculture that is supportive of ethical work practice.

(I) Promote those who behave ethically and include ethics related measures in evaluations. By doing this, managers will motivate all to support ethical practice.

(J) Encourage whistle-blowing (the reporting of wrongdoing or problems in the work-place) and make it possible for people to do so anonymously. Despite an ethical manager and worker’s best efforts, there is sometimes illegal or unethical behavior going on in the workplace, and because of the power of subcultures, correctional workers need to be able to report this behavior without fear of reprisals.

(K) Develop the means for all employees to provide input into the decisions that are made by and for the organization, as doing so is more likely to be a check on management, uses the knowledge workers have, instills ownership of the work by those who do it, and leads to greater job satisfaction, less turner, and more commitment to the job (Stohr & Collins, 2014).

(L) Encourage involvement of outsider review and professional engagement (have an oversight board, support involvement in professional organizations, provide access to researchers and politicians and even the media), as more openness is more likely to reduce unethical behavior and defuse the power of negative subcultures.

Learning Objective: 4

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How to Prevent Unethical Behavior and Promote Ethical Work Practices

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Compare and contrast an ethics of care framework and an egoism framework.

Ans: Both of the frameworks fall under a deontological perspective. An ethics of care framework is centered on good acts. Those who subscribe to this framework believe that “what is good is that which meets the needs of those concerned.” Under this perspective, the care and concern for others is paramount. This is a perspective that is regarded as more “feminine” as it is believed that women as a group are more in attuned to the needs of others. Women are more likely to be concerned about the care of others as guiding how they behave. Peacemaking and restorative justice are thought to be derive from the ethics of care framework. Egoism is a framework where the needs of self are most important. So acting to satisfy one’s own wants and needs under this framework is acting ethically. As the act is the focus here, egoism falls under the deontological perspective. Even when acting on behalf of others, it is believed that one is acting out of enlightened egoism or helping and caring for others so they will do the same for you when you are in need of assistance.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the difference between ethical formalism and utilitarianism?

Ans: Ethical formalism is what is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. Under this system, there is the belief that there is a universal law that includes clear rights and wrongs. There is a categorical imperative that requires that each person act as he or she would like all others to act (very much like the golden rule mentioned in the foregoing). People must seek to be guided by reason in their decision-making. Ethical formalism falls under a deontological system as the focus is on the act and its rightness (or wrongness) rather than on the consequences of the act and its rightness (or wrongness). It is a position that does not account for grey areas, an act is either right or it is wrong. So some acts, such as murder, lying, and stealing are always wrong even when the end of these acts is good. Utilitarianism is defined as what is good is that which results in the greatest utility for the greatest number. So morality is determined by how many people were helped by the act. The philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) believed that people will do a “utilitarian calculus” as regards how much pleasure or pain a given act will garner, and they will act on that to maximize pleasure. But when one’s pleasure conflicts with the greater good for society, then one must bow to the greater good, under a utilitarian perspective. As utilitarianism is focused on the end—whether it is moral or immoral or ethical or unethical—achieved by an act, it falls under the teleological system.

Learning Objective: 4-2: Describe the different ethical frameworks.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Foundation for Professional Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

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