Continuity And Innovation 1st Edition by Gazso – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Continuity And Innovation 1st Edition by Gazso – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. According to the textbook, we study families for several important reasons. Which of these statements is one of those reasons?

  a. Families are the most productive units of society.
  b. Families all have the same structures, so they are easy to compare.
  c. Sociologists like to study family for its rapid changes in structure and functions.
  d. Sociologists need many subjects to study at a time.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

2. Which of the following is an aspect important for the study of families?

  a. definition of situation
  b. self-fulfilling prophecy
  c. sociological imagination
  d. cyclical theory

 

ANSWER:   c

 

3. Why has the traditional family pathway of marriage, parenthood, and empty nest changed today?

  a. highly individualized actions
  b. state policy-related actions
  c. unprecedented actions
  d. political actions

 

ANSWER:   a

 

4. The traditional family pathway is changing. Which of the following applies to family pathways today?

  a. We can experience the same events at different points in time.
  b. We can experience past events that we missed.
  c. We can experience only one point in time.
  d. We can experience pathways in many different countries.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

5. When discussing families in sociological terms today, which of the following is NOT an assumption made by sociologists?

  a. Compared to the history, there is a different mode of operation for today’s families.
  b. Families are changing at a much faster rate today than in the past.
  c. Families have evolved into many types compared to the past.
  d. There is a normative and linear family pathway that the majority of families travel today.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

6. One noteworthy transition in families today includes the degree of commitment to a partner relationship. How has this affected the outcomes of relationships?

  a. Relationships are less likely to be formed.
  b. Relationships are less likely to end up in divorces.
  c. Relationships are more likely to end up in common-law unions.
  d. Relationships are less likely to end up in a nuclear family formation.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

7. According to Statistics Canada, which of these Canadian provinces continues to record more common-law unions than official marriages?

  a. British Columbia
  b. Ontario
  c. Quebec
  d. Nova Scotia

 

ANSWER:   c

 

8. According to the textbook, what was a key feature of marriages in the 18th and early 19th centuries?

  a. the securing of economic partnerships
  b. the securing of an alliance between two people
  c. Marriages were based on pure love.
  d. Marriages were based on matchmaking.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

9. The concept of love has changed in the late-modern society. What forms the basis of the new love?

  a. intimacy with a social distance
  b. intimacy without conditions
  c. quantitative difference between intimacy and love
  d. intimacy with some conditions

 

ANSWER:   d

 

10. During what period of history did romantic love come into being as the basis for marriage?

  a. 12th century
  b. 15th century
  c. late 18th century
  d. early 20th century

 

ANSWER:   c

 

11. The way people engage in dating has also changed today due to certain influences. From which of these sources is that influence most likely to come?

  a. parents
  b. Internet-based tools
  c. in-person matchmakers
  d. horoscopes and religious affiliations

 

ANSWER:   b

 

12. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, how were important decisions in life such as courtship conducted?

  a. Courtships did not yet exist.
  b. with full freedom for the couples involved
  c. with supervision only
  d. without any supervision

 

ANSWER:   c

 

13. Which of these groups are the most influential in decisions taken today by people with respect to dating and courtship?

  a. parents and grandparents
  b. distant relatives
  c. peers
  d. neighbours

 

ANSWER:   c

 

14. In forming intimate relationships and establishing meaningful communications, which of the following are less important than in the past?

  a. technology and media
  b. physical meeting places
  c. Skype and hand-outs
  d. Facebook and Match.com

 

ANSWER:   b

 

15. According to the textbook, women today are inclined to find love in non-marital forms. Which of these forms can be included in that statement?

  a. cohabitation or online dating
  b. temporary marriages
  c. being single
  d. being divorced

 

ANSWER:   a

 

16. According to Statistics Canada, an unprecedented change in the demography of the Canadian population took place in 2015. What is this change?

  a. Those who were younger than 14 years of age outnumbered those who were over 65 years of age.
  b. Those who were 45 years of age outnumbered those who were 60 years of age.
  c. Those who were 65 years or older outnumbered those who were younger than 15 years of age.
  d. Men outnumbered women.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

17. According to Statistics Canada, by 2017, what will be the ratio of people who are foreign-born and belong to a visible minority in Canada?

  a. 1 in 3
  b. 1 in 4
  c. 1 in 5
  d. 1 in 6

 

ANSWER:   c

 

18. Which of these factors is a demographic change that has taken place in the Canadian population?

  a. a marriage squeeze (not enough partners within the same age brackets)
  b. fertility rate going below replacement level
  c. higher birth rates for boys
  d. higher birth rates for girls

 

ANSWER:   b

 

19. Aging Canadians are now experiencing a situation in which intergenerational members are coming to live with them due to financial constraints. Which of these terms describes this situation?

  a. cluttered nest
  b. congested housing
  c. empty nest
  d. boomerang nest

 

ANSWER:   a

 

20. According recent data, which of these types of families has the greatest likelihood of experiencing poverty?

  a. any single-parent family
  b. lone father-headed family
  c. two-parent family
  d. lone mother-headed family

 

ANSWER:   d

 

21. Increasing women’s participation in the labour force in Canada can be attributed to many reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?

  a. feminist thinking and movement
  b. legal suppression of outspoken men
  c. changing economy
  d. recognition of women’s capacities

 

ANSWER:   b

 

22. When heteronormativity is taken as a guiding principle of families, which of these groups are ignored?

  a. LGBTQ families
  b. extended families
  c. single-mother families
  d. blended families

 

ANSWER:   a

 

23. What proportion of the Canadian family composition in 2011 included legally married, common-law marriages, same-sex couples, and lone parents?

  a. 73 percent
  b. 67 percent
  c. 47 percent
  d. 43 percent

 

ANSWER:   b

 

24. According to recent statistics, who are young adults living with later into their teen years, causing delays in the formation of serious relationships?

  a. parents
  b. partners
  c. siblings
  d. grandparents

 

ANSWER:   a

 

25. The textbook presents a sociological framework for understanding Canadian families via three dimensions. Which of the following is NOT one of the dimensions listed?

  a. meanings
  b. practices
  c. definitions
  d. processes

 

ANSWER:   c

 

26. In spite of innovations made to the family, which of these factors seems to be consistent?

  a. the meaning given to “what is family?”
  b. the number of members in a family
  c. roles of mothers and fathers in a family
  d. sibling relationships within a family

 

ANSWER:   a

 

27. Eichler (1997) introduced a new concept referring to the assumption that the majority of families are composed of nuclear units. What is the term for this concept?

  a. monolithic descent
  b. monolithic bias
  c. plurality bias
  d. normative bias

 

ANSWER:   b

 

28. According to the textbook, which group do Indigenous peoples in Canada feel have deliberately revised their family concept and practices after occupying Canadian land?

  a. Europeans
  b. French
  c. Spaniards
  d. Indigenous leaders themselves

 

ANSWER:   a

 

29. Family practice is defined in the textbook as activities that family members engage in as part of family life. These activities vary according to certain background factors. Which of the following is NOT one such factor?

  a. race and ethnicity
  b. age and gender
  c. sexuality
  d. physical appearance

 

ANSWER:   d

 

30. Which of the following is a key way that power imbalances dominate activities of family life?

  a. Trying to balance work and family is not an issue for women.
  b. Unpaid work that women are engaged in on the domestic front is not recognized.
  c. Most women today have entered the work force.
  d. Women prefer more part-time work.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

31. Which of these statements refers to the term boomerang kid?

  a. the child who comes back home from boarding school
  b. the child who depends on family members for financial support, even when he/she is an adult
  c. a special Australian child
  d. a child with the repetitive expression of the same need

 

ANSWER:   b

 

32. Which of these statements best describes family processes?

  a. They are how families are represented to others and the media.
  b. They are the abandoned activities that are recreated to improve family life.
  c. They include only ways that family is reimagined and innovated by participants.
  d. They are routines that are created, change, or end over time.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

33. What appears to be a normative family practice including childrearing becomes difficult when non-normative conditions are part of the family context. Which of the following is an example of a condition that can change childrearing practices?

  a. A growing child rejects his/her parents’ care.
  b. Parents choose to live in a rural area, where they can freely practice their religion.
  c. Parents decide to take on an alternative approach to childrearing.
  d. A child is born with a disability or a high IQ, or is not seen as able-bodied.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. According to the textbook, what is the term given to the forming, maintaining, and ending of intimate relationships and sustaining income security as people age?

  a. family processes over the life course
  b. transitions
  c. stages and events
  d. family practices

 

ANSWER:   a

 

35. Some transitions, such as divorce and marriage, are defined as legal and political events by certain people and agents. Which of these groups are these people?

  a. the general public
  b. government officials and policy makers
  c. unmarried people
  d. married people

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. Different generations adopt different family processes; however, certain processes will continue without many changes. Which of these factors is one such process?

  a. how people in the family are cared for
  b. how anger is expressed against others
  c. how food is prepared and consumed in a household
  d. how marriages are formed

 

ANSWER:   a

 

37. Ulrich Beck (1992) defined a society with late-modern characteristics as a risk society. Which of these statements demonstrates what he meant by this term?

  a. A risk society does not have different patterns of security and trust.
  b. A risk society is very similar to a feudal society.
  c. Risk societies have patterns very similar to those observed in agrarian and industrial societies.
  d. A risk society has different relationships between individuals and social structures compared to societies in the past.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. According to Beck, Giddens, and Lash (1994), in modern society the nuclear family is losing its importance, but at the same time is not disappearing altogether. What is this feature called?

  a. creative modernization
  b. reflexive modernization
  c. boomerang modernization
  d. repeat modernization

 

ANSWER:   b

 

39. Which of these concepts captures the phenomenon of women’s increasing participation in the paid workforce and men’s increased participation in the unpaid work force relative to the past?

  a. de-normalization of roles
  b. deformities of roles and responsibilities
  c. deregulation of roles and status
  d. disintegration of roles and status

 

ANSWER:   a

 

40. In late modernity, the individual is forced to develop his/her own identity in the midst of the fading away of tradition. What is this process identified as?

  a. collective process of reflexive modernization
  b. counterproductive process of reflexive modernization
  c. individual patriarchal pattern of reflexive modernization
  d. individualization process of reflexive modernization

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. The theme of looking after one’s self has gradually taken over all spheres of life, both private and public. According to the text, where does this new “imperative” come from in today’s society?

  a. today’s political climate
  b. today’s economy
  c. today’s culture
  d. modern way of thinking

 

ANSWER:   b

 

42. Although the governing of the start and ending of family relationships has been a continuous process, there appears to be a shift in some aspects of family processes. Which of the following is a contributing factor in these shifts?

  a. how governing is achieved and for what reasons
  b. formation and dissolution of families
  c. multiplication of families
  d. disintegration of family governance

 

ANSWER:   a

 

43. Lash (2003) observed that, through separation and divorce, children who belonged to an original family are removed from an intimate family environment and dispersed into two or more family environments. This process is now defined as _____

  a. disintegrated families.
  b. dispersed families.
  c. post-familial families.
  d. pre-familial families.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. As Lash (2003) contends, living in increasingly reflexive ways in modern society puts individuals in family contexts in conditions where they experience which of the following as part of their new ways of living?

  a. greater happiness
  b. boredom
  c. tension and contradictions
  d. uneasiness

 

ANSWER:   c

 

45. Anthony Giddens regards late modernity as a time when individuals have opportunities to experience which of the following conditions?

  a. independence of agency from structure
  b. impure love
  c. emphatic sexuality
  d. greed

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. According to Giddens, the independence of agency from structure connotes which of the following?

  a. Individuals have no freedom to make decisions on their own.
  b. Individuals are under the full control of socio-cultural forces.
  c. Social structure is weakening its own power.
  d. Individuals have more freedom to make decisions while ignoring social pressures.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

47. According to Giddens (1992), when love is not unconditional as in the past, love in late modernity is active, is contingent upon certain requirements, and expects equality in the discharge of emotional support. What is the term he uses to present this idea?

  a. congruent love
  b. confluent love
  c. confused love
  d. concocted love

 

ANSWER:   b

 

48. What does Giddens (1992) call sexuality that is NOT focused on reproduction and is mainly for pleasure?

  a. synthetic sexuality
  b. syndicated sexuality
  c. plastic sexuality
  d. liquid sexuality

 

ANSWER:   c

 

49. According to the textbook, when one uses the intersectionality lens, one is able to understand which of the following as an aspect of how individual experiences in families are shaped?

  a. love and affection
  b. class and citizenship
  c. parental interventions
  d. random thoughts

 

ANSWER:   b

 

50. Which of the following is the main purpose of your textbook?

  a. to show how families have entered a wrong path today compared to families in the past
  b. to show some changes taking place in modern families compared to families in the past
  c. to show some important theories pertaining to family
  d. to show how important continuity and innovation as dual themes are in our understanding of today’s families in relation to theories of modernity

 

ANSWER:   d

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

51. What are some reasons for focusing on families in Canada today?

ANSWER:   ∙ Family is a public institution.
∙ Families are undergoing big changes over time.
∙ Family experiences really matter to all of us.

 

52. It is claimed that families are different today compared to previous generations. What specific changes have we seen?

ANSWER:   ∙ Timing of transition to permanent relationships has changed.
∙ Love has acquired different meanings.
∙ Intimate relationships are formed for different reasons today.

 

53. Who are boomerang kids? Describe.

ANSWER:   ∙ children who return to parental homes after their teen years and in young adulthood due to financial or career issues, or the high cost of living independently
∙ cluttered nest

 

54. What factors account for the increasing participation of women in the Canadian labour force?

ANSWER:   ∙ rapidly changing economy with neo-liberal undertones
∙ feminist movements
∙ recognition of women’s capacities

 

55. Certain things in Canadian families have not changed very much. Identify and describe some of them.

ANSWER:   ∙ meanings attached to families
∙ certain family practices
∙ certain family processes

 

56. What is a risk society? Define and describe.

ANSWER:   ∙ It has different patterns of security and trust.
∙ Timing and means of creating a family are less dependent on cultural norms than they were in the past.
∙ A reflexive project of the self is on the forefront.

 

57. Anthony Giddens speaks about confluent love. What does that really mean?

ANSWER:   ∙ romantic relationships based on some conditions, not unconditional love of the past
∙ is active
∙ assumes equality in exchange of emotional support

 

58. Giddens also speaks about plastic sexuality. How is this defined?

ANSWER:   ∙ Sexual activities are for pleasure and not for reproduction.
∙ Assumptions of heteronormativity are ignored.
∙ multiple relationships over the life course

 

59. Are there inherent contradictions in modern sexuality practices and family formations? Explain your answer.

ANSWER:   ∙ Yes; paying attention to traditional behaviours while pursuing modern practices
∙ In the case of transnational families, religion and other cultural values still matter to them.

 

60. In their article in Current Sociology (2012), Farrell et al. have brought up some insights regarding American families. What are some of those findings?

ANSWER:   ∙ Many American studies view two married heterosexual parents residing together with biological children as constituting a family, even today.
∙ This type represents about 50 percent of American families.
∙ Sociologists need to expand their horizon when studying new families.

 

Essay

 

61. How does sociological imagination help one understand modern family?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

62. In today’s Canada, what do you consider to be the “typical” family?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

63. Do you find a big difference between what you knew about family changes and what you have read in this chapter? Discuss.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

64. Do you think new immigrant families differ very much from traditional Canadian families?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

65. How useful is the term reflexive modernization in examining modern Canadian families?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

1. Which of these statements was one of the main focuses in 19th/early 20th century scholarship of the sociological study of the family?

  a. the same-sex parent family according to its composition, roles, functions, and the interactions of its members
  b. the nuclear family according to its composition, roles, functions, and the interactions of its members
  c. the pre-industrial family according to its composition, roles, functions, and the interactions of its members
  d. the complex family according to its composition, roles, functions, and the interactions of its members

 

ANSWER:   b

 

2. Which of these terms does NOT apply to a mid-19th to early-20th century theory in the sociological study of the family?

  a. materialist/conflict perspective
  b. structural functionalism
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. behavioural adaptation

 

ANSWER:   d

 

3. Per the British anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski, which of the following is NOT a universal characteristic of a family?

  a. individuals having distinct responsibilities (a division of labour)
  b. practising some form of co-residence
  c. displaying emotions toward one-another
  d. raising children together

 

ANSWER:   d

 

4. Per the work of Friedrich Engels, in which of these societies did the nuclear family have its foundation?

  a. early Middle Eastern
  b. early Greek
  c. early Latin-American
  d. early African

 

ANSWER:   b

 

5. Which of these statements about nuclear families does NOT agree with Friedrich Engels’s view of materialist/conflict perspective of families and family relations?

  a. They were formed primarily through men’s monopoly on ownership of property.
  b. The primary urge to pass on wealth to one’s offspring resulted in nuclear families.
  c. Conflict within families could be traced to the growth of capitalism.
  d. Marital equality is an outcome of material and social change.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

6. Which of these theories can be used to explain marital inequality as an outcome of material and social change?

  a. materialist/conflict perspective
  b. structural functionalism
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. behavioural adaptation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

7. Which of these schools of theory suggests that families were universal but that their characteristics varied per social contexts?

  a. materialist/conflict perspective
  b. structural functionalism
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. behavioural adaptation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

8. Which of these statements best defines patriarchy?

  a. a social system and/or ideology in which power and authority rest in men
  b. a social system and/or ideology in which power and authority rest in women
  c. a social system and/or ideology in which power and authority rest equally in both genders
  d. a family system and/or ideology in which power and authority rest in men

 

ANSWER:   a

 

9. Which of these theories defines the family as a unit based on roles that they perceive others perform?

  a. materialist/conflict perspective
  b. structural functionalism
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. behavioural adaptation

 

ANSWER:   c

 

10. Per the early 20th century anthropologist George Murdock, which one of these couples shows characteristics of a family?

  a. two married men living in their condo with their cat Roxie
  b. a married man and woman living in two different cities and who have a biological child
  c. a man and woman living in their apartment with their adopted son, Alan
  d. two women living together in their grandmother’s basement

 

ANSWER:   c

 

11. Per the early 20th century anthropologist George Murdock, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a family?

  a. common residence
  b. economic corporation
  c. reproduction
  d. shared meals

 

ANSWER:   d

 

12. In Family, Socialization and Interaction Process, T. Parsons and R. Bales theorize that families fulfill certain social and economic functions in society. Which of these is NOT such a function?

  a. the production and socialization of individuals so that they fit into society
  b. the provision of emotional well-being and the maintenance of adult relationships
  c. the organization of sexual relations
  d. the provision and protection of equal rights

 

ANSWER:   d

 

13. Murdock’s theories focus on family and its formation in the mid-1900s. Which of the following statements applies to Murdock’s work?

  a. The nuclear family was identified in all cultures and formed distinctly from the community.
  b. Families can never truly provide the “functional prerequisites” for a healthy life.
  c. It was based on deep case studies of only a few cultures.
  d. Same-sex families are not as functional, since they cannot reproduce naturally.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

14. Which of these statements is the definition of kin relations per Murdock (1949/1960)?

  a. only people linked by blood or marital relations
  b. people linked by blood only
  c. people linked by marriage only
  d. only people that choose to cohabit

 

ANSWER:   a

 

15. Which sociological school of thought appreciated the nuclear family of the 1950s for its ability to achieve a harmonious division of gender roles?

  a. materialist/conflict perspective
  b. structural functionalism
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. behavioural adaptation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

16. Which of these statements best agrees with Parson and Bales’ (1955) theories on the formation of families?

  a. Men perform often-ignored instrumental roles in the home, including care for and educating children.
  b. Women perform key economic roles within and outside the household.
  c. Men’s ability to provide earning power cast them as heads of the household.
  d. Women were to enter the workforce only after they provided care for and nurtured others.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

17. American sociologist Ernest Burgess was interested in how roles defined families. Which of the following is one of his contributions to the sociological study of families?

  a. His perspective focused more on the structural and social impacts of family life.
  b. He argued that industrialization and modernization transformed interactions between family members.
  c. He maintained that people interact with others per the economic powers that they perceive others possess.
  d. He defined the family as a unit based on interactions among clan groups that compete over resources.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

18. Although feminist scholarship can be traced to at least the 18th century, when did it begin to profoundly influence the subdiscipline of family sociology?

  a. the mid-18th century
  b. the mid-19th century
  c. the mid-20th century
  d. the mid-21st century

 

ANSWER:   c

 

19. Which of these statements is NOT a challenge perceived by feminists when describing a family unit as confined to the household?

  a. Inequalities exist within and across family and social relations.
  b. All families are headed by men with fulltime employment.
  c. Families can be differentiated by race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, age, and citizenship.
  d. Inequalities are socially, culturally, and historically variable.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

20. Which of these statements represents a modern critique of earlier sociological theories on families?

  a. Early heteronormative approaches to the study of nuclear families provided universal findings.
  b. Early approaches to sociology of the family had universal and inclusive perspectives.
  c. Sociology of the family was largely androcentric and heteronormative.
  d. Sociology of family was overly focused on the roles of women in the households.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

21. Which of these statements reflects early sociological theories of family?

  a. Approaches such as structural functionalism ignored heterosexual couple unions and focused only on structural roles of the family.
  b. Sociology of the family has tended to focus on all people equally, creating rich understandings of minority family structures.
  c. Queer families were one of the focuses of early scholars.
  d. Early scholars tended to study nuclear families and ignored non-Caucasian approaches to family.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

22. What does the term fictive kin mean?

  a. any persons to whom individuals in a family feel close and with whom they have a strong relationship
  b. any persons to whom individuals in a family feel close and with whom they have a biological relationship
  c. any persons to whom individuals in a family feel close and with whom they have a legally binding relationship
  d. any persons to whom individuals in a family feel close and with whom they have a sexual relationship

 

ANSWER:   a

 

23. Which of these is NOT an example of fictive kin?

  a. poor families that manage to “make do” through reciprocal exchanges of financial and emotional support
  b. friends that exchange goods and services within a social network that provides emotional support
  c. the maid from the agency that cleans your house while you are away on vacation
  d. people that become close through exchanges of resources and then are perceived in the same way as biological kin

 

ANSWER:   c

 

24. According to Sullivan (2004); Weeks, Heaphy, and Donovan (2001); and Weston (1991), what are “families of choice”?

  a. a concept that describes how gays and lesbians define their families beyond kinship ties
  b. families that are open enough to allow their children to bring dates home
  c. parents who do not take the complete power of decision making and involves the children
  d. families in which same-sex couples are accepted

 

ANSWER:   a

 

25. What is meant by the term family economy?

  a. a country’s economic status as it pertains to one’s family
  b. describes a family in which multiple individuals take part in childrearing
  c. a family’s socio-economic status
  d. a measure of the degree of the parents’ ability to financially support their children

 

ANSWER:   b

 

26. For David Morgan, a British sociologist, if family were a part of speech, which would best describe it?

  a. pronoun
  b. verb
  c. adjective
  d. phrase

 

ANSWER:   c

 

27. Which of these terms may NOT have been used until the late 20th century sociological study of families?

  a. fictive kin
  b. nuclear family
  c. families of choice
  d. chosen family

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. According to queer theory, what is “families of choice”?

  a. how heterosexuals define their families as those with whom they feel close
  b. how gays and lesbians define their families as those with whom they feel close
  c. how gays and lesbians define their families as including those to whom they are legally married
  d. how heterosexuals define their families as including those to whom they are legally married

 

ANSWER:   b

 

29. Finch (2007) extends the notion of “doing family” to include the ideas of performance and representation. Which of these statements defines a family following this concept?

  a. Family members “display” to others what family means to them.
  b. Society “displays” to the family what family means.
  c. Family members “display” to themselves what family means to them.
  d. Sociological scholars “define” what family means to them.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

30. Porsia met her new colleague Anna today. They are bonding over lunch. Porsia can see Anna has a wedding band on her finger and wants to ask about her family. What word could she use refer to Anna’s spouse to be politically correct?

  a. husband
  b. wife
  c. partner
  d. boyfriend

 

ANSWER:   c

 

31. Which of these statements refers to intergenerational ambivalence?

  a. Individuals can hold positive and negative feelings about their family relations simultaneously.
  b. Individuals can hold only positive feelings about their family relations.
  c. Individuals always hold negative feelings about their family relations.
  d. Individuals can hold either positive or negative feelings about their family relations at a given time.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

32. Which of these statements does NOT apply to the term doing family?

  a. It was coined post-1990s.
  b. It originated from work of Egyptian family sociologists.
  c. It captures the interactions that create and maintain social ties and network.
  d. It refers to a set of established boundaries around responsibility for attachment and care.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

33. Which of these activities is least likely to be a part of Alisha “doing family”?

  a. paying for her daughters’ college
  b. taking care of her grandchild
  c. visiting her aunt in Italy every other year
  d. preparing meals for family-only dinners

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. Which of these statements describes the Finch’s (2007) approach to the concept of “doing family”?

  a. Family is purely a social and material construct.
  b. Family is a performative act, in which both the members and audiences agree that they are seeing “family.”
  c. Doing family can occur only in nuclear families.
  d. Doing family always and only follows traditional and gendered family roles.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

35. What is meant by the term feminist political economy?

  a. how feminist scholars affect our political climate, resulting in electing right-wing politicians
  b. the economic burden feminist scholars put on a country, and how that affects our political structure
  c. new approaches to the study of family structure that focus on social reproduction
  d. the political and economic environment in a country that may oppress feminists

 

ANSWER:   c

 

36. Which of the following is NOT included in social reproduction?

  a. how food, clothing, and shelter are produced and consumed
  b. how children are cared for and socialized
  c. how older and sick family members are cared for
  d. how pets are an essential part of a modern family

 

ANSWER:   d

 

37. Which of these statements identifies something unique about the concept of social reproduction?

  a. It reproduces labour, especially that of men.
  b. It is not tied to other processes such as gender and class relations.
  c. It is about the reproduction of the next generation.
  d. It takes an interest in organization of sexuality.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

38. In what way does late modernity affect family formation and structure?

  a. The reflexive process of modernization fractures structures of life and the nuclear family from earlier modern phases.
  b. Late modernization causes families to expand and bond together into clans.
  c. Individualization facilitates the ability to take family relationships such as procreation, marriage, and sex as the only important events in life.
  d. Late modernity in Western capitalist economies produces greater wealth, creating stronger nuclear families.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

39. According to the text, why do some scholars prefer the concept of “sociology of personal life” to the concept of “family”?

  a. It can be used to understand people’s lives as belonging only to the individual themselves.
  b. Personal lives are more central to a person’s psychology than social ties.
  c. Scholars maintain that practices of intimacy must be explored and understood by focusing only on blood relations and kin.
  d. Familial understandings of relationships and networks cannot capture new patterns of intimacy and caring that have emerged over time.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

40. What kinds of information can sociologists study using quantitative methods?

  a. Quantitative data can measure only factual information.
  b. Quantitative data can answer questions using a cross-sectional model only.
  c. Quantitative methods can be used to measure large populations generally over time.
  d. Quantitative methods are generally used to test positivistic research questions.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. Which of the following is an example of a quantitative method?

  a. a survey
  b. an observation
  c. a focus group
  d. an artifact

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. Which of these is NOT an example of a sociological survey that would have provided research data to help analyze Canadian families?

  a. General Social Survey
  b. National Longitudinal Survey on Children and Youth
  c. National Survey of Social Science Researchers
  d. Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging

 

ANSWER:   c

 

43. Which of the following is NOT a research method commonly used by family sociologists to gather and theorize information of Canadian families today?

  a. quantitative method
  b. qualitative method
  c. mixed method
  d. questioning method

 

ANSWER:   d

 

44. Which of the following best characterizes the positivist paradigm?

  a. It is an epistemology of realism.
  b. It is an ontology of realism.
  c. It is an epistemology of constructionism.
  d. It is an ontology of constructionism.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

45. Which of the following best characterizes interpretivism?

  a. It is an epistemology of realism.
  b. It is an ontology of realism.
  c. It is an epistemology of constructionism.
  d. It is an ontology of constructionism.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

46. Which of the following statements best characterizes qualitative methods of research?

  a. They can produce only textual descriptions of a phenomenon of interest.
  b. They result in comprehensively rich data from which one may make sense of complex social problems.
  c. They provide objective views of how individuals see themselves and their social world.
  d. They produce data that are easy to measure using statistical analysis.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

47. Which of the following is NOT a method that Pahl uses to recruit participants for his qualitative study of families?

  a. random sampling
  b. convenience sampling
  c. snowball sampling
  d. asking students from his Sociology 101 class that have two or more children

 

ANSWER:   a

 

48. Which of these statements best characterizes mixed methods of sociological research?

  a. They are a form of qualitative research only.
  b. They are a form of quantitative research only.
  c. They combine both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
  d. They use neither qualitative nor quantitative methods.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

49. Which of these statements applies to interpretivism?

  a. an approach that moves away from positivism and looks instead for culturally derived and historically situated interpretations of the social world
  b. an approach that focuses on positivism and moves away from culturally derived and historically situated interpretations of the social world
  c. an approach that moves away from positivism and culturally derived and historically situated interpretations of the social world
  d. an approach that focuses on positivism and looks for culturally derived and historically situated interpretations of the social world

 

ANSWER:   a

 

50. Which of these paradigms is closest to the scientific method?

  a. positivism
  b. interpretivism
  c. neo-liberalism
  d. feminism

 

ANSWER:   a

 

51. List three main sociological schools of thought in the mid-19th to early 20th century.

ANSWER:   ∙ materialist/conflict perspective
∙ structural functionalism
∙ symbolic interactionism

 

52. List a few limitations of earlier sociological theories on families.

ANSWER:   ∙ Nuclear families are not universal.
∙ Sociology of the family had Eurocentric and ethnocentric leanings.
∙ Sociology of the family was largely androcentric and heteronormative.

 

53. What is a “family of choice”? Give an example using Person X and Person A.

ANSWER:   ∙ In queer theory, “family of choice” materialized as a concept to capture how gays and lesbians define their families as those with whom they feel close.

 

54. Explain what fictive kin is. How is this a useful research tool/concept in the modern age?

ANSWER:   ∙ Fictive kin are people who are regarded as being part of a family even though they are not related by either blood or marriage bonds.
∙ Fictive kinship may bind people together in ties of affection, concern, obligation, and responsibility.

 

55. Explain the idea of “doing family.” Give two examples.

ANSWER:   ∙ The idea of “doing family” is a post-1990s way of thinking that originates from the work of American family sociologists.
∙ “Doing family” captures the interactions that create and maintain social ties and networks, defines others as family, and establishes boundaries around responsibility for attachment and care.
∙ The doing of family is shaped by the materiality and cultural norms of one’s social location.
∙ Functions, such as unpaid caregiving and economic provision for dependants, are assumed as part of a “doing family” perspective.
∙ These functions are not exclusive to nuclear families.
∙ They are not linked to gendered family roles.

 

56. Name two assumptions that modern sociological scholars need to challenge using feminist beliefs.

ANSWER:   1) Inequalities exist within and across family and social relations, especially as they are differentiated by race, class, gender, sexuality, ability, age, and citizenship.
2) Inequalities are socially, culturally, and historically variable.

 

57. What was the focus of Connidis’s (2001, 2010) work on the family?

ANSWER:   ∙ inter- and intragenerational relationships
∙ She used the life course approach to examine family ties over the life course.
∙ intergenerational ambivalence

 

58. Define and explain personal communities.

ANSWER:   Pahl and Spencer (2004) suggest that the concept of “personal communities” can be used to understand people’s lives as embedded in active and significant network ties that are ascribed and chosen, with chosen relations including kin and non-kin.

 

59. Explain interpretivism.

ANSWER:   ∙ Interpretivism is linked to an ontology of constructionism.
∙ Reality is perceived, understood, experienced, and produced by individuals.
∙ The researcher knows reality subjectively rather than objectively.
∙ People construct knowledge of their social realities rather than reality being independent of people.

 

60. Explain positivism.

ANSWER:   ∙ Positivism has an ontology of realism.
∙ We assume that we can perceive and observe reality objectively.
∙ Being a realist also implies that we see reality independently of ourselves; the epistemology is therefore of objective knowledge.
∙ The paradigm of positivism can be connected to the scientific method.

 

61. According to the anthropological work of Lewis Henry Morgan, monogamous marriage has emerged parallel to our economic growth. Explain this using conflict theory of sociology.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

62. Your textbook lists many early theories on the formation of families. Name a few. Do you think they are still usable? Explain.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

63. How do you think that the ways of theorizing about family relations evolved through the years? Give a few examples and explain why these theories may still be subjective.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

64. Per Bezanson and Luxton (2006), “women’s participation in the process of social reproduction reproduces labour power, predominantly that of men, especially within nuclear families.” What is social reproduction? Why is it an essential part of the sociology of families?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

65. Using qualitative research methods would provide with a better understanding of family formation in sociology. It is a waste of resources to focus on quantitative research. Do you agree? Discuss.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

 

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