Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of The Mind 4th Edition By Mangun – Ivry – Test Bank

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Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of The Mind 4th Edition By Mangun – Ivry – Test Bank

Chapter 2: Structure and Function of the Nervous System
MULTIPLE CHOICE
LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Understand the structure of neurons and synapses
2. Explain the role of ion channels in changing neuronal membrane potential
3. Describe the impact of depolarization on the resting potential, and on the likelihood of subsequent
action potentials
4. Describe the influence of myelin and voltage-gated ion channels on action potentials
5. Understand electrical and chemical transmission at the synapse, including the use and removal of
neurotransmitters after binding
6. Explain the roles of different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann
cells, and microglial cells
7. Define and recognize differences between the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system,
sympathetic system, parasympathetic system, cerebral cortex, gray and white matter, and corpus
callosum
8. Understand the functions of the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellum
9. Understand the functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland
10. Understand the functions of the limbic system and basal ganglia
11. Define and describe anatomical structures and principles that include gyri, sulci, Brodmann areas,
lobes, topography, and association cortices
12. Explain the developmental process of the nervous system and the mechanisms behind neurogenesis
1. The two main classes of cell in the nervous system are
a. dendrites and axons. c. neurons and glial cells.
b. axons and neurons. d. glial cells and dendrites.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: The Structure of Neurons
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
2. In the nervous system, these cells provide structural support and insulation for neurons.
a. glia c. mitochondria
b. dendrites d. Purkinje cells
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: The Structure of Neurons
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
3. Two main types of projections extend from the cell body of a neuron. ________ receive inputs from
other neurons, while ________ send information to other neurons.
a. synapses ; glia c. glia ; synapses
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b. axons ; dendrites d. dendrites ; axons
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: The Structure of Neurons
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
4. Within a neuron, the transmission of information is usually ________. Between neurons, the
transmission of information is usually ________.
a. chemical ; chemical c. electrical ; chemical
b. electrical ; electrical d. chemical ; electrical
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: The Structure of Neurons
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
5. The ________, which is comprised of astrocytes, protects the brain from chemical compounds
circulating in the body that might otherwise interfere with neuronal activity.
a. sodium–potassium pump c. myelin sheath
b. blood–brain barrier d. lipid bilayer
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
6. Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis disrupt normal neural communication by
a. destroying receptors on postsynaptic cells so that neurotransmitters cannot bind normally.
b. creating lesions in the blood–brain barrier that allow toxic substances to enter the brain
from the bloodstream.
c. causing deterioration of the fatty substance that normally coats and insulates axons.
d. diminishing the activity of the sodium–potassium pumps that usually maintain the resting
potential of neurons.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
7. Which of the following cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system?
a. astrocytes c. oligodendrocytes
b. microglia d. Schwann cells
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
8. Which of the following cells devour and remove damaged brain cells?
a. astrocytes c. oligodendrocytes
b. microglia d. Schwann cells
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
9. If you were to insert a microelectrode through the cell membrane of a neuron, you would be able to
demonstrate that
a. the region inside the cell membrane contains more positive ions than the region outside the
membrane.
b. the region inside the cell membrane contains more negative ions than the region outside
the membrane.
c. there is a greater concentration of potassium ions outside the cell membrane than inside
the membrane.
d. there is a greater concentration of potassium ions inside the cell membrane than outside
the membrane.
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ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 MSC: Applying
10. The nodes of Ranvier are
a. vesicles of neurotransmitters, stored in presynaptic neurons.
b. points along axons where sodium–potassium pumps are found.
c. vesicles of calcium ions, stored in postsynaptic neurons.
d. points along axons that are not surrounded by myelin.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
11. The ease with which a cell membrane will permit ions to cross it is referred to as
a. the concentration gradient. c. the action potential.
b. permeability. d. conductivity.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
12. If you inserted a micropipette into a neuron without harming the cell, and pumped in a small quantity
of calcium ions, each of which carried two positive charges, how would this affect the membrane
potential?
a. The membrane potential would become depolarized relative to the resting potential.
b. The membrane potential would become hyperpolarized relative to the resting potential.
c. There would be no change because calcium does not contribute to the resting potential.
d. There would be no change because the sodium–potassium pump would remove excess
calcium from the cell.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4 MSC: Applying
13. Ouabain is a toxin that works by permanently inhibiting the activity of sodium–potassium pumps
embedded in neuronal membranes. How would ouabain administration affect the resting potential of a
neuron?
a. The magnitude of the resting potential would shift toward zero.
b. The resting potential would hyperpolarize toward a more negative value.
c. The resting potential would reverse to a positive, rather than a negative, value.
d. Application of ouabain would not affect the resting potential.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Applying
14. The term concentration gradient refers to a difference in the
a. number of two different ion types within the neuron.
b. number of ions found on opposite sides of the cell membrane.
c. permeability of the membrane to one kind of ion compared to another.
d. permeability of the membrane at rest compared to during an action potential.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 MSC: Remembering
15. At the resting state, a higher concentration of ________ is found outside a neuron and a higher
concentration of ________ is found inside a neuron.
a. K+ ; Na+ c. dopamine ; serotonin
b. Na+ ; K+ d. serotonin ; dopamine
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ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
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16. The value of the membrane potential to which an axon must be depolarized to initiate an action
potential is called the ________ potential for that neuron.
a. graded c. threshold
b. resting d. refractory
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
17. The poison tetraethylammonium (TEA) interferes with normal neural communication. The toxin binds
to and blocks voltage-gated potassium channels in the neuron cell membrane. Which of the following
best describes the effects of TEA on the action potential?
a. The depolarization phase of the action potential fails to occur.
b. The repolarization phase of the action potential is blocked.
c. The refractory period of the action potential is shortened.
d. The action potential fails to be regenerated at the nodes of Ranvier.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
18. The Hodgkin–Huxley cycle describes how the depolarization of the membrane causes voltage-gated
sodium channels to ________, allowing ________ sodium ions to enter the cell. This change in
sodium concentration then causes ________ of the cell.
a. close ; fewer ; further depolarization c. open ; more ; further depolarization
b. close ; fewer ; repolarization d. open ; more ; repolarization
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4 MSC: Understanding
19. The primary reason why neurons are refractory for a short period after firing action potentials, and the
reason underlying the absolute refractory period, is that the
a. voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated.
b. voltage-gated potassium channels are inactivated.
c. sodium–potassium pump has to remove sodium ions from inside the cell.
d. sodium–potassium pump has to retrieve potassium ions from outside the cell.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
20. In myelinated axons, action potentials are generated
a. at the nodes of Ranvier only.
b. along the entire length of the axons.
c. underneath the myelinated portions of the axons only.
d. only at the axon hillocks and axon terminals.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
21. The term saltatory conduction refers to the fact that
a. action potentials travel faster when extracellular salt concentration is high.
b. action potentials evoked by strong stimuli travel faster than those evoked by weaker
stimuli.
c. action potentials occur only at the nodes of Ranvier of axons.
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d. action potentials are generated only by myelinated portions of axons.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
22. The most important function of myelin in the nervous system is to
a. form the blood–brain barrier.
b. trigger the release of neurotransmitters from axon terminals.
c. produce cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles.
d. facilitate conduction of action potentials in axons.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
23. The primary benefit that the nervous system gains from myelination is
a. generation of currents actively (action potentials) rather than passively (electrotonic
conduction).
b. decreased membrane resistance.
c. increased resting potentials.
d. faster neural communication.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
24. Which of the following statements best describes the immediate consequence of neurotransmitter
molecules binding to postsynaptic receptors?
a. Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the
membrane.
b. The activity of the sodium–potassium pumps increases.
c. Calcium absorption into the axon terminal cell is triggered.
d. Neurotransmitter-containing vesicles bind to the inside of the axon terminal membrane.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 MSC: Understanding
25. The role of calcium ions (Ca2+) in synaptic transmission is to
a. bind neurotransmitter molecules to the postsynaptic membrane.
b. mediate the release of neurotransmitter molecules from the presynaptic neuron.
c. repolarize the postsynaptic cell after transmission has been completed.
d. increase the activity of the sodium–potassium pumps in the presynaptic cell.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
26. Which of the following sequences of steps best represents the order of events that occur during
synaptic transmission?
a. binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane -> diffusion of neurotransmitter
across the synapse -> release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell
b. diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse -> binding of neurotransmitter at the
postsynaptic membrane -> release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell
c. release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell -> binding of neurotransmitter at the
postsynaptic membrane -> diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse
d. release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell -> diffusion of neurotransmitter
across the synapse -> binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
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27. Consider the synapse shown schematically here. If neuron A causes neuron B to become
hyperpolarized relative to B’s resting state,
a. neuron B is more likely to fire its own action potential.
b. neuron B is less likely to release neurotransmitter molecules from its own axon terminal.
c. neuron B is more likely to absorb extracellular potassium through voltage-gated channels.
d. neuron B is less likely to absorb extracellular sodium through the sodium–potassium
pump.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
28. A gap junction is
a. the point where a neurotransmitter vesicle binds to the presynaptic membrane.
b. a connection between two sections of a G protein that plays a role in second-messenger
cascades.
c. a transmembrane channel that connects the cytoplasm of two cells at an electrical synapse.
d. more likely to be found on the amino acids than on the biogenic amines.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
29. Which of the following is a catecholamine?
a. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) c. serotonin
b. glutamate d. norepinephrine
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
30. The effect of a particular neurotransmitter on postsynaptic neurons
a. is always either excitatory or inhibitory.
b. depends on the properties of the postsynaptic neuron.
c. may be modulated by the presence or absence of another neurotransmitter.
d. Both b and c are true.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
31. Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for removing a neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft?
a. diffusion of the neurotransmitter away from the synapse
b. active reuptake of the neurotransmitter back into the presynaptic terminal
c. enzymatic breakdown of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
d. transport of the neurotransmitter by ion channels into neighboring glial cells
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
32. Many drugs produce their effects by facilitating or interfering with neurotransmitters at synapses.
Which of the following drugs would most likely increase the effect of serotonin?
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a. a drug that binds to directly coupled serotonin receptors but does not change membrane
permeability
b. a drug that prevents the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin molecules in the
synaptic cleft
c. a drug that blocks the effect of Ca2+ ions
d. a drug that blocks the effect of a conditional neurotransmitter that normally facilitates the
effect of serotonin
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
33. The morphology of the brain of Albert Einstein revealed an unusual Sylvian fissure—the division that
separates the ________ lobe from the ________ lobes.
a. occipital ; frontal and parietal c. frontal ; temporal and occipital
b. temporal ; frontal and parietal d. parietal ; temporal and occipital
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
34. The thick outer membrane that encloses the brain within the skull is the
a. gray matter. c. myelin sheath.
b. white matter. d. dura mater.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
35. The difference between gray matter and white matter is that gray matter refers to ________, whereas
white matter refers to ________.
a. protruding rounded surfaces ; fissures and invaginations
b. fissures and invaginations ; protruding rounded surfaces
c. cell bodies ; axons and glial cells
d. axons and glial cells ; cell bodies
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
36. Gray matter is to white matter as ________ are to ________.
a. gyri ; sulci c. cell bodies ; axon tracts
b. glial cells ; neurons d. oligodendrocytes ; Schwann cells
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Understanding
37. Neurons in two different regions of Brodmann’s cytoarchitectonic map always
a. use different types of neurotransmitters to communicate.
b. differ in cell morphology and organization.
c. lie inside different lobes of the cerebral cortex.
d. are separated by fissures in the cortex.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
38. The two main divisions of the central nervous system are the
a. forebrain and brainstem. c. brain and spinal cord.
b. white matter and gray matter. d. cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum.
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ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
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39. All of the following are advantages of a folded cerebral cortex EXCEPT
a. the need for blood vasculature in the cortex is eliminated.
b. neural conduction time between areas is reduced.
c. neurons are brought into closer three-dimensional relationships.
d. more cortical surface can be packed into the skull.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Understanding
40. The most caudal lobe of the cerebral cortex is the ________ lobe.
a. frontal c. occipital
b. temporal d. parietal
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 7 | LO 11 MSC: Understanding
41. The temporal lobe likely bears this name because
a. it is the brain’s center for temporal processing.
b. its functions are particularly susceptible to the effects of aging.
c. it lies beneath the area of the scalp where hair grays with age.
d. its neurons fire more quickly than neurons in other brain regions.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
42. The central sulcus is an anatomical landmark that separates the ________ lobe from the ________
lobe.
a. temporal ; frontal c. parietal ; occipital
b. frontal ; parietal d. occipital ; temporal
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
43. The term cytoarchitectonics refers to
a. how cells in one brain region appear morphologically and how they are arranged with
respect to each other.
b. how assemblies of neurons function together and how they communicate with neighboring
ganglia.
c. how different brain regions differ in volume and how they interact to produce complex
cognitive phenomena.
d. how the brains of different animals differ from each other in gross anatomy and the
evolutionary bases of these differences.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
44. Of the following choices, the most anterior portion of the frontal lobes—the prefrontal cortex—is most
critical to
a. processing information about pain, touch, and temperature.
b. executive functions.
c. the “what” visual pathway.
d. the “where” visual pathway.
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ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
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45. Communication between the two hemispheres of the brain occurs mainly through the
a. basal ganglia. c. corpus callosum.
b. cingulate gyrus. d. limbic system.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
46. The corpus callosum
a. permits communication between the two cerebral hemispheres.
b. is the area of the cortex in which information about touch, pain, temperature, and limb
position is processed.
c. separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes.
d. is a fluid-filled chamber that cushions and supports the brain.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
47. The primary visual cortex, or V1, is located in
a. the striate cortex. c. the calcarine fissure.
b. Brodmann area 17. d. all of the above.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
48. The neocortex typically contains ________ cortical layers, with ________ typically being the input
layer.
a. 10 ; layer IV c. 6 ; layer IV
b. 10 ; layer I d. 6 ; layer I
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
49. The frontal lobe is ________ to the occipital lobe, whereas the temporal lobe is ________ to the
parietal lobe.
a. posterior ; superior c. superior ; caudal
b. anterior ; inferior d. inferior ; rostral
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
50. All of the following terms refer to the same cortical region that processes visual input EXCEPT
a. striate cortex. c. Heschl’s gyrus.
b. area V1. d. Brodmann area 17.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
51. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in the lateral and third ventricles by the
a. dura mater. c. globus pallidus.
b. substantia nigra. d. choroid plexus.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
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52. A patient reports that she is functionally blind after a focal brain injury, even though her eyes and optic
nerves are completely intact. Of the structures listed here, the most probable location for the brain
injury is the
a. inferior colliculus. c. superior temporal lobe.
b. lateral geniculate nucleus. d. postcentral gyrus.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Applying
53. The part of the thalamus that is most important in relaying information to the primary visual cortex is
the
a. lateral geniculate nucleus. c. medial geniculate nucleus.
b. superior colliculus. d. inferior colliculus.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Remembering
54. The primary auditory cortex is organized using a tonotopic map, which means that there is an orderly
representation of
a. loudness. c. duration.
b. frequency. d. spatial location.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
55. Following a focal brain injury, a patient shows great difficulty in discriminating tones that differ in
frequency. Which area of the cortex is most likely affected?
a. the superior temporal lobe c. the anterior parietal lobe
b. the inferior temporal lobe d. the posterior parietal lobe
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Applying
56. The volume of cortex that is not sensory or motor has traditionally been termed ________ cortex.
a. extrastriate c. association
b. cognitive d. equipotential
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
57. All of the structures listed here are major components of the basal ganglia EXCEPT the
a. globus pallidus. c. caudate nucleus.
b. amygdala. d. putamen.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 10 MSC: Remembering
58. As a result of a brain injury to the medial temporal lobes and neighboring subcortical structures, a
patient exhibits a number of cognitive and behavioral changes. Of the options here, which is the
LEAST likely to be affected?
a. memory c. learning
b. emotional processing d. somatosensation
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 10 MSC: Applying
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59. This brain structure is often called the gateway to the cortex because almost all sensory inputs synapse
here before continuing to their primary cortical sensory areas.
a. hypothalamus c. thalamus
b. hippocampus d. amygdala
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Remembering
60. Which of the following functions is NOT mediated primarily by the hypothalamus?
a. endocrine system regulation
b. maintenance of homeostatic states in the body
c. relay of sensory information from the body to the cortex
d. hormone control
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Understanding
61. As a result of a brain injury to this diencephalic structure, a patient is experiencing disruptions in
maintaining homeostasis of bodily states and endocrine control.
a. thalamus c. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus d. cingulate gyrus
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Applying
62. Injury to the hypothalamus would most likely interfere with
a. hormone regulation. c. memory.
b. motor control. d. olfactory sensation.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Understanding
63. The brainstem includes all of the following components EXCEPT the
a. medulla. c. hypothalamus.
b. midbrain. d. pons.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Remembering
64. The specialized structures that comprise the midbrain control functions such as
a. hormone regulation. c. memory.
b. visual reflexes. d. emotional processing.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Remembering
65. A patient has great difficulty in maintaining his posture, walking, and coordinating his movements. His
brain injuries probably involve the
a. cerebellum. c. superior colliculus.
b. corpus callosum. d. third ventricle.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Applying
66. Parts of the brain where metabolic activity is relatively high are characterized by
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a. elevated regional blood flow.
b. increased cerebrospinal fluid production.
c. a high degree of myelination.
d. greater concentrations of calcium ions.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
67. The dorsal portions of the gray matter in the spinal cord carry
a. motor information.
b. sensory information.
c. motor and sensory information from the dorsal surface of the body.
d. sensory and motor information to the cerebellum.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Remembering
68. This type of early cell line is the precursor to the cells that will compose the nervous system.
a. blastula c. endoderm
b. gastrula d. ectoderm
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Remembering
69. Which of the following statements regarding the prenatal development of the human nervous system is
correct?
a. The brain develops from ectoderm cells, whereas the spinal cord develops from mesoderm
cells.
b. Ectoderm cells are the precursors of the entire nervous system.
c. Glial cells are derived from endoderm cells, whereas neurons are derived from ectoderm
cells.
d. Mesoderm cells are the precursors for all parts of the human nervous system.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Understanding
70. The 3H-thymidine labeling method is especially useful in determining when particular cells in the
nervous system emerge because
a. only cells that are fully myelinated at the time of injection are radioactively labeled.
b. only glial cells absorb the marker and are radioactively labeled.
c. only cells that are fully mature at the time of injection are radioactively labeled.
d. only cells that are undergoing cell division at the time of injection are radioactively
labeled.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Understanding
71. ________ refers to the process of rapid cell division that occurs early in development of the nervous
system.
a. Neurulation c. Neuronal migration
b. Neuronal proliferation d. Neural determination
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Development of the Nervous System
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72. The cells in the brain that guide migrating neurons to their final locations are called
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a. microglia. c. oligodendrocytes.
b. radial glia. d. ventricular cells.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Development of the Nervous System
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73. ________ is the idea that the columnar organization in the adult cortex is derived during development
from the cells dividing in the ventricular region.
a. Topographic mapping c. The radial unit hypothesis
b. The sensory homunculus d. The ventricular zone hypothesis
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Remembering
TRUE/FALSE
1. The cell body of a neuron contains the same machinery found in most cells, including a nucleus,
ribosomes, and mitochondria.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: The Structure of Neurons
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
2. Dendrites, which are large treelike processes extending from a neuron, are said to be presynaptic.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
3. Action potentials are electrical signals that are conducted down the axon of a neuron.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 3 MSC: Remembering
4. The term selective permeability refers to the fact that a cell membrane will allow some ions to pass
through more readily than others.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 MSC: Remembering
5. The resting potential of a neuron is typically +40 to +90 millivolts (mV).
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 3 MSC: Remembering
6. The equilibrium potential is the membrane voltage at which there is no net flow of ions in or out.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 | LO 3 MSC: Remembering
7. Hyperpolarization makes the inside of a cell more positive and more likely to generate an action
potential.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4 MSC: Remembering
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8. The amplitude of an action potential is directly proportional to the size of the initial depolarization that
produced it.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 MSC: Remembering
9. If the sum of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) causes a postsynaptic neuron to reach its
threshold, then the postsynaptic neuron will generate an action potential.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neuronal Signaling
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
10. Communication between two neurons is always achieved through chemical, and not electrical,
mechanisms.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Synaptic Transmission
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
11. Neural inputs that target the cortex and originate in the thalamus are referred to as corticothalamic.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: The Bigger Picture
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
12. Sulci are the protruding rounded surfaces of the cortex, and gyri are the fissures and invaginations
between the sulci.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Remembering
13. The term commissure refers to the white matter tracts that connect the brain and spinal cord.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
14. The hippocampus is considered part of the neocortex.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 10 MSC: Remembering
15. During development, a structure called the blastula begins to form when the neural plate invaginates
via neural folds being pushed up at its border.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Remembering
SHORT ANSWER
1. Describe the structure of a prototypical neuron. In your answer, provide definitions for the following
terms: soma, axon, dendrite, myelin, and synapse.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
Cognitive
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DIF: Medium REF: The Structure of Neurons OBJ: LO 1
MSC: Analyzing
2. Describe the chemical and electrical properties of an action potential. In your answer, describe the
movement of Na+ ions and K+ ions across the cell membrane and the resulting changes in electrical
potential.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Neuronal Signaling OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4
MSC: Analyzing
3. Explain the concept of electrochemical equilibrium. How does this concept allow us to understand the
transmembrane potentials in neurons?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3
MSC: Analyzing
4. What are the major differences between electrotonic conduction and the action potential? Describe
how these two processes play out in neural transmission.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Neuronal Signaling OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3
MSC: Analyzing
5. How do two neurons communicate with each other? Describe the process of synaptic transmission,
including both chemical and electrical synapses.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Synaptic Transmission OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Analyzing
6. Describe the structure, and explain the function, of three types of glial cells.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: The Role of Glial Cells OBJ: LO 6
MSC: Analyzing
7. Histological methods have been used to classify the cerebral cortex into different cytoarchitectonic
divisions, such as the Brodmann areas. Can we predict the function of a brain region based on
cytoarchitectonics? Why or why not?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
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DIF: Difficult REF: The Cerebral Cortex OBJ: LO 11
MSC: Evaluating
8. Choose six of the following eight brain regions. For each region, briefly describe its location in the
brain and one of its functions. Draw a picture to accompany your answer.
• frontal lobe
• parietal lobe
• temporal lobe
• occipital lobe
• basal ganglia
• hypothalamus
• thalamus
• cerebellum
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ: LO 8 | LO 9 | LO 10 | LO 11 MSC: Analyzing
9. What are the advantages of a cerebral cortex with gyri and sulci? Why might the human cerebral
cortex be more heavily folded than those of other mammals?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: A Guided Tour of the Brain OBJ: LO 11
MSC: Evaluating
10. Describe the events following the fertilization of an egg that pertain to the development of the nervous
system. In your answer, name the three main types of cell lines found in the blastula and describe what
parts of the organism these cells become.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Development of the Nervous System
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Analyzing

 

Chapter 4: Hemispheric Specialization
MULTIPLE CHOICE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Explain how the area of hemispheric specialization first gained prominence
2. Identify the anatomy of the hemispheres
3. Discuss key findings with regard to patients who have had their cerebral hemispheres disconnected
4. Understand the role of hemispheric specialization in different cognitive domains
5. Explain how hemispheric specialization plays a role in thinking about ourselves and others
6. Explain the evolutionary bases of hemispheric specialization
7. Recognize the ways in which hemispheric specialization sheds light on consciousness
1. Dr. Joseph Bogen operated on patient W.J. in order to relieve which symptoms?
a. seizures c. dizziness
b. cold sweats d. memory loss
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
2. Split-brain research is associated with which of the following?
a. lobotomy c. hemispherectomy
b. callosotomy d. craniectomy
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
3. Examination of cerebral organization in the left and right hemispheres indicates that
a. there are obvious anatomical differences between the hemispheres but no obvious
functional differences.
b. there are obvious functional differences between the hemispheres but no obvious
anatomical differences.
c. the two hemispheres are more different from one another in function than they are similar.
d. the two hemispheres are more similar to one another in function than they are different.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
4. The posterior and anterior commissures are NOT thick enough for which of the following?
a. to serve as an alternative interhemispheric route for the corpus callosum
b. to provide connections between the temporal lobes
c. to provide limited connectivity between the hemispheres
d. to provide connectivity for basic light reflexes
ANS: A DIF: Difficult
REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres | Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
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Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
5. Which of the following is NOT true of the Wada test?
a. It entails the injection of amobarbital.
b. It can be used to determine which hemisphere is language dominant.
c. It determines the extent to which the corpus callosum has been resected.
d. It is used before elective surgery for the treatment of epilepsy.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
6. Which of the following is NOT an anatomical or physiological difference between the cerebral
hemispheres?
a. The planum temporale is larger on the left side.
b. The Sylvian or lateral fissure is steeper on the left side.
c. Parts of the thalamus are larger on the left side.
d. Left-hemisphere neurons tend to have more dendritic branching than right-hemisphere
neurons.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
7. One issue in the study of laterality has been to determine whether children with developmental
language disabilities show different patterns of hemispheric asymmetry relative to control populations.
MRI studies of dyslexic children have found that
a. the left planum temporale tends to be larger than the right planum temporale in this group.
b. the right planum temporale tends to be larger than the left planum temporale in this group.
c. the left and right planum temporale tend to be symmetrical in this group.
d. their brains are indistinguishable from the brains of control participants with regard to
hemispheric asymmetry.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
8. An anatomical difference between the cerebral hemispheres that may be related to language
lateralization is the enlargement of the ________ in the left hemisphere.
a. hippocampus c. planum temporale
b. cingulate gyrus d. primary visual pathway
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
9. One difficulty in interpreting the correlation between asymmetry in the planum temporale and
language function that has recently arisen is that
a. the extent of the anatomical differences between the left and right hemispheres may have
been overestimated by the techniques used to identify this region.
b. it has been found that the planum temporale is an area of great plasticity that changes in
size throughout development.
c. newer studies indicate that the planum temporale is involved not in language function but
rather in vision.
d. current studies suggest that fewer people than previously thought have left-hemisphere
language dominance.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Analyzing
Cognitive
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and
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10. Based on what you know about the neurophysiological and microanatomical differences between the
right and left hemispheres, choose the option here that correctly lists the properties of cortical tissue
samples taken from the left hemisphere.
a. relatively greater dendritic branching, relatively dense packing of cortical columns
b. relatively less dendritic branching, relatively dense packing of cortical columns
c. relatively greater dendritic branching, relatively loose packing of cortical columns
d. relatively less dendritic branching, relatively loose packing of cortical columns
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
11. What are homotopic brain areas?
a. regions of the cortex that are organized according to spatial maps of the environment
b. areas in corresponding locations in the two cerebral hemispheres
c. areas in the brain that are organized according to spatial and auditory frequency
d. regions of the cortex found within the same cerebral hemisphere
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
12. The main mass of fibers that carries signals from the cortex in one cerebral hemisphere to the other is
called the
a. anterior commissure. c. arcuate fasciculus.
b. corpus callosum. d. planum temporale.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
13. Which of the following, if any, describes a proposed function of the corpus callosum?
a. to guide migrating neurons in the prenatal brain to destinations in the opposite hemisphere
b. to allow each hemisphere to inhibit the activity of the other
c. to provide structural support for the dorsal and medial portions of the cerebral cortex
d. none of these describes a proposed function of the corpus callosum
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
14. Which of the following is a methodological issue that arises in studies investigating cerebral laterality
in split-brain patients?
a. Due to their epilepsy, these people may not have had normal brain organization before
surgery.
b. The size of the corpus callosum and the effects of severing it are too variable.
c. Sectioning the corpus callosum causes severe behavioral side effects that make research
participation difficult.
d. Each person’s physiological response to the surgery is different and creates new patterns
of brain organization during recovery.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
15. Which of the following people would be most likely to receive the split-brain procedure?
a. a person with amnesia c. a person with aphasia
b. a person with schizophrenia d. a person with epilepsy
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
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Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
16. Assessment of the visual processing carried out by each hemisphere in split-brain patients usually
involves the brief simultaneous presentation of different stimuli to each visual field while the
participant fixates on a central point in space. Why is it necessary to ensure that stimulus presentation
is brief?
a. If the stimuli were presented over longer intervals, information would be transferred
between the hemispheres through the corpus callosum.
b. Brief presentation prevents participants from focusing attention on the stimuli.
c. The short presentation time is necessary to prevent eye movements, which would redirect
information across the visual fields.
d. Increasing the presentation time increases task difficulty for split-brain patients.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
17. A small object, such as a key, is placed in the right hand of a split-brain patient who has her eyes
closed. Assuming that this person has left-hemisphere language dominance, which of the following
best describes her ability to report information about the object based on how it feels?
a. She will be able to name and describe it verbally.
b. She will not be able to name it verbally.
c. She will be able to write out the object’s name using her left hand.
d. She will not be able to direct focused attention to the object.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Applying
18. The following is a sample stimulus shown briefly to a split-brain patient who has the typical pattern of
language dominance. If you ask her to name the object she sees, what will her answer probably be?
a. “Square.” c. “Square and circle.”
b. “Circle.” d. “Nothing.”
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Applying
19. Visual information that is presented briefly to the ________ visual field is processed first by the left
half of each retina and then by the ________ hemisphere of the brain.
a. right ; right c. left ; right
b. right ; left d. left ; left
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
20. If a split-brain patient with the typical pattern of language dominance is shown an object briefly in her
left visual field, she will be able to indicate what she saw successfully if she is asked to
a. speak its name.
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b. point to the object using her left hand.
c. point to the object using her right hand.
d. verbally describe, rather than name, the object.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
21. If you section all of the corpus callosum EXCEPT the splenial region,
a. information about inputs to the left and right ears will be successfully integrated.
b. information about inputs to the left and right hands will be successfully integrated.
c. information about inputs to the left and right visual fields will be successfully integrated.
d. information about inputs to the left hand and the right visual field will be successfully
integrated.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
22. The word superiority effect can be documented
a. in only the left hemisphere because this effect stems from the auditory lexicon.
b. in both hemispheres because this effect stems from the auditory lexicon.
c. in only the left hemisphere because this effect stems from the visual lexicon.
d. in both hemispheres because this effect stems from the visual lexicon.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
23. To which of the following aspects of language does the right hemisphere seem to make the smallest
contribution, if any?
a. generative syntax c. prosody
b. the mental lexicon d. idiomatic expressions
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
24. A general function that is associated with right-hemisphere activity in most people is
a. language production and comprehension.
b. comprehension and memory for meaningful gestures.
c. the word superiority effect.
d. visuospatial processing.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
25. Although there is a general consensus that the right hemisphere is superior on some tasks that require
visuospatial processing, such as the block design task, the findings on this topic are also somewhat
inconsistent. One explanation for this inconsistency is that the block design task
a. involves many cognitive operations, and not all of them may be lateralized to the right
hemisphere.
b. has many verbal components that may emphasize left- rather than right-hemisphere
function.
c. requires fine motor coordination, which is regulated by the right hemisphere.
d. is too simple a task to demonstrate strong laterality effects.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
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26. Studies of the production of facial expressions suggest that although ________ can generate
spontaneous facial expressions, ________ can generate voluntary facial expressions.
a. only the left hemisphere ; both hemispheres
b. only the right hemisphere ; both hemispheres
c. both hemispheres ; only the left hemisphere
d. both hemispheres ; only the right hemisphere
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
27. Split-brain patients are asked to detect targets that appear briefly on a computer screen. On some trials,
the targets are preceded by cues that correctly indicate their upcoming location. The detection
advantage produced by the cues
a. occurs only if the cue and subsequent target are shown in the same visual field.
b. occurs only if the cue and subsequent target appear in the left visual field.
c. occurs only if the cue and subsequent target appear in the right visual field.
d. occurs regardless of which visual field contains the cue and target.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
28. When participants in a dichotic listening task with word stimuli are asked afterward to report as many
items as possible, they consistently produce the words that were presented to the right ear much more
frequently than the words that were presented to the left ear. This phenomenon is called
a. binaural integration. c. the right-ear advantage.
b. the word superiority effect. d. the frequency hypothesis.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
29. One advantage to studying cerebral laterality from an information-processing perspective rather than a
task-based perspective is that the information-processing approach
a. is a less parsimonious approach to describing laterality effects.
b. focuses on how each hemisphere works independently of the other.
c. emphasizes that the two hemispheres may work in concert to perform a task.
d. minimizes the role of evolution in hemispheric specialization.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
30. Lesions of the right hemisphere disrupt perception of ________ in visual stimuli and ________ in
speech.
a. global structure ; prosody c. local structure ; prosody
b. global structure ; formants d. local structure ; formants
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
31. Based on what you have learned about laterality, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. People utilize the right hemisphere for visual spatial tasks.
b. People utilize the left hemisphere for language.
c. Both hemispheres play a role in most tasks in all people, working in concert with each
other.
d. The hemispheres are functionally identical.
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Hemispheric Specialization
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OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Evaluating
32. The term ________ refers to the idea that a complex perceptual stimulus can be described on multiple
levels of detail.
a. dichotomania c. generative assembling device
b. hierarchical structure d. heterotopic mapping
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
33. The phenomenon of global precedence described by Navon (1977) is that when hierarchically
structured stimuli are presented,
a. global shapes are extracted before local shapes.
b. local shapes are easier for the visual system to extract than global shapes.
c. global shapes take longer to process than local shapes.
d. local shapes can interfere with the perception of global shapes.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
34. Based on the work of Navon (1977), which of the following types of stimuli would probably produce
the shortest reaction times if participants were required to detect the presence of an “L” in the figure?
a. L L
L L L
L L
b. F
F
F F F
c. L
L
L L L
d. All reaction times would be roughly the same.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
35. When presented with lateralized local–global stimuli to control, participants generally
a. identify local targets more quickly by the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere.
b. identify global targets more quickly by the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere.
c. identify local targets more quickly when a stimulus was presented in the left visual field
rather than the right visual field.
d. identify both global and local targets more quickly when stimuli were presented in the
right visual field rather than the left visual field.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Analyzing
36. Robertson and colleagues (1988) investigated possible asymmetries in the processing of hierarchical
figures by people who had suffered unilateral brain injuries. They found that patients with injuries to
the left hemisphere had difficulty in identifying ________ elements, and patients with injuries to the
right hemisphere had difficulty in identifying ________ elements.
a. the global ; the local c. the local ; both local and global
b. the local ; the global d. both local and global ; the global
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
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OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
37. Here are a hierarchical letter figure and a copy of this stimulus drawn by a person with a unilateral
brain injury. Where is the most probable location of this injury?
a. the right dorsolateral frontal lobe c. the right fusiform gyrus
b. the left temporoparietal cortex d. the right occipital lobe
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
38. In an experiment with patients, a group of researchers used nonlinguistic hierarchical shape stimuli
such as the example here. How did the results differ from those obtained with hierarchical letter
stimuli?
a. The results were the same regardless of whether letter stimuli or shape stimuli were used.
b. Neither patient group showed any local impairments when shape stimuli were used instead
of letters.
c. Neither patient group showed any global impairments when shape stimuli were used
instead of letters.
d. Neither patient group showed global or local impairments when shape stimuli were used
instead of letters.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
39. One of the hallmarks of humans is our ability to draw causal inferences. In the book this is
termed________
a. the visionary. c. the interpreter.
b. the clairvoyant. d. the predicter.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Theory of Mind
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
40. You are watching a show on TV while speaking on your cell phone to a loved one. A commercial with
a couple fighting appears. Suddenly, the person says something on the phone and you get irritated. The
person on the other side of the line is perplexed by your response. This is an example of
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a. the interpreter. c. rationalization.
b. left hemisphere brain activity. d. all of the above.
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Theory of Mind
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
41. In one experiment a group of pictures was presented to split-brain patients. Then a set of pictures was
presented either to the left or the right hemisphere. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The left hemisphere accurately identified only the previously presented pictures.
b. The right hemisphere misidentified related pictures as being presented.
c. both a and b
d. none of the above
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Theory of Mind
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Evaluating
42. Animals and humans are shown items that have a 75/25 probability of being in one of two categories.
Which participants would perform the best on this task?
a. intact humans
b. intact animals
c. right-hemisphere-damaged patients
d. The groups listed above would perform equally well.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Theory of Mind
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
43. Studies of cerebral laterality in nonhuman species indicate that hemispheric differences
a. are found in many species, and the specific functions involved are quite similar.
b. are found in many species, but the specific functions involved often differ.
c. are typically found only in humans and other primate species, and the specific functions
involved differ from species to species.
d. have been strongly documented in humans only.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
44. Localized specialized networks that can perform functions are called
a. areas. c. items.
b. units. d. modules.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
45. Which of the following statements best describes the correlation between handedness and hemisphere
dominance for language function in humans?
a. The correlation is strong, such that for language almost all right-handers have lefthemisphere
dominance and almost all left-handers have right-hemisphere dominance.
b. The correlation is strong only for right-handers, who almost all have left-hemisphere
dominance for language, whereas left-handers do not generally have a particular languagedominant
hemisphere.
c. The correlation is strong only for left-handers, who almost all have right-hemisphere
dominance for language, whereas right-handers do not generally have a particular
language-dominant hemisphere.
d. The correlation is weak, such that almost all right-handers and at least half of left-handers
exhibit left-hemisphere language dominance, regardless of handedness.
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ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
46. Why is it that a split-brain patient might not notice that anything is wrong?
a. The left hemisphere interpreter does not know that information from the right hemisphere
is missing
b. The right hemisphere interpreter does not know that information from the right
hemisphere is missing.
c. The left hemisphere does not have consciousness.
d. The right hemisphere does not have consciousness.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Consciousness
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Analyzing
TRUE/FALSE
1. Brain asymmetries are restricted to the cerebral cortex and are not found in subcortical structures.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
2. Asymmetries in language-associated brain regions have been documented at the level of individual
neurons that make up the cortical columns.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
3. Many callosal projections link homotopic areas in corresponding locations in the two hemispheres.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Anatomy of the Hemispheres
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
4. In neurologically intact people, we can restrict information to only the left hemisphere by presenting it
visually in the right visual field.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
5. There appear to be two mental lexicons, one in each hemisphere.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
6. The right hemisphere is more important than the left for both the perception and production of facial
expressions.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
7. Drawings of hierarchical figures by people with left-hemisphere lesions are likely to focus on local
elements while missing global structure.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
8. The dichotic listening task has been used to show a left-ear advantage for remembering dichotically
presented words, consistent with the idea that the left hemisphere processes language.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
9. One theory of the relation between language and handedness suggests that both speech and dexterity
are related.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
10. Split-brain patients have a lack of consciousness about their deficits.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Consciousness
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
SHORT ANSWER
1. Describe a visual field experiment involving a patient who has undergone the split-brain procedure. In
your answer, provide at least one example of a question this person would not be able to answer under
these conditions.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Cortical Disconnection OBJ: LO 3
MSC: Analyzing
2. How do the two hemispheres differentially process the local and global elements of visual hierarchical
stimuli?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection OBJ: LO 3
MSC: Remembering
3. Describe how the right and left hemispheres differ in terms of facial recognition.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Cortical Disconnection OBJ: LO 3
MSC: Analyzing
4. Describe how the facial expressions of right- and left-hemisphere-damaged patients differ.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection OBJ: LO 3
MSC: Remembering
5. Describe how the right and left hemispheres differ in terms of the processing of melodies and words
for a song.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Cortical Disconnection OBJ: LO 3
MSC: Remembering
6. The right and left hemispheres have both been called interpreters. Describe the difference.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Theory of Mind OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Understanding
7. Damage to the right hemisphere is known to cause visual spatial function deficits. Give an example of
a result from an experiment that supports this.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Hemispheric Specialization OBJ: LO 4
MSC: Remembering
8. Some people suggest that the loss of visual spatial ability is due to the acquisition of language. Give an
example of this from work with nonhuman primates.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
9. How is Brodmann area 22 specialized for the processing of auditory signals in humans?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
10. Describe how modularity plays a role in consciousness.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Evolutionary Bases of Specialization
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Analyzing

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