Cognition Theory and Applications 8th Edition by Reed – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Cognition Theory and Applications 8th Edition by Reed – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 1-Introduction

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Cognition can be simply defined as
a. the study of memory.
b. the acquisition of knowledge.
c. the relationship between a stimulus and a response.
d. the relationship between cognition and brain function.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. Which term was not included in Neisser’s definition of cognitive psychology?
a. transformation c. elaboration
b. passive registration d. storage

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. In Niesser’s definition of cognitive psychology, “… sensory input is transformed…,” means
a. passive registration of physical energies from the environment on the sensory receptors.
b. active construction involving both elaboration and reduction.
c. cross-modal matching (e.g., visually identifying an object based on feeling its shape).
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. The “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon is an example of a failure of
a. attention. c. storage.
b. recognition. d. retrieval.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. The dominant theoretical approach to cognitive psychology today is
a. behaviorism. c. psychoanalysis.
b. learning theory. d. the information processing approach.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. The information processing approach reflects ideas from
a. the computer metaphor. c. the evolutionary metaphor.
b. the cultural metaphor. d. the brain metaphor

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. What is the correct order of stages in an information-processing model?
a. pattern recognition-sensory store-filter c. sensory store-filter-pattern recognition
b. sensory store-pattern recognition-filter d. pattern recognition-filter-sensory store

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Top down processing is
a. the use of pattern recognition in identifying objects.
b. the use of sensory information in identifying objects in the world.
c. the processing that occurs when you scan in information (e.g., a chair) by beginning at the top of the object and scanning downward.
d. the use of stored information to aid in processing sensory input.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. When you use only sensory information to read/recognize a word, you are using
a. top-down processing. c. lateral processing.
b. bottom-up processing. d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Sensory processing is to _____ as meaning-based processing is to _____.
a. top-down processing; bottom-up processing
b. bottom-up processing; top-down processing
c. lateral processing; lateral inhibition
d. lateral inhibition; lateral processing

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. What is the function of the sensory store?
a. It is a new website that sells sensory information.
b. It extends the amount of time we have to recognize a pattern for a fraction of a second after the event has happened.
c. It compiles our memories so that our most stimulating experiences are easiest to recall.
d. It keeps a permanent, exact impression of the physical energy that produced every experience we’ve ever had.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. The sensory store
a. is where all sensory information is permanently placed for future use.
b. is where all sensory information is located allowing us to use together information from the different senses into a coherent whole.
c. maintains sensory information in its original form for a brief time.
d. maintains sensory information for a brief time after it has been pattern recognized.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. Which of the stages represent attention according to the information-processing model presented in Chapter 1?
a. sensory store and filter c. filter and selection
b. filter and pattern recognition d. selection and STM

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

MSC:  WWW

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In the information processing model, the role of the filter and the role of selection
a. reflect aspects of attention.
b. are components of the processes supporting the transfer of information from short-term into long-term memory.
c. reflect aspects of concept formation.
d. are components of the sensory store.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. Short-term memory has the following limitations:
a. single sensory modality and duration. c. capacity and single modality.
b. duration and capacity. d. there are no substantial limitations.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. Where do higher-order cognitive processes, such as solving problems, happen in the information-processing model described in Chapter 1?
a. short-term memory
b. long-term memory
c. selection
d. higher-order processes, such as solving problems, do not have a separate stage in this model.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. A book that had a major negative impact on the growth of cognitive psychology was
a. James’ Principles of Psychology. c. Watson’s Behaviorism.
b. Kohler’s The Mentality of Apes. d. Bartlett’s Remembering.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. The stimulus-response approach was encouraged by
a. Watson’s Behaviorism. c. Bartlett’s Remembering.
b. James’ Principles of Psychology. d. Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Which of the following does not belong?
a. long-term memory c. artificial intelligence
b. semantic networks d. S-R

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Broadbent’s original filter model was proposed to explain
a. why you can walk, talk, and chew gum at the same time.
b. why you can’t watch all three rings of a three-ring circus at the same time.
c. why you can listen and see at the same time.
d. why you can’t listen to your professor at the same time as to the friend sitting beside you.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Which of the following were not considered important in the development of cognitive psychology?
a. Miller c. Broadbent
b. Chomsky d. Franklin

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

  1. Who among the following does not belong?
a. Miller c. Galanter
b. Watson d. Pribram

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Why did behaviorism have a negative impact on the growth of cognitive psychology?
a. Behaviorism stated that it was unscientific to explain behaviors in terms of what the person did (internally) with the information presented in the stimulus before they responded.
b. Behaviorists’ results were difficult to replicate and thus gave the field a bad reputation in the scientific community.
c. Behaviorism caused people to focus on applied psychotherapy instead of pure research.
d. Behaviorism was seen by the public as cruel, and thus fell out of favor with the politicians who funded scientific research.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. TOTE stands for
a. Test-Operate-Test-Exit. c. Transform-Organize-Test-Evaluate.
b. Test-Organize-Test-Evaluate. d. Think-Out-Total-Event.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Miller, Galanter, and Pribram proposed the TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) unit to explain how people
a. recognize patterns. c. construct sentences.
b. search memory. d. construct plans.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Cognitive science is
a. the idea that cognition consists of information-processing stages.
b. the study of the contingencies between observable physical stimuli in the environment and observable behaviors of organisms.
c. the science of using systematically organized logical methods for thinking precisely.
d. the study of intelligence in humans, computer programs, and abstract theories, with an emphasis on intelligent behavior as computation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Programming computers to perform intellectually demanding tasks occurs in a field of study called
a. artificial intelligence. c. natural intelligence.
b. computer intelligence. d. network intelligence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which two fields had the greatest impact on how cognitive psychologists thought about higher cognitive processes in the late 1950s?
a. biology and artificial intelligence c. linguistics and artificial intelligence
b. biology and economics d. linguistics and economics

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

MSC:  WWW

 

 

  1. The study of the relation between cognitive processes and brain activities is called
a. artificial intelligence. c. cognitive neuroscience.
b. cognitive science. d. psychobiology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which of the following does not belong with regard to cognitive science?
a. linguistics c. chemistry
b. anthropology d. philosophy

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. The four lobes of the brain are
a. frontal, ventral, dorsal, and occipital. c. frontal, occipital, thalamus, and central.
b. frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. d. frontal, occipital, thalamus, and parietal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which of the following brain areas is paired correctly with the behaviors controlled by it?
a. occipital lobe – pattern perception, awareness of visual information
b. parietal lobe – understanding language and recognizing faces
c. temporal lobe – sensory information, planning motor movements, and memory
d. frontal lobe – when damaged, results in impaired sense of touch and clumsiness in the side of the body opposite the side of the brain that has been damaged

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. The frontal lobe is thought to participate in
a. motor and memory tasks.
b. motor tasks and visual information processing.
c. memory tasks and visual information processing.
d. body sensations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which brain imaging technique uses radioactive tracers to measure blood flow?
a. magnetic resonance imaging c. event related potentials
b. positron emission tomography d. CAT scans

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Obtaining precise temporal information about the time course of mental operations is achieved by using
a. magnetic resonance imaging. c. event-related potentials.
b. positron emission tomography. d. radioactive tracers.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which is not a way of measuring brain cognition relationships?
a. PET c. ERP
b. fMRI d. AFT

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

 

 

  1. The idea of semantic networks was originally proposed in the field of
a. artificial intelligence. c. chemistry.
b. geology. d. anthropology.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Currently, cognitive psychology is contributing to the development of
a. research methods. c. chemistry.
b. applied psychology. d. personality.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Cognitive psychologists study a variety of different areas. Which would not be an area of study for a cognitive psychologist?
a. language c. reasoning
b. perception d. All are areas of cognitive psychology.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Which of the following does not belong?
a. frontal c. temporal
b. lateral d. occipital

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Neisser defined the field of cognitive psychology.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. The sensory store is the first step in the stages of the information-processing model.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Information Processing Approach

 

  1. Behaviorism logically evolved into cognitive psychology.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Artificial intelligence is the study of how to produce computer programs that can perform intelligent tasks.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. TOTE is a plan used by humans (similar to a computer program) to control the sequence of operations that need to be performed in order to carry out a behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Growth of Cognitive Psychology

 

  1. Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary approach to studying knowledge acquisition.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

 

  1. PET refers to positive empathy therapy.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. There is no need to study the brain in order to fully understand cognition.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Cognitive psychology is the second-most popular perspective within psychology, following behind the behavioral school.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

  1. Event-related potentials allow scientists to link mental operations recorded in a reaction time task to brain activity.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Cognition’s Relation to Other Fields

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare and contrast the underlying suppositions from behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Generate a TOTE for making a peanut-butter-and-jam sandwich.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the following statement: The brain is essential in understanding cognition. Provide examples to support your position.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain the problems with Watson’s approach to cognitive psychology.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Describe a possible result of damage occurring to each of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the major contributing factors to the development of cognitive psychology.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. “Cognitive psychology refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.” Discuss the implications of this statement.  How does it differ from the behavioral position?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Draw and label the stages of the information-processing model. Describe each stage. Give an everyday example of how information might be processed based on this model.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Define bottom-up and top-down processing. Provide an everyday example of these two types of processing that were not given in your textbook or class. Do you think one type of processing is utilized more than the other? Explain your position.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Cognitive psychology has been influenced by developments in other disciplines. Elaborate on this statement, providing specific examples.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

Chapter 2-Pattern Recognition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A method for distinguishing between real people and intelligent computer programs is to require both to recognize
a. a face c. a mangled word.
b. typed digits on a check. d. a secret code.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Which theory states that we compare patterns with each other and measure how much they overlap?
a. feature theory c. template theory
b. Sperling’s theory d. Rumelhart’s theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Template theories
a. are designed to explain our ability to read words faster than letters.
b. take an unanalyzed pattern and match it against stored alternative patterns.
c. analyze the specific features of a pattern.
d. specify how the features of a pattern are joined to each other.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. In an experiment by Phillips, subjects had to decide whether two checkerboard patterns were the same or different. They could not make a template match
a. when the two patterns were in different locations on the screen.
b. after the visual information store decayed.
c. if the two patterns were separated by more than .5 seconds.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Describing Patterns

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. The results of the Phillips (1974) study discussed in your text indicates that
a. the template model may describe events within the sensory store.
b. the feature model may describe events within the sensory store.
c. the template model may describe events within long term memory.
d. the feature model may describe events within long term memory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Which theory seems to best describe the contents of the sensory store?
a. template theory c. feature theory
b. structural  theory d. geon theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. The theory that describes patterns by listing their parts is
a. template theory. c. structural theory.
b. feature theory. d. prototype theory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. If I were to describe my friend Bob by saying he has dark hair, blue eyes, and he’s very tall, which kind of theory would I be using?
a. template theory c. structural  theory
b. feature theory d. geon theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. A major difference between a feature theory and a template theory is
a. a feature theory specifies the relations between the features.
b. a template specifies the relations between the features.
c. a feature theory processes the input pattern as a single unit.
d. a template processes the input pattern as a single unit.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Egeland taught kindergarten children to distinguish effectively between confusable letter pairs by emphasizing
a. all the features of the letters. c. the shared features.
b. the distinctive features. d. none of the features.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Emphasizing distinctive features when teaching young children to recognize letters
a. helps them to distinguish between letters afterwards and minimizes frustration due to errors.
b. helps them to create a holistic template for letters.
c. helps them to understand the underlying principles of phonics and learn to read more quickly.
d. is of no demonstrable benefit.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. The importance of distinctive features in pattern recognition is demonstrated by the finding that people were
a. faster in identifying caricatures of faces than accurate line drawings of faces.
b. faster in identifying accurate line drawings than caricatures.
c. more often correct in identifying caricatures than accurate line drawings.
d. more often correct in identifying accurate line drawings than caricatures.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. According to Gibson’s feature theory, features should remain unchanged despite changes in
a. brightness. c. perspective.
b. size. d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. A set of proposed features is usually evaluated by
a. asking people whether it looks reasonable.
b. determining whether it can account for perceptual confusions.
c. observing how people draw patterns.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Describing Patterns

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Structural theories of pattern recognition
a. deny the existence of features.
b. are extensions of feature theories.
c. assume that a pattern can be described by listing its features.
d. ignore the relationship among features.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Structural theories have the advantage over feature theories in that
a. they specify spatial relationships.
b. they specify more features.
c. they make it easier to predict perceptual confusions.
d. they can accommodate Phillips’ results on matching checkerboard patterns.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Biederman’s component model is an example of
a. a feature model in which all the features are characterized.
b. a template model in which there are only a limited number of templates.
c. a structural model in which a limited number of components can be used to build many different objects.
d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. In an experiment by Biederman, the recognition of objects was more difficult when lines were deleted at
a. midsegments, supporting a template theory.
b. midsegments, supporting a structural theory.
c. vertices, supporting a template theory.
d. vertices, supporting a structural theory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Discriminating between different variations of the same geon was easier than discriminating between different geons for
a. college students in the United States. c. both a and b.
b. the Himba in a remote region of Namibia. d. neither a nor b.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. The skeleton structure of animals can best be described by a
a. template theory. c. structural theory.
b. feature theory. d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Which of the following models does not belong?
a. filter c. structural
b. feature d. template

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

 

 

 

  1. The duration of the visual sensory store is approximately
a. 2.5 msec. c. 250 msec.
b. 25 msec. d. 2500 msec.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. How does the partial report technique differ from the whole-report technique?
a. The partial report technique presents information for only a very brief time.
b. The partial report technique presents each line individually.
c. The partial report technique requires the subject to respond with all recalled information.
d. The partial report technique requires the subject to respond with only certain items.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. The purpose of Sperling’s partial report technique was to distinguish
a. auditory encoding from visual encoding.
b. sequential scanning from parallel scanning.
c. perceptual limitations from memory limitations.
d. short-term memory from long-term memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. One of the interesting results of Sperling’s partial-report technique results was that
a. there was never a difference between the partial-report and whole-report findings.
b. so long as subjects responded within 5 seconds, there was no difference between the partial-report and whole-report findings.
c. after a one second delay, the results were the same as those obtained by the whole-report technique.
d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Serial processing is _____ while parallel processing is _____.
a. one at a time; multi-tasking c. geons; features
b. Rumelhart; Sperling d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. The decay rate of the visual information store depends on all of the following except
a. occurrence of a second exposure. c. intensity of the stimulus.
b. contrast of the stimulus. d. rehearsal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Sperling proposed that people use the auditory information store to rehearse the names of patterns. The auditory information store is a part of
a. the sensory store. c. short-term memory.
b. the scan component. d. long-term memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

MSC:  WWW

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What was the major revision in Sperling’s 1967 model for the visual report task?
a. the change from sequential scanning to parallel scanning
b. the change from parallel scanning to sequential scanning
c. the addition of the visual information store
d. the addition of the auditory information store

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Which of the following is true for Rumelhart’s model of pattern recognition?
a. It is a mathematical model.
b. Recognition is influenced by the number of items in the display.
c. Recognition is influenced by the clarity of information.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. According to Rumelhart’s model, people recognize items in a display by using
a. a parallel scan and feature recognition. c. a serial scan and feature recognition.
b. a parallel scan and template matching. d. a serial scan and template matching.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. According to Rumelhart’s model, people do better in the partial report procedure than in the whole report procedure because
a. they can use the visual information store to read off letters in the cued row.
b. the clarity of the visual information store increases over time.
c. they can often correctly guess which row will be cued.
d. they have less to remember.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Imagine that you view a brief flash of letters. In which series will it be easiest to judge whether the letter C or M was the third letter?
a. AFCE c. –C-
b. FACE d. All are equal

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. The ‘word superiority effect’ refers to the finding that it is easier to recognize a letter in a word than
a. a letter by itself. c. Both a and b
b. a letter in a non-word. d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. The interactive activation model of word recognition proposes that information about the letters in a word comes from
a. the feature level. c. Both a and b
b. the word level. d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An important effect of the interactive activation model proposed by Rumelhart and McClelland is that it stimulated interest in
a. feature models. c. template models.
b. neural network models. d. structural models.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Word Recognition

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Neural network models have been most widely used to model
a. pattern recognition. c. problem solving.
b. STM. d. text comprehension.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. Neural network models include all except which of the following?
a. processing units called nodes c. states of activation
b. connections among nodes d. strictly serial processing

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. Neural network models consist of nodes that are
a. independent of each other.
b. connected to each other by excitatory connections.
c. connected to each other by inhibitory connections.
d. connected to each other by excitatory and inhibitory connections.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. Learning in neural network models occurs by
a. creating new nodes. c. changing weights of connections.
b. creating new connections. d. eliminating excess nodes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

MSC:  WWW

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Computers are superior to humans in their ability to recognize patterns.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Introduction

 

  1. Template matches can occur in the sensory store.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. A distinctive feature is one that is present among all exemplars of a given category and helps define that category.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. A geon is essentially a three-dimensional feature.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Describing Patterns

 

  1. Sperling modified his original information-processing model by changing a parallel scan to a serial scan.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Detection paradigms are those in which one has to specify which of two possible target patterns is present in a display.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. Rumelhart’s recognition model is influenced by the number of items in a display.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Information-Processing Stages

 

  1. The term superiority effect indicates that accuracy in recognizing a letter is higher when the letter appears alone than when it is part of a word.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. Neural network models can have both inhibitory and excitatory connections.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

 

  1. Neural network models can have connections that are only on or off.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Word Recognition

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Why was Sperling’s partial report technique an innovation in research methodology, and why was it so important?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. There are three major perspectives on pattern recognition: template, feature, and structural models. Explain the strengths and weakness of each model.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Of the major theoretical perspectives of pattern recognition which do you prefer, and why?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Describe the partial-report technique. What were the major findings from these studies?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast Sperling’s model of information processing with Rumelhart’s.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. What is the word superiority effect? Describe the model discussed in your text to explain this effect.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. What are neural network models? What are the components of a neural network?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain how perpetual learning can be facilitated by the highlighting of distinctive features. What benefits result from this method?

 

ANS:

Not provided.

 

  1. Describe the impact of Biederman’s work on structural theories. How did it build upon the previous work of others?

 

ANS:

Not provided.

 

  1. Why do people have difficulty recognizing faces of other races?

 

ANS:

Not provided.

 

 

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