Child Development 9th Edition by Laura E. Berk – Test Bank

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Child Development 9th Edition by Laura E. Berk – Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH STRATEGIES


MULTIPLE CHOICE

  • 1) Before arriving in a kindergarten classroom, Dr. Banks prepared a questionnaire for interviewing children for her research. This is an example of a research
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.1

  • 2) A __________ is a prediction of behavior drawn directly from a __________.
  1. A) confirmation; fact
  2. B) hypothesis; theory
  3. C) theory; hypothesis
  4. D) summary; study

Answer: B

Page Ref: 41

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.1

  • 3) When little or no theory exists on a topic of interest, investigators may start with a
  1. A) research question.
  2. B) developmental inquiry.
  3. C) research design.
  4. D) research method.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.1

  • 4) Jenka wonders if the U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have heightened children’s fears and anxieties. This is an example of a
  1. A)
  2. B) research method.
  3. C)
  4. D) research question.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 42

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.1

  • 5) A strength of __________ is that it reflects participants’ everyday behavior.
  1. A) structured observation
  2. B) naturalistic observation
  3. C) the structured interview
  4. D) the clinical interview

Answer: B

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 6) Shigoka is interested in determining which central nervous system structures contribute to personality development. Dr. Shigoka will likely use
  1. A) neurobiological methods.
  2. B) event sampling.
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method.
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 7) Which of the following is a major limitation of neurobiological methods?
  1. A) Researchers cannot control the conditions under which participants are studied.
  2. B) The accuracy of the results may be reduced by observer bias.
  3. C) Many factors besides those of interest to the researcher can influence a physiological response.
  4. D) It reveals with certainty the meaning of autonomic or brain activity.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 8) Lector provides a full picture of a convicted criminal’s psychological functioning by combining interviews, observations, test scores, and neurobiological assessments. Which of the following information-gathering methods is Dr. Lector likely using?
  1. A) naturalistic observation
  2. B) longitudinal research design
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method
  4. D) ethnography

Answer: C

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 9) In __________, findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.
  1. A) structured observation
  2. B) a clinical interview
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method
  4. D) naturalistic observation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 10) An investigator is interested in capturing a culture’s unique values and social processes. __________ is best-suited for this type of study.
  1. A) The clinical interview
  2. B) Naturalistic observation
  3. C) Ethnography
  4. D) The clinical, or case study, method

Answer: C

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 11) One major limitation of the ethnographic method is
  1. A) it does not reveal a depth of information.
  2. B) findings cannot be applied to individuals and settings other than the ones studied.
  3. C) participant responses are subject to inaccurate reporting.
  4. D) it does not reveal the participants’ behavior in everyday life.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 12) Marilyn wants to know how preschool children react to aggressive peers. To study their behavior, Marilyn will probably use
  1. A) clinical interviews.
  2. B)
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method.
  4. D) naturalistic observation.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 13) Which of the following is a major limitation of naturalistic observation?
  1. A) For each participant, responses may differ due to the manner of interviewing.
  2. B) Researchers cannot expect that participants will behave in the laboratory as they do in their
    natural environments.
  3. C) Findings cannot be generalized beyond the participants and settings in which the research was
    originally conducted.
  4. D) Not all participants have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 43

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 14) In __________, every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response of interest.
  1. A) structured observation
  2. B) field experiments
  3. C) clinical interviews
  4. D) event sampling

Answer: A

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 15) __________ permits greater control over the research situation than does __________.
  1. A) Naturalistic observation; the clinical, or case study, method
  2. B) Structured observation; naturalistic observation
  3. C) Naturalistic observation; a structured interview
  4. D) Naturalistic observation; a questionnaire

Answer: B

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 16) __________ is especially useful for studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life.
  1. A) Structured observation
  2. B) Naturalistic observation
  3. C) The structured interview
  4. D) The clinical, or case study, method

Answer: A

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 17) When researchers need information on only one or a few kinds of behavior, an efficient procedure is
  1. A) the clinical, or case study, method.
  2. B) neurobiological sampling.
  3. C) event sampling.
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 18) In event sampling, the observer records
  1. A) all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period.
  2. B) all behaviors that occur during a specified time period.
  3. C) whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short time intervals.
  4. D) similar behavior patterns in participants who are the same age.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 44

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 19) In time sampling, the observer records
  1. A) all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period.
  2. B) all behaviors that occur during a specified time period.
  3. C) whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short intervals.
  4. D) similar behavior patterns in participants who are the same age.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 20) Ramirez examined 100 brother–sister pairs for 10 minutes each, noting on a checklist the behaviors that occurred during 20 thirty-second intervals. This is an example of
  1. A) event sampling.
  2. B) time sampling.
  3. C) a naturalistic observation.
  4. D) a genetic experiment.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 21) A major problem with systematic observation is
  1. A) practice effects.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) biased sampling.
  4. D) observer influence.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 22) For children under age 7 or 8, observer influence is
  1. A) impossible to minimize.
  2. B) usually present for the first 10 to 12 sessions.
  3. C) generally limited to the first session or two.
  4. D) rarely a concern.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 23) To minimize observer influence, researchers can
  1. A) limit their observations to children over the age of 12.
  2. B) tell participants what they are trying to study.
  3. C) ask individuals who are part of the child’s natural environment to do the observing.
  4. D) tell participants that they must be serious and behave in a natural way.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 24) Because Dr. Frederickson’s students are aware of the purposes of a study, they may see and record what they expect to see rather than what the participants actually do. This is known as
  1. A) event influence.
  2. B) observer bias.
  3. C) a cohort effect.
  4. D) internal validity.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 25) __________ are best suited to collect systematic observations.
  1. A) Trained investigators
  2. B) People who have little personal investment in the investigator’s hypotheses
  3. C) Parents and caregivers
  4. D) People who know and understand the investigator’s hypotheses

Answer: B

Page Ref: 45

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 26) When studying children’s thinking, Piaget used
  1. A) naturalistic observations.
  2. B) event and time sampling procedures.
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method.
  4. D) relatively unstructured clinical interviews.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 27) A researcher interested in children’s beliefs about God begins each interview with the same question, but subsequent questions are determined by the child’s individual answers. This is an example of a
  1. A) clinical interview.
  2. B) data questionnaire.
  3. C) structured interview.
  4. D) case study.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 28) A major strength of the clinical interview is that it
  1. A) permits people to display their thoughts in terms that are as close as possible to the way they think in
    everyday life.
  2. B) provides highly objective data that can be generalized to a larger population.
  3. C) accurately assesses participants who have low verbal ability and expressiveness.
  4. D) assures that each participant is asked the same set of questions.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 29) Which of the following is a strength of the clinical interview?
  1. A) It is accurate with respect to the participants’ thoughts and experiences.
  2. B) It can provide a large amount of information in a fairly brief period.
  3. C) It permits comparisons of participants’ responses.
  4. D) It is not subject to observer influence or observer bias.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 30) Which of the following is a major limitation of the clinical interview?
  1. A) Participants may make up answers that do not represent their actual thinking.
  2. B) It does not provide much insight into participants’ reasoning or ideas.
  3. C) The questions are phrased the same for each participant, regardless of their comprehension.
  4. D) It overestimates participants’ intellectual capacities.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 31) Clinical interviews that focus on __________ are particularly vulnerable to distortion.
  1. A) current information and specific characteristics
  2. B) past information and specific characteristics
  3. C) past information and global judgments
  4. D) current information and global judgments

Answer: C

Page Ref: 46

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 32) A structured interview
  1. A) yields a greater depth of information than does a clinical interview.
  2. B) is too flexible and, therefore, yields too wide a variety of responses.
  3. C) is more time consuming to conduct than is a clinical interview.
  4. D) eliminates the possibility that an interviewer might press and prompt some participants more than others.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 33) A researcher is likely to choose a structured interview over a clinical interview when he or she
  1. A) is interested in more in-depth answers.
  2. B) is concerned that observer influence might bias the findings.
  3. C) plans to obtain written responses from an entire group of participants at the same time.
  4. D) is interested in obtaining sensitive information about the participant.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 34) Quinn uses neurobiological methods. She is interested in studying the relationship between __________ and __________.
  1. A) genes; the environment
  2. B) developmental functions; individual differences
  3. C) neurological maladies; biological processes
  4. D) nervous system processes; behavior

Answer: D

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 35) Neurobiological methods
  1. A) are affected by inaccurate reporting.
  2. B) help researchers infer the perceptions, thoughts, and emotions of infants.
  3. C) do not show which nervous system structures contribute to individual differences.
  4. D) bring together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, and test scores.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 47

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 36) The two most frequently used measures of brain functioning, __________ and __________, detect electric activity in the cerebral cortex.
  1. A) EEG; fMRI
  2. B) PET; ERPs
  3. C) EEG;ERPs
  4. D) fMRI; NIRS

Answer: C

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 37) In an electroencephalogram (EEG), researchers
  1. A) examine brain-wave patterns for stability and organization.
  2. B) detect the general location of brain-wave activity.
  3. C) take three-dimensional computerized pictures of the entire brain.
  4. D) beam infrared light at the brain.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 38) Thompson uses an EEG to record the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to music in multiple areas of the cerebral cortex. Dr. Thompson is using
  1. A) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
  2. B) positron emission tomography (PET).
  3. C) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
  4. D) event-related potentials (ERPs).

Answer: D

Page Ref: 48

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 39) In a series of studies on infants of diabetic mothers, Charles Nelson and his collaborators used __________ to assess young infants’ memory performance.
  1. A) NIRS
  2. B) ERPs
  3. C) PET
  4. D) fMRI

Answer: B

Page Ref: 49 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Memory Impairments in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: Finding of ERP Research

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 40) Which of the following is a finding of Charles Nelson’s studies on infants of diabetic mothers?
  1. A) As a result of iron depletion in critical brain areas, a diabetic pregnancy places the fetus at risk for lasting memory deficits.
  2. B) Early memory deficiencies found in infants of diabetic mothers are short-lived and do not last into the preschool years.
  3. C) Infants of diabetic mothers responded to novel objects with a stronger temporal-lobe slow wave than did control babies.
  4. D) Infants of diabetic mothers were more likely than control babies to recognize their mother’s facial image.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 49 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Prenatal Iron Deficiency and Memory Impairments in Infants of Diabetic Mothers: Findings of ERP Research

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 41) Because __________ and __________ require that the participant lie as motionless as possible for an extended time, they are not suitable for infants and young children.
  1. A) EEG; PET
  2. B) ERPs; fMRI
  3. C) NIRS; PET
  4. D) PET; fMRI

Answer: D

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 42) A neuroimaging technique that works well in infancy and early childhood is
  1. A) event-related potentials (ERPs).
  2. B) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
  3. C) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
  4. D) positron emission tomography (PET).

Answer: B

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 43) Which of the following research methods is an outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory?
  1. A) naturalistic observation
  2. B) structured observation
  3. C) ethnography
  4. D) the clinical, or case study, method

Answer: D

Page Ref: 50

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 44) Which of the following research methods would be the best suited for studying child prodigies?
  1. A) structured interviews
  2. B) questionnaires
  3. C) the clinical, or case study, method
  4. D) ethnography

Answer: C

Page Ref: 51

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 45) A strength of __________ is that it yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights into the many factors affecting development.
  1. A) the clinical, or case study, method
  2. B) ethnography
  3. C) naturalistic observation
  4. D) structured observation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 51

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 46) Which of the following is a limitation of the clinical, or case study, method?
  1. A) Investigators cannot assume that their conclusions apply, or generalize, to anyone other than the individual studied.
  2. B) Information collected often lacks descriptive detail.
  3. C) It does not provide evidence about the individual’s current functioning.
  4. D) It requires intensive study of participants’ moment-by-moment behaviors.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 51

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 47) Unlike the clinical, or case study, method, ethnographic research
  1. A) is easily biased by the researcher’s beliefs.
  2. B) is aimed at understanding a single individual.
  3. C) is a descriptive technique.
  4. D) relies on participant observation.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 52

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 48) To study parental warmth in the Ethiopian culture, Dr. Jolie moves in with a family in an Ethiopian village. Which of the following information-gathering methods of research is Dr. Jolie using?
  1. A) ethnography
  2. B) the clinical, or case study, method
  3. C) neurobiological methods
  4. D) structured observation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 52

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.2

  • 49) Nearly one-fourth of U.S. children
  1. A) were born in Latin America.
  2. B) were born in Asia.
  3. C) have foreign-born parents.
  4. D) are illegal aliens.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 53 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 50) In North America, students who are first-generation and second-generation
  1. A) are more likely than students of native-born parents to commit delinquent and violent acts.
  2. B) are more likely than students of native-born parents to use drugs and alcohol.
  3. C) generally have lower self-esteem than students of native-born parents.
  4. D) often achieve in school as well as or better than students of native-born parents.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 53: Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 51) Ethnographies reveal that immigrant parents view __________ as the surest way to improve life chances.
  1. A) high socioeconomic status
  2. B) education
  3. C) speaking English in the home
  4. D) severing ties with an ethnic community

Answer: B

Page Ref: 53 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 52) Both __________ and __________ protect immigrant youths from delinquency, early pregnancy, drug use, and other risky behaviors.
  1. A) family relationships; school achievement
  2. B) collectivist values; extracurricular involvement
  3. C) acculturation; assimilation
  4. D) individualistic values; opportunities for peer mentoring

Answer: A

Page Ref: 53 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.2

  • 53) Immigrant parents of successful youths typically
  1. A) do not share their children’s views on the importance of education.
  2. B) stress individual goals over allegiance to family and community.
  3. C) develop close ties to an ethnic community.
  4. D) allow their children to monitor themselves.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 53 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Immigrant Youths: Adapting to a New Land

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.2

  • 54) To be __________, observations and evaluations of people’s actions cannot be unique to a single observer.
  1. A) internally valid
  2. B) generalizeable
  3. C) reliable
  4. D) externally valid

Answer: C

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.3

  • 55) An intelligence test has high reliability if
  1. A) it accurately predicts children’s academic performance in school.
  2. B) it yields similar results when given twice within a short period of time.
  3. C) the content of the test is related to theoretical models of intelligence.
  4. D) it is correlated with other established measures of intelligence.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.3

  • 56) Professor Nagini developed a measure to rate children’s fears. To test inter-rater reliability, he
  1. A) compared the level of agreement between two different observers who used his measure simultaneously.
  2. B) used people who were part of children’s natural environment to do the rating.
  3. C) compared the degree to which children from different cohorts scored similarly.
  4. D) compared the extent to which his measure correlated with neurobiological measures of distress.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.3

  • 57) Sums developed a test of mathematical ability. To measure __________, he split the test in two and compared children’s responses on both halves.
  1. A) inter-rater reliability
  2. B) test–retest reliability
  3. C) internal validity
  4. D) external validity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.3

  • 58) Which of the following procedures can be used to determine the reliability of ethnographic and clinical studies?
  1. A) Responses to the same measures can be compared on separate occasions.
  2. B) Researchers can measure the quantitative scores yielded by these two methods.
  3. C) Answers on different halves of the same measure can be compared by judges.
  4. D) Judges can see if they agree with the researcher that the patterns and themes identified are grounded in evidence and are plausible.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.3

  • 59) For research methods to have high validity,
  1. A) they must yield consistent results over time.
  2. B) observations cannot be unique to a single observer.
  3. C) they must accurately measure characteristics that the researchers set out to measure.
  4. D) the participants’ responses must be similar when the same measures are given on a different occasion.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.3

  • 60) Allan developed a test intended to measure eighth-grade children’s knowledge of mathematics. Although children who took the new test twice received similar scores on both occasions, the test contained only multiplication problems. Ms. Allan’s test has __________ reliability and __________ validity.
  1. A) high; low
  2. B) low; low
  3. C) high; high
  4. D) low; high

Answer: A

Page Ref: 54

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.3

  • 61) One way to assess the validity of a new measure of second-grade children’s mathematical knowledge is to
  1. A) compare the children’s answers on different halves of the same test.
  2. B) test for inter-rater reliability.
  3. C) compare the children’s answers on different forms of the same measure.
  4. D) compare the children’s scores with how well they do on their math assignments in school.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 54–55

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.3

  • 62) If, during any phase of an investigation, participants’ behavior is influenced by factors unrelated to the hypothesis, then the __________ of the study is in doubt.
  1. A) inter-rater reliability
  2. B) test–retest reliability
  3. C) internal validity
  4. D) external validity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.3

  • 63) Ensuring that samples, tasks, and contexts for conducting research represent the real-world people and situations that the investigator aims to understand is key to
  1. A) inter-rater reliability.
  2. B) test–retest reliability.
  3. C) internal validity.
  4. D) external validity.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.3

  • 64) The two main designs used in all research on human behavior are __________ and __________.
  1. A) correlational; coefficient
  2. B) correlational; experimental
  3. C) dependent; independent
  4. D) laboratory; field experiments

Answer: B

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 65) In a correlational design, researchers
  1. A) gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences.
  2. B) use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions.
  3. C) can infer cause and effect.
  4. D) manipulate changes in the independent variable.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.4

  • 66) A major limitation of correlational studies is that
  1. A) researchers cannot study how conditions of interest currently exist.
  2. B) researchers cannot infer cause and effect.
  3. C) there is no way to measure the strength of a positive relationship between variables.
  4. D) negative relationships between variables cannot be measured.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 55

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.4

  • 67) A correlational coefficient can range in value from _____ to _____.
  1. A) –100; +100
  2. B) –1.00; 0
  3. C) 0; +1.00
  4. D) –1.00; +1.00

Answer: D

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 68) A zero correlation coefficient indicates __________ relationship.
  1. A) a strong positive
  2. B) a strong negative
  3. C) a weak positive or negative
  4. D) no

Answer: D

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 69) Which of the following statements is true about correlation coefficients?
  1. A) The sign of the number refers to the strength of the relationship.
  2. B) A negative correlation coefficient means that the two variables are not related to each other.
  3. C) A positive correlation coefficient implies that as one variable increases, the other also increases.
  4. D) The magnitude of the number shows the direction of the relationship.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.4

  • 70) Bayor found a correlation of –.89 between music lessons and levels of adolescent delinquency. This correlation is __________ and __________.
  1. A) moderate; positive
  2. B) low; negative
  3. C) high; negative
  4. D) high; positive

Answer: C

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 71) Which of the following research methods permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships?
  1. A) structured interview
  2. B) naturalistic observation
  3. C) experimental design
  4. D) correlational study

Answer: C

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 72) The __________ variable is the one the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable.
  1. A) practice
  2. B) independent
  3. C) dependent
  4. D) confounding

Answer: B

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 73) The dependent variable is the one the investigator expects to
  1. A) be influenced by the independent variable.
  2. B) influence the independent variable.
  3. C) cause changes in another variable.
  4. D) remain stable throughout the experiment.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 74) Blume is interested in methods for lowering blood pressure. He recruits 120 adults with high blood pressure and assigns them to one of three treatment groups—one group will take a daily pill, one group will be placed on a special diet, and one group will participate in an exercise boot camp. The independent variable is __________ and the dependent variable is __________.
  1. A) the participants with high blood pressure; blood pressure
  2. B) treatment type; blood pressure
  3. C) blood pressure; treatment type
  4. D) the daily pill; the participants with high blood pressure

Answer: B

Page Ref: 56

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 75) Story found that the children in two-parent homes had higher reading-test scores than those in one-parent homes. However, the children from two-parent homes had more siblings than those in one-parent homes. What is the confounding variable?
  1. A) number of siblings
  2. B) reading test scores
  3. C) type of reading test used
  4. D) type of home

Answer: A

Page Ref: 57

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 76) A researcher who flips a coin to determine in which treatment group participants will be assigned is using
  1. A) a confounding variable.
  2. B)
  3. C) a natural, or quasi-, experiment.
  4. D) random assignment.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 57–58

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 77) Perry can increase the chances that participants’ characteristics will be equally distributed across the treatment groups by
  1. A) carefully assigning the participants to the treatment groups according to their medical histories.
  2. B) adding confounding variables to the experiment.
  3. C) randomly assigning the participants to the treatment groups.
  4. D) manipulating the dependent variable when exposing the participants to treatment conditions.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 57–58

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 78) Professor Atari is designing a study to determine if playing video games that require mental rotation of visual images fosters success on spatial reasoning tests. What is the best method of inferring cause and effect?
  1. A) Choose a group of children who scored low on spatial reasoning tests and a group who scored high and compare the number of video game play hours for each group.
  2. B) Calculate a correlation between spatial reasoning test scores and the number of video game play hours by one group of children.
  3. C) Select a group of children who play a lot of video games and a second group who have never played video games and compare their scores on spatial reasoning tests.
  4. D) Randomly choose half of the children to play video games and half to play no video games and compare spatial reasoning measures for each group.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 56–58

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 79) Clinton measures children’s intelligence ahead of time and then assigns an equal number of high- and low-scoring children to each treatment condition. Dr. Clinton is using
  1. A) a confounding variable.
  2. B)
  3. C) a natural, or quasi-, experiment.
  4. D) random assignment.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 80) Sometimes researchers combine __________ with __________ to deliberately make characteristics equivalent that are likely to distort the results.
  1. A) confounding variables; random assignment
  2. B) systematic assignment; matching
  3. C) matching; confounding variables
  4. D) random assignment; matching

Answer: D

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 81) Findings obtained in laboratories often have limited
  1. A) inter-rater reliability.
  2. B) test–retest reliability.
  3. C) external validity.
  4. D) internal validity.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 82) In field experiments, researchers
  1. A) make no effort to alter participants’ experiences.
  2. B) use treatment conditions that already exist naturally.
  3. C) avoid confounding variables by exposing the same participants to all treatments.
  4. D) randomly assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 83) Often researchers cannot randomly assign participants and manipulate conditions in the real world, so they compromise by conducting __________ experiments.
  1. A) field
  2. B) laboratory
  3. C) natural, or quasi-,
  4. D) correlational

Answer: C

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 84) __________ studies differ from correlational research only in that groups of participants are carefully chosen to ensure that their characteristics are as much alike as possible.
  1. A) Field experiment
  2. B) Natural, or quasi-, experiment
  3. C) Laboratory experiment
  4. D) Observational

Answer: B

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 85) MacKenzie wants to study the impact of child maltreatment on physical development. The best experimental method for this research would be a __________ experiment.
  1. A) field
  2. B) natural, or quasi-,
  3. C) laboratory
  4. D) correlational

Answer: B

Page Ref: 58

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.4

  • 86) Researchers reported that college students who listened to a Mozart sonata for a few minutes just before taking a test of spatial reasoning abilities did better on the test than students who took the test after listening to relaxation instructions or sitting in silence. The gain in performance, widely publicized as the “Mozart effect,”
  1. A) was easy to replicate.
  2. B) was small and short-lived.
  3. C) involved a real change in ability.
  4. D) was long-lasting.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 59 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Can Musical Experiences Enhance Intelligence?

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 87) Research suggests that to produce lasting gains in mental-test scores using music, interventions must
  1. A) begin in infancy.
  2. B) begin before birth.
  3. C) be long-lasting and involve children’s active participation.
  4. D) occur during REM sleep.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 59 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Can Musical Experiences Enhance Intelligence?

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.4

  • 88) A field experiment comparing 36 weeks of piano and voice lessons with drama lessons and a no-lessons control showed that
  1. A) sustained musical experiences can lead to small increases in intelligence that do not arise from comparable drama lessons.
  2. B) sustained musical experiences can boost performance on spatial but not verbal abilities.
  3. C) piano, but not voice, lessons can lead to gains in intelligence-test performance.
  4. D) drama lessons can boost intelligence-test performance above and beyond the effects of music lessons.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 59 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Can Musical Experiences Enhance Intelligence?

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.4

  • 89) In a longitudinal design,
  1. A) groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
  2. B) participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.
  3. C) participants are presented with a novel task and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.
  4. D) the investigator conducts several sequences and makes cross-sectional comparisons.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 60

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • 90) In a__________ design, researchers can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development because it tracks the performance of each person over time.
  1. A) cross-sectional
  2. B) microgenetic
  3. C) longitudinal
  4. D) sequential

Answer: C

Page Ref: 60

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • 91) Which of the following is a strength of the longitudinal design?
  1. A) It permits investigators to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors.
  2. B) It avoids problems of selective attrition, practice effects, and theoretical and methodological changes in the field.
  3. C) It offers insight into how change occurs.
  4. D) It permits cross-sectional comparisons and reveals cohort effects.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 60

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • 92) Control over the treatment is generally weaker in a __________ experiment than in a __________ experiment.
  1. A) field; natural, or quasi-,
  2. B) laboratory; field
  3. C) field; laboratory
  4. D) laboratory; natural, or quasi-,

Answer: C

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • 93) A major strength of the natural, or quasi-, experiment is that it permits
  1. A) study of relationships between variables.
  2. B) inferences about cause-and-effect relationships.
  3. C) generalization of experimental findings to the real world.
  4. D) study of many real-world conditions that cannot be experimentally manipulated.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • 94) In Dr. Jeffers’ study, he discovered that many of the participants had a special appreciation for the scientific value of research. Dr. Jeffers should be concerned with
  1. A) practice effects.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) cohort effects.
  4. D) biased sampling.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 61

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.5

  • 95) __________ samples generally become more biased as the investigation proceeds because of __________.
  1. A) Cross-sectional; practice effects
  2. B) Microgenetic; cohort effects
  3. C) Longitudinal; selective attrition
  4. D) Cross-sectional; cohort effects

Answer: C

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • 96) When participants in her longitudinal study on the effects of child care moved away or dropped out, Dr. Swan was probably concerned about
  1. A) biased sampling.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) practice effects.
  4. D) cohort effects.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.5

  • 97) Over time, John, a participant in a longitudinal study, became aware of his own thoughts, feelings, and actions, and consciously revised them when the investigator was present. This is an example of
  1. A) cohort effects.
  2. B) practice effects.
  3. C) selective attrition.
  4. D) biased sampling.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.5

  • 98) Maggie, a participant in a longitudinal study, became “test-wise” over time. Her performance on the test improved with increased familiarity with the measure. This is an example of
  1. A) biased sampling.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) practice effects.
  4. D) cohort effects.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.5

  • 99) The most widely discussed threat to the validity of longitudinal findings is
  1. A) biased sampling.
  2. B) selective attrition.
  3. C) practice effects.
  4. D) cohort effects.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • Which of the following statements is true about cohort effects?
  1. A) They cannot occur when specific experiences influence some children but not others in the same generation.
  2. B) They do not just operate broadly on an entire generation.
  3. C) They occur when participants move away or drop out of studies.
  4. D) They occur because of factors commonly associated with development.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • Many recent longitudinal studies span only a few months or years to avoid problems associated with
  1. A) cohort effects.
  2. B) practice effects.
  3. C) theories and methods becoming outdated.
  4. D) biased sampling.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • In the cross-sectional design,
  1. A) groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
  2. B) participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.
  3. C) participants are presented with a novel task, and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.
  4. D) the investigator conducts several sequences and makes cross-sectional comparisons.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 62

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • The cross-sectional design is
  1. A) rarely used in developmental research because data collection often takes years to complete.
  2. B) often affected by selective attrition, practice effects, and changes in the field.
  3. C) an efficient strategy for describing age-related trends.
  4. D) an efficient strategy for studying individual differences in development.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • Which of the following statements is true about the cross-sectional design?
  1. A) Researchers are not concerned with cohort effects.
  2. B) Researchers are not concerned with selective attrition.
  3. C) It is rarely used because it is so time-consuming.
  4. D) Researchers are concerned with both practice and cohort effects.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • Despite its convenience, cross-sectional research
  1. A) does not provide evidence about individual development.
  2. B) cannot provide information about age-related trends.
  3. C) is limited by selective attrition.
  4. D) is threatened by practice effects.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • Like longitudinal research, cross-sectional studies
  1. A) can be threatened by cohort effects.
  2. B) often rely on biased observation procedures.
  3. C) can be threatened by selective attrition.
  4. D) can be threatened by practice effects.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • In a sequential design,
  1. A) participants are presented with a novel task, and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.
  2. B) groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
  3. C) researchers conduct several cross-sectional or longitudinal investigations.
  4. D) participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • To examine age-related changes in memory strategy use, Professor Mnemonic presented 5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds various memory tasks several times over a 3-year period. This is an example of a __________ study.
  1. A) longitudinal
  2. B) cross-sectional
  3. C) microgenetic
  4. D) sequential

Answer: D

Page Ref: 63

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.5

  • A sequential design
  1. A) does not allow inferences about individual differences.
  2. B) permits researchers to find out whether cohort effects are operating.
  3. C) is less efficient than a longitudinal design.
  4. D) does not have any of the same limitations as a longitudinal or cross-sectional design.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 64

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • In a microgenetic design,
  1. A) participants are presented with a novel task, and researchers follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.
  2. B) groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
  3. C) researchers conduct several cross-sectional or longitudinal investigations..
  4. D) participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes are noted as they get older.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 64

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • A microgenetic design is especially useful for
  1. A) assessing emotional bonding among family members.
  2. B) studying cognitive development.
  3. C) measuring the impact of selective attrition and practice effects.
  4. D) determining the cause of cohort effects.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 64

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • Which of the following is a major limitation of microgenetic research?
  1. A) Selective attrition often distorts developmental trends.
  2. B) Practice effects can distort microgenetic findings.
  3. C) Microgenetic studies often create ethical issues.
  4. D) Cohort effects often limit the generalizability of findings.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 65

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.5

  • The __________ design offers insights into how change occurs.
  1. A) sequential
  2. B) longitudinal
  3. C) microgenetic
  4. D) cross-sectional

Answer: C

Page Ref: 65

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.5

  • An investigator interested in studying fears in preschool children had them reach into a covered box where she placed either a ball, a snake, a kitten, or a spider. Which of the following research rights was violated?
  1. A) protection from harm
  2. B) informed consent
  3. C) privacy
  4. D) beneficial treatments

Answer: A

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.6

  • An investigator conducted a study in a second-grade classroom. She obtained permission from the teacher and the principal only. Which of the following research rights was violated?
  1. A) protection from harm
  2. B) beneficial treatments
  3. C) informed consent
  4. D) privacy

Answer: C

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.6

  • An investigator interested in sexual practices among high school students asked them to post their answers on a Facebook group page. Which of the following research rights was violated?
  1. A) informed consent
  2. B) protection from harm
  3. C) beneficial treatments
  4. D) privacy

Answer: D

Page Ref: 66

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.6

  • __________ is used by review committees in colleges, universities, and other institutions to evaluate the ethics of research proposals.
  1. A) A protection-from-harm ratio
  2. B) Reliability
  3. C) A risks-versus-benefits ratio
  4. D) Validity

Answer: C

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.6

  • If there are any risks to the safety and welfare of participants that the research does not justify, then preferences is always given to the
  1. A)
  2. B) research committee.
  3. C) research participants.
  4. D) institutional review board.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.6

  • The ethical principle of __________ requires special interpretation when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities.
  1. A) privacy
  2. B) beneficial treatments
  3. C) informed consent
  4. D) knowledge of results

Answer: C

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.6

  • A researcher would like 9-year-old Simon to participate in a study. The researcher should obtain permission from
  1. A) Simon only.
  2. B) Simon’s parents only.
  3. C) Simon and his parents.
  4. D) neither Simon nor his parents.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 67

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.6

  • Which of the following statements is true about age differences in children’s research risks?
  1. A) Young children are more susceptible than older children to procedures that threaten the way they view themselves.
  2. B) Adolescents may be better than younger children at sizing up and rejecting researchers’ deceptive evaluations.
  3. C) Receiving false negative feedback tends to be more stressful for very young children than for school-age children.
  4. D) Children in middle childhood, but not adolescents or young children, feel external pressure to continue with a study.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 68 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Children’s Research Risks: Developmental and Individual Differences

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.6

  • A researcher would like 8-year-old Andie to participate in a study. Who should have the final word in deciding whether Andie participates?
  1. A) the researcher
  2. B) Andie
  3. C) Andie’s parents
  4. D) Andie’s teacher

Answer: B

Page Ref: 68 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: HEALTH: Children’s Research Risks: Developmental and Individual Differences

Skill: Apply

Objective: 2.6

  • Some researchers have suggested that debriefing does not work well with children because it
  1. A) may undermine their belief in the honesty of adults.
  2. B) often leads to observer influence and bias.
  3. C) can bias the effects of an experimental manipulation.
  4. D) is unethical to debrief children.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Understand

Objective: 2.6

  • In studies involving children, many child development specialists believe that
  1. A) debriefing should not be used.
  2. B) deception should not be used.
  3. C) deception and debriefing should be used in the same manner they are used with adults.
  4. D) deception should be used only if the risk of harm is minimal.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 69

Skill: Remember

Objective: 2.6

ESSAY

  • Compare and contrast structured observation and structured interviews, noting the strengths and limitations of each.

Answer:   In structured observation, an investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response. When using structured observation, the conditions are the same for all participants. The major strength of this method is that it permits greater control over the research situation than does naturalistic observation. In addition, structured observation is especially useful for studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life. A limitation of structured observation is that participants may not behave in the laboratory as they do in their natural environments. An additional limitation of structured observation is the risk of observer influence and bias.

In structured interviews, each participant is asked the same set of questions in the same way. This approach eliminates the possibility that an interviewer might press and prompt some participants more than others. Structured interviews are brief and efficient, and researchers can obtain written responses from an entire group at the same time. It permits comparisons of participants’ responses and efficient data collection. Researchers can specify answer alternatives that participants might not think of in an open-ended interview. Its limitations are that it does not yield the same depth of information as a clinical interview, and it can be negatively affected by inaccurate reporting.

Page Ref: 43–45, 47

  • Describe the clinical, or case study, method, including its strengths and limitations.

Answer: An outgrowth of psychoanalytic theory, the clinical, or case study, method brings together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes neurobiological measures. The aim is to obtain as complete a picture as possible of that child’s psychological functioning and the experiences that led up to it. The clinical method is well suited to studying the development of certain types of individuals who are few in number but vary widely in characteristics. For example, the method has been used to find out what contributes to the accomplishments of prodigies—extremely gifted children who attain adult competence in a field before age 10. The clinical method yields richly detailed case narratives that offer valuable insights into the many factors affecting development. Nevertheless, like all other methods, it has drawbacks. Because information often is collected unsystematically and subjectively, researchers’ theoretical preferences may bias their observations and interpretations. In addition, investigators cannot assume that their conclusions apply, or generalize, to anyone other than the child studied. Even when patterns emerge across several cases, it is wise to confirm them with other research strategies.

Page Ref: 50–51

  • Describe ethnography, noting its strengths and limitations.

Answer: Ethnography is a method borrowed from the field of anthropology. Like the clinical method, ethnographic research is a descriptive, qualitative technique. But instead of aiming to understand a single individual, it is directed at understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation. Typically, the researcher spends months and sometimes years in the cultural community, participating in its daily life. By taking extensive field notes, the investigator tries to capture the culture’s unique values and social processes. The strength of the ethnographic method is that entering into close contact with a social group allows researchers to understand the beliefs and behaviors of its members in a way that is not possible with an observational visit, interview, or questionnaire. There are two limitations of ethnographic research. First, the findings may be biased by investigators’ cultural values and theoretical commitments, which sometimes lead them to observe selectively or misinterpret what they see. Second, the findings cannot be assumed to generalize beyond the people and settings in which the research was conducted.

Page Ref: 52

  • Discuss the concept of validity, and describe internal and external validity.

Answer: For research methods to have high validity, they must accurately measure characteristics that the researcher set out to measure. Methods that are implemented carelessly, unevenly, or inconsistently cannot possibly represent what an investigator originally intended to study. But to guarantee validity, researchers must go further. They often examine the content of observations and self-reports to make sure all behaviors of interest are included. Another approach is to see how effective a method is in predicting behavior we would reasonably expect it to predict. The concept of validity can also be applied more broadly: to the overall accuracy of research findings and conclusions.

In setting up an investigation, researchers must safeguard two types of validity. The first, internal validity, is the degree to which conditions internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of the researcher’s hypothesis or question. If, during any phase of the investigation—selecting participants, choosing research settings and tasks, and implementing procedures—participants’ behavior is influenced by factors unrelated to the hypothesis, then the accuracy of the results is in doubt. Second, researchers must consider external validity, the degree to which their findings generalize to settings and participants outside the original study. Ensuring that samples, tasks, and contexts for conducting research represent the real-world people and situations that the investigator aims to understand is key to this type of accuracy.

Page Ref: 54–55

  • Describe laboratory, field, and natural, or quasi-, experiments. Explain the strengths and limitations of each.

Answer: In a laboratory experiment, the investigator manipulates an independent variable in controlled laboratory conditions and looks at its effect on the dependent variable. A laboratory experiment requires random assignment of participants to treatment conditions. The strength of the laboratory experiment is that it permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships. The limitation of the laboratory experiment is that findings may not generalize to the real world. In a field experiment, the investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions in natural settings. Its strength is that it permits generalization of experimental findings to the real world. A limitation of the field experiment is that control over the treatment is generally weaker than in a laboratory experiment. In a natural, or quasi-, experiment, the investigator compares already existing treatments in the real world, carefully selecting groups of participants to ensure that their characteristics are as much alike as possible. The strength of the natural experiment is that it permits many real-world conditions that cannot be experimentally manipulated. A limitation of the natural experiment is that findings may be due to variables other than the treatment.

Page Ref: 61

  • Describe the problems in conducting longitudinal research.

Answer: Longitudinal investigations pose a number of problems that can compromise both internal and external validity. Difficulties include:

  • Biased sampling: The failure to enlist participants who represent the population of interest is a common difficulty. People who willingly participate in research that requires them to be observed and tested over many years are likely to have distinctive characteristics, such as a special appreciation for the scientific value of research, or a unique need or desire for medical, mental health, or educational services provided by the investigators. As a result, researchers cannot easily generalize from them to the rest of the population.
  • Selective attrition: Participants may move away or drop out for other reasons, and those who continue are likely to differ in important ways from those who drop out.
  • Practice effects: With repeated testing, participants may become “test-wise.” Their performance may improve as a result of better test-taking skills and increased familiarity with the test, not because of factors commonly associated with development. The very experience of being repeatedly observed, interviewed, and tested can also interfere with a study’s validity. As children and adults are alerted to their own thoughts, feelings, and actions, they may consciously revise them in ways that have little to do with age-related change.
  • Cohort effects: Longitudinal studies examine the development of cohorts—children developing in the same time period who are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing at other times. Cohort effects don’t just operate broadly on an entire generation. They also occur when specific experiences influence some children but not others in the same generation.
  • Outdated theory and methods: Changes occurring within the field of child development may create problems for longitudinal research covering an extended time period. Theories and methods that first inspired a longitudinal study may become outdated.

Page Ref: 61–62

  • How does the ethical principle of informed consent operate in studies involving children?

Answer: The ethical principle of informed consent—people’s right to have all aspects of a study explained to them that might affect their willingness to participate—requires special interpretation when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities. Parental consent is meant to protect the safety of children whose ability to decide is not yet fully mature. In addition, researchers should obtain the agreement of other individuals who act on children’s behalf, such as institutional officials when research is conducted in schools, child-care centers, or hospitals. This is especially important when studies include special groups, such as abused children, whose parents may not always represent their best interests. Furthermore, as soon as children are old enough to appreciate the purpose of the research, and certainly by 7 years of age, their own informed consent should be obtained in addition to parental consent. Around age 7, changes in children’s thinking permit them to better understand basic scientific principles and the needs of others. Researchers should respect and enhance these new capacities by giving school-age children a full explanation of research activities in language they can understand. Careful attention to informed consent helps resolve dilemmas about revealing children’s responses to parents, teachers, or other authorities when those responses suggest that the child’s welfare is in danger. Children can be told in advance that if they report that someone is harming them, the researcher will tell an appropriate adult to take action to ensure the child’s safety.

Page Ref: 67, 69

 

CHAPTER 6

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGETIAN, CORE KNOWLEDGE, AND VYGOTSKIAN PERSPECTIVES

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  • 1) Research indicates that children’s cognitive immaturity
  1. A) results from overstimulation during infancy and toddlerhood.
  2. B) results from a lack of stimulation.
  3. C) hinders their mastery of basic academic skills.
  4. D) may be adaptive.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 226

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.1

  • 2) Piaget’s theory is described as a constructivist approach because he
  1. A) stressed the social and cultural contributions to children’s thinking.
  2. B) viewed children as discovering virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity.
  3. C) emphasized how genetic and environmental factors combine to yield more complex ways of thinking.
  4. D) believed that children construct knowledge through adult training and modeling.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 226

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.1

  • 3) In Piaget’s theory, children move through four stages
  1. A) during which their exploratory behaviors transform into logical and abstract intelligence.
  2. B) not always in a sequential manner, depending on the children’s innate intelligence.
  3. C) sequentially at a rate observed in children everywhere.
  4. D) in which different cognitive skills follow unique courses of development.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 226

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.1

  • 4) In Piaget’s theory, the most powerful __________ are __________ and __________.
  1. A) schemes; categorization; hierarchical classification
  2. B) mental representations; images; concepts
  3. C) operations; hypothetico-deductive reasoning; logical necessity
  4. D) cognitive skills; private speech; propositional thought

Answer: B

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

 

  • 5) According to Piaget’s theory,
  1. A) the disappearance of schemes marks the transition from sensorimotor to preoperational thought.
  2. B) environmental, but not genetic, factors can affect the speed with which children move through cognitive stages.
  3. C) schemes are built through interaction with adults or more skilled peers.
  4. D) two processes account for the change from sensorimotor to representational schemes.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.1

  • 6) In Piaget’s theory, adaptation refers to
  1. A) the back-and-forth movement between equilibration and disequilibration.
  2. B) the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
  3. C) a rearrangement and linking together of schemes.
  4. D) a steady, comfortable cognitive state.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

  • 7) Children use current schemes to interpret their world in the process of __________, whereas __________ allows them to create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely.
  1. A) assimilation; accommodation
  2. B) adaptation; organization
  3. C) adaptation; assimilation
  4. D) equilibration; organization

Answer: A

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

  • 8) When 18-month-old James is given peas for the first time, he picks one up, throws it, and says “ball.” According to Piaget’s theory, James is most likely __________ the pea into his ball scheme.
  1. A) accommodating
  2. B) organizing
  3. C) equilibrating
  4. D) assimilating

Answer: D

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.1

  • 9) Two-year-old Viola calls her father’s swimming goggles “water glasses.” According to Piaget’s theory, Viola is most likely
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.1

 

  • 10) In Piaget’s theory, when children are in a state of disequilibrium,
  1. A) their schemes become disorganized and development is temporarily stalled.
  2. B) they realize that new information does not match their current schemes.
  3. C) they are likely to construct inefficient schemes.
  4. D) their existing schemes are not likely to change very much.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

  • 11) According to Piaget’s theory, during periods of rapid cognitive change, children
  1. A) shift from accommodation to assimilation.
  2. B) shift from assimilation to accommodation.
  3. C) equally balance assimilation and accommodation.
  4. D) are in a state of cognitive equilibrium.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

  • 12) In Piaget’s theory, children use organization to
  1. A) build schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
  2. B) adjust old schemes and create new ones to fit with the environment.
  3. C) accommodate the back-and-forth movement between cognitive equilibration and disequilibration.
  4. D) internally rearrange and link schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.1

  • 13) Baby Pedro has combined his reaching, grasping, and sucking schemes into one higher-order scheme that allows him to reach for his pacifier and put it into his mouth to suck. In Piaget’s theory, this achievement is an example of
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 227

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.1

  • 14) Which of the following behaviors is characteristic of infants in Piaget’s sensorimotor Substage 2?
  1. A) a baby who drops toys down the steps in varying ways
  2. B) a baby who accidentally makes a smacking noise while eating and later tries to reproduce the sound
  3. C) a baby who can push aside a cover to retrieve a hidden toy
  4. D) a baby who accidentally hits a toy hung in front of her and then tries to repeat this effect

Answer: B

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

 

  • 15) In Piaget’s theory, primary circular reactions are oriented toward __________, whereas secondary circular reactions are oriented toward __________.
  1. A) the infant’s own body; the surrounding world
  2. B) involuntary actions; voluntary actions
  3. C) external actions; internal representations
  4. D) concrete thought; abstract thought

Answer: A

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.2

  • 16) According to Piaget, tertiary circular reactions include
  1. A) the ability to find a hidden object that has been moved while out of sight.
  2. B) deferred imitation and private speech.
  3. C) the ability to search in several locations for a hidden object.
  4. D) make-believe play and social speech.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.2

  • 17) Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six substages based on
  1. A) anecdotal evidence provided by hundreds of parents.
  2. B) rigorous laboratory experiments with young children.
  3. C) observations of his three children.
  4. D) his research with children in French orphanages.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.2

  • 18) When Baby Carissa “stumbles” onto a new experience, such as making a mobile hanging over her crib move by kicking her feet, engaging in that activity repeatedly will
  1. A) strengthen Carissa’s response and create a new scheme.
  2. B) provide Carissa with entertainment until she is better able to explore her world.
  3. C) lead to the refinement of reflexive schemes.
  4. D) facilitate cognitive equilibrium.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 228

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

  • 19) Baby Raja accidentally pushes over a tower of blocks. Each time his sister rebuilds the tower, Raja tries to push it over. In Piaget’s theory, this is an example of a __________ circular reaction.
  1. A) reflexive
  2. B) primary
  3. C) secondary
  4. D) tertiary

Answer: C

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

 

  • 20) Baby Henry enters Piaget’s Substage 4 of the sensorimotor period when his schemes
  1. A) are directed toward his body.
  2. B) are repeated with variation to produce new outcomes.
  3. C) are coordinated deliberately to solve simple problems.
  4. D) represent sudden solutions rather than trial-and-error solutions.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

  • 21) __________ and __________ are the two landmark cognitive changes that take place in sensorimotor Substage 4 of Piaget’s theory.
  1. A) Deferred imitation; make-believe play
  2. B) Conservation; centration
  3. C) Dual representation; analogical problem solving
  4. D) Intentional behavior; object permanence

Answer: D

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.2

  • 22) Baby Lakota is shown a ball that is then hidden under a cover. What must Lakota do to retrieve the ball?
  1. A) Lakota will need to recall the location of the ball.
  2. B) Lakota must coordinate “pushing aside” and “grasping” schemes to retrieve the ball.
  3. C) Lakota will not be able to retrieve the ball until she is in Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period.
  4. D) Lakota will have trouble retrieving the ball until she no longer makes the A-not-B error.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

  • 23) Each time Mr. Chow hides 7-month-old Jana’s doll under her blanket, she retrieves the toy. When Mr. Chow then hides the doll under a pillow near the blanket, Jana continues to look under the blanket for the doll. Jana is demonstrating
  1. A) the secondary circular reaction.
  2. B) habituation and recovery.
  3. C) displaced reference.
  4. D) the A-not-B search error.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

  • 24) Infants in Substage 5
  1. A) repeat behaviors with variations.
  2. B) become skilled at reaching for and manipulating objects.
  3. C) use their capacity for intentional behavior to try to change events.
  4. D) arrive at solutions to problems suddenly rather than through trial-and-error behavior.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.2

 

  • 25) Baby Waldo is twisting and turning triangles, circles, and squares to fit them into his shape-sorter toy. According to Piaget, this behavior is best described as a __________ circular reaction.
  1. A) reflexive
  2. B) primary
  3. C) secondary
  4. D) tertiary

Answer: D

Page Ref: 229

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.2

  • 26) Toddlers in Substage 6 of the sensorimotor period can solve object-permanence problems involving invisible displacement because they have developed the capacity to
  1. A) engage in goal-directed behavior.
  2. B) construct mental representations.
  3. C) carry out means–end action sequences.
  4. D) understand dual representation.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.2

  • 27) In the violation-of-expectation method, __________ suggests that Baby Will is “surprised” by a deviation from physical reality.
  1. A) a lack of attention and unfocused behavior
  2. B) heightened attention to the unexpected event
  3. C) smiling rather than crying
  4. D) quick recovery to a familiar event

Answer: B

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

  • 28) Some critics of the violation-of-expectation method
  1. A) believe that it indicates a conscious awareness of physical events rather than a limited understanding.
  2. B) argue that wide individual differences in recovery times exist.
  3. C) believe that it indicates limited, implicit awareness of physical events rather than conscious understanding.
  4. D) argue that it is an inappropriate task to use with very young infants.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 230

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.3

  • 29) Baillargeon’s violation-of-expectation studies provided evidence that infants have some knowledge of object permanence
  1. A) between 1½ and 2½ months.
  2. B) between 2½ and 3½ months.
  3. C) no earlier than 6 months.
  4. D) after 12 months.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 231

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

 

  • 30) When infants are tested to discover whether they understand the concept of object permanence and are shown two events—one expected and one unexpected—the infants
  1. A) show no awareness that the events differ from one another.
  2. B) ignore the unexpected event.
  3. C) look longer at the unexpected event than the expected event.
  4. D) show a preference for the expected event.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 231

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 31) Baby Rina, who is still developing the expertise at motor skills necessary for the search task, is more likely to make the A-not-B search error because
  1. A) she does not yet understand object permanence.
  2. B) her short attention span prevents her from thinking beyond A.
  3. C) her reaching scheme is limited to reflexive actions.
  4. D) she has little attention left to focus on inhibiting her habitual reach toward A in favor of B.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

  • 32) In Piaget’s theory, infants are unable to mentally represent experience until about _____ months of age.
  1. A) 3
  2. B) 9
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 18

Answer: D

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 33) Laboratory research suggests that deferred imitation is present at __________ of age.
  1. A) 6 weeks
  2. B) 12 weeks
  3. C) 6 months
  4. D) 14 months

Answer: A

Page Ref: 232

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 34) Toddlers’ ability to represent others’ intentions
  1. A) occurs later than Piaget predicted.
  2. B) requires the refinement of reflexive schemes.
  3. C) seems to have roots in earlier sensorimotor activity.
  4. D) leads to gains in categorization.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 233

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

 

  • 35) Categorization helps infants learn and remember by
  1. A) teaching them how to group abstract stimuli.
  2. B) enhancing their symbolic understanding.
  3. C) reducing the enormous amount of new information they encounter every day.
  4. D) pairing objects with word associations.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 233

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.3

  • 36) Based on habituation and recovery research, Dahlia’s parents know that between 6 and 12 months old, Dahlia will be able to
  1. A) only sort items into one or two basic categories, such as animals and people.
  2. B) group objects into an impressive array of categories like food items, furniture, birds, animals, kitchen utensils, and spatial location.
  3. C) organize her physical world but not yet categorize her emotional and social worlds.
  4. D) sort familiar and novel items based on color, size, shape, and function.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 234

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

  • 37) Some researchers believe that before the end of the first year, babies undergo a fundamental shift from a(n) __________ basis to a(n) __________ basis for constructing categories
  1. A) logical; abstract
  2. B) perceptual; abstract
  3. C) logical; conceptual
  4. D) perceptual; conceptual

Answer: D

Page Ref: 234–235

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 38) Jae-Sun is a toddler growing up in Korea where children learn a language in which object names are often omitted from sentences. For that reason, he will most likely develop object-grouping skills __________-speaking counterparts.
  1. A) later than his English
  2. B) earlier than his English
  3. C) at about the same time as his English
  4. D) earlier than his Spanish

Answer: A

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

  • 39) Mara is 10 months of age. Research suggests that Mara can
  1. A) engage in sociodramatic play.
  2. B) imitate novel behaviors.
  3. C) engage in analogical problem solving.
  4. D) appreciate the symbolic nature of pictures.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

 

  • 40) By the end of the first year, infants
  1. A) use language to acquire new information about an absent object.
  2. B) use pictures as vehicles for communicating with others and acquiring new knowledge.
  3. C) begin to use an object that already has an obvious use as a symbol for another object.
  4. D) form flexible mental representations of how to use tools to get objects.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.3

  • 41) Around the first birthday, the symbolic capacity called “displaced reference” emerges, which allows toddlers to
  1. A) use abstract thought to solve problems.
  2. B) form initial mental representations that can be used to evaluate further information.
  3. C) categorize objects on the basis of their physical attributes.
  4. D) recognize that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 235

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 42) The capacity to use __________ as a flexible symbolic tool improves from the end of the second into the third year.
  1. A) make-believe
  2. B) language
  3. C) deferred imitation
  4. D) the circular reaction

Answer: B

Page Ref: 236

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 43) Before about 9 months of age, how are babies likely to treat a picture of a person or an object?
  1. A) They touch or manipulate the picture in ways that reveal confusion about the picture’s real nature.
  2. B) They do not seem to have difficulty distinguishing between the symbol and the referent.
  3. C) They use it as a tool to modify an existing mental representation.
  4. D) They treat it as a symbol.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 236

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.3

  • 44) Initially, infants respond to videos of people
  1. A) as make-believe characters.
  2. B) in a fearful manner.
  3. C) with indifference, paying little attention to the characters.
  4. D) as if viewing people directly.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.3

 

  • 45) Gregor just turned 2½. By this age, the video deficit effect
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.3

  • 46) Research indicates that amount of TV viewing is negatively related to 8- to 18-month-olds’
  1. A) motor development.
  2. B) language process.
  3. C) analogical problem solving.
  4. D) visual development.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 237 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Baby Learning from TV and Video: The Video Deficit Effect

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.3

  • 47) Piaget believed that the major benefit of make-believe play during the preoperational stage is to
  1. A) strengthen representational schemes.
  2. B) exercise logical reasoning skills.
  3. C) build creativity and imagination.
  4. D) facilitate perspective-taking ability.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 239

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 48) By the time children reach age 4 or 5, they combine their play schemes with those of peers by creating and coordinating roles in
  1. A) sociodramatic play.
  2. B) adult-directed play acting.
  3. C) secondary circular reactions.
  4. D) categorization of others’ intentions.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.4

  • 49) Research on the development of make-believe play indicates that
  1. A) girls spend more time in sociodramatic play than boys.
  2. B) preschoolers who devote more time to sociodramatic play are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.
  3. C) school-age children are more self-centered in their pretend play than preschoolers.
  4. D) preschoolers who create imaginary companions are at risk for maladjustment.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

 

  • 50) Between 25 and 45 percent of preschoolers and young school-age children spend much time in solitary make-believe,
  1. A) avoiding contact with adults or peers.
  2. B) which interferes in their ability to form friendships.
  3. C) which is a sign of maladjustment.
  4. D) creating imaginary companions.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 240

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 51) Because of __________, preschoolers are only able to draw figures in their simplest forms.
  1. A) limited adult instruction
  2. B) a lack of motivation
  3. C) an inability to form detailed mental representations
  4. D) fine-motor and cognitive limitations

Answer: D

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 52) Research conducted on schooled and nonschooled children in the Jimi Valley of Papua New Guinea indicates that
  1. A) nonrepresentational scribbles seem to be a universal beginning in drawing.
  2. B) schooled children include fewer details in their drawings than nonschooled children.
  3. C) early drawings of the human figure produced by nonschooled children emphasize the head and face over the hands and feet.
  4. D) schooling has minimal impact on children’s first representational shapes and forms.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 242

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.4

  • 53) In one study, 2½-year-olds were unable to use a scale model of a room to find a toy hidden in the room that the model represented. This is because young preschoolers have difficulty with
  1. A) deferred imitation.
  2. B) analogical problem solving.
  3. C) transitive inference.
  4. D) dual representation.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 243

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 54) According to Piaget, preschoolers’ thinking is
  1. A) flexible.
  2. B) rigid.
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 243

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.4

 

  • 55) According to Piaget, when children first mentally represent the world, they
  1. A) exhibit thinking that is unlimited and flexible.
  2. B) are adept at forming mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
  3. C) assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they do.
  4. D) are especially adept at distinguishing other people’s symbolic viewpoints from their own.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 56) Five-year-old Sasha is participating in Piaget’s three-mountains problem. When Sasha is asked to choose the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll’s perspective, he will most likely
  1. A) choose the correct picture, but not be able to explain why he chose that picture.
  2. B) know that the correct picture is different from his point of view, but not be sure which picture to choose.
  3. C) choose the picture that shows his own point of view.
  4. D) choose the correct picture and be able to explain why he chose that picture.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.4

  • 57) When 3-year-old Gwen explains that her bicycle is sad because it is alone in the garage, she is demonstrating
  1. A) analogical problem solving.
  2. B) animistic thinking.
  3. C) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
  4. D) propositional thought.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.4

  • 58) Children in Western nations typically acquire conservation of number, mass, and liquid sometime between __________ years and of weight between __________ years.
  1. A) 2 and 3; 5 and 6
  2. B) 4 and 6; 7 and 9
  3. C) 6 and 7; 8 and 10
  4. D) 8 and 10; 11 and 12

Answer: C

Page Ref: 244

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.4

 

  • 59) Which of the following helps to explain why preoperational children’s thinking keeps them from being able to understand the idea of conservation?
  1. A) They tend to spend too much time on reversibility, or mentally reversing the steps in a problem back to the starting point.
  2. B) They tend to focus more on the dynamic transformation of a situation without giving adequate attention to beginning and ending states.
  3. C) They have a significant grasp on the idea that appearances can change without changing the fundamental characteristics of the situation.
  4. D) Their understanding is characterized by centration in which they focus on one aspect of the situation while ignoring other important features.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 60) According to Piaget, 4-year-olds cannot solve a conservation-of-liquid problem because they
  1. A) focus on the height of the water, failing to realize that changes in width compensate for the changes in height.
  2. B) do not notice the difference in appearance between the water levels in the two glasses.
  3. C) have limited experience with the task materials.
  4. D) do not understand the point of the question, “Which glass holds more water?”

Answer: A

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.4

  • 61) The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) magical thinking.
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.5

  • 62) Piaget’s famous __________ demonstrates preoperational children’s difficulty with __________.
  1. A) three-mountains problem; dual representation
  2. B) three-mountains problem; hierarchical classification
  3. C) class inclusion task; hierarchical classification
  4. D) class inclusion task; dual representation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.4

  • 63) During a __________ task, 4-year-old Vanessa is asked whether there are more oranges or fruits in a group of two apples, three bananas, and five oranges. She will most likely say that there are more __________.
  1. A) class inclusion; fruits
  2. B) class inclusion; oranges
  3. C) conservation-of-number; fruits
  4. D) conservation-of-number; oranges

Answer: B

Page Ref: 245

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.4

 

  • 64) Three-year-old Dominic calls his toy robot Sam and talks to him as if Sam is another 3-year-old. What explanation do researchers give for Dominic’s behavior?
  1. A) Dominic actually believes that the robot is alive.
  2. B) Dominic believes that all people and objects think the same thoughts that he thinks.
  3. C) Dominic cannot distinguish between animate and inanimate objects.
  4. D) Dominic has incomplete knowledge about certain objects, including his toy robot.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 246

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.5

  • 65) When 4-year-old Leela wished for her grandmother to come and visit, and the very next day her grandmother arrived at Leela’s house, Leela believed it was
  1. A) because her grandmother knew every thought Leela had.
  2. B) nothing out of the ordinary.
  3. C) because magic accounts for events she cannot otherwise explain.
  4. D) a special power that only Leela has.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 246

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.5

  • 66) Preschoolers’ understanding that sugar continues to exist when it is dissolved in water is evidence that they
  1. A) can overcome appearances and think logically in familiar contexts.
  2. B) can think logically even about unfamiliar topics.
  3. C) are incapable of logical thought, as Piaget asserted.
  4. D) do not understand cause-and-effect relationships.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 246

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.5

  • 67) Preschoolers seem to use __________ when they must grapple with unfamiliar topics, too much information, or contradictory facts that they cannot reconcile.
  1. A) illogical reasoning
  2. B) mental representation
  3. C) analogical problem solving
  4. D) logical thought

Answer: A

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.5

  • 68) Preschoolers’ impressive skill at categorization is supported by
  1. A) animistic thinking.
  2. B) their rapidly expanding vocabularies.
  3. C) egocentric tendencies.
  4. D) the use of magical thinking for events they cannot explain.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 247

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.5

 

  • 69) A hallmark of the concrete operational stage is the ability to
  1. A) understand dual representation.
  2. B) participate in sociodramatic play.
  3. C) pass conservation tasks.
  4. D) engage in animistic thinking.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 249

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.6

  • 70) During a conservation-of-water problem, Wanda recognizes that a change in the height of the water is compensated for by a change in its width. This example demonstrates that Wanda is capable of
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 249

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.6

  • 71) According to Piaget, children who pass class inclusion tasks
  1. A) can focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time.
  2. B) have the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse them.
  3. C) can order items along a quantitative dimension.
  4. D) are able to recognize more than five separate and distinct categories of items.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 250

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.6

  • 72) Ten-year-old Delaney is helping her dad put new shingles on her playhouse in the backyard. Her dad asks her to put the shingles in order from longest to shortest so that he can vary the start of each row. She is able to do this because she
  1. A) can think abstractly.
  2. B) can perform seriation tasks.
  3. C) understands dual representation.
  4. D) understands conservation.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 250

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.6

  • 73) Elena can mentally represent her neighborhood and describe the space to others. Elena’s mental representation of her neighborhood is known as
  1. A) a cognitive map.
  2. B) propositional thought.
  3. C) reasoning by analogy.
  4. D) an organized route of travel.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 250

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.6

 

  • 74) Children’s ability to draw a map of a large-scale space improves with age due to
  1. A) their ability to reason by analogy.
  2. B) gains in fine-motor development.
  3. C) an increase in spatial cognition.
  4. D) better perspective-taking skills.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 250

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.6

  • 75) When his friend’s mom asks him if he wants a ride home from baseball practice, Pele gives her directions using a __________ that helps him imagine the mom’s movements along the route she needs to take between the baseball field and Pele’s house.
  1. A) conservation technique
  2. B) “mental walk” strategy
  3. C) “decentration” method
  4. D) transitive inference strategy

Answer: B

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.6

  • 76) Melissa and Anjay are both 12 years old. Melissa is from the United States, and Anjay is from India. When asked to draw a map of their neighborhood, Melissa’s map will show __________ than Anjay’s map.
  1. A) a richer array of landmarks and aspects of social life
  2. B) a smaller area surrounding her home
  3. C) a more formal, extended space, highlighting main streets and key directions
  4. D) fewer features that are actually helpful in providing directions for other people

Answer: C

Page Ref: 251

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.6

  • 77) Children in the concrete operational stage
  1. A) can think logically when dealing with abstract information.
  2. B) move along a continuum of acquisition of logical concepts.
  3. C) master Piaget’s concrete operational tasks all at once.
  4. D) continue to fail conservation tasks.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.6

  • 78) Opportunities to seriate objects, to learn about order relations, and to remember the parts of complex problems are probably responsible for
  1. A) the development of the imaginary audience.
  2. B) improvements in decision-making strategies.
  3. C) mastery of Piagetian tasks.
  4. D) advanced abstract thinking.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.6

 

  • 79) Some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks
  1. A) are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.
  2. B) emerge spontaneously during middle childhood.
  3. C) emerge spontaneously during adolescence.
  4. D) show little variation worldwide.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 252

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.7

  • 80) Petra is an average 10-year-old. Research indicates that Petra
  1. A) is egocentric in her social relationships.
  2. B) provides clear directions and constructs well-organized cognitive maps.
  3. C) is in Piaget’s formal operational stage.
  4. D) grasps the logical necessity of propositional thought.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.7

  • 81) The capacity for __________ distinguishes the formal operational stage from the concrete operational stage.
  1. A) conservation
  2. B) abstract thinking
  3. C) analogical problem solving
  4. D) dual representation

Answer: B

Page Ref: 253

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

  • 82) Once young people enter the formal operational stage, they are able to systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world through
  1. A) hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
  2. B) animistic thinking.
  3. C) transitive inference.
  4. D) analogical problem solving.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 253–254

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

  • 83) In watching two children, Wiley, who is in the concrete operational stage, and Abby, who is in the formal operational stage, solve Piaget’s pendulum problem, what difference would be evident?
  1. A) Both Wiley and Abby will use similar strategies to solve the problem.
  2. B) Wiley will systematically test alternative hypotheses.
  3. C) Abby will intuitively solve the problem without experimentation.
  4. D) Abby will systematically test alternative hypotheses.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 253–254

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.8

 

  • 84) During a study, the experimenter tells Kerri, “Either the swan is black or it is not black.” Even though Kerri has never seen a black swan, she judges this statement to be true. This is because Kerri
  1. A) cannot yet conserve.
  2. B) is making an A-not-B error.
  3. C) is engaging in propositional thought.
  4. D) is egocentric.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 254

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.8

  • 85) In one study, an experimenter hid a poker chip in her hand and asked adolescents to evaluate the truthfulness of the following statement: “The chip in my hand is green and it is not green.” An adolescent who is capable of propositional thought would most likely answer that this statement is
  1. A) always false, regardless of the color of the poker chip.
  2. B) false only if the poker chip is not green.
  3. C) true if the poker chip is green.
  4. D) always true, regardless of the color of the poker chip.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 254

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.8

  • 86) Adolescents are able to ponder the concepts of justice and freedom because they have developed
  1. A) a moral code.
  2. B) verbal reasoning about abstract concepts.
  3. C) idealism and egocentric decision making.
  4. D) the ability to delay gratification.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 254–255

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

  • 87) According to Piaget, a form of egocentrism emerges during the formal operational stage in which adolescents have difficulty
  1. A) distinguishing their own and others’ perspectives.
  2. B) with day-to-day decision making.
  3. C) comparing the merit of their accomplishments with that of others.
  4. D) establishing a sense of self that is independent from their parents.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 255

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.8

  • 88) __________ helps explain the long hours adolescents spend inspecting every detail of their appearance and why they are so sensitive to public criticism.
  1. A) Propositional thought
  2. B) The imaginary audience
  3. C) Abstract thought
  4. D) Hierarchical classification

Answer: B

Page Ref: 255

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

 

  • 89) Which of the following statements is true regarding the consequences of abstract thought?
  1. A) Sense of personal uniqueness eliminates sensitivity to criticism.
  2. B) Sense of omnipotence is moderately associated with depression and suicidal thinking.
  3. C) The imaginary audience discourages independence from parents.
  4. D) The imaginary audience helps teenagers maintain important relationships.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 256

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.8

  • 90) With respect to the personal fable, viewing the self as highly capable and influential helps young people
  1. A) cope with the “storm and stress” of puberty.
  2. B) view the imaginary audience more realistically and avoid negative emotions.
  3. C) cope with the challenges of adolescence.
  4. D) recognize their vulnerability and decrease their risk-taking behaviors.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 256

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.8

  • 91) As a result of adolescents’ ability to engage in __________, they often construct grand visions of a perfect world that are at odds with adults’ more realistic views.
  1. A) hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  2. B) propositional thinking
  3. C) animistic thinking
  4. D) abstract thinking

Answer: D

Page Ref: 256

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

  • 92) Evidence confirms that, when making decisions, adolescents, relative to adults, are
  1. A) less willing to take risks.
  2. B) more influenced by the possibility of immediate reward.
  3. C) more apt to seek advice from others.
  4. D) more likely to learn from feedback by revising their decision-making strategies.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 256

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.8

  • 93) In making decisions, adolescents, more often than adults,
  1. A) ignore well-learned intuitive judgments.
  2. B) seek advice from parents or other trusted adults.
  3. C) fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.
  4. D) weigh the pros and cons of possible outcomes.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 257

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.8

 

  • 94) Research on formal operational thought indicates that 6-year-olds
  1. A) show signs of hypothetico-deductive reasoning on tasks that involve simplified situations.
  2. B) display hypothetico-deductive reasoning only when assisted by an adult.
  3. C) only display hypothetico-deductive reasoning during pretend play.
  4. D) are capable of abstract thinking when presented with real-world problems.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 257

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.9

  • 95) Axel, who is younger than age 10, will have difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality or his own beliefs because he is not yet able to
  1. A) analyze the logic of propositions in situations in which he has had extensive experience.
  2. B) grasp the logical necessity of propositional thought.
  3. C) recognize symbolic objects as both objects and symbols.
  4. D) apply his problem-solving strategies.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 257–258

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.9

  • 96) People are most likely to think abstractly and systematically on tasks in which
  1. A) they have had extensive guidance and practice in using such reasoning.
  2. B) hypothetico-deductive reasoning is not required.
  3. C) the rules of logical thought can be ignored.
  4. D) logical necessity is required.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 258

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.9

  • 97) Miss Caroline, a teacher who uses Piagetian principles in her classroom,
  1. A) provides extensive instruction in reading and mathematics.
  2. B) pairs low-ability students with high-ability students to enhance learning.
  3. C) encourages her students to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with their environment.
  4. D) forms cooperative groups with two to four students who take turns leading dialogues.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 259

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.10

  • 98) Piaget’s belief that infants and young children must act on the environment to revise their thinking is
  1. A) widely accepted by contemporary researchers.
  2. B) too broad a notion of how learning takes place.
  3. C) too narrow a notion of how learning takes place.
  4. D) a major contribution to early intervention research.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 260

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.11

 

  • 99) One neo-Piagetian perspective combines Piaget’s stage approach with
  1. A) ecological systems theory.
  2. B) information processing.
  3. C)
  4. D) the core knowledge perspective.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 261

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.11

  • Researchers in diverse theories continue to draw inspiration from Piaget’s view of the child as a(n)
  1. A) tabula rasa.
  2. B) active, constructive learner.
  3. C) passive learner.
  4. D) social being.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 261

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.11

  • Core knowledge theorists disagree with Piaget’s ideas and argue that
  1. A) infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems.
  2. B) cognitive development originates with sensorimotor reflexes.
  3. C) development occurs in stages with little variations across domains.
  4. D) development is primarily a matter of cultural and social influences.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 261

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.12

  • According to the core knowledge perspective, physical and numerical knowledge
  1. A) permitted our ancestors to secure food and other resources from the environment.
  2. B) does not emerge until children start formal schooling.
  3. C) helps children understand people as agents who have mental states that influence their behavior.
  4. D) helps children understand certain bodily processes, such as birth, growth, illness, and death.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 262

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.12

  • Core knowledge theorists view development as
  1. A) simply refining already advanced knowledge systems.
  2. B) following a strict, stagewise progression.
  3. C) a sociocultural phenomenon.
  4. D) domain-specific and uneven.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 262

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.12

 

  • Which of the following statements provides support for the core knowledge perspective?
  1. A) Baby Lisa looks longer at an unexpected physical event than an expected physical event.
  2. B) Baby Marcus can discriminate quantities up to three and use that knowledge to perform simple arithmetic.
  3. C) Before entering preschool, Fayola has difficulty with less-than and greater-than number relationships.
  4. D) Quinn cannot understand the concepts of addition and subtraction until elementary school.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 263

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.12

  • According to theory theory,
  1. A) children draw on innate concepts to form explanations of everyday events.
  2. B) cognitive development is largely due to increases in information-processing capacity.
  3. C) the child and the social environment collaborate to build cognition in culturally adaptive ways.
  4. D) by acting directly on the environment, children construct virtually all their knowledge about the world.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 264

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.12

  • More seriously than other perspectives, core knowledge theorists have addressed which of the following questions?
  1. A) “Why is experience essential for children and the knowledge they are born with?”
  2. B) “Why does speed of learning differ in children?”
  3. C) “What allows learning to get off the ground?”
  4. D) “Do all aspects of cognition develop uniformly, or do some develop at faster rates than others?”

Answer: C

Page Ref: 265

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.12

  • A criticism of both the core knowledge perspective and Piaget’s theory focuses on
  1. A) how they ignore children’s independent efforts to construct knowledge.
  2. B) their inability to explain how heredity and environment jointly produce cognitive change.
  3. C) how they underestimate the cognitive competencies of children and adolescents.
  4. D) their inability to account for or explain stagewise change.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 266

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.13

  • According to Vygotsky, infants are endowed with basic perceptual, attention, and memory capacities that they share with other animals. These develop during the first two years through
  1. A) stimulating interactions with adults.
  2. B) direct contact with the environment.
  3. C) the biological unfolding of genetic structures.
  4. D) independent exploration of the environment.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 266

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.14

 

  • Based on Piaget’s view of children’s private speech, which of the following statements is true?
  1. A) Both Tatiana and her parents engage in private speech.
  2. B) Taylor’s cognitive development and certain social experiences will bring an end to his private speech.
  3. C) As Carolina internalizes the perspective of others, she will begin to engage in private speech.
  4. D) Kaz’s social speech declines in favor of egocentric speech, in which he adapts what he says to his listeners.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.14

  • Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that
  1. A) language often distracts children from thinking about mental activities and behavior.
  2. B) egocentric speech interferes with children’s attempts at constructing knowledge.
  3. C) children discover virtually all knowledge about the world through their own activity.
  4. D) language provides the foundation for all higher cognitive processes.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.14

  • Anthony has a learning disability. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Anthony?
  1. A) Anthony’s private speech is an indication of unhealthy egocentric behavior.
  2. B) Anthony’s use of self-guiding private speech during a challenging activity will not lead to better task performance.
  3. C) Anthony’s private speech will only be as good as his communication skills with others.
  4. D) Anthony uses private speech to help compensate for impairments in cognitive processing.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.14

  • Research on private speech suggests thatyoungchildren
  1. A) are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are too hard.
  2. B) are more likely to talk to themselves when tasks are appropriately challenging.
  3. C) talk to themselves because they have difficulty taking the perspective of others.
  4. D) with learning and behavior problems rarely use private speech.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.14

  • Vygotsky believed that learning takes place
  1. A) within the zone of proximal development.
  2. B) in discrete stages.
  3. C) primarily through independent exploration.
  4. D) once children are capable of mental representation.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.14

 

  • According to Vygotsky, which of the following would be within a child’s zone of proximal development?
  1. A) Edward is completing a homework assignment with a classmate.
  2. B) Elise recently mastered a task independently following the assistance of her mother.
  3. C) Jasira cannot yet handle a specific task on her own, but she can do it with the help of an adult.
  4. D) Tevan figures out how to accomplish a task through trial and error.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 267

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.14

  • In Vygotsky’s theory, when two participants to a task each adjust to the perspective of the other in order to create common ground for communication, they are
  1. A) engaging in scaffolding, but only at a verbal level.
  2. B) engaging in reciprocal teaching.
  3. C) stepping outside each other’s zone of proximal development.
  4. D) contributing to cognitive development through intersubjectivity.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 268

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.14

  • Two-year-old Maya is building a block tower. Her father begins by pointing to where each block needs to go as Maya piles them up. As Maya’s competence with the task increases, her father gradually withdraws support. This is an example of
  1. A) transitive inference.
  2. B) cooperative learning.
  3. C) reciprocal teaching.
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 268

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.14

  • Lester has learned how to give his dog a bath all by himself from helping his mother give the dog a bath in the past. Lester has learned this skill through
  1. A) cooperative learning.
  2. B)
  3. C) guided participation.
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 268

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.14

  • Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as a major source of cognitive development because it __________ in which children advance themselves.
  1. A) is a zone of proximal development
  2. B) fosters intersubjectivity
  3. C) promotes cooperative learning
  4. D) provides opportunities for private speech

Answer: A

Page Ref: 269

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.15

 

  • Which of the following would signal to Christie, a toddler, that her mother is engaging in make-believe play with her?
  1. A) She smiles less and is more serious with Christie.
  2. B) She uses more “we” talk than she would during the same real-life event.
  3. C) She always waits for the cues to come from Christie before participating in make-believe play with Christie.
  4. D) She rarely offers any cues, and so Christie has to learn on her own when her mother is pretending and when she is not.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe Play

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.15

  • Which of the following statements is supported by research on make-believe play?
  1. A) When adults participate, toddlers’ make-believe play is more elaborate than when they play alone.
  2. B) In early childhood, make-believe play often occurs with an imaginary companion.
  3. C) In cultures where make-believe play occurs with older siblings rather than with mothers, the fantasy play of toddlers is hindered.
  4. D) Children are more likely to combine schemes into complex sequences when engaging in make-believe play with agemates than when they are playing with caregivers.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe Play

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.15

  • Make-believe play is a major means through which children
  1. A) develop and refine representational schemes.
  2. B) learn about prejudice and the differences among different racial and ethnic groups.
  3. C) learn language and its more subtle nuances.
  4. D) extend their cognitive skills and learn about important activities in their culture.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 270 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Social Origins of Make-Believe Play

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.15

  • Vygotsky emphasized __________ for preschool children, and then shifting to __________ once formal schooling begins.
  1. A) independent discovery learning; social context and collaboration
  2. B) rote memory; make-believe play and reading
  3. C) meaningful activities in children’s zones of proximal development; literacy activities
  4. D) a basic skills approach; scaffolding

Answer: C

Page Ref: 270

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.16

  • In her classroom, Kim and small groups of students take turns leading dialogues on the content of various texts. This is an example of
  1. A) cooperative learning.
  2. B) reciprocal teaching.
  3. C)
  4. D) guided participation.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 271

Skill: Apply

Objective: 6.16

 

  • Elementary and middle school students exposed to reciprocal teaching
  1. A) tend to experience more conflict and competition.
  2. B) have dramatically higher IQ scores than children exposed to traditional methods.
  3. C) show impressive gains in reading comprehension.
  4. D) are often overly dependent on adults.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 271

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.16

  • Which of the following approaches is likely to be seen in a Vygotskian classroom?
  1. A) opportunities for active participation
  2. B) an emphasis on teacher-directed instruction
  3. C) activities developed to foster peer collaboration
  4. D) learning experiences designed to promote independent exploration

Answer: C

Page Ref: 271

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.16

  • In which of the following situations of cooperative learning would children learn best?
  1. A) when children have first been trained in make-believe play
  2. B) when adults provide structured lessons
  3. C) when groups have more than three children
  4. D) when their peer partner is an “expert”

Answer: D

Page Ref: 271

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.16

  • Which of the following statements is true regarding cooperative learning?
  1. A) The extent to which children achieve independence is key to fostering cooperative learning.
  2. B) For cooperative learning to succeed, Western children usually require extensive guidance.
  3. C) A single peer interaction is more beneficial than interactions with multiple peers.
  4. D) Children’s problem solving improves most when their peer partner has equal expertise on the task.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 271

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.16

  • In Western societies, the role of equipping children with the skills they need to become competent workers is assigned to
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) vocational programs.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 273 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.17

 

  • Recent ethnographic research reveals that
  1. A) young Yucatec Mayan children decide for themselves how much to sleep and eat, what to wear, when to bathe, and when to start school.
  2. B) Yucatec Mayan children and Western children display impressive similarities in their make-believe play, despite very different cultural and social conditions.
  3. C) in cultures where parents rarely scaffold their children’s learning, children tend to be delayed in early cognitive skills.
  4. D) in cultures where parents rarely converse with their children, children tend to frequently display attention-getting behaviors.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 273 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Children in Village and Tribal Cultures Observe and Participate in Adult Work

Skill: Remember

Objective: 6.17

  • Critics of Vygotsky argue that his theory __________ in advancing cognitive development.
  1. A) says little about biological contributions
  2. B) overemphasizes the importance of children’s independent efforts
  3. C) assumes a set of experiences common to all cultures
  4. D) underemphasizes the significance of teaching

Answer: A

Page Ref: 272

Skill: Understand

Objective: 6.17

ESSAY

  • Describe Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development, including follow-up research on Piaget’s ideas.

Answer: According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called schemes, change with age. At first, schemes are sensorimotor action patterns. Sensorimotor—the name of the stage—reflects Piaget’s belief that infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities mentally.

The circular reaction involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby’s own motor activity. It provides a special means of adapting her first schemes. The reaction is “circular” because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance strengthens into a new scheme. She starts to gain voluntary control over her actions through the primary circular reaction, by repeating chance behaviors largely motivated by basic needs. This leads to some simple motor habits. Through the secondary circular reaction, she tries to repeat interesting events—through intentional, or goal-directed, behaviors—in the surrounding environment that are caused by her own actions. As she begins to master object permanence and imitation, the tertiary circular reaction, or repeated behaviors with variation, emerges.

In Piaget’s theory, infants lead purely sensorimotor lives. Yet research indicates that, beginning at 8 to 10 months, babies can recall the location of hidden objects, indicating that babies construct mental representations of objects and their whereabouts. And in studies of deferred imitation, categorization, and problem solving, representational thought is evident even earlier. Researchers disagree on how babies arrive at these impressive attainments. One view holds that older infants and toddlers categorize more effectively because they become increasingly sensitive to fine-grained perceptual features and to stable relations among these features. An alternative view is that before the end of the first year, babies undergo a fundamental shift from a perceptual to a conceptual basis for constructing categories.

Consistent with Piaget’s ideas, sensorimotor action helps infants construct some forms of knowledge. Yet we have also seen evidence that infants comprehend a great deal before they are capable of the motor behaviors that Piaget assumed led to those understandings.

Page Ref: 226–238

 

  • Compare Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on children’s make-believe play.

Answer: Piaget believed that through pretending, children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes. However, today, Piaget’s view of make-believe as mere practice of representational schemes is regarded as too limited. Play not only reflects but also contributes to children’s cognitive and social skills. Sociodramatic play has been studied most thoroughly. Compared with social nonpretend activities (such as drawing or putting puzzles together), during sociodramatic play preschoolers’ interactions last longer, show more involvement, draw more children into the activity, and are more cooperative.

Vygotsky regarded make-believe play as a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development in which children advance themselves as they try out a wide variety of challenging skills. In Vygotsky’s theory, make-believe is the central source of development during the preschool years, leading development forward in two ways. First, as children create imaginary situations, they learn to act in accord with internal ideas, not just in response to external stimuli. While pretending, children continually use one object to stand for another—a stick for a horse, a folded blanket for a sleeping baby—and, doing so, change the object’s usual meaning. Gradually they realize that thinking (or the meaning of words) is separate from objects and that ideas can be used to guide behavior.

Second, the rule-based nature of make-believe strengthens children’s capacity to think before they act. Pretend play, Vygotsky pointed out, constantly demands that children act against their impulses because they must follow the rules of the play scene. For example, a child pretending to go to sleep obeys the rules of bedtime behavior. A child imagining himself as a father and a doll as his child conforms to the rules of parental behavior. Through enacting rules in make-believe, children better understand social norms and expectations and strive to follow them.

Vygotsky questioned Piaget’s belief that make-believe arises spontaneously in the second year of life. Vygotsky argued that, like other higher cognitive processes, the elaborate pretending of the preschool years has social origins.

Page Ref: 239–240, 269

  • Discuss the limitations of preoperational thought from Piaget’s point of view.

Answer:      For Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is egocentrism—failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own. He believed that when children first mentally represent the world, they tend to focus on their own viewpoint and to assume that others perceive, think, and feel the same way they do. Egocentrism is responsible for preoperational children’s animistic thinking—the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. Piaget argued that young children’s egocentric bias prevents them from accommodating, or reflecting on and revising their faulty reasoning in response to their physical and social worlds.

Piaget’s famous conservation tasks reveal several deficiencies of preoperational thinking. Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. The inability to conserve highlights several related aspects of preoperational children’s thinking. First, their understanding is centered, or characterized by centration. They focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.

The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is irreversibility. Reversibility—the ability to go through a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point—is part of every logical operation. Preoperational children also have difficulty with hierarchical classification—the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.

Page Ref: 244–245

 

  • Discuss the two major features of Piaget’s formal operations stage.

Answer: Piaget believed that at adolescence, young people become capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world. This form of problem solving begins with possibility and proceeds to reality.

A second important characteristic of Piaget’s formal operational stage is propositional thought—adolescents’ ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances. In contrast, children can evaluate the logic of statements only by considering them against concrete evidence in the real world.

Although Piaget did not view language as playing a central role in cognitive development, he acknowledged its importance in adolescence. Formal operations require language-based and other symbolic systems that do not stand for real things, such as those in higher mathematics. Secondary school students use such systems in algebra and geometry. Formal operational thought also involves verbal reasoning about abstract concepts. Adolescents show that they can think in this way when they ponder the relations among time, space, and matter in physics or wonder about justice and freedom in philosophy.

Page Ref: 253–255

  • Describe the core knowledge perspective of cognitive development.

Answer: According to the core knowledge perspective, infants begin life with innate, special-purpose knowledge systems referred to as core domains of thought. Each of these “prewired” understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition. Core knowledge theorists argue that infants could not make sense of the multifaceted stimulation around them without having been genetically “set up” in the course of evolution to comprehend its crucial aspects.

Two core domains have been studied extensively in infancy. The first is physical knowledge—in particular, understanding of objects and their effects on one another. The second is numerical knowledge—the capacity to keep track of multiple objects and to add and subtract small quantities. Physical and numerical knowledge permitted our ancestors to secure food and other resources from the environment.

Rather than regarding development as a general process, core knowledge theorists see it as domain-specific and uneven, with each core domain developing independently. And although initial knowledge is assumed to be innate, that knowledge becomes more elaborate as children explore, play, and interact with others.

Page Ref: 261–262

 

  • Compare and contrast Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on children’s private speech, and evaluate each on the basis of research findings.

Answer: Piaget called preschoolers’ utterances egocentric speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others. Their talk, he said, is often “talk for self” in which they express thoughts in whatever form they happen to occur, regardless of whether a listener can understand. Piaget believed that cognitive development and certain social experiences eventually bring an end to egocentric speech. Specifically, through repeated disagreements with peers, children see that others hold viewpoints different from their own. As a result, egocentric speech declines in favor of social speech, in which children adapt what they say to their listeners.

Vygotsky disagreed strongly with Piaget’s conclusions. Because language helps children think about mental activities and behavior and select courses of action, Vygotsky saw it as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes, including controlled attention, deliberate memorization and recall, categorization, planning, problem solving, abstract reasoning, and self-reflection. In Vygotsky’s view, children speak to themselves for self-guidance. As they get older and find tasks easier, their self-directed speech is internalized as silent, inner speech—the internal verbal dialogues we carry on while thinking and acting in everyday situations.

Over the past three decades, almost all studies have supported Vygotsky’s perspective. As a result, children’s self-directed speech is now called private speech instead of egocentric speech. Children use more of it when tasks are appropriately challenging (neither too easy nor too hard), after they make errors, or when they are confused about how to proceed. With age, as Vygotsky predicted, private speech goes underground, changing into whispers and silent lip movements. Furthermore, children who freely use self-guiding private speech during a challenging activity are more attentive and involved and show better task performance than their less talkative agemates.

Page Ref: 267

  • Describe how Vygotsky’s ideas influence trends in education today.

Answer: Vygotsky’s theory offers new visions of teaching and learning—ones that emphasize the importance of social context and collaboration. Vygotskian classrooms accept individual differences and provide opportunities for children’s active participation, but they go beyond independent discovery to promote assisted discovery. Teachers guide children’s learning with explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts, tailoring their interventions to each child’s zone of proximal development. Assisted discovery is aided by peer collaboration, as children work in groups, teaching and helping one another.

Vygotsky’s educational message for the preschool years is to provide socially rich, meaningful activities in children’s zones of proximal development and a wealth of opportunities for make-believe play—the ultimate means of fostering the self-discipline required for later academic learning. Once formal schooling begins, Vygotsky emphasized literacy activities.

Vygotsky-based educational innovations include reciprocal teaching, in which a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage. Within the dialogues, group members apply four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting.

Today, peer collaboration is widely used, but evidence is mounting that it promotes development only under certain conditions. A crucial factor is cooperative learning, in which small groups of classmates work toward common goals. Conflict and disagreement seem less important than the extent to which peers achieve intersubjectivity—by resolving differences of opinion, sharing responsibilities, and providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings.

Teaching through cooperative learning broadens Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development, from a single child in collaboration with an expert partner (adult or peer) to multiple partners with diverse forms of expertise stimulating and encouraging one another.

Page Ref: 269–272

CHAPTER 13

DEVELOPMENT OF SEX DIFFERENCES AND GENDER ROLES


MULTIPLE CHOICE

  • 1) Which of the following terms refers to the public face of gender in society?
  1. A) gender stereotypes and gender roles
  2. B) gender stereotypes and gender identity
  3. C) gender roles and gender identity
  4. D) gender identity and gender typing

Answer: A

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.1

  • 2) People in Country A hold a widely shared set of beliefs about characteristics deemed appropriate for males and females. They believe that females are passive and males are aggressive. Country A’s beliefs represent gender
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.1

  • 3) Dean associates certain activities, roles, and traits as being typical for either males or females. His associations conform to cultural stereotypes and encompass many gender-linked responses. This is an example of gender
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.1

  • 4) Competence, rationality, and assertiveness are examples of __________ traits that are typically considered to be __________.
  1. A) expressive; feminine
  2. B) expressive; masculine
  3. C) instrumental; feminine
  4. D) instrumental; masculine

Answer: D

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 5) Which of the following traits is considered instrumental?
  1. A) emotional
  2. B) self-confident
  3. C) needs approval
  4. D) considerate

Answer: B

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 6) Which of the following traits is considered expressive?
  1. A) excitable in a major crisis
  2. B) takes a stand
  3. C) not easily influenced
  4. D) holds up well under pressure

Answer: A

Page Ref: 530

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 7) Gender stereotypes tend to
  1. A) cast men in a generally positive light and women in a negative light.
  2. B) imply that expressive traits are more desirable than instrumental traits.
  3. C) cast women in a generally positive light and men in a negative light.
  4. D) strengthen in middle childhood and peak in adolescence.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 531

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 8) In a study in which 20- to 40-year-olds were shown photos of children and adults and asked to rate each on “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral” personality traits, adults
  1. A) differentiated men from women more sharply than they did boys from girls.
  2. B) differentiated girls from women more sharply than they did boys from men.
  3. C) differentiated boys from girls more sharply than they did men from women.
  4. D) had great difficulty assigning gender-stereotyped traits based on photos.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 531

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 9) During early childhood, gender-stereotyped beliefs
  1. A)
  2. B) first emerge.
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 531

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 10) The association of toys, articles of clothing, tools, household items, games, occupations, colors, and behaviors with one sex or the other occurs
  1. A) when children lack access to androgynous role models.
  2. B) in elementary school.
  3. C) earlier for girls than for boys.
  4. D) by the preschool years.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 531

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 11) Reflecting the gender stereotypes of his age group, 4-year-old Youssef is likely to say that
  1. A) it is OK for boys to dress up in skirts or jewelry.
  2. B) girls cannot be doctors or police officers.
  3. C) girls can grow up to be anything they want to be.
  4. D) it is OK if boys want to play with dolls.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 531–532

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.2

  • 12) Because older children realize that gender-stereotypic attributes are associated—but not defining—features of gender, their beliefs about possible male and female characteristics and capacities
  1. A) do not yet encompass conflicting information.
  2. B) tend to be one-sided judgments.
  3. C) rely on gender labels.
  4. D) become more flexible.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 13) Research in many countries reveals that stereotyping of personality traits becomes adultlike around age
  1. A) 3
  2. B) 6
  3. C) 11
  4. D) 15

Answer: C

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.2

  • 14) Children’s knowledge of personality trait stereotypes is first acquired through
  1. A) in-group favoritism.
  2. B) out-group favoritism
  3. C) interactions with other-sex peers.
  4. D) interactions with same-sex siblings.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 15) Which of the following academic subjects does 9-year-old Sabra most likely view as “feminine”?
  1. A) mathematics
  2. B) social studies
  3. C) science
  4. D) reading

Answer: D

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.2

  • 16) In both Asian and Western nations,
  1. A) boys and girls feel equally competent at math, science, and language arts.
  2. B) although girls outperform boys at language arts, they feel less competent about their performance in these subjects.
  3. C) although boys outperform girls at math and science, they feel less competent about their performance in these subjects.
  4. D) boys tend to feel more competent than girls at math, science, and athletics, and girls feel more competent than boys at language arts.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 17) In several recent investigations carried out in Canada, France, and the United States, a majority of elementary and secondary school students
  1. A) believed that boys are better at language arts than girls.
  2. B) continued to view math as a “feminine” subject.
  3. C) disagreed with the idea that math is a “masculine” subject.
  4. D) perceived girls as able to do better in math than in language arts.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 532

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 18) Dimitri believes that girls can be firefighters and boys can be caregivers for their children. Dimitri’s beliefs illustrate
  1. A)
  2. B) gender-stereotype flexibility.
  3. C) gender constancy.
  4. D) gender stability.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 533

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.2

  • 19) Gender-stereotype flexibility rises as children develop
  1. A) an understanding that males and females have different abilities and preferences.
  2. B) noticeable physical and pubertal changes.
  3. C) social skills that enable them to work and play with members of the other sex.
  4. D) the cognitive capacity to integrate conflicting social cues.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 533

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 20) By the end of the school years, most children view gender-typed behavior
  1. A) as inborn and fixed.
  2. B) as socially influenced.
  3. C) as unaffected by home rearing environments.
  4. D) in mostly the same manner as they did at age 5.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 533

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 21) Which of the following statements is true about gender-stereotype flexibility?
  1. A) Acknowledging that boys and girls can cross gender lines does not mean that children always approve of doing so.
  2. B) Western children are especially tolerant when boys engage in “cross-gender” acts.
  3. C) Boys are more likely than girls to engage in “cross-gender” acts.
  4. D) Once children are old enough to acknowledge that boys and girls can cross gender lines, they always approve of doing so.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 533

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.2

  • 22) Which of the following children would be judged most harshly by other children?
  1. A) Monica, who does not like to play with dolls
  2. B) Kate, who likes to play football
  3. C) Roger, who likes to play with dolls
  4. D) Eric, who does not like to play with younger children

Answer: C

Page Ref: 533

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.2

  • 23) In adolescence and adulthood, higher-SES individuals tend to hold more __________ gender-stereotyped views than their lower-SES counterparts.
  1. A) flexible
  2. B) rigid
  3. C) favorable
  4. D) unfavorable

Answer: A

Page Ref: 534

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.3

  • 24) Gordon, an African-American male, is used to seeing the women in his family going to work every day. As a result, Gordon will most likely
  1. A) believe that women should stay at home and take care of children.
  2. B) expect to be a stay-at-home father when he becomes an adult.
  3. C) hold rigid stereotypes of males and females.
  4. D) hold less stereotyped views of females than do Caucasian-American children.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 534

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.3

  • 25) In a study examining 18-month-old girls’ and boys’ looking times at vehicles and dolls, researchers found that
  1. A) boys looked longer than girls at the dolls, whereas girls looked longer than boys at the vehicles.
  2. B) boys and girls spent equal amounts of time looking at the dolls and the vehicles.
  3. C) both boys and girls looked longer at the vehicles than the dolls.
  4. D) girls looked longer than boys at the dolls, whereas boys looked longer than girls at the vehicles.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 534

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.3

  • 26) According to an evolutionary perspective, the adult life of our male ancestors was largely oriented toward
  1. A) competing for mates.
  2. B) hunting for food.
  3. C) protecting the clan.
  4. D) child rearing.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 535

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 27) Cross-cultural findings reveal that most societies promote
  1. A) the genetically primed dominance of females.
  2. B) instrumental traits in males and expressive traits in females.
  3. C) the competition for mates among females.
  4. D) greater androgynous behavior among males than females.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 535

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.4

  • 28) Girls in the Nyansongo settlement in Kenya are afforded more freedom and independence than most cultures, which leads them to score higher than
  1. A) boys of other tribal and village cultures in dominance, assertiveness, and playful roughhousing.
  2. B) boys in caregiving responsibilities and emotional support.
  3. C) girls of other tribal and village cultures in dominance, assertiveness, and playful roughhousing.
  4. D) girls of other tribal and village cultures in androgyny.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 535

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.4

  • 29) According to the Swedish “equal roles family model,”
  1. A) husbands should be more responsible for housework and child care than wives.
  2. B) wives should be more responsible for housework than husbands, while husbands should be more responsible for children than wives.
  3. C) stay-at-home wives and mothers should earn a salary for their child-care and household responsibilities.
  4. D) husband and wife should have the same opportunity to pursue a career and should be equally responsible for housework and child care.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 536 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Sweden’s Commitment to Gender Equality

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 30) To encourage fathers to take more responsibility for child rearing, Sweden has instituted
  1. A) “daddy day care.”
  2. B) “daddy leave.”
  3. C) “daddy-months.”
  4. D) “daddy time.”

Answer: C

Page Ref: 536 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Sweden’s Commitment to Gender Equality

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 31) Peter is a Swedish adolescent. He is likely to view gender roles as a
  1. A) development of inborn traits.
  2. B) set of rights or duties of each sex.
  3. C) set of highly fluid, ill-defined concepts.
  4. D) matter of learned tasks and domain of expertise.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 536 Box: CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Sweden’s Commitment to Gender Equality

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.4

  • 32) Because cross-cultural findings on the reversals of traditional gender roles are inconclusive, a more direct test of the importance of biology on gender typing could be achieved by
  1. A) testing the impact of sex hormones on gender typing.
  2. B) studying adolescent boys and girls in tribal villages.
  3. C) observing infant behavioral preferences immediately after birth.
  4. D) observing other-sex play in children who score high in androgyny.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 536

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.4

  • 33) Animal research shows that __________ increase(s) active play in both male and female mammals.
  1. A) prenatally administered estrogen
  2. B) limited exposure to females
  3. C) encouragement of cross-gender socialization
  4. D) prenatally administered androgens

Answer: D

Page Ref: 537

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 34) Androgens are administered prenatally to a female cat. What outcome could be expected?
  1. A) a decrease in active play
  2. B) a decrease in aggression
  3. C) suppression of maternal caregiving
  4. D) an increase in nesting behavior

Answer: C

Page Ref: 537

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.4

  • 35) Throughout the school years, children show a strong preference for
  1. A) same-sex peers.
  2. B) large-group play.
  3. C) quiet activities involving cooperative roles.
  4. D) other-sex peers.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 537

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 36) In one study, prenatal levels of the androgen hormone testosterone,
  1. A) contributed to the tendency to evaluate members of one’s own sex more negatively during adolescence.
  2. B) showed little or no correlation to gender-stereotypical behavior of either gender during the school years.
  3. C) positively predicted “masculine”-style play in both boys and girls when they were followed up during middle childhood.
  4. D) predicted which males would withdraw from other males who initiated rough, physical play.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 537

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.4

  • 37) __________ causes the adrenal system to produce unusually high levels of __________ from the prenatal period onward.
  1. A) Diabetes; blood sugar
  2. B) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia; androgens
  3. C) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia; estrogen
  4. D) Anoxia at birth; androgens

Answer: B

Page Ref: 537

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 38) Natalie is a girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She will most likely
  1. A) show lower activity levels than other girls.
  2. B) prefer girls as playmates more than boys.
  3. C) experience an insecure gender identity.
  4. D) prefer cars, trucks, and blocks more than dolls.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 538

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.4

  • 39) In __________, the testes produce normal levels of androgens, but androgen receptors in body cells are partially or completely impaired.
  1. A) congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  2. B) androgen insensitivity syndrome
  3. C) Klinefelter syndrome
  4. D) androgen deficiency syndrome

Answer: B

Page Ref: 538

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.4

  • 40) Twenty-year-old Neil is asked to observe an infant wearing only a diaper, and is told the baby is a girl when in fact it is a boy. What traits will Neil most likely use to describe the baby?
  1. A) firm, strong
  2. B) well-coordinated, hardy
  3. C) delicate, with fine features
  4. D) very alert, perceptive

Answer: C

Page Ref: 538

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 41) When asked about attitudes toward “cross-gender” behavior, parents of preschoolers responded
  1. A) more negatively to the idea of girls than of boys crossing gender lines.
  2. B) positively to the idea of girls crossing gender lines.
  3. C) equally negatively to the idea of boys and girls crossing gender lines.
  4. D) more negatively to the idea of boys than of girls crossing gender lines.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 42) Which of the following statements is true regarding the relationship between parenting and gender roles?
  1. A) Differences in the way parents socialize boys and girls are very large.
  2. B) Younger children receive more direct training in gender roles than do older children.
  3. C) In infancy and early childhood, parents tend to discourage gender-specific play activities and behaviors.
  4. D) During childhood and adolescence, parents hold similar perceptions and expectations of their sons and daughters.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 43) Which of the following children most likely receives more direct training in gender roles?
  1. A) Carole, age 4
  2. B) Cindy, age 8
  3. C) Jan, age 12
  4. D) Marcia, age 16

Answer: A

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 44) Parents actively reinforce __________ in boys and __________ in girls.
  1. A) supportive talk; demands for attention
  2. B) independence; dependency
  3. C) closeness; emotionality
  4. D) emotional sensitivity; emotional restraint

Answer: B

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 45) Parents who give their sons toys that stress action and competition
  1. A) encourage aggression and antisocial behavior in their children.
  2. B) also provide their daughters with toys that stress action and competition.
  3. C) encourage gender-specific play activities and behaviors.
  4. D) promote gender-typing more strongly during middle childhood than preschool.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 46) Research findings suggest that language is __________ teach children about gender stereotypes and gender roles.
  1. A) a powerful indirect means to
  2. B) the only method to
  3. C) the primary means through which parents
  4. D) not a factor in the way that parents

Answer: A

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 47) When mothers label gender, either with nouns or with pronouns, these statements
  1. A) prevent the use of generics in children’s language.
  2. B) promote gender-neutral thinking in children.
  3. C) can confuse children about what it means to be male versus female.
  4. D) encourage toddlers to sort their social world into gender categories.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 540 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Children Learn About Gender Through Mother–Child Conversations

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 48) Statements like “Boys can be firefighters” and “Most girls don’t like playing football” are examples of
  1. A) observational learning.
  2. B) generic utterances.
  3. C) expressive traits.
  4. D) gender schemas.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 540–541 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Children Learn About Gender Through Mother–Child Conversations

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 49) In a study of mother–child conversations, mothers who overwhelmingly believed in gender equality
  1. A) had children who displayed fewer generic utterances than mothers who were gender stereotyped.
  2. B) purposely worked to instill those ideas in their children while reading storybooks.
  3. C) frequently affirmed children’s stereotypical comments about gender.
  4. D) had children who displayed fewer gender-stereotyped comments in conversations with their peers.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 541 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Children Learn About Gender Through Mother–Child Conversations

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 50) Observations of mothers and fathers interacting with their youngsters in teaching situations reveal that parents continue to
  1. A) demand greater independence from girls than boys.
  2. B) demand greater independence from boys than girls.
  3. C) emphasize emotions and feelings with boys more so than with girls.
  4. D) emphasize emotions and feelings with girls more so than with boys.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 539

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 51) In longitudinal research, mothers rated first-grade __________ as more competent than __________ at __________, regardless of their child’s actual performance.
  1. A) daughters; sons; science
  2. B) sons; daughters; language arts
  3. C) daughters; sons; math
  4. D) sons; daughters; math

Answer: D

Page Ref: 541

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 52) Hung believes that her daughter Yuri is very competent at math. Mrs. Hopper believes that her daughter Shayla lacks competence at math. Which of the following statements about Yuri and Shayla is probably true?
  1. A) Neither Yuri nor Shayla will perceive herself as competent at math.
  2. B) Shayla will work harder than Yuri to improve her math performance.
  3. C) Yuri is more likely than Shayla to choose a physical science career.
  4. D) Shayla is more likely than Yuri to choose a physical science career.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 541

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 53) In one study, investigators had 10- and 13-year-olds and their mothers and fathers choose courses for the children to take when they reached secondary school. Results showed that parents selected more __________ courses for daughters and more __________ courses for sons.
  1. A) language arts; science
  2. B) math; science
  3. C) science; social studies
  4. D) language arts; math

Answer: A

Page Ref: 541

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 54) A parent who uses imperatives and specific suggestions in everyday life is most likely the parent of a
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) son and a daughter.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 55) and Mrs. Merkle have a daughter and a son. They are most likely to
  1. A) work hard to assign “cross-gender” chores to their children to avoid gender stereotyping.
  2. B) assign their son chores that keep him close to home but allow their daughter to engage in activities that take her further into the community.
  3. C) pair control with autonomy for their daughter and engage in restrictive parenting with their son.
  4. D) use more directive speech with their daughter and grant their son more autonomy.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 56) Eight-year-old Jasmine’s parents grant her little autonomy. This could cause Jasmine to
  1. A) feel very safe, secure, and protected.
  2. B) become rebellious and defiant.
  3. C) develop feelings of incompetence.
  4. D) have an overly inflated ego.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 57) Which of the following chore assignments gives greater freedom?
  1. A) Jim’s daily job is to pick up milk from the store on his way home from school.
  2. B) Jeff earns extra money by caring for his siblings when his parents work late.
  3. C) Valerie does laundry for the entire family without assistance.
  4. D) Deb helps her mother cook dinner every night.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 58) In homes where fathers devote as much or more time to child care as mothers,
  1. A) the result is feminine behavior in boys and masculine behavior in girls.
  2. B) children tend to be more gender-typed in emotional expression.
  3. C) sons tend to be more emotionally sensitive and daughters more self-confident.
  4. D) daughters are likely to judge themselves as less competent.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 59) Which of the following statements is true about differential treatment of sons and daughters by parents?
  1. A) Fathers more than mothers encourage “gender-appropriate” behavior.
  2. B) Mothers more than fathers encourage “gender-appropriate” behavior.
  3. C) Mothers more than fathers place more pressure to achieve on sons than on daughters.
  4. D) Both mothers and fathers place more pressure to achieve on sons than on daughters.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 60) Parents tend to be especially committed to ensuring the gender typing of
  1. A) sons more so than daughters.
  2. B) children of the other sex from themselves.
  3. C) children of their own sex.
  4. D) daughters more so than sons.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 61) Preschool and elementary school teachers tend to reinforce
  1. A) “masculine” behavior in boys and “feminine” behavior in girls.
  2. B) assertive behavior in the classroom, particularly between other-sex peers.
  3. C) children of both sexes for “masculine” rather than “feminine” behavior.
  4. D) children of both sexes for “feminine” rather than “masculine” behavior.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 62) In classrooms, men and women teachers alike value obedience and discourage assertiveness. This is referred to as
  1. A) gender congruence.
  2. B) a “masculine bias.”
  3. C) a “feminine bias.”
  4. D) gender typicality.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 542

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 63) Which of the following statements is true regarding differential treatment of boys and girls by teachers?
  1. A) Teachers give more overall attention to boys than to girls.
  2. B) Teachers tend to praise girls more for their academic knowledge.
  3. C) Teachers discourage unruliness more frequently and forcefully with girls.
  4. D) When boys misbehave, teachers are more likely to negotiate.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 543

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 64) In a study in which researchers presented school-age children, adolescents, and college-age students with visual and verbal descriptions of various occupations, males of all ages were especially attracted to jobs depicted as __________, and females were attracted to jobs __________.
  1. A) conforming to traditional gender roles; seen as more novel
  2. B) highly paid; high in altruism
  3. C) science-based; power-based
  4. D) gender congruent; gender incongruent

Answer: B

Page Ref: 543

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 65) Rochelle’s favorite television shows have families where the mothers do not work. She also notices that most of the teachers in her elementary school are female. Rochelle is developing gender-typed beliefs
  1. A) through observational learning.
  2. B) through direct instruction by teachers and the media.
  3. C) that are biased against males.
  4. D) that will help her interact more effectively with the other sex.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 543

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 66) Gender stereotypes are especially prevalent in
  1. A) countries like Sweden where an “equal roles family model” is emphasized.
  2. B) dual-earner families.
  3. C) middle- and high-SES households.
  4. D) cartoons, music television, TV commercials, and video games.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 543

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.5

  • 67) Zara has a career-oriented mother. Compared to other girls, Zara is more likely to
  1. A) view her mother as distant and unavailable.
  2. B) have higher educational aspirations.
  3. C) have lower educational aspirations.
  4. D) have lower self-esteem and achieve poorly in school.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 544

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 68) Six-year-old Qualo frequently crosses gender lines, preferring to play with dolls than cars or trucks. How will Qualo’s peers likely respond to his behavior?
  1. A) Girls will be more critical of Qualo’s behavior than boys.
  2. B) Boys will try to find common interests with Qualo so everyone can play together.
  3. C) Even if Qualo does engage in “masculine” activities, he will be ostracized by other boys.
  4. D) Boys will defend Qualo’s right to play with dolls instead of cars or trucks.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 544

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 69) Jill most likely uses __________ and __________ to get her way with her classmate Jack.
  1. A) commands; threats
  2. B) physical force; coercion
  3. C) pleading; whining
  4. D) polite requests; persuasion

Answer: D

Page Ref: 544

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 70) Donnelly wants to reduce gender stereotyping in his classroom and has decided to form mixed-sex activity groups. To be successful, however,
  1. A) a token system of reward and punishment must be established.
  2. B) interventions may have to modify the styles of social influence typically learned in same-sex peer relations.
  3. C) he must delegate specific activities to boys and girls.
  4. D) boys and girls must learn how to behave like the other sex.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 544

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 71) Why is it difficult for adults to modify gender stereotyping that occurs within children’s peer groups?
  1. A) Gender-typed remarks are inevitable in both boys and girls.
  2. B) Biological sex is a legitimate basis for limiting individual roles and behaviors within peer groups.
  3. C) Children’s sexist statements often occur out of adults’ earshot.
  4. D) Children are too confused by behaviors that fall outside of traditional gender roles.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 545 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Teaching Children to Challenge Peers’ Sexist Remarks

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 72) In experiments that tested how best to help children confront peers who made sexist remarks, which of the following approaches was most successful?
  1. A) teaching children appropriate retorts to sexist remarks and then having them actively practice with peers
  2. B) modeling gender-equitable interactions for the children
  3. C) reading stories of examples of appropriate responses to sexist remarks, followed by a discussion of the behaviors and responses
  4. D) instructing children how to use polite requests and persuasion

Answer: A

Page Ref: 545 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Teaching Children to Challenge Peers’ Sexist Remarks

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 73) A six-month follow-up of children who received active intervention in teaching them to challenge peer sexist comments showed that girls were more likely to
  1. A) confront boy peers who made comments than their girl peers.
  2. B) use physical force against a peer who made a sexist remark than girls who had not received active intervention.
  3. C) attain a gender-stereotype flexibility that extended beyond behavior to their attitudes.
  4. D) fail to confront peers who made sexist remarks.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 545 Box: SOCIAL ISSUES: EDUCATION: Teaching Children to Challenge Peers’ Sexist Remarks

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 74) Which of the following statements is true about sibling influences on gender typing?
  1. A) Younger siblings tend to have a significant and lasting impact on older siblings’ gender typing.
  2. B) Sibling effects on gender typing are more complex than peer influences because they depend on birth order and family size.
  3. C) Contrary to popular belief, birth order and family size have little, if any, impact on children’s gender typing.
  4. D) Children with same-sex siblings are less gender-typed than children with no siblings.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 546

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.5

  • 75) According to a British study on siblings and gender typing, which of the following children is likely to be the most gender-typed?
  1. A) David, who has an older brother
  2. B) Devon, who has no siblings
  3. C) Debbie, who has an older brother
  4. D) Daniel, who has an older sister

Answer: A

Page Ref: 546

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.5

  • 76) Researchers can measure gender identity during __________ because self-concepts begin to emphasize psychological dispositions over concrete behaviors.
  1. A) toddlerhood
  2. B) early childhood
  3. C) middle childhood
  4. D) adolescence

Answer: C

Page Ref: 547

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.6

  • 77) Haruko scores high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Haruko is displaying
  1. A) a gender stereotype.
  2. B) gender-atypicality.
  3. C) gender congruence.
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 547

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.6

  • 78) “Masculine” and androgynous children and adults __________ than “feminine” individuals.
  1. A) are less self-confident
  2. B) tend to be more affectionate and cheerful
  3. C) experience more emotional difficulties
  4. D) have higher self-esteem

Answer: D

Page Ref: 547

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.6

  • 79) According to social learning theory, __________ comes before __________ in the development of gender identity.
  1. A) behavior; self-perception
  2. B) behavior; gender labeling
  3. C) self-perception; behavior
  4. D) gender constancy; gender disposition

Answer: A

Page Ref: 548

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.6

  • 80) Deena understands that a person’s sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle, and activities change. Deena is demonstrating an understanding of gender
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 548

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.6

  • 81) Three-year-old Amanda is asked whether she can be a boy if she wants to. She answers, “Yes.” Amanda is in which stage of gender-constancy development?
  1. A) androgyny
  2. B) gender consistency
  3. C) gender stability
  4. D) gender labeling

Answer: D

Page Ref: 548

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.6

  • 82) At age 6, Edda understands that a person’s sex remains constant, even if that person dresses in “cross-gender” clothes or engages in nontraditional activities. Edda is in which stage of gender-constancy development?
  1. A) androgyny
  2. B) gender stability
  3. C) gender consistency
  4. D) gender labeling

Answer: C

Page Ref: 548

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.6

  • 83) Mastery of gender __________ is associated with the attainment of conservation.
  1. A) typing
  2. B) equality
  3. C) constancy
  4. D) stereotyping

Answer: C

Page Ref: 548

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.6

  • 84) __________, not social experience, is largely responsible for young children’s difficulty grasping the permanence of sex.
  1. A) Language development
  2. B) Cognitive immaturity
  3. C) Parenting style
  4. D) Exposure to formal education

Answer: B

Page Ref: 549

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.6

  • 85) Which of the following statements is true regarding gender identity in middle childhood?
  1. A) Boys are more likely than girls to describe themselves as having “other-gender” characteristics.
  2. B) Boys are more likely than girls to rate “masculine” occupations as having higher status than “feminine” occupations.
  3. C) Girls strengthen their identification with “feminine” characteristics, while boys’ identification with “masculine” characteristics declines.
  4. D) Girls are more likely than boys to consider future work roles stereotyped for the other gender.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 549

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.7

  • 86) When asked to self-evaluate her gender identity, Lulu says she feels similar to other girls. Lulu can be described as a gender-__________ child.
  1. A) contented
  2. B) typical
  3. C) stereotyped
  4. D) atypical

Answer: B

Page Ref: 550

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.7

  • 87) Manisha reports feeling satisfied with being a girl. Manisha can be considered
  1. A) a gender-contented child.
  2. B) a gender-typical child.
  3. C) gender-discontented.
  4. D) an adolescent.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 550

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.7

  • 88) Abu is a gender-atypical child who feels intense pressure to conform to his gender role. Abu is likely to display
  1. A) gains in self-esteem during middle childhood.
  2. B) “feminine” behavior at home and “masculine” behavior with his peers.
  3. C) aggressive, acting-out behaviors.
  4. D) characteristics such as withdrawal, sadness, and anxiety.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 550

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.7

  • 89) Although Kyra was considered a “tomboy” in early and middle childhood, by high school, she became interested in wearing makeup and feminine clothes. Kyra’s situation is an example of gender
  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: A

Page Ref: 550

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.7

  • 90) Gender schema theory
  1. A) separates the effects of gender stereotyping, gender identity, and gender-role adoption on children’s behavior.
  2. B) highlights the importance of androgyny for psychological well-being across the lifespan.
  3. C) integrates gender stereotyping, gender identity, and gender-role adoption into a unified picture of how masculine and feminine orientations emerge.
  4. D) maintains that gender stereotyping and gender-role adoption are most influential in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 551

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.8

  • 91) At an early age, children pick up gender-stereotyped preferences and behaviors from others and organize these experiences into __________ that they use to interpret their world.
  1. A) gender-appropriate beliefs
  2. B) gender schemas
  3. C) gender intensification
  4. D) gender-typical beliefs

Answer: B

Page Ref: 551

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.8

  • 92) When Kayla sees a truck on the floor she wonders, “Should girls play with trucks?” She decides to leave the truck on the floor and looks for a different toy. Kayla is
  1. A) not using a gender-salience filter.
  2. B) using an interest filter to determine with what to play.
  3. C) a gender-aschematic child.
  4. D) a gender-schematic child.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.8

  • 93) If 9-year-old Carlos is a gender-aschematic child, he will
  1. A) always view the world in gender-linked terms.
  2. B) prefer “feminine” toys over “masculine” toys.
  3. C) prefer “masculine” toys over “feminine” toys.
  4. D) seldom view the world in gender-linked terms.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.8

  • 94) Two preschool-age girls are playing with a train set. An older child walks by and tells them that the train set is a “boy’s toy.” According to gender schema theory, the
  1. A) comment will have no effect on the girls’ interest in the train set.
  2. B) girls’ desire to play with the train set will probably diminish.
  3. C) girls’ desire to play with the train set will probably increase.
  4. D) comment will confuse the girls, as they have not yet developed gender-typed interests.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.8

  • 95) Gender-schematic thinking is so powerful that when children see others behaving in “gender-inconsistent” ways, they
  1. A) experience a crisis of gender labeling that disrupts peer interactions.
  2. B) become more pronounced in their gender segregation as well as gender-role conformity.
  3. C) often cannot remember the behavior or distort their memory to make it “gender-consistent.”
  4. D) object and tell that person not to behave in such a way.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.8

  • 96) Which of the following examples shows how children attend to schema-inconsistent information?
  1. A) Alison sees a picture of a female firefighter but recalls the firefighter as a male.
  2. B) Connor plays with highly attractive toys, even when they are labeled for the opposite gender.
  3. C) When given a doll, Isabelle is more likely to explore and learn more about it.
  4. D) When given a doll, Robert is more likely to play with it if no one is watching.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.8

  • 97) Gender-schematic thinking reveals a forceful restriction of knowledge and learning opportunities because
  1. A) it develops during infancy and impacts a child’s choices much longer than other forces.
  2. B) children are exposed to a wide variety of gender-linked associations in society.
  3. C) it contributes to gender-atypicality, particularly in boys.
  4. D) it is closely tied to genetic factors, which are difficult to modify.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 552

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.8

  • 98) Between ages 6 and 11 years,
  1. A) “feminine” gender identity strengthens among boys; girls’ gender identity becomes more androgynous.
  2. B) gender-role conformity increases and gender segregation becomes less pronounced.
  3. C) “masculine” gender identity strengthens among boys, while girls’ gender identity becomes more androgynous.
  4. D) gender stereotyping of activities, occupations, and behaviors expands.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 553

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • 99) One advantage of using meta-analysis to study sex differences is that it
  1. A) allows conclusions based on single studies.
  2. B) calculates conclusions using small samples.
  3. C) provides an estimate of the size of the sex differences.
  4. D) requires little data, yet provides precise information.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 553

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • By late childhood and early adolescence,
  1. A) boys outperform girls on math achievement tests.
  2. B) girls outperform boys on math achievement tests.
  3. C) boys and girls perform similarly on math achievement tests.
  4. D) girls are slightly advantaged in counting and arithmetic computation.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 554

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Research shows that sex differences in mental abilities and personality traits
  1. A) usually account for no more than 5 to 10 percent of individual differences.
  2. B) account for 50 to 60 percent of individual differences.
  3. C) are more pronounced in high-SES individuals than low-SES individuals.
  4. D) are primarily influenced by genetic factors.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 553

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Which of the following is believed to be a major contributor to a widening gender gap in college enrollments?
  1. A) differences in male and female science skills
  2. B) later maturity of females’ cerebral cortex
  3. C) differences in male and female literacy skills
  4. D) advances in female mathematical abilities

Answer: C

Page Ref: 554–555

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • One possible explanation for girls being ahead of boys in language progress is
  1. A) that parents use more child-directed speech with their infant daughters than their infant sons.
  2. B) a biological advantage in earlier development of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex.
  3. C) that female infants initiate more “conversations” with caregivers than male infants.
  4. D) that adults reinforce female infants more than male infants when they begin to coo and babble.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 555

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • Two 15-year-olds, Jeremy and Jennifer, take a mathematics test. Jeremy will probably perform significantly better than Jennifer on which subtest?
  1. A) complex reasoning
  2. B) basic math knowledge
  3. C) computational skills
  4. D) mathematical calculation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 555

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.9

  • Accumulating evidence suggests that the gender gap in mathematics is related to
  1. A) achievement motivation.
  2. B) early parental interactions.
  3. C) faster development of the right cerebral cortex in boys than in girls.
  4. D) boys’ superior spatial reasoning skills.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 556

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • The gender gap in complex mathematical reasoning is particularly large and favors males in __________ tasks, but differences in __________ tasks are weak or nonexistent.
  1. A) mental rotation; spatial visualization
  2. B) mental rotation; spatial perception
  3. C) spatial perception; mental rotation
  4. D) spatial visualization; mental rotation

Answer: A

Page Ref: 556 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Girls and women whose prenatal androgen levels were abnormally high show __________ spatial rotation tasks.
  1. A) below-average performance on
  2. B) superior performance on
  3. C) little interest in
  4. D) an inability to comprehend

Answer: B

Page Ref: 557 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Which of the following consequences results from the greater amounts of time that boys spend playing action video games?
  1. A) Speed of thinking is enhanced, but mental rotation is sacrificed in the process.
  2. B) The development of cognitive processes outside of spatial skills is arrested.
  3. C) Language skills are greatly reduced.
  4. D) Cognitive processes important for spatial skills are enhanced.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 557 Box: BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT: Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • __________ causes girls to do worse than their abilities allow on difficult math problems.
  1. A) Peer pressure
  2. B) Stereotype threat
  3. C) Inferior spatial reasoning
  4. D) Lack of high-quality instruction

Answer: B

Page Ref: 557

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • __________ is the only emotion that males express more freely than females in everyday interaction.
  1. A) Sorrow
  2. B) Anger
  3. C) Embarrassment
  4. D) Envy

Answer: B

Page Ref: 558

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • When they are observed for behavioral signs of prosocial responding, girls show
  1. A) no measurable advantage over boys.
  2. B) greater self-confidence and assertiveness in helping behaviors.
  3. C) a significant advantage over boys, especially in helping behaviors.
  4. D) a slight advantage that is mostly evident in kindness and considerateness.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 558

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • The gender gap in emotional sensitivity seems to come primarily from.
  1. A) exposure to androgens prenatally.
  2. B) parenting styles that downplay gender stereotypes.
  3. C) cultural expectations that girls be warm and expressive and boys be distant and self-controlled.
  4. D) reinforcement from teachers for quiet and self-controlled behavior.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 559

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • During the preschool years, both fathers and mothers attend more to
  1. A) girls’ than boys’ sadness and anxiety.
  2. B) boys’ than girls’ excitement and curiosity.
  3. C) reinforcing gender-stereotypical emotions with boys than with girls.
  4. D) being affectionate and nurturing with boys than with girls.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 559

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • Among U.S. teenagers, __________ percent experience mild to moderate feelings of depression.
  1. A) 10 to 25
  2. B) 20 to 50
  3. C) 30 to 40
  4. D) 40 to 75

Answer: B

Page Ref: 559

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Symptoms of depression
  1. A) in children are easily detected by adults.
  2. B) occur twice as often in teenage girls as boys.
  3. C) are similar for teenage boys and girls.
  4. D) are more obvious in boys than in girls.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 559

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Which of the following events is likely to spark depression in 15-year-old Danica?
  1. A) the onset of puberty
  2. B) getting a C on a pop quiz
  3. C) not being in the same Spanish class as her best friend
  4. D) transitioning to a new school

Answer: D

Page Ref: 560

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.9

  • __________ girls are especially prone to depression, particularly when they face other stressful life events.
  1. A) Low-SES
  2. B) Early-maturing
  3. C) Later-maturing
  4. D) African-American

Answer: B

Page Ref: 560

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.9

  • Findings on the use of relational aggression among girls reveal that
  1. A) they tend to use physical aggression first, and follow up with a relational approach.
  2. B) unlike physical aggression, it is rarely hurtful to the victim.
  3. C) they may use it to protect their status in the social hierarchy.
  4. D) girls with high levels of prenatal androgens engage in higher levels of relational aggression.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 560

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who were exposed prenatally to abnormally high androgen levels,
  1. A) are not consistently more aggressive.
  2. B) are consistently more aggressive.
  3. C) have more frequent displays of excitement, anger, or anxiety.
  4. D) show high levels of relational aggression.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 561

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • By middle childhood, girls’ relational aggression is
  1. A) more malicious than boys’.
  2. B) displayed more frequently.
  3. C) more likely to be directed at same-sex peers.
  4. D) more likely to be directed at other-sex peers.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 562

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.9

  • __________ reveal(s) that most aspects of gender typing are not built into human nature.
  1. A) Growing numbers of children who score high in androgyny
  2. B) Physiological research with humans and primates
  3. C) Observations of infants and toddlers
  4. D) Substantial revisions in gender roles

Answer: D

Page Ref: 562

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.10

  • Because preschoolers’ cognitive limitations lead them to assume that cultural practices determine gender, Sandra Bem suggests that parents and teachers
  1. A) encourage children to pursue gender-typed interests and activities.
  2. B) make a concerted effort to delay young children’s learning of gender-stereotyped messages.
  3. C) make a concerted effort to speed up young children’s learning of gender-stereotyped messages.
  4. D) expose young children to a variety of traditional and nontraditional gender roles and let them decide which models to emulate.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 562

Skill: Remember

Objective: 13.10

  • and Mrs. Finis want to reduce gender stereotyping in their 5-year-old twins, Emma and Erik. Mr. and Mrs. Finis should
  1. A) punish Emma and Erik whenever they engage in gender-stereotyped behavior.
  2. B) force Emma to play with cars and trucks and force Erik to play with dolls and pretend kitchen toys.
  3. C) take turns making dinner, bathing Emma and Erik, and driving the family car and provide both Emma and Erik with trucks and dolls.
  4. D) realize that biological factors are largely responsible for gender stereotyping and accept their children’s gender-typed behavior and preferences.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 562

Skill: Apply

Objective: 13.10

  • Research shows that school-age children who hold flexible beliefs about what boys and girls can do
  1. A) are extremely critical of peers who engage in traditionally “masculine” or “feminine” activities.
  2. B) may disagree with instances of gender discrimination, but will feel uncomfortable making changes in the situation.
  3. C) are more likely to notice instances of gender discrimination.
  4. D) have mothers who engage in traditionally “feminine” household duties, such as cooking and cleaning.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 563

Skill: Understand

Objective: 13.10

ESSAY

  • Describe instrumental traits and expressive traits, including how they contribute to our views about what is “feminine” and “masculine.”

Answer: When asked what personality characteristics they consider typical of men and women, people show widespread agreement in that they listed instrumental traits that reflect competence, rationality, and assertiveness (e.g., adventurous, ambitious, dominant, and self-confident) as masculine, whereas expressive traits emphasizing warmth, caring, and sensitivity (e.g., considerate, emotional, gentle, kind, and understanding of others) were viewed as feminine. Despite intense political activism promoting gender equality in the 1970s and 1980s, these stereotypes remain essentially unchanged.

The variety of attributes consistently identified as masculine or feminine, their broad acceptance, and their stability over time suggest that gender stereotypes are deeply ingrained patterns of thinking. What’s more, they cast men in a generally positive light and women in a generally negative light. The traits, activities, and roles associated with the male gender are more numerous, diverse, and desirable than those associated with the female gender.

Page Ref: 530–531

  • What is gender-stereotype flexibility, and why does it increase dramatically during middle childhood?

Answer: Gender-stereotype flexibility refers to overlap in the characteristics of males and females—the extent to which children believe that both genders can display a personality trait or activity. It increases dramatically from age 7 on, regardless of the strength of children’s gender-stereotype rigidity in early childhood. Gender-stereotype flexibility rises as children develop the cognitive capacity to integrate conflicting social cues. As they realize that a person’s sex is not a certain predictor of his or her personality traits, activities, and behavior, they no longer view gender-typed behavior as inborn and fixed. Rather, they see it as socially influenced—affected by home rearing environments.

Page Ref: 533

  • Describe the ways in which observational learning affects how children view gender roles.

Answer: Numerous gender-typed models are available in children’s environments, and children continue to encounter many people in their schools and communities who conform to traditional gender roles—women as elementary school teachers, nurses, and librarians; men as school principals, computer experts, and airline pilots. In one study, participants of all ages expressed greater interest in occupations held by workers of their own sex than identical jobs held by workers of the other sex, confirming that merely observing sex differences in occupations affects interest in those fields. Males of all ages were especially attracted to jobs depicted as highly paid, females to jobs high in altruism—values that likely contribute to the gender sorting typically seen in the workforce.

When children are exposed to nonstereotyped models, they are less traditional in their beliefs and behaviors. Children who often see their parents cross traditional gender lines—mothers who are employed or who do “masculine” household tasks (repairing appliances, washing the car), fathers who do “feminine” household tasks (ironing, cooking, child care)—less often endorse gender stereotypes. Girls with career-oriented mothers show special benefits. They are more likely to engage in typically masculine activities, have higher educational aspirations, and hold nontraditional career goals. Furthermore, among children of divorced parents, boys in father-absent homes and girls in mother-absent homes are less gender-typed, perhaps because they have fewer opportunities to observe traditional gender roles than in a two-parent household.

Page Ref: 543–544

  • Describe the development of gender constancy.

Answer: According to Lawrence Kohlberg, children move through three stages of gender constancy:

  • Gender labeling. By the early preschool years, children can label their own sex and that of others correctly. But when asked such questions as “When you [a girl] grow up, could you ever be a daddy?” or “Could you be a boy if you wanted to?” young children freely answer yes. And when shown a doll whose hairstyle and clothing are transformed before their eyes, children indicate that the doll’s sex has changed.
  • Gender stability. Slightly older preschoolers have a partial understanding of the permanence of sex, in that they grasp its stability over time. But even though they know that male and female babies will eventually become boys and girls, and then men and women, they continue to insist that changing hairstyle, clothing, or “gender-appropriate” activities will also change a person’s sex.
  • Gender consistency. During the late preschool and early school years, children understand that sex is biologically based and remains the same even if a person dresses in “cross-gender” clothes or engages in nontraditional activities.

Page Ref: 548

  • Explain the observed differences in the emotional sensitivity of girls and boys.

Answer: Females are more emotional sensitive than males, a difference that appears early. Beginning in the preschool years, girls perform slightly better when asked to infer others’ emotional states and the causes of those states. Relative to boys, girls are especially adept at understanding the more complex, self-conscious emotions—an advantage that extends into adulthood. Except for anger, girls also express their feelings more freely and intensely in everyday interaction. And girls are better at identifying their feelings.

When children are observed for behavioral signs, however, the gender difference in emotional sensitivity is less consistent. Girls show a slight advantage in prosocial responding that is mostly evident in kindness and considerateness, less apparent in helping behavior. Prosocial acts that require self-confidence and assertiveness are especially common among boys, including helping others develop skills (giving tips on how to play basketball), providing physical assistance (volunteering to mow a neighbor’s lawn), and confronting others for harmful or otherwise inappropriate behavior.

As with other attributes, both biological and environmental explanations for sex differences in emotional sensitivity exist. Yet research suggests that girls are not naturally more nurturant. Cultural expectations that girls be warm and expressive and boys be distant and self-controlled seem largely responsible for the gender gap in emotional sensitivity.

Page Ref: 558–559

  • Cite at least five ways to reduce children’s gender stereotyping and gender-role conformity.

Answer: Strategies for reducing gender stereotyping and gender-role conformity include:

  • Permit children to choose among diverse toys and activities.
  • Avoid transmitting gender stereotypes of achievement areas; point out that high effort improves competence in all areas.
  • Teach children to appreciate differences among individuals.
  • Avoid unnecessary references to gender and gender stereotypes in your language.
  • Provide non-gender-stereotyped models.
  • Stress the complexity of gender groups.
  • Arrange for mixed-sex interaction.
  • Discuss gender biases with children.

Page Ref: 563


 


 

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