Chemistry For Changing Times 14th Edition by Hill – Test Bank

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Chemistry For Changing Times 14th Edition by Hill – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chemistry for Changing Times, 14e (Hill/McCreary)

Chapter 1   Chemistry

 

1.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which science is primarily concerned with the study of matter and the changes it undergoes?

  1. A) biology
  2. B) chemistry
  3. C) geology
  4. D) physics

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

2) What is natural philosophy?

  1. A) a belief in natural foods
  2. B) an experimental approach to philosophy
  3. C) an experimental approach to the study of nature
  4. D) theoretical speculation about nature

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

3) The ancient Greek philosophers were probably the first to consider the behavior of matter in an organized way.  What is the major distinction between the “Greek philosophers” and “modern scientists”?

  1. A) observation
  2. B) hypotheses
  3. C) experimentation
  4. D) logic

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

4) Which developed first?

  1. A) technology
  2. B) chemistry
  3. C) alchemy
  4. D) natural philosophy

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

5) Chemistry is

  1. A) the mystical search for the elixir of life.
  2. B) the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
  3. C) speculation about the nature of matter.
  4. D) none of these

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

6) Green chemistry uses

  1. A) only water as a solvent.
  2. B) materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source.
  3. C) only grocery store bought chemicals.
  4. D) reactions that are not heated.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.2   Describe the importance of green chemistry and sustainable chemistry.

 

7) Archaeological evidence indicates that ancient Egyptians were brewing beer and other fermented beverages over 4000 years ago.  In the mid-19th century, French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered and explained the source of fermentation using yeast.  This example illustrates that

  1. A) scientific knowledge may come before technological knowledge.
  2. B) technological knowledge may come before scientific knowledge.
  3. C) science and technology mean the same thing.
  4. D) science and technology are not related.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

8) Which of the following was NOT a result of alchemy?

  1. A) The philosopher’s stone was successfully used to change base metals, such as lead, into gold.
  2. B) Many new chemicals were discovered.
  3. C) Alchemists developed techniques such as distillation and extraction that are still used today.
  4. D) Many modern chemists inherited an interest in health and medicines from the alchemists.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

9) Rachel Carson was an early proponent of

  1. A) environmental awareness.
  2. B) conservation.
  3. C) pesticides to improve crops.
  4. D) using insects to improve pollination.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

10) “Better Living Through Chemistry” was a slogan used

  1. A) by morphine users.
  2. B) by Cheech and Chong on their television series.
  3. C) in the television show Breaking Bad each time that a batch of meth was produced.
  4. D) at Dupont in the 1970s.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

11) DDT was widely used as an insecticide during and following World War II.  However, the egg shells of birds that live in areas where DDT was used were very thin, and the young did not hatch.  This is an example of

  1. A) Sam Kean’s book, The Disappearing Spoon.
  2. B) Dan Schwartz’s book, No Cure for Nature.
  3. C) George Orwell’s book, 1984.
  4. D) Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

12) ________ chemistry is designed to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.

  1. A) Experimental
  2. B) Green
  3. C) Organic
  4. D) Sustainable

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.2   Describe the importance of green chemistry and sustainable chemistry.

 

13) Science is tentative, explanatory, and

  1. A) absolute.
  2. B) testable.
  3. C) unpredictable.
  4. D) mystical.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

14) A scientific hypothesis is

  1. A) absolute.
  2. B) complex.
  3. C) simple.
  4. D) tentative.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

15) Scientific results must be verified by

  1. A) constructing plausible theories.
  2. B) consulting noted scientific authorities.
  3. C) further experiment.
  4. D) government agencies.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

16) A brief statement summarizing many observations of a physical phenomenon is called a

  1. A) scientific theory.
  2. B) hypothesis.
  3. C) fact.
  4. D) scientific law.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

17) Tangible items or pictures used by scientists to represent invisible processes are called

  1. A) theories.
  2. B) models.
  3. C) laws.
  4. D) experiments.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

18) Kim Chemist proposes that increasing the proportion of butadiene in her glue formulation will make the glue stickier.  Her proposal is called a(n)

  1. A) theory.
  2. B) experiment.
  3. C) law.
  4. D) hypothesis.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

19) A variable

  1. A) does not change over the course of the experiment.
  2. B) is something that can change over the course of an experiment.
  3. C) does not affect the outcome of an experiment.
  4. D) can be controlled.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

20) A scientific hypothesis is

  1. A) explanatory.
  2. B) predictive.
  3. C) testable.
  4. D) all of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

21) Which of the following is NOT true for a scientific law?

  1. A) It summarizes observed scientific data.
  2. B) It is often stated in mathematical terms.
  3. C) It explains observed scientific data.
  4. D) It is universal and will hold everywhere under the stated conditions.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

22) One method of rating complexity in scientific disciplines is with respect to the number of variables that are involved in experiments.  Using this method, which of the following disciplines is the most complex?

  1. A) anatomy
  2. B) chemistry
  3. C) mathematics
  4. D) psychology

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

23) The results of an experiment are easiest to interpret when the experiment has ________ variable(s).

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 10

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

24) Which of the following variables would be the easiest to control?

  1. A) atmospheric air pressure
  2. B) a teenager’s diet
  3. C) amount of antibiotic added to a bacterial culture
  4. D) political opinion

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

25) Joe conducts an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new drug for cancer.  Which of the following variables would be easiest to control?

  1. A) amount of drug administered
  2. B) patient’s diet
  3. C) exposure to air pollution
  4. D) exposure to other people

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

26) Which of the following variables can be most easily controlled?

  1. A) blood pressure
  2. B) diet
  3. C) humidity
  4. D) indoor temperature

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

27) Methapyrilene, once an active ingredient in certain over-the-counter sleeping pills, was found to be a potent carcinogen (a substance that causes cancer).  The pills were also found to be about as effective as placebos in promoting sleep.  The desirability quotient (DQ) for methapyrilene is

  1. A) low.
  2. B) moderate.
  3. C) high.
  4. D) uncertain.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.5  Estimate a desirability quotient from benefit and risk analysis.

 

28) Saccharin is used in some artificial sweeteners.  Saccharin has been shown to be a very weak carcinogen (a substance that causes cancer) in animal tests, but there is little evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.  Studies have also shown that artificial sweeteners provide little benefit to those who want to lose weight.  The DQ for saccharin is

  1. A) low.
  2. B) moderate.
  3. C) high.
  4. D) uncertain.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.5  Estimate a desirability quotient from benefit and risk analysis.

 

29) The evaluation of societal risk includes all of the components of individual risk plus

  1. A) the probability that an incident will occur.
  2. B) the degree of severity of the incident.
  3. C) the number of people affected by the incident.
  4. D) the benefit associated with the incident.

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.4  Define risk and benefit, and give an example of each.

 

30) When doing a risk-benefit analysis and determining DQ, which situation is often the most difficult to evaluate from both an individual and societal perspective?

  1. A) small benefit and high risk
  2. B) large benefit and high risk
  3. C) large benefit and low risk
  4. D) All are equally difficult to evaluate.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.4  Define risk and benefit, and give an example of each.

 

31) ________ is considered by many people to play a central role among the sciences.

  1. A) Biology
  2. B) Chemistry
  3. C) Geology
  4. D) Physics

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

32) Which of the following statements about chemistry is NOT true?

  1. A) Chemistry is an important component of the economy of the United States.
  2. B) Chemistry affects every area of our daily lives.
  3. C) Chemical products account for 10% of U.S. exports every year.
  4. D) All of the above are true.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

33) Which of the following does NOT involve chemistry?

  1. A) creating materials for computers
  2. B) glycolysis
  3. C) burning of a forest
  4. D) All of the above involve chemistry.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 12      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

34) A biochemist is hired by a pharmaceutical firm to synthesize a medical remedy for cancer.  This person is engaged in

  1. A) applied research.
  2. B) basic research.
  3. C) natural speculation.
  4. D) medical technology.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

35) A chemist employed by an airplane manufacturer investigates new adhesives for the purpose of building airplanes without rivets.  She is engaged in

  1. A) alchemy.
  2. B) applied research.
  3. C) basic research.
  4. D) risk-benefit analysis.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

36) The woman who shared the 1988 Nobel prize in physiology and medicine and who in 1991 became the first woman inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame was

  1. A) Madame Curie.
  2. B) Rachel Carson.
  3. C) Gertrude Elion.
  4. D) Amelia Earhart.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

 

37) Which of the following statements about basic research is NOT correct?

  1. A) Basic research is conducted primarily in universities and research institutes.
  2. B) The results of basic research are often used as the basis for technological advances.
  3. C) Basic research is carried out to develop a particular product.
  4. D) Basic research is the search for knowledge for its own sake.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

38) MRI

  1. A) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique.
  2. B) is nuclear magnetic resonance imaging scans of the human body.
  3. C) has replaced many exploratory surgical operations.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

 

39) Mass is

  1. A) the measure of the amount of space that matter occupies.
  2. B) the measure of the amount of matter.
  3. C) the measure of the force of gravity on matter.
  4. D) the measure of the volume of matter.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

40) Mass is a better measure of the amount of matter than weight is because

  1. A) mass is dependent upon location.
  2. B) mass is independent of location.
  3. C) mass is easier to measure.
  4. D) mass is measured using the metric system.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

41) On Mars gravity is one-third that on Earth.  What would be the weight on Mars of a person who has a weight of 150 pounds (lb) on Earth?

  1. A) 50 lb
  2. B) 150 lb
  3. C) 450 lb
  4. D) 300 lb

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 4      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

42) On Mars, gravity is one-third that on Earth.  What would be the mass on Mars of a person who has a mass of 90 kilograms (kg) on Earth?

  1. A) 30 kg
  2. B) 270 kg
  3. C) 90 kg
  4. D) 180 kg

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 4      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

43) Which of the following is a physical change?

  1. A) Carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
  2. B) Ice melts at 0°C.
  3. C) A red substance is decomposed by heat to form mercury and oxygen.
  4. D) Water is decomposed by electricity into hydrogen and oxygen.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

44) Which of the following is a chemical property?

  1. A) Potassium reacts with water to form potassium hydroxide.
  2. B) Sugar dissolves in water.
  3. C) Sugar is a solid at room temperature.
  4. D) Gasoline and water do not mix.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 16      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

45) Which of these is a chemical change?

  1. A) The hair stylist cuts your hair.
  2. B) Bleaching powder dissolves in water.
  3. C) Silkworms convert mulberry leaves into silk.
  4. D) Wool is spun into yarn.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

46) Which of these does NOT involve a chemical change?

  1. A) Cocaine causes the release of norepinephrine from nerve cells.
  2. B) Red delicious apples taste sweet.
  3. C) Antacids often help an upset stomach.
  4. D) Mercury is used in barometers because it has a high density.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

47) A mixture of iron, salt and sand can be separated using a magnet, water, a filter and a hot plate.  Think about this separation.  The separation of this mixture

  1. A) uses only physical changes or processes.
  2. B) uses only chemical changes or processes.
  3. C) uses both chemical and physical changes or processes.
  4. D) cannot be done with the materials listed.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

48) A chemical change always involves a change in the ________ of matter.

  1. A) state
  2. B) composition
  3. C) volume
  4. D) temperature

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

49) The gravity on the moon is one-sixth that on Earth.  What would be the weight of an object on Earth if it has a weight of 40 kg on the moon?

  1. A) 6.7 kg
  2. B) 13.3 kg
  3. C) 40 kg
  4. D) 240 kg

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

50) On Mars, gravity is one-third that on Earth.  What would be the weight on Mars of a person who has a weight of 200 pounds (lb) on Earth?

  1. A) 66.7 lb
  2. B) 133 lb
  3. C) 200 lb
  4. D) 600 lb

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

 

51) The gravity on Mars is one-third that on Earth.  What would be the weight of an object on Earth if it has a weight of 60 kg on Mars?

  1. A) 10 kg
  2. B) 20 kg
  3. C) 60 kg
  4. D) 180 kg

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

52) The physical state that retains both shape and volume is

  1. A) solid.
  2. B) liquid.
  3. C) gas.
  4. D) element.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

53) A gas is characterized by a(n)

  1. A) definite shape and definite volume.
  2. B) definite shape and indefinite volume.
  3. C) indefinite shape and definite volume.
  4. D) indefinite shape and indefinite volume.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

54) The label on a can of sparkling mineral water lists the following ingredients: carbonated water and natural lime flavor.  Which one of the following best classifies the beverage?

  1. A) mixture
  2. B) element
  3. C) compound
  4. D) pure substance

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

55) The label on a bottle of shampoo lists many ingredients, such as water, sodium laureth sulfate, lauramide DEA, sodium chloride, etc.  From this information, shampoo is best classified as

  1. A) a pure substance.
  2. B) an element.
  3. C) a compound.
  4. D) a mixture.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

56) Pure water is an excellent substance for dissolving many other substances.  Given this, the tap water that you drink is best classified as a(n)

  1. A) pure substance.
  2. B) mixture.
  3. C) element.
  4. D) compound.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

57) Vinegar is composed of approximately 5% acetic acid and 95% water.  Which one of the following is the best classification of vinegar?

  1. A) pure substance
  2. B) element
  3. C) compound
  4. D) mixture

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

 

58) Refined white table sugar is usually derived from either sugar cane or sugar beets.  Irrespective of the source of table sugar, after refining it always has the same composition of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  Sugar is best classified as which one of the following?

  1. A) ideal mixture
  2. B) element
  3. C) compound
  4. D) mixture

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

59) Molasses is a by-product of the refining of sugar from sugar cane.  The specific composition of molasses varies depending upon the source of the sugar cane.  Which one of the following is the best classification of molasses?

  1. A) pure substance
  2. B) element
  3. C) compound
  4. D) mixture

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

60) A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances is called a(n)

  1. A) solid.
  2. B) element.
  3. C) compound.
  4. D) mixture.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

 

61) A molecule

  1. A) is a charged atom.
  2. B) consists of one proton.
  3. C) is the smallest characteristic part of a compound.
  4. D) consists of a mixture of two ions.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 24      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

62) A mixture of sand and salt is a(n)

  1. A) element.
  2. B) heterogeneous mixture.
  3. C) homogeneous mixture.
  4. D) molecule.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

63) Which of the following CANNOT be the chemical symbol for an element?

  1. A) Ca
  2. B) Se
  3. C) B
  4. D) H2

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 50+      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

64) What is the chemical symbol for potassium?

  1. A) P
  2. B) Po
  3. C) Pu
  4. D) K

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

 

65) What is the chemical symbol for chromium?

  1. A) C
  2. B) Cr
  3. C) Ch
  4. D) Cm

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 6      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

66) What is the chemical symbol for sodium?

  1. A) Na
  2. B) K
  3. C) S
  4. D) Sm

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

67) What is the chemical symbol for iodine?

  1. A) I
  2. B) Id
  3. C) In
  4. D) Io

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

68) What is the chemical symbol for iron?

  1. A) Fe
  2. B) I
  3. C) In
  4. D) Ir

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

69) ________ are pure substances.

  1. A) Homogeneous mixtures and elements
  2. B) Elements and compounds
  3. C) Heterogeneous mixtures and compounds
  4. D) Homogeneous and heterogeneous compounds

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

 

70) What is the name of the element with the symbol Ag?

  1. A) silver
  2. B) gold
  3. C) mercury
  4. D) antimony

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

71) What is the name of the element with the symbol Hg?

  1. A) silver
  2. B) gold
  3. C) mercury
  4. D) antimony

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

72) What is the name of the element with the symbol Au?

  1. A) silver
  2. B) gold
  3. C) plutonium
  4. D) nickel

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 40      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

73) Which of the following represents an element?

  1. A) HF
  2. B) Se
  3. C) F2
  4. D) CO2

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 50+      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

74) Which of the following represents a compound?

  1. A) Co
  2. B) Mn
  3. C) CO2
  4. D) Na

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 50+      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

75) The species represented by CO is

  1. A) an atom of cobalt.
  2. B) an atom made up of carbon and oxygen.
  3. C) a molecule of cobalt.
  4. D) a molecule made up of carbon and oxygen.

Answer:  D

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

76) After a yellow solid is dissolved in water, the liquid appears to be uniformly yellow throughout.  This yellow liquid is best classified as a(n)

  1. A) compound.
  2. B) heterogeneous mixture.
  3. C) homogeneous mixture.
  4. D) ideal mixture.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

77) A solution is another name for a(n)

  1. A) compound.
  2. B) element.
  3. C) heterogeneous mixture.
  4. D) homogeneous mixture.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

78) In the SI system of measurement, the unit of length is the

  1. A) kilogram.
  2. B) meter.
  3. C) liter.
  4. D) yard.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

79) In the SI system of measurement the unit of mass is the

  1. A) kilogram.
  2. B) kilometer.
  3. C) liter.
  4. D) yard.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

80) How many meters are in 10.0 cm?

  1. A) 0.0100
  2. B) 0.100
  3. C) 1.00
  4. D) 1,000

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

81) How many kilometers are in 800 m?

  1. A) 0.008
  2. B) 0.08
  3. C) 0.8
  4. D) 800

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

82) How many micrograms are in 20 mg?

  1. A) 20,000 μg
  2. B) 200,000 μg
  3. C) 2,000,000 μg
  4. D) 2.0 μg

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

83) A tablet contains 325.0 mg of the active ingredient.  This mass may also be expressed as

  1. A) 325.0 μg.
  2. B) 0.0003250 g.
  3. C) 0.3250 g.
  4. D) 32.50 μg.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

84) The prefix nano means ________.

  1. A) 103
  2. B) 10-9
  3. C) 106
  4. D) 109

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

85) The prefix centi means ________.

  1. A) 10-3
  2. B) 10-2
  3. C) 10-1
  4. D) 102

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

86) The prefix centi means ________.

  1. A) 1/1,000
  2. B) 1/100
  3. C) 1/10
  4. D) 100

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

87) The prefix deci means ________.

  1. A) 0.001
  2. B) 0.1
  3. C) 0.01
  4. D) 100

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

88) The prefix nano means ________.

  1. A) a billion
  2. B) one-millionth
  3. C) one-billionth
  4. D) a million

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

89) The prefix milli means ________.

  1. A) 1/1,000,000
  2. B) 1/1,000
  3. C) 1/10
  4. D) 1,000

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

90) The prefix milli means ________.

  1. A) 0.000001
  2. B) 0.001
  3. C) 0.1
  4. D) 1000

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

91) The prefix micro means ________.

  1. A) 10-9
  2. B) 10-6
  3. C) 10-3
  4. D) 103

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

92) The prefix micro means ________.

  1. A) 0.000001
  2. B) 0.001
  3. C) 100
  4. D) 1000

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

93) The prefix giga means ________.

  1. A) 1,000
  2. B) 1,000,000,000,000
  3. C) 1,000,000
  4. D) 1,000,000,000

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

94) The prefix mega means ________.

  1. A) 10-6
  2. B) 10-3
  3. C) 103
  4. D) 106

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

95) The symbol for the prefix micro is ________.

  1. A) M
  2. B) m
  3. C) mm
  4. D) μ

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

96) The prefix kilo means ________.

  1. A) 10-9
  2. B) 10-6
  3. C) 10-3
  4. D) 103

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

97) The symbol for the prefix mega is ________.

  1. A) M
  2. B) m
  3. C) mm
  4. D) μ

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

98) The SI unit for temperature is the

  1. A) Calorie.
  2. B) Celsius.
  3. C) Fahrenheit.
  4. D) Kelvin.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

 

99) Which of the following is equal to 1 mL?

  1. A) 1 cm3
  2. B) 1000 cm3
  3. C) 1 dm3
  4. D) 0.01 L

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

 

100) Most molecules have dimensions in the nanometer (nm) or ________ range.

  1. A) centimeter (cm)
  2. B) millimeter (mm)
  3. C) kilometer (km)
  4. D) picometer (pm)

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.9  Assign proper units of measurement to observations, and manipulate unit conversions.

101) The density of a certain type of steel is 8.1 g/cm3.  What is the mass of a 100.0 cm3 chunk of this steel?

  1. A) 0.08100 g
  2. B) 8.100 g
  3. C) 12.00 g
  4. D) 810.0 g

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

102) The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3.  What is the volume of a 50.00 g gold ingot?

  1. A) 0.5000 cm3
  2. B) 2.593 cm3
  3. C) 50.00 cm3
  4. D) 965.0 cm3

Answer:  B

Diff: 4      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

 

103) What is the density of a liquid that has a volume of 10.0 mL and a mass of 22.00 grams?

  1. A) 0.220 g/mL
  2. B) 0.460 g/mL
  3. C) 2.20 g/mL
  4. D) 4.60 g/mL

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

104) The density of lead is 11.3 g/cm3.  What mass of lead is required to make a 1.00 cm3 fishing sinker?

  1. A) 1.00 g
  2. B) 1.13 g
  3. C) 11.3 g
  4. D) 113 g

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

105) A train robber in a western movie steals two gold ingots, each of which has a volume of 1000. cm3. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. What is the mass of the two ingots?

  1. A) 38.6 g
  2. B) 19,300 g
  3. C) 38,600 g
  4. D) 104 g

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science in society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

106) A student working in the laboratory needs 200.0 g of a liquid chemical whose density is 0.690 g/cm3. What volume of this liquid should he measure?

  1. A) 138 cm3
  2. B) 69.0 cm3
  3. C) 200. cm3
  4. D) 290 cm3

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

 

107) The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm3.  What approximate mass of mercury is required to fill a 4.0 ounce bottle?  An ounce is approximately 30 cm3.

  1. A) 1632 g
  2. B) 540 g
  3. C) 53 g
  4. D) 2 g

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

108) The freezing point of water on the Celsius temperature scale is

  1. A) -32°C.
  2. B) 0°C.
  3. C) 100°C.
  4. D) 212°C.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

109) The boiling point of water on the Celsius temperature scale is

  1. A) 100°C.
  2. B) 212°C.
  3. C) 273°C.
  4. D) 373°C.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

110) The freezing point of water on the Kelvin temperature scale is

  1. A) 0 K.
  2. B) 100 K.
  3. C) 273 K.
  4. D) 373 K.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

 

111) The boiling point of water on the Kelvin temperature scale is

  1. A) 0 K.
  2. B) 100 K.
  3. C) 273 K.
  4. D) 373 K.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

112) The boiling point of a liquid is 178°C.  What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale?

  1. A) 451 K
  2. B) 95 K
  3. C) 178 K
  4. D) -95 K

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

113) The melting point of a compound is 2400 K.  What is this temperature on the Celsius scale?

  1. A) 2673°C
  2. B) 2300°C
  3. C) 2188°C
  4. D) 2127°C

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

114) The melting point of fluorine, F, is -220°C.  What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale?

  1. A) 320 K
  2. B) 120 K
  3. C) 493 K
  4. D) 53 K

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

 

115) The energy content of foods is stated on food labels in Calories.  The Calorie is equal to

  1. A) 1000 calories.
  2. B) 1000 kilocalories.
  3. C) 1000°C.
  4. D) 1000 joules.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

 

116) Which of the following could NOT be the temperature of a solid?

  1. A) 2°C
  2. B) 2 K
  3. C) -2°C
  4. D) -2 K

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 4      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

117) Which of the following statements about the size of temperature units is NOT true?

  1. A) 1 Celsius degree is equal to 1 kelvin.
  2. B) 1 Celsius degree is bigger than 1 kelvin.
  3. C) 1 kelvin is bigger than 1 Fahrenheit degree.
  4. D) 1 Celsius degree is bigger than 1 Fahrenheit degree.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.12  Explain how the temperature scales are related.

 

118) Which of the following is NOT an outcome for companies that use green chemistry?

  1. A) They produce less waste.
  2. B) Their costs are lower.
  3. C) They no longer have to follow federal pollution guidelines.
  4. D) They use less energy.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.15  Describe how green chemistry reduces risk and prevents environmental problems.

 

119) Green chemists reduce the risks associated with the manufacture of a product by doing all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) using materials that are less toxic.
  2. B) requiring workers to use protective equipment.
  3. C) using smaller amounts of materials.
  4. D) considering the biodegradability of chemicals used to make the product.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.15  Describe how green chemistry reduces risk and prevents environmental problems.

 

120) One of the hallmarks of science is the ability to think ________.

  1. A) often
  2. B) constantly
  3. C) critically
  4. D) independently

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.10

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.16  Use critical thinking to evaluate claims and statements.

 

121) The acronym FLaReS is a mnemonic that helps us remember the rules that can be used to test a claim.  Which of the following is NOT one of these rules?

  1. A) falsifiability
  2. B) logic
  3. C) replicability
  4. D) societal acceptance

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.10

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.16  Use critical thinking to evaluate claims and statements.

 

122) Chemist A claims that a new compound will inhibit the growth of a virulent strain of bacteria.  When Chemist B from a different laboratory tests the compound against the same bacterial strain, the bacteria grow at their normal rate.  Which of the following statements best describes what has happened?

  1. A) The claim is correct, because the test has been replicated.
  2. B) The claim is incorrect, because the test has been replicated.
  3. C) The claim is incorrect, because the test has not been replicated.
  4. D) The claim is correct, because the data is not falsifiable.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.10

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.16  Use critical thinking to evaluate claims and statements.

 

1.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

2) Organic foods do not contain chemicals.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

3) All clothing contains chemicals.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

4) The technology of smelting metals into ores was performed long before the science of metallurgy evolved.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

5) Green chemistry uses materials and methods that are designed to prevent or reduce pollution.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.2   Describe the importance of green chemistry and sustainable chemistry.

 

6) A scientific law summarizes data while a scientific theory explains the data.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

7) John eats shrimp for the first time and develops chills and a fever that evening.  He can therefore conclude that eating shrimp was the cause of his fever and chills.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

8) In order for an experiment to be successful, scientists must be able to control all variables.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

9) Science does not prove a theory or hypothesis to be true. It can only prove something false.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

10) A psychic claims he can bend a spoon using only the power of his mind. However, he says he can do so only when the conditions are right and there must be no one with negative energy present. This claim is falsifiable.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

11) It is possible to prove that an hypothesis is absolutely true.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

 

12) The desirability quotient, DQ, is equal to risks/benefits.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.5  Estimate a desirability quotient from benefit and risk analysis.

 

13) New technologies provide current benefits, but often present future risks.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.4  Define risk and benefit, and give an example of each.

 

14) Chemistry affects every aspect of our daily lives.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

15) Chemistry is important not only as a separate science but also because it is fundamental to other sciences.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

16) A person engages in basic research to discover knowledge for the sake of knowing, while a person engages in applied research usually directs that research toward a specific goal.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

17) The research work of Gertrude Elion is an example of basic research.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

18) The knowledge gained from basic research has rarely been applied to improving our lives.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

19) Matter is a measure of the amount of mass in an object.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

20) Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

21) An example of a physical change is a gas becoming a liquid.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 6      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

22) An example of a chemical change is browning of meat.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

23) Composition and structure are both terms used to describe the kinds of atoms that are present in a substance.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

24) The substances in a heterogeneous mixture retain their chemical identity, but those in a homogeneous mixture do not.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.8  Classify matter according to state and as mixture, substance, compound, and/or element.

 

25) The SI unit of length is the kilometer.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.7

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

26) Density is equal to volume divided by mass.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

27) Water has a density of 1.00 g/mL.  If you put an object that has a density of 0.79 g/mL into water, it will sink to the bottom.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 1.8

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.10a  Calculate the density, mass, or volume of an object given the two quantities.

 

28) Temperature is a measure of the amount of heat an object contains.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.11  Distinguish between heat and temperature.

 

29) Heat will always flow from a warmer object to a cooler object.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.9

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.11  Distinguish between heat and temperature.

 

1.3   Short Answer Questions

 

1) The “Aristotelian philosophy” is generally non-productive.  What does that mean?

Answer:  Aristotle was a natural philosopher who contemplated nature, but did no experiments to support his speculations.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

2) Drugs and vaccinations relieve ________ and ________.

Answer:  pain, suffering

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

3) The negative impact of the overuse of pesticides on plant and animal life is an example a topic in the book by ________.

Answer:  Rachel Carson

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

 

4) Science is testable, explanatory, and ________.

Answer:  tentative, predictive

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.3  Define hypothesis, scientific law, scientific theory, and scientific model, and explain their relationships in science.

5) A chemist is hired by a major petroleum company to do research into developing a gasoline mixture that burns more efficiently in automobile engines.  This is best described as ________ research.

Answer:  applied

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

 

6) Mass is ________ no “matter” where you are in the universe.

Answer:  constant (“conserved” would work, too)

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

7) The production of hydrogen gas by the electrolysis of water is a(n) ________ process.

Answer:  chemical

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

8) The purification of water by distillation is a(n) ________ process.

Answer:  physical

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

9) The melting of ice is an example of a(n) ________ change.

Answer:  physical

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.7  Differentiate mass and weight; physical and chemical change; and physical and chemical properties.

 

10) The acronym FLaReS helps to remember four rules: Falsifiability, logic, replicability and ________.

Answer:  sufficiency

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.10

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

1.4   Essay Questions

 

1) What is green chemistry?  Give an example.

Diff: 3      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

2) The words science and technology are often used incorrectly as synonyms.  Distinguish these two terms.  Use an example of each.

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

3) Use the automobile and automobile travel to explain risk-benefit analysis.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.5  Estimate a desirability quotient from benefit and risk analysis.

 

4) Explain the impact of the U.S. chemical industry on trade with other nations.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

 

5) Briefly describe the central role of chemistry in science.  Use an example.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.1  Define science, chemistry, technology, and alchemy.

 

6) What is the difference between basic research and applied research?  Give an example of each.

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 1.4

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 1.6  Distinguish basic research from applied research.

Chemistry for Changing Times, 14e (Hill/McCreary)

Chapter 2   Atoms

 

2.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) The Greek word atomos means

  1. A) atom.
  2. B) uncuttable.
  3. C) invisible.
  4. D) continuous.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

2) Leucippus and Democritus proposed the “first” atomic view of matter.  They arrived at this view based on

  1. A) many experiments.
  2. B) careful measurements.
  3. C) philosophical and intuitive speculation.
  4. D) All of the above contributed to their atomic view.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

3) The ancient Greeks believed that matter was composed of four basic elements.  Which one of the following was NOT one of the four?

  1. A) mercury
  2. B) air
  3. C) water
  4. D) earth

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 8      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

4) How many years ago was an atomic view of matter was first proposed?

  1. A) 50
  2. B) 100
  3. C) 200
  4. D) 2500

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

5) Which philosopher believed that matter was continuous and was not made up of atoms?

  1. A) Aristotle
  2. B) Dalton
  3. C) Democritus
  4. D) Lavoisier

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

6) Leucippus and Democritus believed that all of the following statements about matter were true EXCEPT

  1. A) Matter was made up of atoms.
  2. B) Each type of matter had a distinctive size and shape.
  3. C) Matter was continuous.
  4. D) Substances are mixtures of different kinds of atoms.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

7) Which of the following statements about atoms is NOT true?

  1. A) Atoms are too small to be seen even with a microscope.
  2. B) Atoms make up every material.
  3. C) Atoms are the smallest particles that are characteristic of a given element.
  4. D) No atoms have been synthesized by scientists.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

8) Approximately how many elements occur naturally on Earth?

  1. A) 20
  2. B) 60
  3. C) 90
  4. D) 115

Answer:  C

Diff: 1      Var: 27      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

9) The “father of modern chemistry” is

  1. A) Boyle.
  2. B) Lavoisier.
  3. C) Mendeleev.
  4. D) Proust.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

10) 32 g of sulfur will react with 48 g of oxygen to produce 80 g of sulfur trioxide.  If 16 g of sulfur and 100 g of oxygen are placed into a sealed container and allowed to react, what is the mass of the material in the container after the reaction is completed?

  1. A) 40 g
  2. B) 16 g
  3. C) 100 g
  4. D) 116 g

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

11) 32 g of sulfur will react with 48 g of oxygen to produce 80 g of sulfur trioxide.  If 16 g of sulfur and 100 g of oxygen are placed into a sealed container and allowed to react, what is the mass of sulfur trioxide in the container after the reaction is completed?

  1. A) 40 g
  2. B) 16 g
  3. C) 100 g
  4. D) 116 g

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

12) By definition, which of the following can be broken down into simpler substances?

  1. A) compound
  2. B) atom|ion
  3. C) solid
  4. D) liquid

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 6      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

13) Lavoisier performed many of the same experiments as his predecessors.  The one thing that most distinguished Lavoisier’s work was

  1. A) the results.
  2. B) the mass measurements.
  3. C) the chemicals.
  4. D) the glassware.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

14) Lavoisier measured the mass of substances before and after chemical reactions and summarized his observations in a(n)

  1. A) hypothesis.
  2. B) observation.
  3. C) theory.
  4. D) law.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

15) Which one of the following statements is NOT a correct statement of the Law of Conservation of Mass?

  1. A) The mass of a system is dependent upon chemical reactions that may occur.
  2. B) The mass of a system is conserved in a chemical reaction.
  3. C) Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
  4. D) Atoms are conserved in chemical reactions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

16) A mixture containing 50 grams of carbon and 75 grams of oxygen is sealed in a flask.  The total mass of the system is 225 grams.  The flask is heated to cause the carbon and oxygen to react.  The sealed flask is massed.  What is the mass of the sealed flask?

  1. A) 125 grams
  2. B) 150 grams
  3. C) 175 grams
  4. D) 225 grams

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

 

17) A student measures 10.5 g of mercury(II) oxide into an open test tube and heats the tube.  The heat causes the mercury(II) oxide to decompose into mercury and oxygen.  After reaction, the student finds the mass of the contents of the tube to be 9.7 g.  Which one of the following describes these observations?

  1. A) The decomposition of mercury(II) oxide does not obey the Law of Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) 0.8 grams of oxygen gas are lost from the tube.
  3. C) There are errors associated with the student’s measurements.
  4. D) Heating destroys some mass.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

18) The amount of carbon on the earth, including the atmosphere,

  1. A) is essentially constant.
  2. B) is decreasing due to consumption of carbon based fuels, such as coal and petroleum.
  3. C) is increasing due to plant and animal growth on the planet.
  4. D) fluctuates dramatically with the seasons.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

19) The amount of aluminum on the earth today relative to the amount 100 years ago when Al was first commercially extracted from bauxite, an aluminum containing ore,

  1. A) is essentially the same.
  2. B) is decreasing rapidly due to production of aluminum beverage containers.
  3. C) is decreasing, but more slowly recently due to interest in recycling.
  4. D) is actually increasing due to recycling efforts and more energy efficient production methods.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

 

20) Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen when exposed to heat or light.  A tightly capped bottle of hydrogen peroxide is placed on a mass scale (a balance) and exposed to light for three weeks.  The mass reading on the scale does not change.  This is an example of

  1. A) the Law of Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) the Law of Definite Proportions.
  3. C) the Law of Constant Composition.
  4. D) the Law of Multiple Proportions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

21) Methane can be decomposed into two simpler substances, hydrogen and carbon.  Therefore, methane

  1. A) is a solid.
  2. B) cannot be an element.
  3. C) must be a mixture.
  4. D) must have the formula CH2.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

22) The ability to recycle aluminum (or glass, or plastic) is ultimately an illustration of

  1. A) the Law of the Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) the Law of Definite Proportions.
  3. C) the ingenuity of chemists.
  4. D) the Law of Multiple Proportions.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

23) When electricity is passed through molten potassium bromide, two simpler substances, potassium and bromine, are produced.  Therefore, potassium bromide

  1. A) cannot be an element.
  2. B) must be a mixture.
  3. C) has less mass than the resulting potassium and bromine do.
  4. D) must have the formula PB.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

 

 

24) The Law of Definite Proportions was first stated by

  1. A) Lavoisier.
  2. B) Galileo.
  3. C) Dalton.
  4. D) Proust.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

25) When added to a sealed flask and heated, 6.0 g of carbon and 16.0 g of oxygen react to form 22.0 g of carbon dioxide.  How much carbon dioxide is formed when 24.0 g of carbon is reacted with 100.0 g of oxygen?

  1. A) 40.0 g
  2. B) 44.0 g
  3. C) 88.0 g
  4. D) 112.0 g

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

26) The observation that 10 g of hydrogen gas always combines with 80 g of oxygen gas to form 90 g of water, even when there is more than 80 g of oxygen present in the reaction container, illustrates the Law of

  1. A) Definite Proportions.
  2. B) Multiple Proportions.
  3. C) ideal gases.
  4. D) excess reactants.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

27) No matter how much extra oxygen is available, 12 grams of carbon always combines with 32 grams of oxygen.  This best illustrates the Law of

  1. A) Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) Definite Proportions.
  3. C) Multiple Proportions.
  4. D) Conservation of Energy.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

 

28) Heptane is always composed of 84.0% carbon and 16.0% hydrogen.  This illustrates the Law of

  1. A) Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) Definite Proportions.
  3. C) Multiple Proportions.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

29) When 10.00 g of lead and 1.56 grams of sulfur react, 11.56 g of lead sulfide is produced.  Suppose 30.00 g of lead and 1.56 g of sulfur are allowed to react. Analysis of the reaction mixture would show

  1. A) 31.56 g of lead sulfide.
  2. B) 34.68 g of lead sulfide.
  3. C) 11.56 g of lead sulfide and 20.00 g of lead.
  4. D) no reaction.

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

30) 2 g of sulfur will react with 3 g of oxygen to produce 5 g of sulfur trioxide.  If 54 g of sulfur and 100 g of oxygen are placed into a sealed container and allowed to react, how much sulfur dioxide will be produced?

  1. A) 54 g
  2. B) 81 g
  3. C) 135 g
  4. D) 154 g

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

31) Sample A contains 92.3%carbon and 7.7% hydrogen.  If sample B is the same substance, it will contain

  1. A) 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen.
  2. B) 92.3% carbon and 7.7% hydrogen.
  3. C) 83.3% carbon and 16.7% hydrogen.
  4. D) 85% carbon and 15% hydrogen.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

 

32) CO2 always contains 3 g of C for every 8 g of O.  This is an example of

  1. A) Dalton’s Atomic Theory.
  2. B) Lavoisier’s Law of Conservation of Mass.
  3. C) Dalton’s Law of Multiple Proportions.
  4. D) Proust’s Law of Definite Proportions.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

33) When 28 g of nitrogen and 6 g of hydrogen react, 34 g of ammonia are produced.  If 80 g of nitrogen react with 4 g of hydrogen, how much ammonia will be produced?

  1. A) 22.6 g
  2. B) 43 g
  3. C) 50 g
  4. D) 4 g

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

34) Which of the following can be broken down into simpler substances?

  1. A) CO
  2. B) Se
  3. C) Mg
  4. D) F

Answer:  A

Diff: 2      Var: 50+      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

 

35) Which of the following parts (postulates) of Dalton’s atomic theory has been modified in light of later discoveries?

  1. A) All matter is made up of very small particles called atoms.
  2. B) Atoms are indivisible.
  3. C) Chemical reactions involve rearrangement of atoms.
  4. D) Compounds are formed from atoms.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

 

36) Which of the following laws is NOT explained by Dalton’s atomic theory?

  1. A) the Law of Conservation of Mass
  2. B) the Law of Definite Proportions
  3. C) the Law of Multiple Proportions
  4. D) the periodic law

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

37) ________ was the first person to propose a consistent “modern” atomic theory.

  1. A) Dalton
  2. B) Democritus
  3. C) Proust
  4. D) Lavoisier

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

38) Which discovery was NOT in conflict with Dalton’s atomic theory?

  1. A) the discovery of electrical charge
  2. B) the discovery of the electron
  3. C) the discovery of the element gallium
  4. D) the discovery of the proton

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

39) Which of the following was NOT explained by Dalton’s atomic theory?

  1. A) the Law of Conservation of Mass
  2. B) the Law of Multiple Proportions
  3. C) the difference between isotopes of an element
  4. D) the difference between elements and compounds

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

 

40) After many observations, Proust stated that elements combine in definite proportions to form compounds.  Dalton explained these observations by proposing that matter must consist of atoms.  Dalton’s explanation is called a(n)

  1. A) law.
  2. B) theory.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) observation.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

41) Nitrogen forms a number of different compounds with oxygen, depending upon the experimental conditions.  This type of observation concerning the behavior of matter is summarized by

  1. A) the Law of Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) the Law of Definite Proportions.
  3. C) the Law of Constant Composition.
  4. D) the Law of Multiple Proportions.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

42) Which one of the following is NOT part of Dalton’s atomic theory?

  1. A) Matter is composed of atoms.
  2. B) Atoms of the same element have the same properties.
  3. C) Atoms of different elements have different properties.
  4. D) Atoms change into other atoms in chemical reactions.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

43) Although all parts (postulates) of Dalton’s atomic theory are important, which one of the postulates is crucial to explain the observations summarized by the Law of Definite Proportions?

  1. A) Matter is composed of atoms.
  2. B) Atoms of the same element have the same properties.
  3. C) Atoms combine with other atoms in fixed, whole number ratios to form compounds.
  4. D) Atoms are very small.

Answer:  C

Diff: 4      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

 

44) Which one of the following does NOT occur in a chemical reaction?

  1. A) Matter is rearranged.
  2. B) Matter is conserved.
  3. C) Atoms react with other atoms.
  4. D) Atoms are changed into other atoms.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

45) Dalton explained the Law of Conservation of Mass by stating that atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.  Dalton’s explanation is an example of a scientific

  1. A) theory.
  2. B) law.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) experiment.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

46) Which set of compounds illustrates the Law of Multiple Proportions?

  1. A) NH3, PH3, AsH3
  2. B) CH3, CF3, CCl3
  3. C) NH3, N2H4
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 4      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

47) Which set of compounds illustrates the Law of Multiple Proportions?

  1. A) CH4, C2H6, C3H8
  2. B) NO, NH3, NH4Cl
  3. C) H2O, H2
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

 

48) Under conditions of limited oxygen, carbon burns to form carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas.  In conditions with unlimited oxygen, carbon burns to form carbon dioxide.  This illustrates the Law of

  1. A) Conservation of Mass.
  2. B) Definite Proportions.
  3. C) different chemical reactions.
  4. D) Multiple Proportions.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

49) In plentiful air, 3.0 parts of carbon react with 8.0 parts of oxygen to form carbon dioxide.  How much carbon is required to react with 1100 g of oxygen?

  1. A) 600 g
  2. B) 550 g
  3. C) 2930g
  4. D) 413 g

Answer:  D

Diff: 5      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

50) Which set of compounds illustrates the Law of Multiple Proportions?

  1. A) SO2, SO3
  2. B) N2O, NO, NO2
  3. C) H2O, H2O2
  4. D) all of these

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

51) John Dalton discovered which of the following laws?

  1. A) The Law of Conservation of Mass
  2. B) The Law of Definite Proportions
  3. C) The Law of Constant Composition
  4. D) The Law of Multiple Proportions

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

 

52) Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called

  1. A) allotropes.
  2. B) anions.
  3. C) isotopes.
  4. D) molecules.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 8      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

53) Which of the following postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory has been modified in light of later discoveries?

  1. A) All matter is made up of very small particles called atoms.
  2. B) All atoms of an element are identical.
  3. C) Chemical reactions involve rearrangement of atoms.
  4. D) Compounds are formed from atoms.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

54) How many grams of carbon are in 20.0 grams of CH4?

  1. A) 18.46 grams
  2. B) 14.98 grams
  3. C) 4.00 grams
  4. D) 8.00 grams

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.4

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.7  Convert between the masses and the moles of a substance.

55) One mole is of carbon is equal to

  1. A) 6.022 × 1023atoms of carbons.
  2. B) 12.011 grams of carbon.
  3. C) Avogadro’s number of atoms.
  4. D) all of the above.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.4

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.6  Describe what a mole is and how it is used.

 

 

56) The atomic masses for elements are

  1. A) actual masses determined by weighing individual atoms.
  2. B) relative masses determined by comparison with a standard reference.
  3. C) the same as the atomic number.
  4. D) unknown.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.4

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

57) Perhaps the greatest triumph of Mendeleev’s periodic table was

  1. A) the use of rows and columns to organize the elements.
  2. B) the ability to predict electron configurations of elements.
  3. C) the use of atomic numbers as an organizing criterion.
  4. D) the prediction of the existence of undiscovered elements.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

58) The scientist who in 1828 published a table of atomic weights containing 54 elements was

  1. A) Dalton.
  2. B) Berzelius.
  3. C) Mendeleev.
  4. D) Boyle.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

59) The Periodic Table is helpful in all of the following endeavors but one.  Which is the exception?

  1. A) predicting formulas of compounds
  2. B) predicting chemical reactivity of elements
  3. C) predicting physical properties of elements
  4. D) predicting monetary values of elements

Answer:  D

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

60) Mendeleev arranged elements in the periodic table primarily in order of their

  1. A) atomic masses.
  2. B) atomic weights.
  3. C) both atomic weights and atomic numbers.
  4. D) number of neutrons.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 9      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

61) What is the name of the Russian chemist who was a pioneer in the development of the periodic law?

  1. A) Meyerovic
  2. B) Mendeleev
  3. C) Döbereiner
  4. D) Berzelius

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

62) When Mendeleev developed his periodic table, he placed the greatest emphasis on

  1. A) the atomic number of the elements.
  2. B) putting elements with similar properties in the same column.
  3. C) leaving no holes or blank spaces in the table.
  4. D) the melting points of the elements.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2      Var: 6      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

63) The “box” for an element on the periodic table will include all of the following information about an element EXCEPT

  1. A) its atomic number.
  2. B) the proportion of the element in a compound.
  3. C) its atomic symbol.
  4. D) its atomic mass.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

64) Mendeleev’s periodic table organized elements in a systematic way.  Which of the following attempted to arrange elements in a systematic way and can be considered a “precursor” of the modern periodic table?

  1. A) Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  2. B) Dalton’s Atomic Masses
  3. C) Döbereiner’s Triads
  4. D) Berzelius’s Atomic Weights

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

65) In 1961, the reference for the atomic mass unit (amu or u) was changed from naturally occurring oxygen with a value of 16.000 u to one based on a single isotope of carbon (carbon-12).  Why was it changed?

  1. A) The atomic composition of oxygen varies depending upon its source.
  2. B) Carbon-12 is more common than oxygen.
  3. C) Carbon exists as only one isotope, carbon-12.
  4. D) Carbon can combine with four atoms of hydrogen to form CH4, methane, while oxygen only combines with two atoms of hydrogen to form water, H2

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

66) Assume that you have a new “triad” of elements (A, B and C) with similar properties.  A is the smallest element and has a mass of 30 u.  C is the largest element and has a mass of 90 u.  The mass of B would be approximately ________ u.

  1. A) 40
  2. B) 45
  3. C) 60
  4. D) 80

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

67) Is it always possible to recycle and reuse materials?

  1. A) Yes, because atoms cannot be destroyed in a chemical reaction.
  2. B) Yes, because atoms can only be rearranged in a chemical reaction.
  3. C) No, because atoms can be changed into other kinds of atoms.
  4. D) No, if it is financially impractible to do it.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

68) For which of the following would recycling of iron NOT be practical?

  1. A) old cars that are compressed in junkyards
  2. B) steel beams that have been removed from a bridge
  3. C) rust that flakes off a car body
  4. D) wrought iron fences

Answer:  C

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

 

69) If drops of water are subdivided to the ultimately smallest drops possible, what is the smallest particle of water that retains the chemical and physical properties of water?

  1. A) molecule
  2. B) mixture
  3. C) atom
  4. D) micron

Answer:  A

Diff: 1      Var: 6      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

70) All of the following are molecules EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) H2
  2. B) NO
  3. C) H
  4. D) O3

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 24      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

71) All of the following are examples of molecules EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) Si
  2. B) CO
  3. C) I2
  4. D) NO2

Answer:  A

Diff: 3      Var: 50+      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

 

72) Which of the following changes is NOT an example of green chemistry?

  1. A) replacing mercury thermometers with alcohol thermometers
  2. B) using large amounts of solvents such as benzene, which is a carcinogen
  3. C) replacing energy from coal-fired power plants with energy from alternative sources
  4. D) replacing lead in paint with titanium dioxide

Answer:  B

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.11  Explain how green chemistry can change technologists that rely on hazardous or rare elements.

73) Which of the following is an example of green chemistry?

  1. A) building new coal-fired plants to generate electricity
  2. B) developing new technologies that require rare elements
  3. C) using materials that are made up of substances that are very abundant in the earth’s crust
  4. D) using lead as a plasticizer to make plastics less rigid

Answer:  C

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.11  Explain how green chemistry can change technologists that rely on hazardous or rare elements.

 

2.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Leucippus and Democritus based their ideas about atoms on careful experimental results.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

2) Aristotle’s idea that matter is continuous is still considered to be correct.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

3) Democritus thought that real substances were mixtures of various types of atoms.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.1

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.1  Explain the ancient Greeks’ ideas about the characteristics of matter.

 

 

4) During a chemical reaction, matter can neither be created nor destroyed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

5) Lavoisier’s experiments showed that matter can be gained or lost in a chemical change.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

6) The Law of Constant Composition and the Law of Definite Proportions are different names for the same phenomenon.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

7) Substance A contains 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen.  Substance B contains 83% carbon and 17% hydrogen.  A and B are the same substance.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 25      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

8) Substance A contains 85% carbon and 15% hydrogen.  Substance B contains 85 % carbon and 15% hydrogen.  A and B are the same substance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 5      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

9) Water and hydrogen peroxide are compounds composed of only hydrogen and oxygen.  These compounds illustrate the Law of Multiple Proportions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.5  Know how atomic theory explains the laws of multiple proportions and conservation of mass.

 

 

10) Dalton’s atomic theory states that atoms may change into other atoms in a chemical reaction.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

11) According to Dalton’s Atomic Theory, atoms of the same element may have different masses.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

12) Mendeleev was the first person to attempt to arrange the elements in a systematic order.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

13) Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table solely in order of increasing atomic mass.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

14) Döbereiner’s Triads and Mendeleev’s Periodic Table were both based on the idea that properties of elements tended to repeat.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

15) Germanium was discovered in 1886.  Its existence had been predicted by Mendeleev.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

 

16) Scientists can observe computer enhanced images of atoms.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

 

 

17) A molecule is a group of atoms that are chemically bonded together.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

18) We cannot destroy atoms.  Thus, it is possible to reclaim and recycle all materials.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

19) Recycling of hazardous materials is important.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2      Var: 3      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 5: Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of science on society.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.11  Explain how green chemistry can change technologists that rely on hazardous or rare elements.

20) There is no difference between the hazard posed by an element when it is in a compound or by itself.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.6

Global Obj:  Global 1: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of scientific inquiry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.9  Distinguish atoms from molecules.

 

2.3   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Antoine Lavoisier is often credited with doing more than anyone else to establish chemistry as a quantitative science.  What was the significance of Lavoisier’s work?

Answer:  careful measurements of chemical reactions

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

 

2) When 10.0 g of lead are heated with 1.6 g of sulfur, 11.6 g of lead sulfide are formed.  How many grams of lead sulfide form when 10.0 g of lead are heated with 3.0 g of sulfur?

Answer:  11.6 g

Diff: 3      Var: 4      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 4: Demonstrate the quantitative skills needed to succeed in chemistry.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.3  Calculate the amounts of elements form the composition of a compound.

 

3) Describe what happens in a chemical reaction.

Answer:  The arrangement of atoms changes.

Diff: 2      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

 

4) In light of present day knowledge, comment on Dalton’s proposal that atoms are indivisible.

Answer:  Radioactive elements decompose into elements that are different from the parent element and emit particles in the process.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

 

5) Explain why Mendeleev left gaps in his periodic table of the elements.

Answer:  Mendeleev left gaps in his periodic table so that elements with similar properties could be grouped together. He correctly predicted that the gaps would correspond to elements that had not been discovered at that time.

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.5

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.8  Describe how the elements are arranged in the periodic table and why the arrangement is important.

2.4   Essay Questions

 

1) What is the significance of the Law of Conservation of Mass in waste disposal?

Diff: 3      Var: 1      Page Ref: Sec. 2.2

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.2  Describe the significance of the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportion.

 

2) Distinguish between a compound and a mixture.

Diff: 2      Var: 2      Page Ref: Sec. 2.3

Global Obj:  Global 2: Demonstrate the ability to think critically and employ critical thinking skills and Global 8: Communicate effectively in writing.

Learning Obj:  LO 2.4  Explain why the idea that matter is made of atoms in a theory.

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