The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

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The Challenge of Democracy American Government in Global Politics 13th Edition by Janda -Test Bank

CHAPTER_2_Majoritarian_or_Pluralist_Democracy_

 

 

 

1. The ancient Greeks classified governments as autocracies, oligarchies, or democracies based on

  a. the fundamental purposes for which the government was instituted.
  b. the extent of government power.
  c. the types of elected officeholders.
  d. the kinds of decisions the government was responsible for.
  e. the number of citizens involved in governing.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

2. An autocracy is a political system ruled by

  a. a few.
  b. one individual.
  c. the military.
  d. a majority.
  e. a few powerful, wealthy individuals.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

3. Members of which of the following groups would be most likely to support immigration reform ​that includes a path to citizenship?

  a. ​Tea Party
  b. ​Democrats
  c. ​Chamber of Commerce
  d. ​Republicans
  e. ​Heritage Foundation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   30
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   A

 

4. The concept of democracy was initially defined centuries ago in ancient

  a. Syria.
  b. Egypt.
  c. Greece.
  d. Rome.
  e. India.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

5. The Greek word demos, which is the root of the term democracy, means

  a. common people.
  b. power.
  c. participation.
  d. foundation or base.
  e. order.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

6. The Greek word kratos, one of the roots of the word democracy, means

  a. power.
  b. authority.
  c. common man.
  d. rule.
  e. form.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

7. A politician who appeals to and often deceives the masses by manipulating their emotions and prejudices is a(n)

  a. politico.
  b. delegate.
  c. oligarch.
  d. legacy.
  e. demagogue.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

8. A form of government that puts power in the hands of an elite is a(n)​

  a. ​oligarchy.
  b. ​democracy.
  c. ​autocracy.
  d. ​dictatorship.
  e. ​theocracy.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

9. The procedural view of democracy is most concerned with

  a. the level of popular participation in decision making.
  b. the equality of government decisions.
  c. minority protections.
  d. the impact of government decisions.
  e. how government decisions are made.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

10. Which of the following is not a question asked by procedural democratic theory?

  a. Who should participate in decision making?
  b. What democratic outcomes violate the rights of minorities?
  c. How much should each participant’s vote count?
  d. How many votes are needed to reach a decision?
  e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

11. The idea that all adults within the boundaries of a political community should be allowed to vote is known as

  a. universal participation.
  b. political equality.
  c. majority rule.
  d. plurality rule.
  e. suffrage.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

12. A country abiding by the principle “one man, one vote” is practicing

  a. representative democracy.
  b. political equality.
  c. equal suffrage.
  d. substantive democracy.
  e. a “free and fair” election system.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

13. Whereas majority rule is defined as decision making by 50 percent plus one person, _________ is defined as decision making by most participants.

  a. rule by the people
  b. acquiescence
  c. political equality
  d. universal participation
  e. plurality rule

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

14. All of the following are principles of procedural democracy except

  a. government responsiveness to public opinion.
  b. minority rights.
  c. universal participation.
  d. majority rule.
  e. political equality.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

15. Participatory democracy today

  a. is rare in the United States but commonly practiced in Europe.
  b. is common in the United States and in other democracies.
  c. is common in the United States but rare in other democracies.
  d. is common in the United States and Europe, but rare in other democracies.
  e. is rare in the United States and in other democracies.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

16. New England town meetings are an example of

  a. substantive democracy.
  b. oligarchies.
  c. representative democracy.
  d. civil democracy.
  e. participatory democracy.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

17. The concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making is ​

  a. ​majoritarianism.
  b. ​plurality rule.
  c. ​political equality.
  d. ​“one person, one vote.”
  e. ​universal participation.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

18. _________ theory prescribes that a group should decide to do what the majority of its participant wants to do.​

  a. ​Democratic
  b. ​Pluralist
  c. Procedural
  d. ​Doctrinal
  e. ​​Substantive

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

19. ​In a system of participatory democracy,

  a. neighborhoods are the basic units of political engagement.
  b. ​representatives are required to interact regularly with citizens.
  c. ​citizens govern themselves, without electing representatives.
  d. ​the national government always defers to state governments.
  e. ​state governments always defer to the national government.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

20. Portland’s incorporation of neighborhood associations into its municipal government is an example of​

  a. ​majoritarianism.
  b. ​pluralism.
  c. ​political equality.
  d. ​participatory democracy.
  e. ​universal participation

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

21. Why do most democracies give power to representatives rather than directly to citizens?

  a. Bringing large numbers of citizens together for discussions and votes is difficult.
  b. Decisions may require specialized knowledge not possessed by the average citizen.
  c. Discussion of political issues consumes more time than most people are willing to spend.
  d. Options a, b, and c are true.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   32-33
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

22. __________ allows a person to acquire information and documents online and also provides a medium to register opinions and complaints to government officials.

  a. E-government
  b. The Federal Communications Commission
  c. The Telecommunications Act
  d. The Secretary of State
  e. Fox News

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   33
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

23. The principle of responsiveness requires that legislators

  a. follow the general contours of public opinion.
  b. cast their ballots on the basis of what the people think back home.
  c. pay especial attention to groups that are highly organized.
  d. support public opinion in all matters related to electoral politics.
  e. consider the views of their fellow legislators more than the views of constituents.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

24. The Bill of Rights is at the core of our

  a. procedural theories of democracy.
  b. majoritarian theories.
  c. participatory theories of democracy.
  d. substantive theories of democracy.
  e. representative theories of democracy.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

25. The basic standard of substantive democracy is that government must guarantee

  a. economic rights.
  b. civil rights and liberties.
  c. social equality.
  d. Options a, b, c, and d are true.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

26. Agreement among substantive theorists breaks down when the discussion moves from civil rights to

  a. freedom of expression.
  b. social rights.
  c. religious rights.
  d. economic rights.
  e. Options b and d are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

27. In August of 2010, a federal judge overturned a decision by the voters of California that had banned gay marriage. This judicial decision is an example of

  a. majoritarian theory.
  b. the interest group model.
  c. elite theory.
  d. substantive democracy.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

28. According to the ____________ view of democracy, anti-gay marriage laws are democratic.​

  a. substantive
  b. ​authoritarian
  c. ​oligarchic
  d. ​Greek
  e. procedural

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

29. ​According to procedural theory, the government should do

  a. whatever the most insistent interest group wants.
  b. ​​whatever the majority wants.
  c. ​whatever they judge to be right.
  d. ​whatever the most influential elites want.
  e. ​whatever they think the framers of the constitution would have done.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

30. In 2005, voters in Texas voted by over a 60% margin to ban gay marriage.​ Arguing that gay marriage should be allowed in Texas anyway implies a reliance on the _____________ view of democracy.

  a. ​populist.
  b. ​procedural.
  c. ​substantive.
  d. ​majoritarian.
  e. ​elite.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

31. Civil libertarians commonly assert that “We don’t put our fundamental rights, like freedom of speech, up for a vote!” This statement reflects the __________ view of democracy​

  a. ​bureaucratic.
  b. ​elitist.
  c. ​procedural.
  d. ​majoritarian.
  e. ​substantive.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

32. Bible readings in public schools would violate ​a _________ principle, freedom of religion.

  a. ​democratic
  b. ​procedural
  c. ​doctrinal
  d. ​substantive
  e. ​pluralist

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

33. Americans tend to define democracy in terms of

  a. democratic processes.
  b. institutions and organizations.
  c. social benefits.
  d. political parties.
  e. freedoms, rights, or liberties.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

34. One of the weaknesses of the procedural model of democracy is that

  a. it does not provide clear criteria on which to judge whether a government is democratic.
  b. its reliance on rules may lead to rigidity and inefficiency.
  c. it neglects the standards of classic Greek democracy.
  d. it permits policies that violate standards of substantive democracy.
  e. too much attention is paid to protecting minority rights.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

35. _________ theorists have a narrower view of the scope of social and economic rights that should be guaranteed by a ​democratic government than _________ theorists.

  a. ​Liberal, conservative
  b. Substantive, procedural
  c. ​Conservative, liberal
  d. ​​Majoritarian, pluralist
  e. ​Procedural, substantive

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

36. In most democracies other than the United States, there is __________ support for the view that jobs and incomes for the unemployed are a right.​

  a. ​much less
  b. ​a little less
  c. ​about equal
  d. ​a little more
  e. ​much more

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

37. An important problem with the procedural view of democracy is that it can clash with​

  a. ​minority rights.
  b. ​the majoritarian view.
  c. ​voting rights.
  d. ​political parties.
  e. ​democratic government.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

38. Suppose a majority of Congress passes a law to permit organized prayer in public schools and the Supreme Court declares that the Constitution forbids this rule; this would be an example of

  a. procedural democracy.
  b. substantive democracy.
  c. the majoritarian model.
  d. participatory democracy.
  e. constitutional democracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   36
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

39. ​Which of the following can be considered an institutional mechanism in politics?

  a. ​Interest groups
  b. ​Political parties
  c. ​Legislatures
  d. ​Elections
  e. ​All of the above may be considered institutional mechanisms in politics.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   36
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

40. A popular election is the primary mechanism for democratic government in which model?

  a. Substantive democracy
  b. Procedural democracy
  c. The majoritarian model
  d. The pluralist model
  e. The integrated model

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

41. A referendum is best described as a(n)

  a. statement of legislative goals.
  b. do-over of a previous election.
  c. ballot without true competition for offices.
  d. election on a policy issue.
  e. decision that resolves a legal issue.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

42. A citizen’s group gathers enough signatures on a petition to force a popular vote on a statewide lottery proposal. This proposal would represent a(n)

  a. recall election.
  b. referendum.
  c. initiative.
  d. popular law.
  e. citizen’s proposal.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

43. ​An election on a public policy issue is called a(n)

  a. ​initiative.
  b. ​referendum.
  c. ​primary.
  d. ​recall.
  e. ​procedure.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

44. When citizens circulate petitions to gather signatures to put a policy question on the ballot, it is called a(n)​

  a. ​initiative.
  b. ​referendum.
  c. primary.
  d. ​recall.
  e. ​​procedure.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   37
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

45. In 2011, the state of Ohio approved an initiative to

  a. teach creationism in public schools.
  b. increase the minimum wage.
  c. restrict abortion.
  d. create a school voucher program.
  e. overturn a law that had weakened unions.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

46. Although they are instruments of majoritarian democracy, initiatives are often sponsored by

  a. government officials.
  b. interest groups.
  c. members of the judiciary.
  d. foreign multinational corporations.
  e. small numbers of average citizens.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

47. What rules govern the use of referenda at the federal level?

  a. They can only be used to propose constitutional amendments.
  b. They require a two-thirds vote of all Americans.
  c. They must be approved by a two-thirds vote of Congress.
  d. They can only be used for a declaration of war.
  e. No provisions exist for the use of referenda at the federal level.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

48. An organized group that seeks to influence government policy is called a(n)

  a. interest group.
  b. pluralist group.
  c. elite group.
  d. oligarchy.
  e. substantive group.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

49. In 2014, voters in Switzerland approved an initiative to​

  a. ​recognize civil rights at a national level.
  b. ​join the European Union.
  c. ​limit immigration.
  d. ​ban involvement in military conflicts.
  e. ​leave the European Union.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

50. Which of the following is not an assumption of the majoritarian model of democracy? Citizens

  a. ​are knowledgeable about government and politics.
  b. want to participate in the political process​.
  c. ​are raised in families that encouraged active political participation.
  d. make rational decisions in voting.​
  e. ​All of the above are assumptions of the majoritarian model.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

51. ​Based on polls testing how closely Americans follow news about politics, the text implies that policymakers should

  a. ​pay more attention to polls on policy questions.
  b. ​solicit more input from citizens before casting votes.
  c. ​institute public policy educational programs.
  d. ​place less credence in polls measuring public opinion on policy questions.
  e. ​pass legislation banning polls on public policy issues.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   A

 

52. Although public opinion does not fluctuate erratically, change can occur​

  a. ​as a result of a presidential state of the union address.
  b. ​when older voters change their minds collectively on an issue.
  c. ​when different generations with different experiences enter the electorate.
  d. ​when pollsters refine their questions to get the answers they are looking for.
  e. ​None of the above is likely to have an impact on public opinion.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   38
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   A

 

53. Compared with majoritarian thought, the pluralist model of democracy shifts the focus of democratic decision making from __________ to _________.

  a. organized groups; the mass electorate
  b. representatives; voters
  c. procedures; substance
  d. substance; procedures
  e. the mass electorate; organized groups

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   39
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

54. Cohesive political parties with well-defined programs contribute to the

  a. pluralist model of democracy.
  b. majoritarian model of democracy.
  c. republican theory of democracy.
  d. elite theory of democracy.
  e. substantive theory of democracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

55. For some years our two congressional parties have been increasingly polarized, working less together to fashion compromise legislation. This is consistent with the _________ of democracy.

  a. pluralist model
  b. substantive theory
  c. procedural theory
  d. elite theory
  e. majoritarian model

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

56. A sign that pluralist democracy might not be working well in the United States is the

  a. fact that the best represented sectors in Washington are business and professional groups.
  b. declining number of interest groups in Washington.
  c. decentralization of the American government.
  d. increased representation for low income Americans.
  e. generally low levels of political knowledge among Americans.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

57. The idea that the most important government decisions are made by an identifiable and stable minority that shares certain characteristics — particularly wealth and business connections — is called

  a. substantive democracy.
  b. elite theory.
  c. pluralist theory.
  d. the interest group model.
  e. aristocracy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

58. Suppose that top government jobs for both political parties are filled only from an inner circle of top corporate leaders. This would be evidence for

  a. elite theory.
  b. substantive democracy.
  c. pluralist theory.
  d. the interest group model.
  e. aristocracy.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

59. Studies on decision making concerning public policy issues suggest that much of the elite’s power comes from the ability of elites to

  a. win seats in Congress.
  b. become governors of states.
  c. finance candidates for president of the United States.
  d. keep issues off the political agenda.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

60. ​In America, when the wealthy and the rest of the population have differing policy goals

  a. ​the preference of the majority will most likely prevail.
  b. ​the preference of “progressive” interest groups normally prevails.
  c. ​there is no way to predict which side will win.
  d. ​the preference of the wealthy will most often prevail.
  e. ​Social scientists have not studied this question, so it is impossible to say which side will likely prevail.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

61. The principal drawback of the pluralist model is that it

  a. ​doesn’t adequately take public opinion into account.
  b. ​has been used by authoritarians to repress their populations.
  c. ​favors groups who need help the least.
  d. ​gives “unfair” advantages to poor people.
  e. ​has been shown to be a poor method of representation.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   42
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   A

 

62. Studies of the congressional agenda demonstrate that it is characterized by

  a. an emphasis on legislation concerned with the poor.
  b. an emphasis on legislation concerned with immigration.
  c. an emphasis on legislation concerned with increasing taxes on the wealthy.
  d. an emphasis on business-related legislation.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   42-43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

63. Democratization is the

  a. process of moving from procedural to substantive democracy.
  b. process of institutionalizing the rules of procedural democracy and establishing substantive democratic policies.
  c. act of electing leaders in a way that conforms to the criteria of substantive democracy.
  d. process of moving from a demand to a market economy.
  e. requirement that freedoms and rights be protected by written covenant.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

64. Whether a political system is “democratic” is chiefly defined by

  a. its amount of participation.
  b. its political equality and majority rule.
  c. government responsiveness to public opinion.
  d. its tolerance for freedom of speech and association.
  e. It cannot be simply defined by any of the above.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

65. ​According to the text, in the past few years, there has been ________ in the number of democracies around the world.

  a. ​a large decline
  b. ​a slight decline
  c. ​no real change
  d. ​a slight increase
  e. ​a large increase

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

66. One primary challenge to democratization in Iraq after the overthrow of dictator Saddam Hussein is

  a. the lack of a functioning oil economy.
  b. religious conflict between Sunni and Shiite branches of Islam.
  c. the continued crackdown on open protest of the government.
  d. the resurgence of the Ba’ath Party as a democratic force.
  e. the failure to establish a free and independent press.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   44
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

67. According to the text, it is difficult for a country with a market economy to remain _________ in its internal politics.

  a. democratic
  b. responsive
  c. decentralized
  d. undemocratic
  e. pluralistic

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   44
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

68. The text suggests that there are _________ forces that may be pushing authoritarian governments toward democratization.

  a. religious
  b. moral
  c. philosophical
  d. ethical
  e. economic

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   44
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

69. The text suggests that the United States fulfills the ________ model quite well.

  a. authoritarian
  b. majoritarian
  c. totalitarian
  d. pluralist
  e. egalitarian

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   46
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

70. Explain how Greek philosophers classified different governments, and what they thought about democracy.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   30-31
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1

 

71. Identify and discuss some of the problems ​with participatory democracy, and ways to respond to those problems.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   32-33
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2

 

72. Identify three of the four principles of procedural democracy and discuss the difficulties with their implementation.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   32-34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1

 

73. Explain the difference between procedural democratic theory and substantive democratic theory.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   34
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1

 

74. Discuss procedural democracy and substantive democracy arguments for and against gay marriage legislation​ that has been enacted in several states.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   34-35
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.1 – LO1

 

75. Explain the role that interest groups play in the pluralist democratic model.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   38-39
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2

 

76. Discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the majoritarian and pluralist models of democracy.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2

 

77. According to the text, does the United States better fit the pluralist model or the majoritarian model, and why?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   40
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3

 

78. Summarize the findings of political scientists who have researched the validity of elite theory, and the response of elite theorists to such findings.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   41
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2

 

79. Explain the key difference between elite and pluralist theory.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   42
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.2 – LO2

 

80. Discuss why democratization can be difficult to achieve in different parts of the world, and why there is a strong relationship between economic prosperity and democracy.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   43
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.2.3 – LO3

 

 

CHAPTER_18_Policymaking_and_Domestic_Policy

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. A(n) __________ is a general plan of action adopted by government to solve a social problem, counter a threat, or pursue an objective.

  a. program evaluation
  b. agenda
  c. issue network
  d. public policy
  e. plan of action

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   520
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

2. Decriminalization of currently illegal drugs would more likely be favored by _________ and opposed by __________.

  a. libertarians; conservatives
  b. communitarians; liberals
  c. liberals; libertarians
  d. conservatives; liberals
  e. libertarians; liberals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   521
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   F

 

3. Say the government provides $45,000 to a folk life festival in Nevada; this would be an example of a

  a. distributive policy.
  b. redistributional policy.
  c. public assistance policy.
  d. social welfare policy.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   521
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

4. Suppose a state decides to reduce tax credits for low-income workers in order to finance tax cuts for businesses and corporations; this would be an example of a

  a. distributive policy.
  b. redistributional policy.
  c. public assistance policy.
  d. social welfare policy.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   521
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   A

 

5. A citizen who donates money to a favored charity is taking advantage of a​

  a. ​distributive policy.
  b. ​regulation.
  c. ​tax deduction.
  d. redistributional policy.
  e. ​​tax expenditure.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   523
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

6. A government policy that discourages particular behavior, such as a tax on pollution, is also known as a(n)

  a. incentive.
  b. disincentive.
  c. compromise.
  d. regulation.
  e. permissive.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   524
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

7. Which of the following is the correct sequential order for the policymaking process?

  a. Agenda setting, policy formulation, implementation, policy evaluation
  b. Policy formulation, agenda setting, policy evaluation, implementation
  c. Policy formulation, agenda setting, implementation, policy evaluation
  d. Implementation, policy evaluation, agenda setting, policy formulation
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   524
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

8. Most industries prefer not to be regulated, but when regulation becomes inevitable, they usually prefer that it come

  a. in the form of both state and national regulations.
  b. from the states so that it will be adapted to local conditions.
  c. from the federal government, so that it will be uniform nationwide.
  d. from cities and counties.
  e. from within affected groups.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   528
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

9. You are a Washington lawyer who specializes in municipal finance, and you interact regularly with members of Congress, congressional committee staff, the bureaucracy, and others who make policy in this area. You are a member of a(n)

  a. trade association.
  b. policy system dynamic.
  c. issue network.
  d. public interest group.
  e. agenda team.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   528
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

10. One major criticism of issue networks is that

  a. there is no guarantee that all relevant interests are represented within them.
  b. individuals move rapidly among several different policy subsystems.
  c. members of the subsystem lack expertise in their fields.
  d. the number of groups involved in each subsystem is declining.
  e. members of one group often hinder policymaking by attempting to defeat another group’s policy.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   528
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1
NOTES:   C

 

11. Government programs designed to provide the basic living conditions necessary for all citizens are called

  a. charitable programs.
  b. social welfare programs.
  c. discretionary spending.
  d. disability programs.
  e. subsistence aid programs

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   529
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

12. Social welfare policy in the United States today has been significantly shaped by the

  a. Progressive era and World War I.
  b. Civil War and the Progressive era.
  c. Great Depression, the New Deal, and the Great Society.
  d. Jacksonian Revolution and the Civil War.
  e. Era of Good Feelings.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   529
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

13. The two presidential plans that most significantly extended the scope of government were​ the ___________ and the _____________.

  a. ​New Deal; Great Society
  b. ​New Deal; Affordable Care Act
  c. ​Great Depression; Great Recession
  d. ​Great Society; Affordable Care Act
  e. ​World War II; Vietnam War

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   529
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

14. American unemployment reached  _____ percent by 1933, in the depths of the Great Depression.

  a. 5
  b. 10
  c. 25
  d. 50
  e. 65

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   530
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

15. The New Deal occurred under President

  a. Theodore Roosevelt.
  b. Woodrow Wilson.
  c. Herbert Hoover.
  d. Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  e. Lyndon B. Johnson.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   530
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

16. The central value underlying Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society was

  a. freedom.
  b. democracy.
  c. order.
  d. equality.
  e. independence.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

17. An important part of President Lyndon Johnson’s “Great Society” was _____________.

  a. Social Security
  b. The Affordable Care Act
  c. the Clean Water Act
  d. The Economic Opportunity Act
  e. the Works Progress Act

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

18. Some provisions of the Economic Opportunity Act provided federal assistance to the states for job training through

  a. college work-study programs.
  b. management training for young corporate executives trying to succeed.
  c. job training for seniors eligible for Social Security.
  d. leaders of non-profit organizations.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

19. The Johnson administration’s promise to end poverty in a decade did not come to pass, and critics who claimed President Johnson’s War on Poverty failed based their assessments on the fact that

  a. the states had too much control over the Great Society programs.
  b. taxes were increased on the poor to pay for the Great Society programs.
  c. poverty became more concentrated in rural and inner city areas.
  d. poverty rates increased nationwide.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   F

 

20. President Reagan argued that instead of the federal government being responsible for guaranteeing the economic and social well-being of less fortunate citizens, such responsibility should be borne more by

  a. the affluent.
  b. American corporations.
  c. international charities.
  d. state and local governments.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2
NOTES:   C

 

21. A government-backed guarantee against loss by individuals without regard to need is a(n) ________________ program.​

  a. ​social welfare
  b. ​entitlement
  c. ​redistributional
  d. ​public assistance
  e. ​social insurance

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   531
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

22. President __________ passed the Medicare drug program expanding welfare benefits for seniors.

  a. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  b. Lyndon B. Johnson
  c. Ronald Reagan
  d. Bill Clinton
  e. George W. Bush

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   542
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

23. The first example of social insurance in the United States was

  a. Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
  b. health care for the elderly.
  c. health care for the poor.
  d. workers’ compensation.
  e. disability benefits.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   532
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

24. As of 2014, Social Security tax is assessed at a rate of 6.2 percent on the first _________ of wages workers earn.

  a. $500,000
  b. $250,000
  c. $1 million
  d. $117,000
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   532
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

25. Social Security is designed to provide economic assistance to people faced with all of the following except

  a. unemployment.
  b. disability.
  c. old age.
  d. poverty.
  e. All of the above are included in the Social Security program.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   532
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

26. Benefits to which every eligible person has a legal right and that the government cannot deny are called

  a. means-tested benefits.
  b. public assistance.
  c. social security.
  d. entitlements.
  e. guaranteed policies.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   532
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

27. The age at which the full benefits of social security can be paid to an individual born in 1960 or later is

  a. 60.
  b. 65.
  c. 67.
  d. 77.
  e. 75.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   533
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

28. Social Security is referred to as a pay-as-you-go system, meaning that

  a. the U.S. government borrows the proceeds to pay recipients.
  b. the system must be reappropriated by Congress each year.
  c. today’s workers support today’s program beneficiaries.
  d. all workers in effect pay for their own retirement by a mandatory process of savings.
  e. any surpluses from the Social Security system go back into the government’s general revenue.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   533
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

29. In 1955, there were 9 workers for every Social Security beneficiary; by 2011, there were ___.

  a. 1.0
  b. 2.9
  c. 11.2
  d. 17.1
  e. 24.3

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   533
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

30. In 1972, Congress passed legislation including

  a. cutting Social Security benefits for existing retirees.
  b. the repeal of Social Security.
  c. the repeal of Medicare.
  d. combining Social Security and Medicare, to accomplish greater efficiency.
  e. automatic increases in Social Security payments.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   534
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   C

 

31. President __________ proposed that individual workers be allowed to invest their own Social Security payroll taxes in the stock market.

  a. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  b. Lyndon B. Johnson
  c. Ronald Reagan
  d. Bill Clinton
  e. George W. Bush

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   534
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   F

 

32. ​A Social Security recipient’s buying power is reduced as a result of inflation, so she tries to save money by buying cheaper alternatives to her normal purchases. This behavior is factored into calculation of

  a. ​COLA.
  b. ​traditional CPI.
  c. ​the Social Security Trust Fund.
  d. ​chained CPI.
  e. ​the poverty level.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   534
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3
NOTES:   A

 

33. In 2012, an income below _________ would place a family of four below the official U.S. poverty threshold.

  a. $8,506
  b. $11,312
  c. $17,814
  d. $23,492
  e. $34,378

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   535
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

34. Which of the following comprise the largest portion of the impoverished?

  a. The elderly
  b. Recent retirees
  c. Caucasians without high school diplomas
  d. Farmers
  e. Persons under eighteen years old

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   535
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

35. According to SPM, a new​ measure of poverty developed in 2009, the poverty level in America in 2012 was approximately _____ percent.

  a. 3
  b. ​9
  c. ​16
  d. ​24
  e. ​35

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   535
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

36. A major cause of the feminization of poverty is that

  a. women do not have marketable work skills.
  b. most federal welfare programs are geared toward men.
  c. passage of the Equal Rights Amendment removed many welfare programs created specifically for women.
  d. many women are forced to leave the full-time work force to become heads of household.
  e. on average, women have less education than men.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   536
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   C

 

37. In the wake of President Johnson’s Great Society programs, critics of social welfare spending argued that antipoverty policies

  a. made poverty more attractive by removing incentives to work.
  b. would be more successful if they were provided with better funding.
  c. had been generally successful, but had not lived up to their promise and therefore should be discontinued.
  d. fail because of bureaucratic cultures that oppose them.
  e. would achieve most of their goals, given the proper amount of time to work.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   536
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

38. Under the provisions of the 1996 welfare reform law known as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), adult recipients of welfare payments have to become employed within

  a. 6 months.
  b. 1 year.
  c. 2 years.
  d. 5 years.
  e. 10 years.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   537
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

39. Under the new provisions of TANF, families can receive no more than a total of __________ of benefits in a lifetime.

  a. 6 months
  b. 1 year
  c. 2 years.
  d. 5 years
  e. 10 years

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   537
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

40. Generally, state leaders have __________ the reforms that came with TANF.

  a. objected to and rarely complied with
  b. objected to and called for the repeal of
  c. been pleased with
  d. altered and erased
  e. failed to implement

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   537
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

41. One difficulty with the block grant funding program set up by TANF is

  a. individual states lack discretion for how to spend the money.
  b. the funding is set to a fixed amount and does not change in response to increased need.
  c. the rate of increase in funding is indexed to the federal poverty level, not inflation.
  d. it does not include safeguards against employer discrimination of former welfare recipients.
  e. the federal government continues to centralize and regulate the job training of TANF recipients.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   538
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4
NOTES:   F

 

42. The United States is the only major industrialized nation without

  a. a universal health-care system.
  b. social insurance programs.
  c. entitlement programs.
  d. public assistance for needy children.
  e. unemployment benefits for single mothers.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   538
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

43. As of 2012, roughly ___________ percent of Americans had no health insurance.

  a. 2.2
  b. 9.7
  c. 15.4
  d. 23.1
  e. 31.2

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   538
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

44. Among those who are less likely to have health insurance are

  a. young people.
  b. African Americans.
  c. Hispanics.
  d. families with incomes under $50,000
  e. All of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   539
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

45. Approximately ____ percent of GDP was spent on health care in 2012.

  a. 45.7
  b. 30.2
  c. 17.2
  d. 9.5
  e. 3.1

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   539
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

46. What was the nature of the early opposition to Medicare?

  a. It was not favored by a majority of citizens.
  b. It was viewed as a ploy by the insurance industry to make more money for itself.
  c. The American Medical Association could not convince citizens of the merits of the program.
  d. The elderly did not believe government was capable of administering such a program.
  e. It was attacked as socialized medicine.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   541
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   C

 

47. The disabled and the elderly account for __________ of Medicaid expenditures.

  a. 5 percent
  b. 15 percent
  c. 25 percent
  d. over half
  e. 75 percent

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   542
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

48. Which of the following represents the largest percentage of those benefitting from Medicaid?

  a. Those over sixty-five years of age
  b. Those who are blind and disabled
  c. Adults
  d. Children under the age of twenty-one
  e. Government employees

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   543
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

49. Which of the following was not a part of President Obama’s Affordable Care Act?

  a. People aged 19 to 25 become eligible to stay on their parents’ insurance plan.
  b. By 2014 insurance providers can no longer deny people coverage because of preexisting conditions.
  c. All individuals are required to have health insurance by 2014 or pay a fine.
  d. The first prescription drug benefit was added to Medicare.
  e. Eligibility for Medicaid is expanded.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   544
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

50. ​With its combination of new costs and provisions to help pay for them, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that Obamacare will _________________ federal budget deficits in the long run.

  a. greatly increase
  b. ​slightly increase
  c. ​have no effect on
  d. ​have an impossible-to-predict effect on
  e. ​decrease

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   544
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

51. Which of the following is not a criticism ​that has been made of Obamacare?

  a. ​Even with government subsidies, families will not be able to pay premiums.
  b. ​Privacy of medical information may not be adequately protected.
  c. ​It is unconstitutional to require individuals to purchase insurance.
  d. ​The government is not competent to manage a large-scale program like Obamacare.
  e. ​All of the above are criticisms that have been made of Obamacare.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   544
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5
NOTES:   F

 

52. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 provided national government aid to local school districts in order to improve the education of

  a. legally segregated public schools.
  b. foreign students.
  c. functionally illiterate adults.
  d. economically disadvantaged children.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   546
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.6 – LO6
NOTES:   C

 

53. Which of the following events did not spur greater interest in federal aid to education?

  a. The Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputnik satellite
  b. Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society
  c. The discovery by state governors in the 1970s about the link between schools and their states’ economic fortunes
  d. The publication of A Nation of Risk
  e. All of the above spurred greater interest in federal aid to education.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   546
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.6 – LO6
NOTES:   F

 

54. Its strong emphasis on testing led critics of the No Child Left Behind Act to argue that

  a. urban school districts would end up with more money.
  b. teachers would fail to teach what students need to know to pass the test.
  c. the federal government would fail to provide sufficient funds to help schools meet the law’s standards.
  d. students would become more adept at testing.
  e. educational standards would be too high for testing to be effective.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   547
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.6 – LO6
NOTES:   F

 

55. ​In an attempt to move beyond the No Child Left Behind Act, the Obama administration implemented a new nation-wide education policy focused on improving achievement in math and English language arts that has become known as

  a. ​Obamacation.
  b. ​New World Education.
  c. ​World-Class Schools.
  d. ​Common Core.
  e. ​Universal Standards.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   547
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.6 – LO6
NOTES:   F

 

56. The concept of an “illegal immigrant” emerged in 1924 when the United States passed immigration legislation favoring immigration from __________ and limiting immigration from __________.

  a. eastern Europe and Asia; Latin America
  b. western Europe; Latin America
  c. Latin America; southern and eastern Europe and Asia
  d. Latin America; Africa
  e. western Europe; eastern Europe and Asia

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   548
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.7 – LO7
NOTES:   A

 

57. Concerning the controversy over illegal immigration, several states are requiring employers to check their workers’ residency status using a federal program known as

  a. the Arizona Model.
  b. the Commerce Model.
  c. E-Verify.
  d. the Real ID Model.
  e. None of the above is true.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   549
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

58. The national DREAM Act would

  a. provide federal college tuition aid to illegal immigrants who are accepted to colleges and universities.
  b. allow illegal immigrants brought to the United States as children to become eligible for legalized status.
  c. make illegal immigrants legally eligible for private health insurance.
  d. allow the children of illegal immigrants U.S. citizenship if they were born on U. S. soil.
  e. All of the above are true.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   550
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.7 – LO7
NOTES:   F

 

59. In the face of Congressional inaction on the DREAM Act, President Obama​

  a. ​called a press conference criticizing Congressional leaders for their lack of willingness to take action.
  b. ​asked the Supreme Court to implement the legal provisions of the Act without Congressional approval.
  c. instructed immigration officials to stop deporting children who would be eligible under DREAM Act guidelines.
  d. ​was powerless to take unilateral action.
  e. ​implemented all the provisions of the Act by Executive Order.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   550
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.7 – LO7
NOTES:   C

 

60. A young family has income falling below the federal poverty line. This family is most likely eligible for

  a. ​the DREAM Act.
  b. means-tested benefits.
  c. ​Medicare
  d. ​non-means-tested benefits.
  e. ​DACA.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   551
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.8 – LO8
NOTES:   A

 

Essay

 

61. Identify and define the four stages in the policymaking process.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   524-527
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.1 – LO1

 

62. Describe what the New Deal was, and how it was brought about by the Great Depression.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   530
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.2 – LO2

 

63. ​Explain how the Social Security tax works, and how Social Security’s pay-as-you-go system poses problems for its future solvency.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   532-533
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.3 – LO3

 

64. Who, other than the poor, are recipients of public assistance, and what types of assistance do they receive?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   534-535
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4

 

65. How is the poverty level measured, and why has criticism developed concerning the current formula?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   535
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4

 

66. Describe the impact of the welfare reform bill of 1996 on the states. How has it been accepted by state leaders? How has it been implemented? What impact has there been on recipients?

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.
REFERENCES:   536
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.4 – LO4

 

67. Describe the chief components of the Affordable Care Act, and some of the controversies surrounding it.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   543-544
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.5 – LO5

 

68. Outline the goals of the Common Core and discuss the criticisms that have been made of its development and implementation.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   547
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.6 – LO6

 

69. Discuss recent efforts in Congress and by the president to deal with the issue of illegal immigration.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   549-550
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.7 – LO7

 

70. What is the difference between mean-tested and non-means-tested programs? Provide examples of each, and ​explain how allocation of non-means-tested benefits has been criticized.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary.​
REFERENCES:   551
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CHDM.JAND.16.18.8 – LO8

 

 

 

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