Biological Psychology 11E By JAMES Kalat – Test Bank

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Biological Psychology 11E By JAMES Kalat –  Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

Chapter 1: The Major Issues

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Neuroscientists are more interested in studying behavior than biological psychologists.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. According to Tinbergen, a physiological explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. An evolutionary explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. An ontogenetic explanation is one that describes the development of a structure or behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. A functional explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Genes are the units of heredity.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of RNA molecules.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. It is possible for two heterozygous brown-eyed parents to have blue-eyed children.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

  1. If both parents are heterozygous, then all of their children should be homozygous.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. The sex chromosomes X and Y are known as autosomal genes.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Sex-linked genes are usually found on the Y chromosome.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. When chromosomes cross over, it is more likely to affect genes that are on separate chromosomes than genes that are on the same chromosome.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. The genetic sex of an offspring is determined primarily by the sex chromosome contributed by the mother.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Sex-limited genes are found only on the X and Y chromosome.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. To determine the contributions of heredity and environment, researchers rely mainly on studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Researchers have found specific genes linked to certain specific behaviors.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The damaging effects of phenylalanine in children with PKU are unavoidable.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Genes become more prevalent in a population if they contribute to reproductive success.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Humans have stopped evolving.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Evolutionary psychology deals with how behaviors have evolved, especially social behaviors.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Research scientists are free to do as they wish when conducting research with animals.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Invertebrate nerves follow the same basic principles as human nerves.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Minimalists do not tolerate any kind of animal research.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    2           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Professional organizations such as the Society for Neuroscience publish guidelines for the use of animals in research.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Abolitionists maintain that no animals have the same rights as humans.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

  1. The dispute between abolitionists and animal researchers is a dispute between two ethical positions.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    2           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The ethical debate between animal researchers and abolitionists has always proceeded in an intelligent and mutually respectful way.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

KEY:  NEW

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Biological psychologists are primarily interested in the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and ____.
a. social influence on attitudes
b. developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
c. use of reinforcement to change behavior
d. mental well-being of plants

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. At the microscopic level, we find two kinds of cells: ____.
a. molecules and mitochondria
b. mitochondria and glia
c. neurons and glia
d. neurons and molecules

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The primary difference between biological psychologists and neuroscientists is that neuroscientists place greater emphasis on studying:
a. chemistry.
b. psychology.
c. biology.
d. behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

 

 

  1. Much of biological psychology concerns:
a. chemistry.
b. brain functioning.
c. neurology.
d. anatomy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Jill is interested in studying how hormones influence sexual behavior of rats. She is most likely a:
a. biological psychologist.
b. neuroscientist.
c. clinical psychologist.
d. psychiatrist.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The question “Given this universe composed of matter and energy, why is there such a thing as consciousness?” is called the ____.
a. cosmic force question
b. mind-body problem
c. universal question
d. biological problem

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A fundamental property is one that ____.
a. answers all questions
b. occurs only in certain parts of the nervous system
c. cannot be reduced to something else
d. cannot be explained

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affect a person’s mood, then it would be considered a(n) ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

 

 

  1. A(n) ____ explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. A(n) ____ describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Understanding how genes, nutrition, and experience work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. evolutionary
c. functional
d. common sense

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Biological Approach to Behavior            OBJ:  1           TOP:  1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Which type of explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops?
a. Physiological
b. Ontogenetic
c. Evolutionary
d. Functional

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A(n) ____ explanation would describe eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability of glucose in cells.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Explaining differences in running speed as a function of differences in muscle fiber types is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. physiological
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Understanding differences in intelligence as a function of early learning experiences is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. physiological
c. functional
d. evolutionary

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Biological Approach to Behavior            OBJ:  1           TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. A person who studies the influence of genetic predisposition to be aggressive in combination with early aggressive experiences is seeking for a(n) ____ explanation.
a. physiological
b. behavioral
c. evolutionary
d. ontogenetic

 

 

ANS:                        D        PTS:  1           DIF:  conceptual       REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1                                 TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. Mapping out the relationship between shared bone structures across different species suggests there is a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. evolutionary
c. behavioral
d. physiological

 

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. An evolutionary explanation of why we get goose bumps when cold is that:
a. the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
b. we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair.
c. it keeps us warm.
d. children are often raised in cold environments.

 

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Having camouflage that matches an animal’s typical surroundings in order to provide protection from predators is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. evolutionary
b. functional
c. ontogenetic
d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A functional explanation of why giraffes have such long necks is that:
a. it lowers the blood pressure in their brains.
b. their necks became longer because they stretched them.
c. it allows them greater access to their food supply.
d. parent giraffes make their babies reach for food.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. How human language develops as the result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which type of explanation might describe the presence of a behavior in a particular species by showing how that behavior increased the reproductive success of the species?
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. solipsistic

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which type of explanation describes the advantages provided by a particular structure or behavior?
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about genetic drift?
a. It occurs more often in large populations.
b. It occurs when species move to a new location.
c. It takes thousands of years to happen.
d. It occurs more often in small populations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. In a small population of sheep, the dominant male may produce many more offspring than the other males, spreading his genes. This is an example of:
a. a physiological explanation.
b. artificial selection.
c. genetic drift.
d. recombination.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The amygdala appears to be an important part of the brain for experiencing fear. Which of the following is an example of a functional explanation of fear?
a. Describing the anatomical connections between the amygdala and other parts of the brain
b. Describing the neurotransmitters involved in the activity of the amygdala
c. Describing why fear improves the chances for survival
d. Describing how fears develop in infancy

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A(n) ____ explanation of human behavior is often controversial, because many behaviors alleged to be part of our evolutionary heritage could have been learned instead.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. In most bird species, only the male sings and then only in his territory during the reproductive season. This is to attract females and to ward off other males, which serves to improve their chances of mating. This behavior demonstrates:
a. that physiological explanations are preferred over other kinds of explanations.
b. learning during a critical period.
c. that physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations are mutually exclusive.
d. how physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations can all be used to explain the same behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. In certain species of songbirds, development of the song requires the opportunity to hear the appropriate song during a sensitive period in life as well as the genes to prepare them to learn the song. This is a(n) ____ explanation of birdsong.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following would be a functional explanation for why birds sing?
a. Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.
b. Birds sing due to instinct.
c. Birds sing because they hear their song early in life and form a template which controls later singing.
d. Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

 

 

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following would be a physiological explanation for why birds sing?
a. Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.
b. Birds sing due to instinct.
c. Birds sing because they hear their song early in life and form a template which controls later singing.
d. Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. An adult male sparrow sings its normal song:
a. if he hears the song during a sensitive period early in his life.
b. only when he hears a female bird singing.
c. if his own species’ song is the first song he hears when young.
d. regardless of whether or not he has ever heard his species’ song from another bird.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior  OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. Consciousness occurs:
a. in all kinds of nervous systems some of the time.
b. In certain parts of certain kinds of nervous system all of the time.
c. in certain parts of certain kinds of nervous systems  some of the time.
d. in all kinds of nervous systems all of the time.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Biological Approach to Behavior            OBJ:  2           TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Consciousness does not occur when:
a. you are awake.
b. you are dreaming.
c. You are daydreaming.
d. you are in a dreamless sleep.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. In addition to when you are in a dreamless sleep, consciousness does not occur when you are ____
a. in a coma.
b. daydreaming.
c. watching television.
d. exercising.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Biological psychology is a field of study and a ____.
a. fundamental property
b. string theory
c. way to understand our place in the cosmos
d. point of view

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The brain has an enormous number of ____ and ____.
a. sections; spaces
b. divisions; subareas
c. appendages; spaces
d. sections; subareas

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The view of the brain from above is called the ____ view.
a. anterior
b. ventral
c. dorsal
d. posterior

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The view of the brain from below is called the ____ view.
a. anterior
b. linear
c. ventral
d. dorsal

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

MSC:  www

 

  1. The ____ explanation calls attention to features left over from ancestors that serve little or no function in descendants.
a. otogenetic
b. physiological
c. evolutionary
d. biological

 

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The explanation that would be used to call attention to the presence of goose bumps in humans would be the ____ explanation.
a. evolutionary
b. otogenetic
c. neurological
d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Goose bumps ____ in humans.
a. show fear
b. show anger
c. create intimidation
d. no longer serve a purpose

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The erections of hairs on the body, most often around arms and shoulders are called:
a. static.
b. fur.
c. goose bumps.
d. insulation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. In furry animals, the erection of hairs helps the animal:
a. show fear.
b. hide.
c. look intimidating.
d. get warm.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The use of certain behaviors for camouflage is something that would be covered with the ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. otogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The sea dragon is a fish that looks and acts like kelp in order to attract its food. The explanation that proposed that this is due to genetic modification that expands smaller appendages already present in these fish’s ancestors would be the ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. evolutionary
c. otogenetic
d. biological

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior   OBJ:    3           TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Each of the following requires a Ph.D. except for a ____.
a. clinical psychologist
b. counseling psychologist
c. school psychologist
d. social worker

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Fields that focus on research include all of the following except:
a. neuroscience.
b. neuropsychology.
c. neurochemistry.
d. neurology.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A(n) ____ investigates the chemical reactions in the brain.
a. neurochemist
b. psychophysiologist
c. comparative psychologist
d. neurologist

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Most ____ have a mixture of psychological and medical training, and they work in hospitals and clinics.
a. neurochemists
b. neuropsychologists
c. neurologists
d. neuroscientists

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. A ____ helps people with emotional distress or troublesome behaviors, sometimes using drugs or other medical procedures.
a. clinical psychologist
b. psychiatrist
c. neuropsychologist
d. counseling psychologist

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. A stroke patient might seek the aid of a(n) ____ to increase the functions of daily life.
a. neuroscientist
b. clinical psychologist
c. occupational therapist
d. neurochemist

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

 

 

  1. A director position in research would normally require at least a ____.
a. Ph.D.
b. master’s degree
c. bachelor’s degree
d. research certificate

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

 

  1. The field of biological psychology presents a range of career options in ____ and ____.
a. research; sociology
b. therapy; philosophy
c. research; therapy
d. therapy; sociology

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Social workers and clinical psychologists need to be able to recognize possible signs of brain disorder so that they can:
a. set up treatment.
b. refer the client to the proper specialist.
c. construct a behavior plan.
d. monitor progress.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. According to David Chalmers, consciousness is:
a. a fundamental property of matter.
b. not necessary for brain functioning.
c. easy to observe.
d. independent of the brain.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Chalmers’ fundamental “hard problem” is:
a. knowing why we sleep.
b. understanding how neurotransmitters are created.
c. wondering how someone could be a dualist.
d. why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

 

 

  1. According to Chalmers, knowing why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness is the:
a. mentalistic debate.
b. hard problem.
c. easy problem.
d. problem of other minds.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Introduction

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

  1. Which of the following careers is MOST different than the others?
a. Behavioral neuroscientist
b. Neuropsychologist
c. Psychophysiologist
d. Psychiatrist

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. A researcher is interested in how the nervous system responds when the organism is in a certain emotional situation. This researcher might be identified as a(n):
a. neuroscientist.
b. neurosurgeon.
c. sociobiologist.
d. comparative psychologist.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

  1. Someone who investigates how the functioning of the brain and other organs influences behavior is called a:
a. sociobiologist.
b. neuropsychologist.
c. behavioral neuroscientist.
d. comparative psychologist.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

  1. A neuropsychologist ____.
a. has an M.D. and specializes in the treatment of brain damage
b. conducts research on animal behavior (similar to an ethologist)
c. is more often a teacher than a practitioner
d. tests the abilities and disabilities of brain-damaged people

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A comparative psychologist:
a. compares the reactions different people have in similar situations.
b. considers the evolutionary histories of different species and their behaviors.
c. compares nervous system responses of different people.
d. helps people with emotional distress.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

 

  1. A medical degree is MOST likely held by which specialist?
a. behavioral neuroscientist
b. neurologist
c. biopsychologist
d. neuropsychologist

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following specialists is MOST likely to hold a medical degree?
a. behavioral neuroscientist
b. neurologist
c. biopsychologist
d. neuropsychologist

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following specialists is MOST likely to work with people with brain damage?
a. comparative psychologist
b. biopsychologist
c. neuropsychologist
d. psychobiologist

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. A psychiatrist:
a. helps people with emotional distress.
b. performs brain surgery.
c. treats people with brain damage.
d. relates behaviors to the functions they have served in their evolutionary past.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following specialists would be MOST interested in changes in heart rate when students are taking an exam?
a. neurologist
b. sociobiologist
c. psychophysiologist
d. neuroscientist

 

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Of the following, which person is MOST likely to deal exclusively with brain disorders?
a. social worker
b. physical therapist
c. clinical psychologist
d. neurologist

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Career Opportunities

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. When researchers try to estimate the heritability of a human behavior, what are the main kinds of individuals they consider?
A Twins and adopted children
B People from non-western cultures
C Newborns and infants
D Uneducated people living in educated societies

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior  KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The results of several studies of facial expressions in people who were born blind suggest:
a. a minor role for genetics in the control of facial expressions.
b. a major role for genetics as well as environment in the control of facial expressions.
c. no role of genetics in the control of facial expressions.
d. no role of genetics but a major role of environment in the control of facial expressions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:
a. enzymes.
b. mutations.
c. nucleic acids.
d. genes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. What are chromosomes composed of?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. proteins
d. carbohydrates

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

 

  1. Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:
a. deoxyribonucleic acid.
b. ribonucleic acid.
c. autosomal genes.
d. recombination genes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of ____.
a. chromosomes
b. RNA
c. Proteins
d. Carbohydrates

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body are called:
a. enzymes.
b. DNA.
c. RNA.
d. nuclei.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Enzymes serve as ____.
a. genetic templates
b. physiological markers of chemical reactions in the body
c. biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body
d. catalysts for the synthesis of protein molecules

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Interruption of the production of RNA would directly affect which of the following?
a. protein synthesis
b. carbohydrate production
c. sex hormone release
d. production of DNA

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Chemically, what is the route from genes to their expression?
a. DNA to proteins to RNA
b. DNA to RNA to proteins
c. proteins to DNA to RNA
d. RNA to DNA to proteins

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. RNA is:
a. an exact copy of DNA.
b. a complementary copy of one strand of a DNA molecule.
c. a combination of many proteins.
d. the product of digesting DNA.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. A person with two recessive genes is considered to be ____ for that trait.
a. homozygous
b. heterozygous
c. unitary
d. marginal

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is ____ for them.
a. sex limited
b. homo sapien
c. homozygous
d. heterozygous

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Suppose “A” is a dominant gene and “a” is a recessive gene. One parent has genes Aa and the other parent has genes aa. What genes will the children probably have?
a. All will be AA.
b. All will be aa.
c. Three-fourths will be Aa, one-fourth aa.
d. Half will be Aa, half aa.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Suppose “A” is a dominant gene for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide and “a” is a recessive gene for inability to taste it. Which of the following couples could possibly have both a child who tastes it and a child who does not?
a. father AA, mother aa
b. father Aa, mother AA
c. father Aa, mother Aa
d. father AA, mother AA

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Suppose “A” is a dominant gene for the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and “a” is a recessive gene for inability to do so. Which of the following couples can be certain that all their children will be able to curl their tongue lengthwise?
a. father aa, mother AA
b. father Aa, mother Aa
c. father aa, mother aa
d. father Aa, mother aa

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Suppose both the father and the mother are “heterozygous” for the gene that controls ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?
a. All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl.
b. All will be homozygous for the ability to curl.
c. All will be homozygous for the inability to curl.
d. They may be homozygous or heterozygous for ability to curl, or homozygous for inability.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. In one family, all three children are homozygous for a recessive gene. What can be concluded about the parents?
a. Each parent is also homozygous for the recessive gene.
b. Each parent is heterozygous.
c. One parent is homozygous for the dominant gene; the other is homozygous for the recessive gene.
d. Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. If the genes for eye and hair color are on the same chromosome, then what would most likely happen if these chromosomes crossed over?
a. Hair and eye color could be inherited independently.
b. All people with dark hair would have brown eyes.
c. All people with blonde hair will have brown eyes.
d. Hair color would be dominant over eye color.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation?
a. Hair color is dominant over eye color.
b. There is no genetic variability in hair or eye color in the population.
c. Blue eyes are dominant over brown eyes.
d. Hair and eye color are on the same chromosome.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

  1. A trait not expressed when combined with a dominant trait is called a(n) ____ trait.
a. nurture
b. recessive
c. dominant
d. homozygous

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Suppose that adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adoptive parents in their preferences for a flavor of ice cream. Which of the following would be true?
a. Heritability of this trait is high.
b. Preferences for ice cream are determined solely by the environment.
c. Flavors of ice cream are naturally selected.
d. Heritability of this trait is low.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
a. RNA
b. Chromosomes
c. Genes
d. Corduroys

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. An autosomal gene is a gene:
a. on the X chromosome.
b. on the Y chromosome.
c. on any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome.
d. that shows no evidence of crossing over.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. Which of the following pairs of sex chromosomes would be found in a normal male mammal?
a. XX
b. XY
c. YY
d. YZ

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. In humans, which chromosome(s) contain(s) few genes?
a. All human chromosomes contain few genes.
b. Both the X and Y chromosomes contain few genes.
c. The X chromosome contains few genes.
d. The Y chromosome contains few genes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. In general, when biologists speak of sex-linked genes they are referring to genes on:
a. autosomal chromosomes.
b. more than one chromosome.
c. the X chromosome.
d. the Y chromosome.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. If a characteristic is controlled by an X-linked recessive gene, it produces its apparent effects:
a. more often in males.
b. more often in females.
c. only in childhood.
d. only after puberty.

 

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. An example of a sex-linked trait is:
a. eye color.
b. color vision deficiency.
c. temperament.
d. intelligence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Color vision deficiency is more common in males than in females because it is controlled by a:
a. sex-limited gene.
b. Y-linked gene.
c. dominant X-linked gene.
d. recessive X-linked gene.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Genes located on the sex chromosomes are called:
a. sex-linked.
b. sex-limited.
c. autosomal.
d. recombination.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Males are more likely than females to exhibit color vision deficiency because of a gene that is:
a. sex-limited.
b. recessive and sex-linked.
c. crossing over.
d. dominant and sex-linked.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Sex-limited genes are found on:
a. X chromosomes only.
b. Y chromosomes only.
c. X AND Y chromosomes.
d. any chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior  MSC:   www

 

  1. Sex-limited genes are present:
a. in males only.
b. in females only.
c. in both sexes.
d. on enzymes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. A gene is found that controls the age at which a man grows bald, if at all. That gene seldom affects women, even if they have the gene. What kind of gene is this MOST likely to be?
a. an X-linked gene
b. a sex-limited gene
c. a sex-linked dominant gene
d. a sex-linked recessive gene

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following is the BEST explanation for why males can grow breasts under certain hormonal conditions?
a. Sex-linked genes become activated.
b. The Y chromosome becomes activated.
c. Sex-limited genes become activated.
d. Breast growth is linked to color vision deficiency.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Under what conditions are the effects of sex-limited genes demonstrated?
a. When they are dominant
b. When they are homozygous
c. When particular hormones are present
d. When they appear on the X chromosome

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. On a given trait, high heritability suggests that:
a. adopted children will closely resemble their biological parents.
b. adopted children will closely resemble their adoptive parents.
c. identical twins will be less similar to each other than adopted siblings.
d. fraternal twins will be more similar to each other than identical twins.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. What are the chances of having a child with at least one dominant gene if both parents are heterozygous?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. If a group of individuals shares a highly similar environment, what effect does this have on the heritability estimate of a characteristic?
a. Heritability will be low.
b. Heritability will be high.
c. Heritability estimates will be unaffected.
d. It is determined by the power of the environmental factors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2  Genetics and Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. For a group of individuals, the heritability score for a particular trait = .5. What can be said about the heredity of this trait?
a. Hereditary differences account for all of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
b. Hereditary differences account for none of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
c. Hereditary differences account for some of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
d. The differences found within this group are mostly due to differences in the environment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian
Genetics                   OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. What is the relationship between heritability estimates and environmental factors?
a. High environmental consistency raises heritability estimates.
b. High environmental consistency lowers heritability estimates.
c. Environments have no effect on heritability estimates.
d. The effects of the environment on heritability estimates are unpredictable.

 

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. If a trait has high heritability:
a. hereditary differences account for none of the observed variations in that characteristic within that population.
b. the environment cannot influence that trait.
c. it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait.
d. the trait is not influenced by heredity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following would contribute to an overestimation of heritability?
a. Increasing the genetic similarity between people
b. Eliminating the multiplier effect
c. Overestimating the effect of the environment
d. Ignoring the effect of the prenatal environment

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following factors, if overlooked, may lead to an overestimation of heritability?
a. Prenatal environment
b. Low IQ
c. Sex-linked genes
d. RNA

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Researchers have tested many behaviors for heritability and have found evidence of a link to heritability for almost every behavior tested. One exception is:
a. social attitudes.
b. loneliness.
c. television watching.
d. religious affiliation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior  KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Any estimate of the heritability of a particular trait is specific to:
a. a given population.
b. the parents.
c. the trait.
d. the strength of the trait.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior  KEY:  NEW

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE about PKU?
a. It is the genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
b. It measures brain activity.
c. It is not a hereditary condition.
d. It does not need to be treated.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Individuals afflicted with PKU need to avoid:
a. foods high in phenylalanine.
b. foods high in vitamin K.
c. alcohol.
d. sunlight.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. Why do children with PKU become mentally retarded?
a. Unmetabolized amino acids accumulate and affect the brain.
b. Essential axons lack myelin sheaths.
c. Dendrites and synapses fail to form in associative areas of the cortex.
d. Their immune systems do not fight off brain infections.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

MSC:  www

 

  1. What is TRUE about a newborn baby with PKU?
a. The baby is already, irreversibly mentally retarded.
b. The baby is not mentally retarded, but inevitably will become mentally retarded.
c. The baby can avoid becoming mentally retarded by special education.
d. The baby can avoid becoming mentally retarded by following a strict diet.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. How is it possible to prevent the mental retardation that is generally associated with PKU?
a. Through exercise
b. Through diet
c. Through drugs
d. Through exposure to bright light

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Untreated PKU will result in:
a. a loss of phenylalanine.
b. impaired brain development.
c. temporary loss of memory.
d. enhanced brain development.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 The Genetics and Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a genetically controlled condition that can be minimized by following a particular diet?
a. Down syndrome
b. Color-blindness
c. Epilepsy
d. Phenylketonuria (PKU)

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Someone claims that if genes control a condition, it can be controlled only by drugs or surgery, but not by changes in the environment. Which of the following is the strongest example to CONTRADICT that claim?
a. Color-blindness
b. Eye color
c. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
d. Down syndrome

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. For children with PKU on an ordinary diet, the heritability of PKU would be virtually ____.
a. 0
b. .5
c. 1.0
d. impossible to calculate

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Heredity and Environment      OBJ:    4           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Changes in single genes are called:
a. alterations.
b. mutations.
c. mendelians.
d. enzymes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

 

  1. Most mutations produce:
a. dominant genes.
b. recessive genes.
c. sex-linked genes.
d. sex-limited genes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Mutations are:
a. a common occurrence in most single genes.
b. guided by the needs of the organism in its environment.
c. almost always beneficial to the organism.
d. changes in single genes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. To say that there is a “gene for blue eyes”:
a. means that a gene directly produces blue eyes.
b. suggests dominance, since you only need one gene to express the trait.
c. suggests that other genes might produce blue eyes also.
d. means that a gene indirectly produces blue eyes through a complex process of protein synthesis and environmental input.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the many ways that genes can affect behavior?
a. Genes may affect neurotransmitter levels or receptors.
b. Genes can act indirectly by making it more likely you will be raised in a particular environment.
c. Genes themselves cause behavior without any influence of the environment.
d. Genes produce proteins that may make it more likely for a person to become addicted.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. For natural selection to generate evolutionary change in a population:
a. there need not be any differences in the traits of individuals in that population.
b. the change in gene frequencies must help the species in the long run.
c. the differences must have a hereditary basis.
d. the change in gene frequencies will probably be harmful to the species.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. Which of the following is necessarily included in the concept of evolution?
a. Species improvements from one generation to the next.
b. “If you don’t use it, you lose it.”
c. Generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population.
d. Improvements to the individual.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following BEST describes the concept of evolution?
a. “Survival of the fittest”
b. “Reproduction of the fittest”
c. “If you don’t use it, you lose it.”
d. “Always look for ways to improve.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior             MSC:  www

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE with respect to evolution?
a. “If you don’t use it, you lose it.”
b. Evolutionary success is assessed by the number of one’s offspring surviving to reproduce.
c. Evolution benefits the species, in the long run.
d. Evolution benefits the individual.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. What is it called when some animals are selectively bred because they possess some desirable characteristic?
a. Evolution
b. Natural selection
c. Artificial selection
d. Artificial insemination

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Breeding some animals selectively because they possess some desirable characteristic is called:
a. evolution.
b. natural selection.
c. artificial selection.
d. artificial insemination.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Breeding particular cows together to create offspring that produce more milk is an example of:
a. natural selection.
b. artificial selection.
c. evolution.
d. mutation.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

  1. The primary difference between artificial selection and natural selection is:
a. artificial selection results in fewer mutations.
b. natural selection is faster.
c. artificial selection is ineffective.
d. the factor that determines who will survive and reproduce.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

  1. When a dog is bred for a particular trait, this is called:
a. artificial selection.
b. evolution.
c. natural selection.
d. group selection.

 

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following represents Lamarckian evolution?
a. “Survival of the fittest”
b. “Reproduction of the fittest”
c. “If you don’t use it, you lose it”
d. “Look out for number one”

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. The phrase “If you don’t use it, you lose it” best represents ____.
a. Lamarckian evolution
b. Darwinian evolution
c. artificial evolution
d. Huxley’s evolution

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. The theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics is known as:
a. Lamarckian evolution.
b. Darwinian evolution.
c. artificial evolution.
d. Huxley’s evolution.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior  MSC:              www

 

  1. Which of the following theories would support the idea that by taking out a peoples’ wisdom teeth, eventually fewer people will be born with them?
a. Lamarckian evolution
b. Darwinism
c. Natural selection
d. Artificial selection

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. More people would be born without an appendix if:
a. the appendix was removed before a person reproduced.
b. a person who was born without an appendix reproduces more than people who have an appendix.
c. the appendix was removed after a person reproduced.
d. the appendix of healthy people was x-rayed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. What supports the argument that humans have NOT stopped evolving?
a. Medicine and technology are keeping more people alive these days.
b. More mutations will occur because of increased use of pesticides.
c. Evolution is based on reproduction rates so as long as some people have more children than others do, their genes will spread.
d. Humans are no longer subject to “survival of the fittest.”

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following statements about evolution is TRUE?
a. Because having goose bumps isn’t very effective in keeping us warm, soon people will be born without goose bumps.
b. Humans have stopped evolving.
c. Evolution means improvement.
d. Genes in the previous generation may not be adaptive in future generations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Evolution improves the fitness of the population, which is defined as:
a. the number of copies of one’s genes that endure in later generations.
b. survival of the individual.
c. ability to adapt to a variety of environments.
d. overall health and well-being.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. An evolutionary psychologist would likely be most interested in studying:
a. altruistic behavior of meerkats.
b. cardiovascular function across species.
c. anatomy of the rat brain.
d. neurotransmitters in primates.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior  MSC:              www

 

  1. What is TRUE about altruistic behavior?
a. It is evident in every animal species.
b. It can be completely explained in terms of genetic contributions.
c. It is difficult to explain from an evolutionary/genetic point of view.
d. It has a genetic component only in humans.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Altruistic behavior is:
a. the idea that individuals help those who will return the favor.
b. the selection for a gene that benefits an individual’s relatives.
c. an action that benefits the actor only.
d. an action that benefits someone other than the actor.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Why is a genetic explanation for altruism problematic?
a. Only non-human animals exhibit altruistic behaviors.
b. Altruistic behaviors rarely benefit the individual performing them.
c. Altruism is more common among the young than among adults.
d. No behavior has been linked to any genes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior  MSC:              www

 

  1. Which of the following would be the BEST example of altruistic behavior?
a. Bullying other kids in the lunch line
b. Spreading rumors about your boss
c. Picking up your room
d. Helping an elderly person across the street

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. When organisms help those they recognize as capable of returning the favor, this is termed:
a. kin selection.
b. group selection.
c. reciprocal altruism.
d. sociobiology.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Helping your neighbors (who are unrelated to you) rake their leaves because they helped you fix your car is an example of:
a. kin selection.
b. reciprocal altruism.
c. natural selection.
d. group selection.

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:
a. individuals help others who help them.
b. individuals pick their mates based on how altruistic they are.
c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.
d. society benefits as a whole when individuals help each other.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following provides the strongest rationale for how altruistic genes could spread in a population?
a. Altruistic behaviors cost very little.
b. Altruistic groups survive better than less cooperative ones.
c. Animals help those who help them in return.
d. Animals feel better when they help others.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:
a. individuals help others who help them.
b. individuals pick their mates based on how altruistic they are.
c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.
d. society benefits as a whole when individuals help each other.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Which of the following explanations for a genetic basis for altruism is most favored by the text?
a. Benefits to the species
b. Kin selection
c. Group selection
d. Involves little individual cost

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. According to the text, in the control of behavior, genes are ____.
a. all important and difficult
b. are irrelevant
c. neither all important nor irrelevant
d. all important

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Evolution of Behavior      OBJ:    5           TOP:              1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason that biological psychologists study animals?
a. Animal’s brains and behavior are often similar to humans.
b. Animals are often easier to study than humans.
c. Biological psychologists are interested in the animals themselves.
d. One does not have to consider ethical issues with animals.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a strong argument in support of conducting animal research?
a. The underlying mechanisms are similar across species.
b. Certain ethical restrictions make it impossible to use humans.
c. Animals have shorter life spans for studying developmental changes.
d. Animals can’t give consent to participate in research.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. How do most biological psychologists feel regarding the use of animals in research?
a. They believe that any animal has the same rights as any human.
b. They will avoid using painful procedures, unless they will directly benefit the animal.
c. They are working to replace all animal experimentation with computer simulations.
d. They use animals only if the potential benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the animals.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Reasons for Animal Research OBJ:    1           TOP:              1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. Minimalists believe that:
a. all research should be done on animals.
b. some animal research is acceptable, but not all.
c. no animal research should be conducted.
d. researchers should use only small animals.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Ethical Debate

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. Which of the following is an argument for animal research?
a. Animal research is beneficial.
b. Animals cannot give informed consent to participate.
c. Animals have the same rights as humans.
d. Killing animals for scientific gain is murder.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Ethical Debate

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

MSC:  www

 

  1. Which statement about most psychological experiments using nonhuman animals is correct?
a. Animals are given intense, repeated, inescapable shocks in many experiments.
b. Extreme pain and stress are inflicted in attempts to drive the animals insane.
c. The research leads to no useful discoveries.
d. The research is regulated by animal care committees.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Ethical Debate

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

  1. The function of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is to:
a. evaluate veterinarians who provide care to laboratory animals.
b. determine whether research is merely for the benefit of humans.
c. evaluate proposed experiments to ensure that they minimize pain and discomfort.
d. provide food and water for lab animals, and keep cages clean.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Ethical Debate

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not required (or strongly encouraged) of scientists conducting research with animals?
a. Obtain approval of their project by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
b. Abide by standards for cleanliness and animal care.
c. Assume that any procedure that causes humans pain will cause animals pain.
d. All the other choices are required or strongly encouraged.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Ethical Debate

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List the four biological explanations of behavior.

 

ANS:

physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. In what circumstance is a woman color deficient?

 

 

ANS:

If the woman has that recessive gene on both of her X chromosomes

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. List the three gene states.

 

ANS:

Dominant, recessive, and intermediate

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Mendelian Genetics

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

 

 

  1. Define the “hard problem” of consciousness according to David Chalmers.

 

ANS:

This concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Introduction   OBJ:   3

TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. List the two major categories of careers related to biological psychology.

 

ANS:

research and therapy

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Career Opportunities                       OBJ:    4

TOP:   1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Briefly describe Lamarckian evolution.

 

ANS:

This is the theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior  OBJ:    5

TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Please list two arguments in favor of animal research and two arguments against animal research.

 

ANS:

For:  
  underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and are easier to study
  interest in animals for their own sake
  animal research may shed light on human evolution
  certain experiments can’t be done on humans because of ethical restraints
   
Against:  
  some animals undergo painful procedures that are not for their benefit
  animals can not give informed consent
  sometimes the results from animals will not generalize to humans
  animals should have the same rights as humans

 

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Reasons for Animal Research

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Reserach

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the four biological explanations of behavior.

 

ANS:

 

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Biological Explanations of Behavior

OBJ: 1                                 TOP:              1.1 The Biological Approach to Behavior

MSC:  www

  1. Describe the relationship between heredity and environment.

 

ANS:

 

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Heredity and Environment

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Discuss David Chalmers’s easy and hard problem of consciousness.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Introduction   OBJ:   3

TOP:   1.2 The Biological Approach to Behavior

 

  1. Briefly describe the common misunderstandings about evolution.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Evolution of Behavior  OBJ:    5

TOP:   1.2 Genetics and Behavior

 

  1. Describe the reasons for animal research.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Reasons for Animal Research

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   1.3 The Use of Animals in Research

Chapter 2: Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Dendrites contain the nuclei, ribosomes, mitochondria, and other structures found in most cells.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. A small gap is usually present between neurons.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Neurons receive information and transmit it to other cells.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. Axons are covered with an insulating material called a myelin sheath.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. An afferent axon brings information into a structure.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. An efferent axon carries information away from a structure.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Neurons can have any number of dendrites, but no more than one axon.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The general rule among neurons is that the wider the branching, the fewer connections with other neurons.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The greater the surface area of a dendrite, the more information it can receive from other neurons.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Neurons are distinguished from other cells by their shape.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Glial cells serve many functions.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. There are more glial cells than neurons in the human brain.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Glial cells transmit information across long distances.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Astrocytes remove waste material created when neurons die and control the amount of blood flow to each brain area.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Oligodendrocytes in the periphery are specialized types of glia.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. Schwann cells build the myelin sheaths in the periphery of the body.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Most chemicals can easily cross the cell membrane of a neuron.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The blood-brain barrier is made up of closely packed glial cells.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. One disadvantage of the blood-brain barrier is that it keeps out most forms of nutrition.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. The primary source of energy used by the brain is fat.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. At rest, the inside of a neuron’s membrane is more negative than the outside.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse       MSC:              www

 

  1. The difference in voltage in a resting neuron is called the resting potential.

 

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Increasing the electrical gradient for potassium would reduce the tendency for potassium ions to exit the neuron.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse       MSC:              www

 

  1. The sodium-potassium pump is what normally brings the membrane back to its original state of polarization after the peak of the action potential.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse       MSC:              www

 

  1. If a drug was given that temporarily inactivated the sodium-potassium pumps, action potentials would cease immediately.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A prolonged increase in the permeability of the membrane to sodium ions would interfere with a neuron’s ability to have an action potential.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Additional stimulation beyond the threshold of excitation will result in a greater depolarization of the membrane during an action potential.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. Dendrites and cell bodies are capable of producing action potentials.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. In a myelinated axon, sodium channels are absent in the nodes of Ranvier.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction            OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The two kinds of cells in the nervous system are:
a. neurons and glia
b. dendrites and axons
c. ribosomes and lysosomes
d. neurons and axons

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. What are the two kinds of cells in the nervous system?
a. neurons and glia
b. dendrites and axons
c. ribosomes and lysosomes
d. neurons and axons

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Santiago Ramon y Cajal demonstrated that:
a. at rest, the neuron has a negative charge inside its membrane.
b. neurons are separate from one another.
c. neurons communicate at specialized junctions called synapses.
d. action potentials follow the all-or-none law.

 

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. Who was the first researcher to demonstrate that neurons are separate from one another?
a. Curt P. Richter
b. Santiago Ramon y Cajal
c. Charles S. Sherrington
d. Jose Delgado

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Prior to the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal, what did many investigators believe?
a. Nerves conducted impulses at the speed of light.
b. Transmission across a synapse was just as fast as transmission along an axon.
c. The tip of an axon physically merged with the next neuron.
d. All neurons were of similar size and shape.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following contributed most to Cajal’s ability to find that neurons are separate from one another?
a. Charles Sherrington’s study of reflexes
b. Camillo Golgi’s cell staining method
c. Perves & Hadley’s dye injection method
d. Galileo’s invention of the telescope

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The cell membrane is composed of two layers of:
a. protein.
b. fat.
c. carbohydrate.
d. plasma.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY: NEW

 

  1. Neurons differ most strongly from other body cells in their:
a. temperature.
b. shape.
c. osmotic pressure.
d. mitochondria.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

  1. The ____ of neurons most strongly differentiate them from other cells in the body.
a. temperature.
b. shape.
c. osmotic pressure.
d. mitochondria.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What structure is composed of two layers of fat molecules that are free to flow around one another?
a. the endoplasmic reticulum
b. a ribosome
c. a mitochondrion
d. the membrane

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Water, oxygen and ____ most freely flow across a cell membrane.
a. calcium
b. positively charged ions
c. magnesium
d. carbon dioxide

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which chemicals flow most freely across a cell membrane?
a. proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
b. positively charged ions
c. water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
d. calcium and magnesium

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Chemicals than cannot flow freely across a cell membrane enter a neuron through:
a. a Golgi complex.
b. specialized protein channels.
c. the endoplasmic reticulum.
d. gaps in the myelin sheath.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The structure that contains the chromosomes is called the:
a. endoplasmic reticulum.
b. nucleus.
c. mitochondrion.
d. ribosome.

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

MSC:  www

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely to cross the cell membrane by simple diffusion?
a. large proteins
b. small, charged ions
c. small, uncharged molecules
d. large, charged ions

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Small, charged molecules can cross the cell membrane through:
a. diffusion.
b. ribosomes.
c. mitochondria.
d. protein channels.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Protein channels allow ____ to cross the cell membrane.
a. large charged molecules
b. small charged molecules
c. large uncharged molecules
d. small uncharged molecules

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Where do the metabolic activities occur that provide energy for all of the other activities of the cell?
a. Mitochondria
b. Ribosomes
c. Lysosomes
d. Golgi complexes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Ribosomes are the part of a cell that:
a. performs metabolic activities.
b. breaks down harmful chemicals.
c. transports proteins.
d. synthesizes new proteins.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

  1. The sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules are called:
a. mitochondria.
b. endoplasmic reticula.
c. ribosomes.
d. plasma membranes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum is a:
a. network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins.
b. site where the cell synthesizes new protein molecules.
c. structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside.
d. structure that contains the chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The main feature that distinguishes a neuron from other animal cells is that a neuron has:
a. a larger nucleus.
b. a distinctive shape.
c. the ability to metabolize a variety of fuels.
d. a high internal concentration of sodium ions.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. One of the most distinctive features of neurons compared to other types of cells is their:
a. shape.
b. number of mitochondria.
c. lack of a cell membrane.
d. size.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to muscle or gland cells?
a. sensory neurons
b. motor neurons
c. dendrites
d. dendritic spines

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Dendrites ____.
a. contain the nucleus, ribosomes, and other structures found in most cells
b. are branching fibers that get narrower near their ends
c. is a thin fiber of constant diameter
d. are an insulating material that cover an axon

 

 

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The branching fibers that form the information-receiving pole of the nerve cells are called:
a. motor neurons.
b. dendrites.
c. sensory neurons.
d. axons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. The surface of a dendrite is lined with specialized junctions through which the dendrite receives information from other neurons. What are these junctions called?
a. synaptic receptors
b. axons
c. synaptic hillocks
d. glia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a dendrite?
a. It tapers as it gets further from the cell body.
b. It is in contact with the dendrites of other neurons.
c. Its surface may be lined with synaptic receptors.
d. It receives information from other neurons or the environment.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The tree-like branches of a neuron that receive information from other neurons are called:
a. axons.
b. dendrites.
c. soma.
d. myelin.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Some dendrites contain additional short outgrowths. What are these outgrowths called?
a. hillocks
b. dendritic spines
c. dendritic roots
d. myelin sheaths

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

  1. Many dendrites contain short outgrowths called spines that:
a. increase the surface area available for synapses.
b. increase the speed of transmission.
c. eliminate cell waste products.
d. increase the symmetry of the cell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY: NEW

 

  1. Dendrites often contain additional short outgrowths. These are believed to:
a. increase the surface area available for synapses.
b. increase the speed of transmission.
c. eliminate cell waste products.
d. help the cell maintain its shape.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. A greater amount of branching on dendrites allows them to:
a. manufacture more mitochondria.
b. have a larger surface area available for receiving information from other neurons.
c. increase their membrane permeability.
d. lower their resting potential.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Incoming synapses are primarily found on:
a. dendrites only.
b. cell bodies only.
c. axons only.
d. dendrites and cell bodies.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The information sender of the neuron, which conveys an impulse toward either other neurons or a gland or muscle, is called the:
a. axon.
b. dendrite.
c. soma.
d. myelin.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of transmission of information within a neuron?
a. cell body, dendrite, axon
b. dendrite, axon, cell body
c. axon, cell body, dendrite
d. dendrite, cell body, axon

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. Compared to dendrites, axons usually:
a. form the information-receiving pole of the neuron.
b. are shorter than the dendrites.
c. are covered with myelin.
d. taper in diameter toward their periphery.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The insulating material which covers many vertebrate axons is called the:
a. dendrite.
b. myelin sheath.
c. cell body or soma.
d. presynaptic terminal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Myelin covers:
a. all axons
b. most dendrites
c. some axons in vertebrates and none in invertebrates
d. all vertebrate axons and some invertebrate axons

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What does myelin cover?
a. all axons
b. most dendrites
c. some axons in vertebrates and none in invertebrates
d. all vertebrate axons and some invertebrate axons

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Nodes of Ranvier are:
a. gaps in the myelin of axons.
b. the same as the myelin sheath.
c. the spiny outgrowths on dendrites.
d. responsible for cell metabolism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

 

  1. Gaps in the insulating material that surrounds axons are known as:
a. interpeduncular nuclei.
b. nodes of Ranvier.
c. myelin synapses.
d. presynaptic terminals.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. A presynaptic terminal is also known as:
a. an end bulb
b. a node of Ranvier
c. myelin
d. a spine

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of axons?
a. They can vary greatly in length.
b. They carry information toward the soma.
c. They release chemicals that cross the synapse.
d. Some of them are covered with myelin sheaths.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What is the point from which an axon releases chemicals into the synapse?
a. the myelin sheath
b. the presynaptic terminal
c. a dendritic spine
d. the endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip. These are known as:
a. presynaptic terminals.
b. efferent axons.
c. afferent axons.
d. intrinsic neurons.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Chemicals are released by axons:
a. into the presynaptic terminal.
b. into the junction between neurons.
c. through the efferent terminals.
d. to the mitochondria.

 

 

 

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. An axon releases chemicals:
a. into the presynaptic terminal.
b. into the junction between neurons.
c. through the efferent terminals.
d. to the mitochondria.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. A neuron can have any number of ____, but no more than one ____.
a. dendrites; axon
b. axons; dendrite
c. cell bodies; axon
d. cell bodies; dendrite

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Neurons typically have one ____, but many ____.
a. dendrite; axons
b. axon; dendrites
c. cell body; axons
d. dendrite; cell bodies

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an axon?
a. It can be up to a meter long.
b. It has a constant diameter.
c. It carries information toward the cell body.
d. It may be covered with a myelin sheath.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. As a general rule, where do axons convey information?
a. toward dendrites of their own cell
b. toward their own cell body
c. away from their own cell body
d. to surrounding glia

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

  1. If you were to accidentally touch a hot stove with your hand, you would quickly pull your hand away. The information carried to the muscles in your arm to make them contract was carried by:
a. efferent neurons.
b. afferent neurons.
c. intrinsic neurons.
d. sensory neurons.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. If all of a neuron’s dendrites or axons were contained within the spinal cord, it would be considered a(n) ____ neuron.
a. efferent
b. afferent
c. intrinsic
d. Purkinje

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What would a neuron in the pons be called that receives information only from other cells in the pons and sends information only to other cells in the pons?
a. afferent
b. efferent
c. intrinsic
d. inter-synaptic

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of these is true of glial cells?
a. They are larger than neurons
b. They transmit information over long distances.
c. They do not transmit information over long distances.
d. They are less numerous then neurons.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY:  NEW              MSC:  www

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of glial cells in the human brain?
a. They are larger than neurons.
b. They are capable of transmitting impulses when neurons fail to do so.
c. They are more numerous than neurons.
d. They are like neurons, except that they lack axons.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

  1. Glial cells:
a. are less numerous than neurons in the human brain.
b. transmit information over long distances within the central nervous system.
c. occupy about ten times more space in the brain than do neurons.
d. occupy about the same total space as do neurons.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which function is NOT performed by glia?
a. removing waste materials
b. building myelin sheaths
c. transmitting information
d. guiding the growth of axons and dendrites

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. One type of glia helps synchronize the activity of axons. They are called:
a. oligodendrocytes.
b. astrocytes.
c. radial glia.
d. Schwann cells.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of astrocytes?
a. They wrap around the presynaptic terminals of several axons.
b. They help synchronize the activity of the axons.
c. They remove waste material.
d. They make up the myelin sheaths in the periphery of the body.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which type of glia remove waste material in the nervous system?
a. astrocytes
b. Schwann cells
c. oligodendrocytes
d. radial glia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What type of glial cells myelinate axons in the brain and spinal cord?
a. oligodendrocytes
b. Schwann cells
c. radial glia
d. astrocytes

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which type of glia release chemicals that modify the activity of neighboring neurons?
a. astrocytes
b. Schwann cells
c. oligodendrocytes
d. radial glia

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which type of glia builds myelin sheaths around axons in the periphery of the body?
a. astrocytes
b. Schwann cells
c. oligodendrocytes
d. radial glia

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

MSC:  www

 

  1. ____ in the brain and spinal cord and ____ in the periphery are specialized types of glia that build the myelin sheaths that surround neurons.
a. Oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells
b. Schwann cells; oligodendrocytes
c. Microglia; oligodendrocytes
d. Radial glia; Schwann cells

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

  1. Glial cells whose function most closely resembles that of the immune system are called:
a. oligodendrocytes.
b. Schwann cells.
c. microglia.
d. radial glia.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Radial glia:
a. guide the migration of neurons during embryonic development.
b. synchronize the activity of axons.
c. wrap around the presynaptic terminals of several axons.
d. build the myelin sheaths that surround and insulate certain axons.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia            OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

  1. Of the following, the most important consideration in developing a drug that will act in the brain is:
a. if the drug can be inexpensively manufactured.
b. if the drug will cross the blood-brain barrier.
c. how long the drug will act.
d. the number of people who will use the drug.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The risk of having part of the brain unprotected by the blood-brain barrier is that:
a. it is invisible to brain imaging techniques.
b. it takes longer for drugs to work.
c. viruses or toxic chemicals are more likely to damage it.
d. the blood is poorly oxygenated.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What is the mechanism that prevents or slows some chemicals from entering the brain, while allowing others to enter?
a. a threshold
b. a blood-brain barrier
c. an endoplasmic wall
d. a differential-drug inhibitor

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. In the brain, an arrangement of endothelial cells:
a. has gaps large enough to allow the passage of molecules.
b. synthesizes neurotransmitters.
c. does not allow most molecules to pass because the cells are so tightly packed.
d. has gaps that are filled with enzymes that attack most blood chemicals.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What happens to a virus that manages to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain?
a. It is destroyed by natural killer cells.
b. It gets trapped in a neuron, then both are destroyed by natural killer cells.
c. It gets trapped in a glial cell, then both are destroyed by natural killer cells.
d. It stays in the nervous system throughout the person’s life.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following is an important function of the blood-brain barrier?
a. It enables more nutrients to reach the brain.
b. It maintains an electrical gradient.
c. It aids in the production of neurotransmitters.
d. It protects the brain from most viruses.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which of the following molecules would be able to passively cross the blood-brain barrier?
a. small, uncharged molecules
b. large, charged molecules
c. glucose
d. amino acids

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Molecules that can cross the blood-brain barrier are usually:
a. large, uncharged molecules, such as lactose.
b. large, charged molecules.
c. neurotransmitters, such as dopamine.
d. molecules that can dissolve in the fats of the capillary walls.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The major disadvantage of a blood-brain barrier is that:
a. many chemicals can easily diffuse into the brain.
b. it requires so much glucose to maintain it.
c. certain required chemicals must be actively transported.
d. viruses can’t escape.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Glucose enters the brain via which type of transport?
a. indirect transport
b. direct transport
c. passive transport
d. active transport

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Compared to passive transport, the major disadvantage of active transport is that it:
a. cannot transport chemicals out of the brain.
b. requires expenditure of energy.
c. transports glucose into the brain.
d. transports viruses into the brain.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the main source of nutrition for vertebrate neurons?
a. Fats
b. Glucose
c. Sodium
d. Complex carbohydrates

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Why do neurons rely so heavily on glucose as their source of nutrition?
a. Neurons lack the enzymes necessary to metabolize other fuels.
b. Glucose is the only fuel that can be used even in the absence of vitamins.
c. Glucose is not used extensively by other parts of the body.
d. Other fuels do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What are two requirements for the brain to metabolize glucose?
a. thiamine and oxygen
b. vitamin C and nitrogen
c. niacin and bicarbonate
d. riboflavin and iron

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Why does the brain need thiamine?
a. to enable glucose to cross the blood-brain barrier
b. as a source of fuel in case there is not enough glucose
c. as a building block for making proteins
d. to enable it to metabolize glucose

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. If the brain does not have enough thiamine, what is it unable to do?
a. maintain its blood-brain barrier
b. pump glucose across the blood-brain barrier
c. produce certain neurotransmitters
d. metabolize glucose

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Which group is most likely to suffer from a thiamine deficiency?
a. alcoholics
b. heroin addicts
c. diabetics
d. infants

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

  1. What leads to Korsakoff’s syndrome?
a. thiamine deficiency resulting from alcoholism
b. glucose deficiency resulting from alcoholism
c. viruses that manage to cross the blood-brain barrier
d. glial cells that over-reproduce and increase pressure in the brain

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Korsakoff’s syndrome:
a. is marked by severe memory impairments.
b. results from too much thiamine.
c. results from lack of oxygen to the brain.
d. is due to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Nourishment in Vertebrate Neurons    OBJ:    3           TOP:              2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. The membrane of a neuron is specialized to:
a. keep all types of intercellular chemicals from moving out of the neuron.
b. keep all types of extracellular chemicals from moving into the neuron.
c. control the exchange of chemicals between the inside and outside of the cell.
d. produce chains of fatty acids and proteins.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The membrane of a neuron is composed of ____ with ____ embedded in them.
a. carbohydrates; purines
b. fat molecules; proteins
c. proteins; neurotransmitters
d. benzene molecules; carbohydrates

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What is the difference in voltage called that typically exists between the inside and the outside of a neuron?
a. concentration gradient
b. generator potential
c. resting potential
d. shock value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When stating that the neuron’s membrane is polarized, you are referring to a difference in electrical potential between:
a. the axons and the dendrites.
b. the axon hillock and the cell body.
c. sodium ions and potassium ions.
d. the inside and the outside of the membrane.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    2           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The resting potential is mainly the result of:
a. negatively charged proteins inside the cell.
b. positively charged proteins inside the cell.
c. negatively charged proteins outside the cell.
d. positively charged proteins outside the cell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. The resting potential of a neuron refers to:
a. the net positive charge on the inside of the neuron.
b. ions which rest in one place in the cell.
c. the movement of ions to the outside of the neuron.
d. the net negative charge on the inside of the neuron.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What is the approximate resting potential of the inside of a neuron’s membrane, relative to the outside?
a. -70 millivolts
b. +10 millivolts
c. 0 millivolts
d. +90 millivolts

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

KEY:  NEW              MSC:  www

 

  1. The selectivity of a neuron membrane is analogous to:
a. the blood-brain barrier.
b. the action potential.
c. the resting potential.
d. myelin.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

KEY:  NEW

 

  1. Allowing only certain people to cross the street, and only at certain times, is comparable to a neuron’s ____ with respect to ions.
a. threshold of excitation
b. all-or-none law
c. resting potential
d. selective permeability

 

 

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

KEY: NEW

 

  1. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules crosses through it MOST slowly?
a. potassium
b. sodium
c. water
d. carbon dioxide

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When the neuronal membrane is at rest, the potassium channels:
a. permit potassium ions to pass quickly and easily.
b. permit potassium ions to pass slowly.
c. prohibit any movement of potassium ions.
d. help to open up the sodium channels.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When the neuronal membrane is at rest, the sodium channels:
a. permit sodium ions to pass quickly and easily.
b. permit potassium ions to cross instead of sodium.
c. are closed.
d. fluctuate rapidly between open and closed.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following describes selective permeability?
a. Ions can only travel in certain directions across the membrane.
b. Only certain molecules are allowed to cross the membrane freely.
c. Only certain types of stimulation will result in an action potential.
d. All molecules must pass through designated channels.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, the concentration gradient tends to move sodium ____ the cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ____ the cell.
a. into, into
b. into, out of
c. out of, into
d. out of, out of

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

  1. When a neuron’s membrane is at rest, the concentration gradient tends to move potassium ____ the cell and the electrical gradient tends to move it ____ the cell.
a. into, into
b. into, out of
c. out of, into
d. out of, out of

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The sodium-potassium pump repeatedly transports ____ sodium ions out of the cell while drawing ____ potassium ions into it.
a. three; two
b. two; three
c. one; three
d. one; two

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

  1. The sodium-potassium pump repeatedly transports three ____ ions out of the cell while drawing two ____ ions into it.
a. calcium; potassium
b. potassium; calcium
c. potassium; sodium
d. sodium; potassium

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

MSC:  www

 

  1. Electrical gradients lead to what kind of movements?
a. the general movement of ions into the neuron
b. the general movement of ions out of the neuron
c. the movement of ions to areas having the same electrical charges
d. the movement of ions to areas having the opposite electrical charges

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Under which conditions would the sodium-potassium pump be far less effective in creating a concentration gradient?
a. if dendrites were generally longer than axons
b. if the glia-to-neuron ratio were higher
c. if selective permeability of the membrane did not exist
d. if it were an active transport system that required energy

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

  1. The net effect of each cycle of the sodium-potassium pump is to:
a. decrease the number of positively charged ions within the cell.
b. increase the number of positively charged ions within the cell.
c. decrease the number of positively charged ions outside the cell.
d. increase the number of negatively charged ions within the cell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What is one major cause for the resting potential of a neuron’s membrane?
a. a difference in size between axons and dendrites
b. a high permeability of the membrane to water molecules
c. the refractory period of the membrane
d. the sodium-potassium pump

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

MSC:  www

 

  1. The sodium-potassium pump pumps sodium ions ____ and potassium ions ____.
a. into the cell; into the cell
b. into the cell; out of the cell
c. out of the cell; out of the cell
d. out of the cell; into the cell

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The concentration gradient refers to:
a. the fact that the concentration of ions is greater on the inside of a neuron.
b. the fact that the concentration of ions is greater on the outside of a neuron.
c. the difference in distribution for various ions between the inside and outside of the membrane.
d. the negatively charged proteins inside the cell.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What is meant by the term “concentration gradient” with respect to neurons?
a. Sodium is more concentrated in the dendrites and potassium in the axon.
b. Negative charges are more concentrated outside the cell.
c. Sodium and potassium ions are more concentrated on opposite sides of the membrane.
d. Potassium is more concentrated in the dendrites and sodium in the axon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Concentration gradients lead to what kind of movements?
a. the general movement of ions into the neuron
b. the general movement of ions out of the neuron
c. the movement of ions to areas of their highest concentrations
d. the movement of ions to areas of their lowest concentrations

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following events would increase the concentration gradient of sodium?
a. decreased permeability to potassium ions
b. increased activity of the sodium potassium pump
c. increased membrane permeability to sodium ions
d. increased membrane permeability to chloride ions

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The concentration gradient for potassium tends to:
a. draw potassium into the cell.
b. push chloride out of the cell.
c. push sodium out of the cell.
d. push potassium out of the cell.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true for sodium ions when the cell is at resting potential?
a. Sodium ions remain outside the cell because the sodium- potassium pump drives them out.
b. Sodium gates are tightly closed.
c. Sodium tends to be driven into the neuron by the concentration gradient.
d. Sodium tends to be driven out of the neuron by the electrical gradient.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When the neuron is at rest, what is responsible for moving potassium ions OUT of the cell?
a. a concentration gradient
b. an electrical gradient
c. both a concentration gradient and an electrical gradient
d. the sodium-potassium pump

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When the neuron is at rest, what is responsible for moving potassium ions into the cell?
a. concentration gradient
b. an electrical gradient
c. the sodium-potassium pump
d. both the sodium-potassium pump and electrical gradient

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When a membrane is at rest, what attracts potassium ions to the inside of the cell?
a. an electrical gradient
b. a concentration gradient
c. both an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient
d. neither an electrical gradient nor a concentration gradient

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When a membrane is at rest, what attracts sodium ions to the inside of the cell?
a. an electrical gradient
b. a concentration gradient
c. both an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient
d. neither an electrical gradient nor a concentration gradient

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. When the neuron is at rest, what is responsible for moving sodium ions out of the cell?
a. a concentration gradient
b. an electrical gradient
c. both a concentration gradient and an electrical gradient
d. the sodium-potassium pump

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of having a resting potential?
a. The toxic effects of sodium are minimized inside the cell.
b. No energy is required to maintain it.
c. The cell is prepared to respond quickly to a stimulus.
d. All of the ions are maintained in equal concentrations throughout the cytoplasm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Negatively charged ions like ____ are mostly located outside the cell.
a. sodium
b. chloride
c. calcium
d. potassium

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron    OBJ:    1           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Ordinarily, stimulation of a neuron takes place:
a. through hyperpolarization.
b. at the synapse.
c. in the mitochondria.
d. in the endoplasmic reticulum.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

  1. What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a more negative potential?
a. Hyperpolarization
b. Depolarization
c. an action potential
d. a threshold

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Hyperpolarization is:
a. increased polarization.
b. decreased polarization.
c. the threshold of the cell.
d. the resting potential of the cell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following would produce a hyperpolarization of a neuron?
a. applying a negative charge inside the neuron with a microelectrode
b. applying a positive charge inside the neuron with a microelectrode
c. increasing the membrane’s permeability to sodium
d. decreasing the membrane’s permeability to potassium

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a potential slightly closer to zero?
a. hyperpolarization
b. depolarization
c. selective permeability
d. a refractory period

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The neuron will produce an action potential only if the depolarization exceeds what level?
a. the threshold of excitation
b. the resting potential
c. hyperpolarization
d. the refractory period

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A membrane produces an action potential whenever the potential across it reaches what level?
a. the resting potential
b. -90 mV
c. the threshold of excitation
d. the refractory period

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. If there is a depolarizing effect on a neuron, the result will be that the neuron will fire:
a. no matter how slight the effect.
b. forever.
c. only if it reaches threshold.
d. only if the cell is in its relative refractory period.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The sodium gates in the axon are usually closed. Which of the following opens them?
a. depolarization of the membrane
b. increased concentration of socium outside the cell
c. increased concentration of sodium inside the cell
d. increased activity of the sodium-potassium pump

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. What tends to open the sodium gates across a neuron’s membrane?
a. hyperpolarization of the membrane
b. depolarization of the membrane
c. increase in the sodium concentration outside the neuron
d. passing the peak of the action potential and entering the refractory period

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What happens to the ion gates when the membrane of a neuron starts to be depolarized?
a. Potassium gates close.
b. Chloride gates open.
c. Sodium gates close.
d. Sodium gates open.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Stimulus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. Stimulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. What can we expect to happen?
a. Stimulus B will produce an action potential that is conducted at a faster speed than A.
b. Stimulus B will produce an action potential of greater magnitude than stimulus A.
c. Stimulus B will produce an action potential but stimulus A will not.
d. Stimulus A and stimulus B will produce the same response in the neurons.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

 

 

 

 

  1. If depolarization is less than the cell’s threshold:
a. sodium is prevented from crossing the membrane.
b. potassium is prevented from crossing the membrane.
c. sodium crosses the membrane only slightly more than usual.
d. the cell will still produce an action potential.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. Which of the following actions would depolarize a neuron?
a. decreasing membrane permeability to calcium
b. increasing membrane permeability to potassium
c. decreasing membrane permeability to sodium
d. increasing membrane permeability to sodium

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Stimulation of a neuron beyond a certain level is called the:
a. firing threshold
b. hillock threshold
c. threshold of excitation
d. threshold of inhibition

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The action potential of a neuron depends mostly on what movement of ions?
a. sodium ions entering the cell
b. sodium ions leaving the cell
c. potassium ions entering the cell
d. potassium ions leaving the cell

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. In the normal course of an action potential:
a. sodium channel remain open for long periods of time.
b. the concentration of sodium equalizes across the membrane.
c. sodium remains much more concentrated outside than inside the neuron.
d. subthreshold stimulation intensifies the action potential.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Voltage-activated channels are channels for which a change in the voltage across the membrane alters their:
a. permeability.
b. length.
c. number.
d. threshold.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse MSC:         www

 

  1. At the peak of the action potential, the electrical gradient of potassium:
a. is the same as during the resting potential.
b. pulls sodium into the cell.
c. pushes potassium out of the cell.
d. pulls potassium into the cell.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. When the potential across a membrane reaches threshold, the sodium channels:
a. open to let sodium enter the cell rapidly.
b. close to prevent sodium from entering the cell.
c. open to let sodium exit the cell rapidly.
d. close to prevent sodium from exiting the cell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Suppose we applied a drug to a neuron that caused its sodium gates to suddenly open wide. What would happen?
a. hyperpolarization of the membrane
b. an increase in the threshold
c. an action potential
d. nothing, because potassium gates would compensate

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. During the entire course of events from the start of an action potential until the membrane returns to its resting potential, what is the net movement of ions?
a. sodium in, potassium in
b. sodium out, potassium out
c. sodium in, potassium out
d. sodium out, potassium in

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A drug that blocks the sodium gates of a neuron’s membrane would:
a. decrease the threshold.
b. block the action potential.
c. cause repeated action potentials.
d. eliminate the refractory period.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

 

 

  1. After the peak of an action potential, what prevents sodium ions from continuing to enter the cell?
a. There is no longer a concentration gradient for sodium.
b. The sodium-potassium pump greatly increases its rate of activity.
c. All the available sodium ions have already entered the cell.
d. The sodium gates in the membrane close.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. At what point do the sodium gates begin to close, shutting out further entry of sodium into the cell?
a. at the peak of the action potential
b. when the threshold is reached
c. at the end of the relative refractory period
d. when the concentration gradient for sodium is eliminated

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Just after the peak of the action potential, what movement of ions restores the membrane to approximately the resting potential?
a. Sodium ions enter the cell.
b. Potassium ions enter the cell.
c. Potassium ions leave the cell.
d. Sodium ions travel down the axon.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What causes potassium ions to leave the axon just after the peak of the action potential?
a. a continuing concentration gradient and the opening of the potassium gates
b. an increase in the concentration gradient across the membrane
c. increased tendency of the sodium-potassium pump to pump potassium out
d. binding of potassium ions to proteins that leave at this time

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A drug that decreases the flow of potassium through the potassium gates of the membrane would:
a. block action potentials.
b. increase the threshold of the membrane.
c. slow the return of the membrane to its resting potential.
d. cause the membrane to be hyperpolarized.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A drug would prevent an action potential if it:
a. lowers the threshold of the membrane.
b. blocks the movement of potassium across the membrane.
c. blocks the movement of sodium across the membrane.
d. increases the movement of sodium across the membrane.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Local anesthetic drugs attach to the sodium channels of the membrane, which:
a. allows sodium ions to enter and stop action potential.
b. prevents potassium ions from entering and stopping action potential.
c. allows potassium ions to enter and stop action potential.
d. prevents sodium ions from entering and stopping action potential.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   KEY: NEW

 

  1. Local anesthetic drugs, such as Novocain, work by:
a. opening the potassium gates.
b. blocking the sodium gates.
c. inactivating the sodium-potassium pump.
d. decreasing blood flow to certain areas of the brain.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following represents the all-or-none law?
a. Every depolarization produces an action potential.
b. Every hyperpolarization produces an action potential.
c. The size of the action potential is independent of the strength of the stimulus that initiated it.
d. Every depolarization reaches the threshold, even if it fails to produce an action potential.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The all-or-none law states that:
a. a neuron produces an action potential of maximal strength, or none at all.
b. all neurons fire or none at all.
c. all neurons in a pathway fire at the same time, or none do.
d. all ions move in the same direction, or none do.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The all-or-none law applies to:
a. cell bodies of neurons.
b. dendrites.
c. axons.
d. all parts of a neuron.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The presence of an all-or-none law suggests that neurons can only convey different messages by changing their:
a. rate or pattern of action potentials.
b. size of action potentials.
c. speed of action potentials.
d. sodium-potassium pump activity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse                   MSC:  www

 

  1. According to the all-or-none law:
a. all neurons produce an action potential at the same time or none at all.
b. all of the extracellular sodium enters the axon, or none at all.
c. once an axon reaches threshold, the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are nearly equal each time.
d. neurons are either active all the time or not at all.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The primary feature of a neuron that prevents the action potential from traveling back from where it just passed is the:
a. concentration gradient.
b. refractory period.
c. sodium potassium pump.
d. phospholipid bilayer.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Under what conditions is it impossible for a stimulus to produce an action potential?
a. if the membrane is in its absolute refractory period
b. if it occurs at the same time as a hyperpolarizing stimulus
c. if sodium ions are more concentrated outside the cell than inside
d. if the potassium gates have been blocked

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which feature of a neuron limits the number of action potentials it can produce per second?
a. the threshold
b. the refractory period
c. saltatory conduction
d. the length of the axon

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A neuron’s sodium gates are firmly closed and the membrane cannot produce an action potential during:
a. the absolute refractory period.
b. the relative refractory period.
c. depolarization.
d. saltatory conduction.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. During the relative refractory period:
a. the sodium gates are firmly closed.
b. the sodium gates are reverting to their usual state.
c. the sodium gates are wide open.
d. the potassium gates are firmly closed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Where do most action potentials begin?
a. in the dendrites
b. in the cell body
c. at the axon hillock
d. at the tip of the axon

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Propagation of the Action Potential     OBJ:    4           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What happens once an action potential starts?
a. It is conducted the rest of the way as an electrical current.
b. It needs additional stimulation to keep it going along the axon.
c. It increases in speed as it goes.
d. It is regenerated at other points along the axon.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Propagation of the Action Potential     OBJ:    4           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What will affect the speed of an action potential?
a. the strength of the stimulus
b. the time since the last action potential
c. the length of the axon
d. the resistance of the membrane

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Propagation of the Action Potential     OBJ:    4           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

MSC:  www

 

 

  1. What will NOT affect the speed of an action potential?
a. the presence of myelin
b. the diameter of the axon
c. the length of the axon
d. the number of sodium gates

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   Propagation of the Action Potential     OBJ:    4           TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. How is the speed of an action potential down an unmyelinated axon BEST described?
a. the speed of electricity, regardless of the size of the axon
b. less than 1 meter per second, regardless of the size of the axon
c. faster in thin axons than in thick ones
d. faster in thick axons than in thin ones

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. The presence of myelin and the diameter of the axon:
a. affect the strength and frequency of the stimulus
b. affect the speed of an action potential
c. affect the strength of an action potential
d. affect the frequency of an action potential

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which two factors affect the speed of an action potential?
a. the strength and frequency of the stimulus
b. the location of the cell body and the length of the axon
c. the length and diameter of the axon
d. the presence of myelin and the diameter of the axon

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse       KEY: NEW

 

  1. The function of a myelin sheath is to:
a. prevent action potentials from traveling in the wrong direction.
b. increase the velocity of transmission along an axon.
c. increase the magnitude of an action potential.
d. provide a store of nutrients for the neuron.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. If you were to stub your toe and feel the pressure a second or two before you feel the pain, then which of the following statements is most likely true?
a. Pain sensitive neurons are large and myelinated.
b. Pain sensitive neurons are longer.
c. Pressure sensitive neurons are small and lightly myelinated.
d. Pressure sensitive neurons are large and myelinated.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What are the nodes of Ranvier?
a. gates in the membrane that admit all ions freely
b. gaps in the myelin sheath
c. branching points in an axon
d. places where dendrites join the cell body

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse       MSC:   www

 

  1. The myelin sheath is interrupted periodically by short sections of axon called:
a. axon gaps
b. nodes of Cajal
c. axon nodes
d. nodes of Ranvier

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. In a myelinated axon, where are sodium gates abundant?
a. in the areas covered by myelin
b. at the nodes of Ranvier
c. throughout the axon
d. only in the axon hillock

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. To what does saltatory conduction refer?
a. the production of an action potential by the movement of sodium ions
b. the transmission of an impulse along a myelinated axon
c. the transmission of impulses along dendrites
d. the transmission of an impulse between one neuron and another

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Saltatory conduction ____ the velocity of action potentials and ____ the amount of energy used by the neuron.
a. decreases; decreases
b. decreases; increases
c. increases; decreases
d. increases; increases

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

 

 

  1. How does saltatory conduction affect energy use in a neuron?
a. It eliminates the need for action potentials.
b. It increases the duration of the refractory period.
c. It reduces the frequency of action potentials.
d. It reduces the work load for the sodium-potassium pump.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What disease is related to the destruction of myelin sheaths?
a. multiple sclerosis
b. cystic fibrosis
c. myasthenia gravis
d. Parkinson’s disease

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. In what way is a myelinated axon that has lost its myelin (through disease) different from an axon that was never myelinated?
a. It has a smaller diameter.
b. It lacks sodium gates along parts of its surface.
c. It has a longer refractory period.
d. It has a much higher threshold.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse Conduction

 

  1. Multiple sclerosis is one of several:
a. blood-brain disorders
b. neuron diseases
c. demyelinating diseases
d. movement disorders

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT governed by the all-or-none law?
a. unmyelinated axons
b. myelinated axons
c. motor neurons
d. local neurons

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction           OBJ:               4         TOP:              2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. In what direction does a local neuron transmit information?
a. through its dendrites to cell body to axon
b. through its axon to cell body to dendrites
c. only toward the cell body
d. equally well in any direction

 

 

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Local Neurons

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following describes the transmission of information in a local neuron?
a. The signal decreases in strength as it travels.
b. The signal increases in strength as it travels.
c. The signal strength remains constant as it travels.
d. Local neurons do not transmit any information.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Local Neurons

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Why are local neurons more difficult to study?
a. There are so few of them that they are difficult to find.
b. They are so small.
c. They exist only in humans, so there are ethical considerations.
d. They die if separated from other neurons.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Local Neurons

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE of local neurons?
a. They exchange information with distant neurons.
b. They abide by the all-or-none principle.
c. The change in membrane potential increases as it travels.
d. They have short dendrites and axons.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Local Neurons

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. A local neuron:
a. has an axon approximately a meter long.
b. conveys information to other neurons across great distances.
c. is a small neuron with no axon or a very short one.
d. has an axon with many branches far from the cell body.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual            REF:   Local Neurons

OBJ:   5                    TOP:   2.2 The Nerve Impulse

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List the parts of a neuron.

 

ANS:

Dendrites, a soma (cell body), an axon, and presynaptic terminals.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe glial cells.

 

ANS:

They are the other major components of the nervous system. They do not transmit information over long distances as neurons do, although they do exchange chemicals with adjacent neurons.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure of the blood-brain barrier and why it is important.

 

ANS:

Tightly joined endothelial cells form the capillary walls in the brain, making the blood-brain barrier. This protects the brain from harmful viruses, bacteria, and chemicals that might otherwise be able to enter the brain and cause damage.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   The Blood-Brain Barrier

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

 

  1. The electrical gradient of a neuron membrane refers to what?

 

ANS:

A difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

 

  1. What would happen to the resting potential if a neuron’s membrane was always completely permeable to charged ions?

 

ANS:

The freedom of movement would allow the ions to equalize on either side of the membrane, causing the resting potential to disappear.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the all-or-none law of action potentials.

 

ANS:

Once a neuron reaches the threshold of activation, the action potential is conducted all of the way down the axon without loss of intensity. Furthermore, the magnitude of the action potential is roughly the same every time and is independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

 

 

 

 

  1. What is saltatory conduction?

 

ANS:

The jumping of action potentials from node to node .

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction

OBJ:   4                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Briefly describe how the brain transports essential chemicals.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   Anatomy of Neurons and Glia

OBJ:   2                    TOP:   2.1 The Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. Describe the aspects of the resting potential.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    factual           REF:   The Resting Potential of the Neuron

OBJ:   1                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

MSC:  www

 

  1. Why do neurons have a resting potential?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Nerve Impulse

OBJ:   6                    TOP:   2.2 Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses

 

  1. Briefly describe the function of voltage-gated channels.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   41                  The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

MSC:  www

 

  1. Briefly describe the refractory period of a neuron.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    conceptual     REF:   The Action Potential

OBJ:   3                    TOP:   2.1 The Nerve Impulse

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