Basics of Biopsychology, by John P. J. Pinel – Test Bank

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Basics of Biopsychology, by John P. J. Pinel – Test Bank

Chapter 2 The Anatomy of the Brain:
The Systems, Structures, and Cells
that Make up Your Nervous System.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The two major divisions of the nervous system are the
A) ANS and the CNS.
B) SNS and the CNS.
C) PNS and the CNS.
D) ANS and the PNS.
E) brain and the spinal cord.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The CNS is composed of two major divisions: the
A) ANS and PNS.
B) brain and brain stem.
C) SNS and ANS.
D) spinal cord and brain stem.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
3) The ANS is part of the
A) sympathetic nervous system.
B) parasympathetic nervous system.
C) brain.
D) CNS.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
30
4) The somatic nervous system
A) is part of the PNS.
B) participates in sensory and motor interactions with the external environment.
C) is part of the ANS.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
5) In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information
A) to the CNS.
B) to the PNS.
C) from the CNS.
D) from the cortex.
E) from the brain.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
6) Neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are part of the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) basal ganglia.
C) ANS.
D) peripheral nervous system.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
7) The autonomic nervous system is part of the
A) brain.
B) spinal cord.
C) peripheral nervous system.
D) limbic system.
E) somatic nervous system.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
31
8) Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body’s energy?
A) CNS
B) PNS
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) parasympathetic nervous system
E) somatic nervous system
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
9) Heart rate is increased by excitatory signals from the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) sympathetic nervous system.
C) parasympathetic nervous system.
D) afferent arm of the parasympathetic nervous system.
E) afferent arm of the sympathetic nervous system.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
10) The sympathetic nervous system is part of the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) ANS.
C) PNS.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
11) Which part of the PNS projects from only the cranial and sacral portions of the CNS?
A) parasympathetic nervous system
B) sympathetic nervous system
C) somatic nervous system
D) cranial nerves
E) autonomic nervous system
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
32
12) The sympathetic nervous system differs from the parasympathetic nervous system in that the
sympathetic nervous system has
A) no first-stage neurons.
B) no second-stage neurons.
C) first-stage neurons that synapse at a substantial distance from the target organ.
D) first-stage neurons that synapse close to the target organ.
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 38
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
13) The first pair of cranial nerves are
A) sensory.
B) the optic and auditory nerves.
C) the facial and auditory nerves.
D) motor.
E) the vagus and trigeminal nerves.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
14) The vagus nerve is
A) part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) the tenth cranial nerve.
C) the longest cranial nerve.
D) both sensory and motor.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
15) The dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater are
A) neurons.
B) neuroglia.
C) parts of the autonomic nervous system.
D) meninges.
E) myelin.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
33
16) From outside to inside, the three meninges are the
A) Nina, Pinta, and Santa-Maria.
B) arachnoid, dura, and pia.
C) dura, pia, and arachnoid.
D) dura, meninx, and pia.
E) dura, arachnoid, and pia.
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
17) How many ventricles are there in the brain?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 2
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
18) The CSF circulates through the
A) central canal.
B) lateral ventricles.
C) subarachnoid space.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
19) The cerebral aqueduct connects the
A) lateral ventricles.
B) third and fourth ventricles.
C) fourth ventricle and the central canal.
D) circus maximus and the forum.
E) left and right hemispheres.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
34
20) The blood brain barrier is
A) a spongy bone.
B) the arachnoid space and pia mater.
C) an electrochemical organ.
D) absent in cases of hydrocephalus.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
21) The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into brain neurons of
A) proteins and other large molecules.
B) some hormones.
C) glucose.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit
A) action potentials.
B) axons.
C) synapses.
D) electrochemical signals.
E) pizzas.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
23) The neuron membrane includes
A) a lipid bilayer.
B) channel proteins.
C) signal proteins.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
35
24) Communications among mammalian neurons usually occur
A) at points where their cell bodies contact one another.
B) across dendrites.
C) across synapses.
D) at points where their axons contact one another.
E) at points where dendrites contact one another.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Interactions between neurons commonly occur across junctions called
A) synapses. B) buttons. C) somas. D) vesicles. E) pits.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Many neurons have a single long process emanating from the cell body. This is
A) an axon.
B) a dendrite.
C) a button.
D) a protein.
E) a micrograph.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
27) Presynaptic neurons stimulate postsynaptic neurons by releasing
A) a foul odor.
B) an electrical signal.
C) an axon.
D) a neurotoxin.
E) a neurotransmitter.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
36
28) Most of a neuron’s DNA is in its
A) nucleus.
B) buttons.
C) synaptic vesicles.
D) axon.
E) axon hillock.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
29) Synaptic vesicles are most prevalent in the
A) nucleus.
B) nodes of Ranvier.
C) postsynaptic membranes.
D) synaptic clefts.
E) buttons.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
30) All neurons with an axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are
A) motor.
B) interneurons.
C) multipolar.
D) bipolar.
E) unipolar.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
31) Interneurons
A) integrate the activity within a single brain structure.
B) have two short axons.
C) have one long axon and one short dendrite.
D) have several axons and no dendrites.
E) have bipolar axons.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
37
32) Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called
A) neurons. B) ganglia. C) nerves. D) nuclei. E) buttons.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
33) Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to
A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) ganglion.
D) nucleus.
E) cell bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
34) What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?
A) dendrites
B) axon
C) cell body
D) buttons
E) both A and B
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
35) CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to
A) astrocytes.
B) oligodendroglia.
C) glial cells.
D) Schwann cells.
E) microglia.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
38
36) In the CNS, axons are myelinated by
A) vesicles.
B) oligodrendrocytes.
C) unipolar cells.
D) astrocytes.
E) Schwann cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
37) Myelination
A) causes cancer.
B) penetrates the blood brain barrier.
C) occurs only on Schwann cells.
D) increases the speed of axonal conduction.
E) increases the speed of synaptic transmission.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
38) PNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are to
A) multiple sclerosis.
B) oligodendrocytes.
C) astrocytes.
D) neuroglia.
E) satellite cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
39) The largest glial cells are
A) astrocytes.
B) Schwann cells.
C) microglia.
D) magnoglia.
E) oligodendrocytes.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
39
40) Glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are
A) microglia
B) Schwann cells.
C) astrocytes.
D) oligodendrocytes.
E) oligodendroglia.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
41) The Golgi stain colors neurons
A) violet. B) black. C) blue. D) red. E) yellow.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
42) The best thing about the Golgi stain is that it
A) is opaque.
B) reveals the inner structure of the neuron.
C) does not stain many neurons.
D) stains only Golgi neurons.
E) was developed by a Nobel prize winner.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
43) The discovery of the Golgi stain
A) was accidental.
B) was one of the major early breakthroughs in the study of the nervous system.
C) occurred in 1985.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
40
44) The first neural stain, which revealed the silhouette of a few neurons on a slide, is
A) the Golgi stain.
B) red.
C) the Nissl stain.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
45) The first neural stain that permitted neuroanatomists to view some aspects of the inner
structure of a neuron was the
A) Nissl stain.
B) Golgi stain.
C) Weigert stain.
D) amino acid autoradiography stain.
E) electron microscope stain.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
46) The cresyl violet stain is used to
A) study the fine details of axonal structure.
B) determine the general distribution of cell bodies in the nervous system.
C) study the dismal fog.
D) identify axosomatic synapses.
E) study the responses of Nissl bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
47) The fine inner details of neuron structure can be studied best
A) with a Nissl stain.
B) by electron microscopy.
C) with cresyl violet.
D) with a Golgi stain.
E) with a microelectrode.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
41
48) The main advantage of the scanning electron microscope over the conventional electron
microscope is that it
A) operates in light.
B) is capable of higher magnification than the ordinary electron microscope.
C) produces three-dimensional electron micrographs.
D) uses more protons than electrons.
E) requires fewer beams of electrons.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
49) The back of your head is
A) posterior. B) dorsal. C) inferior. D) anterior. E) ventral.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
50) The top of a dog’s head is
A) anterior. B) ventral. C) caudal. D) dorsal. E) posterior.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
51) The tip of your nose is
A) superior and dorsal.
B) caudal and anterior.
C) medial and anterior.
D) anterior and posterior.
E) ventral and dorsal.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
42
52) The nose of a rat is
A) rostral.
B) ventral.
C) anterior.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
53) The spine of a human runs just beneath the
A) ventral surface.
B) anterior surface.
C) dorsal surface.
D) posterior surface.
E) superior surface.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
54) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is commonly used with reference to the
brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of four-legged
creatures?
A) inferior B) caudal C) posterior D) medial E) lateral
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
55) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is not commonly used with reference to the
human brain?
A) inferior B) caudal C) posterior D) superior E) dorsal
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
43
56) A cut in which of the following planes would sever all of the commissures, the tracts that
connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres?
A) horizontal
B) sagittal
C) midsagittal
D) frontal
E) diagonal
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
57) Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of
A) cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
B) myelin.
C) myelinated axons.
D) meninges.
E) cerebrospinal fluid.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
58) The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a
A) midsagittal section.
B) sagittal section.
C) longitudinal section.
D) lateral section.
E) cross section.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
59) The gray matter of the spinal cord is composed of
A) glial cells.
B) cell bodies.
C) unmyelinated interneurons.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
44
60) White matter is white because
A) it is unmyelinated.
B) cell bodies are white.
C) satellite cells are gray.
D) axon membranes are white.
E) myelin is white.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
61) The spinal gray matter has four arms; among these are the two
A) ventral roots.
B) ventral routes.
C) ventral horns.
D) posterior horns.
E) both B and D
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
62) How many individual dorsal roots are there in the human nervous system?
A) 12 B) 31 C) 62 D) 124 E) none
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
63) How many left ventral roots are there in the human body?
A) 12 B) 31 C) 62 D) 124 E) none
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
64) Neurons of the dorsal root synapse in the
A) cortex.
B) spinal cord.
C) limbic system.
D) PNS.
E) ventral horn.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
45
65) How many sensory ventral roots are there in the human body?
A) 12 B) 31 C) 62 D) 124 E) none
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
66) The neurons of the dorsal roots are
A) sensory.
B) motor.
C) tracts.
D) unipolar.
E) both A and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
67) Most neurons of the ventral roots
A) are bipolar.
B) are unipolar.
C) have their cell bodies in white matter.
D) have their cell bodies in the ventral horn.
E) are interneurons.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
68) The ANS neurons of the ventral roots project directly to
A) body organs.
B) ganglia.
C) the sympathetic receptors.
D) the parasympathetic receptors.
E) the heart.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
46
69) Many neurons of the ventral horn are
A) part of the somatic nervous system.
B) unipolar.
C) part of the autonomic nervous system.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
70) “Encephalon” means within the
A) forebrain.
B) brain stem.
C) head.
D) hemispheres.
E) nervous system.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
71) “Telencephalon” refers to the
A) cortex.
B) head.
C) cerebral hemispheres.
D) brain.
E) brain stem.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
72) The large lateral outgrowths that compose the telencephalon are the
A) eyes.
B) temporal lobes.
C) cerebral hemispheres.
D) ventricles.
E) testes.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
47
73) The myelencephalon is often called the
A) midbrain.
B) hypothalamus.
C) brain stem.
D) medulla.
E) cortex.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
74) The caudal part of the forebrain is the
A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon.
C) myelencephalon.
D) reticular formation.
E) midbrain.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
75) The myelencephalon is
A) the medulla.
B) part of the hindbrain.
C) part of the brain stem.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
76) Which of the following is not in the brain stem?
A) myelencephalon
B) mesencephalon
C) metencephalon
D) medulla
E) telencephalon
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
48
77) The myelencephalon is composed largely of
A) ganglia. B) tracts. C) nerves. D) ventricles. E) colliculi.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 51
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
78) Which of the following structures is named after a term that means “little net”?
A) reticular formation
B) mesencephalon
C) medulla
D) cerebellum
E) hippocampus
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
79) The reticular formation is in the core of the
A) mesencephalon.
B) myelencephalon.
C) metencephalon.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
80) The reticular formation is in the
A) brain stem.
B) cortex.
C) thalamus.
D) olfactory bulb.
E) spinal cord.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
49
81) Which of the following is visible on the dorsal surface of the human brain stem?
A) pituitary
B) cerebellum
C) optic chiasm
D) hypothalamus
E) mammillary bodies
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
82) The midbrain is
A) part of the mesencephalon.
B) part of the metencephalon.
C) the mesencephalon.
D) part of the brain stem.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
83) The inferior and superior colliculi compose the
A) thalamus.
B) hypothalamus.
C) tectum.
D) hippocampus.
E) cerebellum.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
84) The four colliculi compose the
A) tectum.
B) tegmentum.
C) pons.
D) brain stem.
E) cerebellum.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
50
85) The tectum is the roof of the
A) metencephalon.
B) mesencephalon.
C) myelencephalon.
D) telencephalon.
E) diencephalon.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
86) Which structure is not part of the tegmentum?
A) superior colliculus
B) periaqueductal gray
C) substantia nigra
D) red nucleus
E) cerebral aqueduct
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
87) The neural structure situated nearest the duct connecting the third and fourth ventricles is the
A) substantia nigra.
B) periaqueductal gray.
C) red nucleus.
D) superior colliculi.
E) cerebral aqueduct.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
88) Three major structures in the __________ of the brain are named after a color.
A) medulla
B) mesencephalon
C) tectum
D) tegmentum
E) thalamus
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
51
89) The lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, and ventral posterior nuclei are all nuclei of the
A) midbrain.
B) spinal cord.
C) cortex.
D) medulla.
E) thalamus.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
90) Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the
A) cortex.
B) reticular formation.
C) cerebellum.
D) substantia nigra.
E) caudate.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
91) Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information?
A) pons
B) red nucleus
C) lateral geniculate
D) substantia nigra
E) caudate
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
92) Which of the following part of the diencephalon connects the two lobes of the thalamus?
A) massa intermedia
B) hypothalamus
C) cerebral aqueduct
D) corpus callosum
E) hippocampal commissure
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
52
93) The lateral geniculate nuclei are
A) diencephalic nuclei.
B) thalamic nuclei.
C) sensory relay nuclei.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
94) The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the
A) brain stem.
B) diencephalon.
C) mesencephalon.
D) medulla.
E) pituitary.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
95) Which part of the diencephalon controls the pituitary?
A) snot gland
B) hypothalamus
C) medial geniculate
D) cerebellum
E) nasal mucosa
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
96) Which of the following is an X-shaped structure?
A) spinal white matter
B) reticular formation
C) structure that dangles from the diencephalon
D) optic chiasm
E) substantia nigra
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
53
97) If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons running from
the eyes to the brain would be
A) on the right side.
B) ipsilateral.
C) contralateral.
D) decussating.
E) bilateral.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
98) The mammillary nuclei are
A) bumps visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
B) visible on the inferior surface of the diencephalon.
C) sometimes considered to be nuclei of the hypothalamus.
D) found only in females.
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
99) Which of the following is a point of decussation?
A) optic chiasm
B) hippocampus
C) temporal lobe
D) substantia nigra
E) superior colliculus
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
100) The pituitary gland is situated just inferior to the
A) nose.
B) hippocampus.
C) cerebellum.
D) thalamus.
E) hypothalamus.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
54
101) Most mammals with lissencephalic brains are
A) accountants.
B) flexible.
C) small.
D) clever.
E) old.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
102) The ridges between fissures are called
A) sulci.
B) sulcuses.
C) gyri.
D) commissures.
E) lobes.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
103) Big is to small as fissures are to
A) gyri.
B) sulcus.
C) commissures.
D) gyrus.
E) sulci.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
104) The largest cerebral commissure is the
A) corpus callosum.
B) massa commissura.
C) massa intermedia.
D) humungus commissura.
E) longitudinal commissure.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
55
105) The corpus callosum is the human brain’s largest
A) neuron.
B) nucleus.
C) fissure.
D) commissure.
E) hemisphere.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
106) Precentral is to postcentral as
A) somatosensory is to motor.
B) auditory is to motor.
C) somatosensory is to auditory.
D) motor is to somatosensory.
E) auditory is to somatosensory.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
107) The functions of the occipital cortex are
A) motor.
B) visual.
C) auditory.
D) somatosensory.
E) olfactory.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
108) The most posterior lobe of the cerebral hemispheres is the
A) occipital lobe.
B) temporal lobe.
C) parietal lobe.
D) frontal lobe.
E) ear lobe.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
56
109) About what proportion of human cerebral cortex is neocortex?
A) 10 % B) 25 % C) 40 % D) 60 % E) 90 %
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
110) Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and
triangular cell bodies?
A) stellate cells
B) chandelier cells
C) pyramidal cells
D) granule cells
E) fusiform cells
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
111) The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it?
A) temporal lobe
B) frontal lobe
C) parietal lobe
D) prefrontal lobe
E) occipital lobe
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
112) Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the
A) central fissure.
B) lateral fissure.
C) corpus callosum.
D) temporal lobe.
E) longitudinal fissure.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
57
113) The lobe at the back of the brain, which serves a visual function, is the
A) frontal lobe.
B) occipital lobe.
C) temporal lobe.
D) prefrontal lobe.
E) parietal lobe.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
114) The hippocampus is
A) a neocortical structure.
B) in the frontal lobes.
C) six-layered.
D) shaped like a sea horse in cross section.
E) in the diencephalon.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
115) A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus,
hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the regulation of motivated
behaviors. This circuit is called the
A) basal ganglia.
B) paleocortex.
C) limbic system.
D) cranial nerves.
E) somatosensory system.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
116) The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the
A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon.
C) mesencephalon.
D) myelencephalon.
E) metencephalon.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
58
117) Which of the following structures is not part of the limbic system?
A) hippocampus
B) septum
C) cerebellum
D) fornix
E) hypothalamus
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
118) A major limbic system tract is the
A) corpus callosum.
B) reticular formation.
C) cingulate.
D) fornix.
E) septum.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
119) Two parts of the limbic system are cortical structures. These two structures are the
A) septum and the frontal cortex.
B) hippocampus and the cingulate.
C) frontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
D) hippocampus and the amygdala.
E) frontal cortex and the olfactory bulbs.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
120) The structure that is considered to be part of both the limbic system and the basal ganglia
motor system is the
A) amygdala.
B) frenulum.
C) cingulate cortex.
D) hypothalamus.
E) substantia nigra.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
59
121) The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus compose the
A) diencephalon.
B) limbic system.
C) somatosensory system.
D) basal ganglia.
E) thalamus.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
122) The caudate and the putamen compose the
A) limbic system.
B) globus pallidus.
C) striatum.
D) amygdala.
E) uvula.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 72
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
123) Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is found in most cases
of
A) Korsakoff’s syndrome.
B) Parkinson’s disease.
C) autism.
D) Asti Spumante.
E) multiple sclerosis.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 72
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.
Answer: central nervous
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________.
Answer: meninges
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
60
3) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.
Answer: ventricles
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
4) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.
Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
5) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.
Answer: tracts
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
6) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.
Answer: astrocytes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
7) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.
Answer: Golgi
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
8) The opposite of dorsal is __________.
Answer: ventral
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
9) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy
white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
10) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
61
11) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.
Answer: pons
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
12) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.
Answer: thalamus
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
13) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.
Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
14) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________.
Answer: commissures
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
15) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.
Answer: lateral
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
16) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites.
Answer: apical
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
17) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: hippocampus
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
18) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means “ring.”
Answer: Limbic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
62
19) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
20) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal
ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
21) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.
Answer: central nervous
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 37
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________.
Answer: meninges
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
23) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.
Answer: ventricles
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
24) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.
Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.
Answer: tracts
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 44
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.
Answer: astrocytes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
63
27) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.
Answer: Golgi
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 46
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
28) The opposite of dorsal is __________.
Answer: ventral
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
29) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy
white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
30) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 50
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
31) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.
Answer: pons
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 52
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
32) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.
Answer: thalamus
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 53
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
33) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.
Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
34) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________.
Answer: commissures
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
64
35) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.
Answer: lateral
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
36) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites.
Answer: apical
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
37) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: hippocampus
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
38) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means “ring.”
Answer: Limbic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
39) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
40) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal
ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 57
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
Essay Questions
1) Describe the overall layout of the divisions and systems of the mammalian nervous system.
Include a diagram or table in your answer. (Hint: “The mammalian nervous system is a system
of twos.” )
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
65
3) Compare two different neuroanatomical stains, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of
each.
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
4) With the use of diagrams, describe all of directions in the vertebrate nervous system.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
5) Draw a side view of the human brain. Label 6 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
6) Draw a midsagittal section of the human brain and label 10 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
7) Describe the structure of the human telencephalon. Include descriptions of its major parts and
structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Chapter 14 Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain:
The Left Brain and Right Brain of Language.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The left and right hemispheres are connected by the
A) fornix.
B) septum.
C) cerebral commissures.
D) cerebral ligaments.
E) arcuate fasciculus.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443
Topic: Chapter 14 Introduction
2) The differences in the function of the two cerebral hemispheres is sometimes referred to as the
study of
A) split brains.
B) commissurotomy.
C) the great cerebral commissure.
D) bilateral specialization.
E) lateralization of function.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443
Topic: Chapter 14 Introduction
3) The two hemispheres, although similar in appearance, differ in function. The study of these
differences is commonly referred to as the study of
A) bilateral representation.
B) the split brain.
C) lateralization of function.
D) fundamental functional duality.
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443
Topic: Chapter 14 Introduction
490
4) Split-brain patients are those who
A) have been commissurotomized.
B) have split personalities.
C) are schizophrenic.
D) have cerebral commissures.
E) have only one hemisphere.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443
Topic: Chapter 14 Introduction
5) __________ first reported the lateralization of language functions but received no recognition
for his insightful observation.
A) Dax B) Broca C) Wernicke D) Hebb E) Penfield
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
6) Aphasia refers
A) generally to deficits in the ability to produce or comprehend language, or both.
B) specifically to the inability to speak.
C) specifically to the inability to comprehend language.
D) specifically to a difficulty in speaking.
E) generally to the inability to speak.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
7) Brain-damage-produced deficits in language-related ability are generally referred to as
A) aphasia. B) aphagia. C) apraxia. D) dyslexia. E) dementia.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
491
8) Broca’s area is adjacent to
A) the face area of the primary motor cortex of the left hemisphere.
B) the face area of the primary somatosensory cortex of the left hemisphere.
C) the face area of the primary motor cortex of both hemispheres.
D) Wernicke’s area.
E) the visual cortex.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
9) Broca’s area is in the
A) left frontal lobe.
B) right frontal lobe.
C) left temporal lobe.
D) right temporal lobe.
E) left parietal lobe.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
10) Broca’s area is adjacent to the
A) left central fissure.
B) right lateral fissure.
C) left primary motor cortex face area.
D) left primary somatosensory cortex face area.
E) right primary somatosensory cortex.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
11) Broca’s area is in the
A) left hemisphere.
B) frontal lobe.
C) inferior prefrontal cortex.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
492
12) Apraxia is usually associated with
A) left-hemisphere lesions.
B) right-hemisphere lesions.
C) aphasia.
D) damage to Broca’s area.
E) damage to Wernicke’s area.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
13) Apraxia usually
A) results from right-hemisphere damage.
B) results from left-hemisphere damage.
C) affects the left side of the body far more than the right side.
D) affects the right side of the body far more than the left side.
E) both B and D
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
14) Although the symptoms of apraxia are __________, apraxia usually results from damage to the
__________ hemisphere.
A) unilateral; left
B) contralateral; right
C) ipsilateral; left
D) bilateral; right
E) bilateral; left
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
15) Apraxic patients
A) display a tremor, but only when they are not engaging in some activity.
B) have difficulty performing requested motor responses, especially out of context.
C) have no difficulty whatsoever performing responses with the left hand.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
493
16) Apraxic patients display
A) muscle weakness on the left side of the body.
B) muscle weakness on the right side of the body.
C) abnormal spinal reflexes.
D) a serious disturbance of motor coordination.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
17) Apraxic patients have difficulty performing requested movements
A) only with the left side of the body.
B) only with the right side of the body.
C) with either side of the body.
D) only if they involve the use of instruments.
E) both C and D
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
18) The discovery of the lateralization of aphasia and apraxia led to the
A) concept of a dominant left hemisphere.
B) concept of a dominant right hemisphere.
C) development of commissurotomy.
D) study of split-brain patients.
E) both C and D
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
19) How many injections of sodium amytal are administered during a conventional sodium
amytal test?
A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 8 E) 12
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
494
20) The sodium amytal test and the dichotic listening test are both tests of cerebral lateralization of
A) audition.
B) intelligence.
C) handedness.
D) language.
E) brain damage.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
21) The most widely used test of language lateralization for healthy subjects is Kimura’s
adaptation of the
A) dichotic listening test.
B) sodium amytal test.
C) unilateral-lesion procedure.
D) token test.
E) split-brain test.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
22) How many digits are presented during one trial of the conventional dichotic listening test of
language lateralization?
A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) 12
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
23) During the conventional dichotic listening test, most subjects correctly report
A) all digits heard through the right ear but none heard through the left.
B) all digits heard through the left ear but none heard through the right.
C) only those digits that are presented simultaneously to the two ears.
D) more of the digits presented to the right ear.
E) more of the digits presented to the left ear.
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
495
24) In order to prove that the dichotic listening test is a valid test of language lateralization,
Kimura showed that
A) patients shown to be right-hemisphere dominant for speech by the sodium amytal test
display a left-ear superiority for the recall of dichotically presented digits.
B) many subjects display a right ear superiority for the recall of dichotically presented
melodies.
C) only left-handed patients display a left-ear superiority for the recall of dichotically
presented digits.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
25) Kimura hypothesized that language-related sounds received by the right ear
A) elicit neural signals that are not transmitted to the left auditory cortex.
B) elicit neural signals that are not transmitted to the right auditory cortex.
C) are slightly more likely to be consciously perceived in patients who are left hemisphere
dominant for language than are language-related sounds presented to the left ear.
D) are slightly more likely to be consciously perceived in patients who are left hemisphere
dominant for language than are language-related sounds presented simultaneously to the
left ear.
E) both B and D
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
26) Kimura argued that although signals from each ear are projected to both hemispheres, the
contralateral connections take precedence
A) when different sounds from the two ears are simultaneously competing for access to the
same cortical auditory circuits.
B) in split-brain subjects.
C) in aphasics.
D) in patients under the influence of sodium amytal.
E) in apraxics.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
496
27) On language tests, PET and fMRI typically reveal greater activity in
A) aphasics.
B) dyslexics.
C) the left hemisphere.
D) the right hemisphere.
E) males.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
28) Left-handers and right-handers are
A) dextrals and sinestrals, respectively.
B) sinestrals and dextrals, respectively.
C) more variable than androids.
D) equally lateralized with respect to language functions.
E) northpaws and southpaws, respectively.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
29) Left-handers are also known as
A) sinestrals.
B) carminatives.
C) minor hemisphere dominants.
D) dextrals.
E) northpaws.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
30) The left-hemisphere is dominant for speech in
A) all left-handers and a few right-handers.
B) nearly all left-handers and most right-handers.
C) nearly all right-handers and the majority of left-handers.
D) nearly all right-handers and a few left-handers.
E) a few right-handers and even fewer left-handers.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
497
31) Sodium amytal tests indicate that
A) the cerebral dominance for speech is more variable in left-handed and ambidextrous
individuals than in right-handed individuals.
B) right handers are more likely to be left-hemisphere dominant for speech than
right-hemisphere dominant for speech.
C) left-handers are more likely to be right-hemisphere dominant for speech than
left-hemisphere dominant for speech.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 446
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
32) The results of sodium amytal tests suggest that the percentage of healthy right-handers in the
general population that are left-hemisphere dominant for speech is
A) more than 90%.
B) about 90%.
C) about 80%.
D) about 70%.
E) about 60%.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
33) Sodium amytal tests administered to adults who had suffered left-hemisphere damage in
infancy suggest that the
A) right-hemisphere is incapable of language-related activity in most brain-damaged
people.
B) left-hemisphere is incapable of language-related activity in most brain-damaged people.
C) control of speech can be transferred from the left to the right hemisphere after early
left-hemisphere damage.
D) control of speech cannot be transferred to the right-hemisphere.
E) both A and D
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 446
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
498
34) According to the text, which of the following statements is true?
A) Some evidence suggests that the brains of females are less lateralized than those of males.
B) Some evidence suggests that the brains of males are less lateralized than those of females.
C) The evidence that the brains of males are less lateralized than those of females is very
strong.
D) Recent evidence has finally established that male and female brains are lateralized to the
same degree.
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
35) The largest commissure in the human brain is the
A) optic chiasm.
B) anterior commissure.
C) massa intermedia.
D) majora commissura.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 447
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
36) It has been estimated that the corpus callosum contains 200 million
A) nuclei.
B) axons.
C) cells.
D) synapses.
E) cell bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
37) Many of the early studies of the split brain were conducted in the laboratory of
A) Roger Sperry.
B) Wilder Penfield.
C) Brenda Milner.
D) Bryan Kolb.
E) Doreen Kimura.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
499
38) Information from the right eye can cross to the left hemisphere via the
A) optic chiasm.
B) corpus callosum.
C) fornix.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
39) In experiments on split-brain laboratory animals, visual information is presented to only the
left hemisphere by
A) cutting the optic chiasm longitudinally.
B) blindfolding the left eye.
C) blindfolding the right eye.
D) both A and B together
E) both A and C together
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
40) Visual information can be restricted to the right hemisphere of a laboratory animal by
A) blindfolding the left eye.
B) cutting the optic chiasm longitudinally.
C) cutting the corpus callosum longitudinally.
D) all of the above together
E) both A and C together
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
41) Cutting the optic chiasm longitudinally produces blindness in the
A) medial half of each retina.
B) right half of the visual field of the right eye.
C) left half of the visual field of the left eye.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
500
42) In the ground-breaking experiment of Myers and Sperry on the learning of a visual
discrimination by split-brain cats, when the eye patch was shifted to the other eye, the
performance of all cats
A) in the experiment fell to 50% correct.
B) with transected corpus callosums fell to 50% correct.
C) with both their optic chiasms and their corpus callosums transected immediately fell to
50% correct.
D) with transected optic chiasms fell to 50% correct.
E) with both their optic chiasms and their corpus callosums transected immediately
increased to close to 100% correct.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
43) The ground-breaking experiment of Myers and Sperry showed that
A) one function of the corpus callosum is to transmit learned information between
hemispheres.
B) the key to studying the function of the cerebral commissures is to develop experimental
procedures for presenting information to one hemisphere while keeping it out of the
other.
C) one hemisphere is capable of solving simple problems as rapidly as two hemispheres
working together.
D) the cerebral hemispheres are capable of functioning independently.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 448
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
44) The subjects in the first experiments performed on split-brain humans had
A) suffered from severe cases of epilepsy.
B) their corpus callosums severed.
C) their optic chiasms severed.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
501
45) The decision to treat “terminal” human epileptics with commissurotomy was made on the basis
of previous comparative studies that had shown that
A) epileptic discharges spread from one hemisphere to the other via the corpus callosum,
thus increasing the severity of the convulsion.
B) commissurotomy has little disruptive effect on behavior outside contrived laboratory
situations.
C) commissurotomy completely eliminates convulsions in monkeys.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
46) Who were the neurosurgeons who performed the first major series of commissurotomies for
the treatment of intractable epilepsy?
A) Vogel and Bogen
B) Kolb and Whishaw
C) Olds and Milner
D) Floresco and Christie
E) Werker and Tees
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
47) Which of the following investigators, along with Sperry, played a major role in testing the
original series of human split-brain subjects?
A) Kimura B) Gazzaniga C) Kolb D) Milner E) Petersen
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
48) Visual information is presented to only the left hemisphere of a human split-brain subject by
getting the subject to fixate on the center of the display screen and then
A) presenting the information on the side of the screen to the subject’s right.
B) flashing the information for 0.1 second on the side of the screen to the subject’s right.
C) flashing the information for 0.1 second on the side of the screen to the subject’s left.
D) presenting the information to only the left eye for only 0.1 second.
E) either B or D
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
502
49) After the picture of a familiar object is flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain human
subject, the subject can
A) say what it was.
B) reach into a bag containing several test items with her left hand and pull out the object
that was presented.
C) reach into a bag containing several test items with her right hand and pull out the object
that was presented.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 451
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
50) After the picture of a familiar object is flashed in the right visual field of a human split-brain
subject, the subject can
A) say what the object was.
B) reach into a bag with her right hand and select the object that was presented from a group
of test objects.
C) reach into a bag with her left hand and select the object that was presented from a group
of test objects.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 451
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
51) During a test in which split-brain subjects were asked to verbally specify which of two colors,
red or green, had been presented in the left visual field, an interesting phenomenon was
discovered. This phenomenon was
A) unilateral emotion.
B) cross-cuing.
C) the helping-hand phenomenon.
D) hircismus.
E) transcallosal transfer of color.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
503
52) Cross-cuing is communication between the hemispheres of a split-brain subject that occurs
A) externally, via the behavior of one of the hemispheres.
B) via the corpus callosum.
C) via any cerebral commissure.
D) via any cerebral commissure other than the corpus callosum.
E) either B or C
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 452
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
53) A spoon is presented in the left visual field of a split-brain subject, and an apple is
simultaneously presented in the right. Then, the subject is instructed to reach into two bags
(one with each hand) and feel around until he comes up with the object that was presented on
the screen. Before the objects are withdrawn, the subject is asked to tell the experimenter what
he has in each hand. The subject is likely to say, “I have
A) an apple in each hand.”
B) a spoon in each hand.”
C) an apple in my left hand and a spoon in my right.”
D) a spoon in my left hand and an apple in my right.”
E) no idea.”
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 453
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
54) The helping-hand phenomenon was demonstrated in a test
A) involving the presentation of a photograph of a nude human figure.
B) involving the presentation of a chimeric figure.
C) in which the test items were in open view on top of a table.
D) in which the subjects were asked to reach into two different bags and pull out two
different objects.
E) in which the subjects were asked to pull the same object from two different bags.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 453
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
504
55) Each hemisphere of a human split-brain subject is capable of completion. That is why on the
chimeric figures test, each hemisphere sees
A) the entire stimulus.
B) a complete, but different, face.
C) only half a face.
D) the same face.
E) only half the stimulus.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 453
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
56) Chimera
A) developed the dichotic listening test.
B) has studied the lateralization of musical ability.
C) has shown that subjects tend to make gestures during speech with the hand controlled by
the hemisphere that is dominant for speech.
D) all of the above
E) is a mythical monster composed of the combined parts of different animals.
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 453
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
57) The study of lateralization of function has focused on the right hemisphere because
A) most people are right-handed.
B) most people are dextrals.
C) the right hemisphere is dominant.
D) the abilities of the left hemisphere have been more apparent.
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
58) What proportion of the digits recognized by healthy subjects in the conventional dichotic
listening test are typically those presented to the right ear?
A) 100% B) 95% C) 90% D) 75% E) 55%
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 455
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
505
59) The language abilities of many right hemispheres of split-brain patients tend to be comparable
to those of
A) chimpanzees.
B) male teenagers.
C) preschool children.
D) football players.
E) engineers.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
60) The right hemisphere has been shown to be superior to the left in several general respects; the
three best-documented are
A) spatial ability, emotion, and musical ability.
B) thinking, mathematics, and emotion.
C) spatial ability, facial recognition, and attention.
D) abstract reasoning, grammar, and musical ability.
E) slow movement, facial recognition, and cognition.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
61) The left hemisphere plays a greater role in controlling the left hand than
A) it does in controlling the right hand.
B) the right hemisphere does in controlling the left hand.
C) the right hemisphere does in controlling the right hand.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 456
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
62) Left-hemisphere damage is more likely than right-hemisphere damage to be associated with
A) contralateral motor problems.
B) ipsilateral motor problems.
C) motor problems of the left hand.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 456
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
506
63) In order to identify an object, many people palpate it
A) in a bilaterally symmetrical fashion.
B) with their fingers.
C) with their right hemispheres.
D) after they have made an error.
E) until they get caught.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
64) The findings of a study by Sperry and his colleagues on emotion transfer in split-brain patients
suggested that
A) the identity of visual stimuli that induce emotional reactions often cannot be transferred
between surgically separated hemispheres without cross-cuing.
B) emotional reactions can be transferred between surgically separated hemispheres.
C) emotional reactions cannot be transferred between surgically separated hemispheres.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
65) Kimura found that the __________ ear was better at identifying digits and the __________ ear
was better at identifying melodies in the __________ test.
A) left; right; sodium amytal
B) right; left; dichotic listening
C) left; right; dichotic listening
D) right; left; sodium amytal
E) left; right; cross-cuing
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
507
66) Evidence that the perception of music is lateralized comes from demonstrations that
A) the left ear is superior to the right in the melodic dichotic listening test.
B) the right ear is superior to the left in the melodic dichotic listening test.
C) left temporal-lobe damage is more likely than right temporal-lobe damage to disrupt
musical abilities.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
67) With respect to the cerebral lateralization of memory, the
A) left hemisphere is superior.
B) right hemisphere is superior.
C) left and right hemispheres go about the task of remembering in different ways.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
68) With respect to the cerebral lateralization of memory, the
A) left hemispheres of split-brain patients perform like intact control subjects.
B) left hemispheres of split-brain patients tend to look for deeper meaning in their
memories.
C) right hemispheres of split-brain patients do not interpret; they attend strictly to the
perceptual aspects of their memories.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
508
69) With respect to cerebral lateralization of function,
A) the left hemisphere plays the greater role in language in most people.
B) the right hemisphere plays the greater role in spatial perception in many people .
C) lateralization of neither language nor spatial perception is total.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
70) As a result of mounting evidence that broad categories of cognitive function are not lateralized,
research on the lateralization of function has started to focus on
A) language.
B) constituent cognitive processes.
C) emotion.
D) spatial ability.
E) cognitive tasks.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
71) Both the planum temporale and Heschl’s gyrus are in
A) the temporal lobe.
B) the frontal lobe.
C) primary auditory cortex.
D) Wernicke’s area.
E) Broca’s area.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
72) The left planum temporale roughly corresponds to
A) Wernicke’s area.
B) Broca’s area.
C) the frontal operculum.
D) Heschl’s gyrus.
E) primary auditory cortex.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
509
73) Broca’s area roughly corresponds to
A) the left planum temporale.
B) the left frontal operculum.
C) the left Heschl’s gyrus.
D) Wernicke’s area.
E) the right frontal operculum.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
74) Which of the following structures was found to be larger in the left hemisphere in about 65%
of human brains?
A) Heschl’s gyrus
B) the planum temporale
C) frontal operculum
D) Broca’s area
E) both C and D
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
75) With respect to Heschl’s gyrus, left is to right as
A) 1 is to 2. B) 2 is to 1. C) 1 is to 3. D) 2 is to 3. E) 3 is to 1.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
76) The area of the frontal operculum that is visible on the surface tends to be __________ on the
right; the entire area of the area of the frontal operculum, including that buried in the sulci,
tends to be __________ on the right.
A) larger; smaller
B) smaller; smaller
C) larger; larger
D) the same size on the left as; larger
E) smaller; larger
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
510
77) Although there has been considerable interest in the discovery of several neuroanatomical
cerebral asymmetries in the areas of the human neocortex that are thought to play an
important role in language, there is yet no evidence that
A) Broca’s area is anatomically asymmetric in more than a few people.
B) people with more asymmetric brains tend to have more lateralized language functions.
C) any of the anatomical asymmetries precede the development of language.
D) Heschl’s gyrus is anatomically asymmetric in more than a few people.
E) the planum temporale is anatomically asymmetric in more than a few people.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
78) A structural MRI study found that the __________ lateralized to the left hemisphere in
musicians with perfect pitch than in musicians or nonmusicians without it.
A) planum temporale is more
B) planum temporale is less
C) frontal operculum is more
D) frontal operculum is less
E) Heschl’s gyrus is more
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
79) One theory of why lateralization of function evolved is that there are two fundamentally
different modes of thinking, each requiring different neural circuitry. These two modes of
thinking are referred to as
A) positive and negative.
B) scientific and nonscientific.
C) logical and illogical.
D) synthetic and analytic.
E) motor and nonmotor.
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
511
80) According to the analytic-synthetic theory of cerebral asymmetry,
A) the left hemisphere thinks in an analytic mode.
B) the left hemisphere operates in a logical computer-like fashion.
C) the right hemisphere is concerned with overall stimulus configuration and processes
information in Gestalts or wholes.
D) the left hemisphere abstracts relevant details and attaches verbal labels to them.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
81) According to the text, the main problem with the analytic-synthetic theory of cerebral
asymmetry is its
A) complexity.
B) brevity.
C) vagueness.
D) simplicity.
E) age.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
82) The motor theory of the lateralization of cerebral function is that
A) there are two basic modes of thinking, and the neural circuits mediating each of them
have become segregated, each in a different hemisphere.
B) the left hemisphere has become specialized for the control of fine motor movements,
including speech movements.
C) the left hemisphere is dominant for all analytic activities.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
512
83) Which of the following observations supports Kimura’s motor theory of cerebral asymmetry?
A) Lesions in the left frontal lobe produce deficits in the ability to make individual speech
sounds and individual facial movements.
B) Lesions in the left temporal or parietal lobe produce deficits both in the ability to make
sequences of speech sounds and sequences of facial movements.
C) Subjects with reading difficulties have difficulty performing a finger-tapping test.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
84) The strongest evidence for the linguistic theory of cerebral asymmetry comes from the study
of
A) deaf people who use American Sign Language.
B) split-brain subjects.
C) monkeys.
D) people with right-hemisphere damage.
E) people with bilateral brain damage.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
85) The fact that left-hemisphere damage disrupts the use of both American Sign Language and
conventional language supports the __________ theory of cerebral asymmetry.
A) analytic-synthetic
B) motor
C) linguistic
D) synthetic-analytic
E) Wernicke-Geschwind
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
513
86) The case of W.L. demonstrates that left hemisphere damage can disrupt __________ gestures
without disrupting __________ gestures.
A) linguistic; pantomime
B) linguistic; language
C) pantomime; linguistic
D) linguistic; sign language
E) pantomime; sign language
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
87) Reports of hand preference in nonhuman primates challenge the idea that
A) cerebral lateralization is an exclusive feature of the hominid brain.
B) handedness evolved in response to tool use by hominids.
C) handedness is an exclusive feature of hominids.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
88) The identification and study of the various areas in the left hemisphere that participate in
language-related activities is generally referred to as the study of
A) language asymmetry.
B) language lateralization.
C) the localization of language.
D) the functional asymmetry of language.
E) the Wernicke-Geschwind model.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
514
89) According to the text, watching a game of chess without knowing the rules would be like
studying the
A) lateralization of language without knowing the names of the commissures.
B) lateralization of language without knowing about Sperry’s Nobel-prize-winning
experiments.
C) localization of language without knowing about PET-scan experiments.
D) localization of language without knowing about the Wernicke-Geschwind model.
E) production of language without knowing about Broca’s area.
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
90) Wernicke’s area is
A) in the right parietal lobe.
B) in the right frontal lobe.
C) just posterior to the left primary auditory cortex.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
91) Theoretically, Broca’s area is to Wernicke’s area as
A) speech production is to speech reception.
B) speech production is to language comprehension.
C) conduction aphasia is to receptive aphasia.
D) the frontal operculum is to the arcuate fasciculus.
E) word salad is to conduction aphasia.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
92) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, word salad results from damage to
A) Wernicke’s area in the right hemisphere.
B) the frontal operculum.
C) Wernicke’s area.
D) the arcuate fasciculus.
E) Broca’s area.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
515
93) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, signals are carried from Wernicke’s area to
Broca’s area via the left
A) corpus callosum.
B) arcuate fasciculus.
C) massa intermedia.
D) angular gyrus.
E) primary motor cortex.
Answer: B
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
94) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, the visual form of a read word is translated into
a meaningful auditory code by
A) Broca’s area
B) Wernicke’s area.
C) the angular gyrus.
D) the primary motor cortex.
E) the arcuate fasciculus.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
95) Damage to the left angular gyrus has been implicated in some cases of
A) word salad.
B) alexia and agraphia.
C) aphagia.
D) expressive aphasia.
E) conduction aphasia.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 463
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
516
96) In the 1960s, Norman Geschwind
A) proposed a holistic, nonlocalizationist approach to the neuropsychology of language.
B) attacked the strict localizationist approach of Broca and Dejerine.
C) revived the old ideas of Broca, Dejerine, and Wernicke and melded them into an
influential theory.
D) both A and B
E) both A and C
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 463
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
97) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, during reading aloud, the output of Wernicke’s
area is transmitted to
A) the angular gyrus.
B) Broca’s area.
C) primary motor cortex.
D) Heschl’s gyrus.
E) the planum temporale.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
98) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, the neural output of the left frontal operculum
normally goes to
A) the primary motor cortex.
B) Broca’s area.
C) Wernicke’s area.
D) the angular gyrus.
E) the arcuate fasciculus.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
517
99) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, when we read, the output of the angular gyrus
is transmitted to
A) Wernicke’s area.
B) Broca’s area.
C) the primary motor cortex.
D) the arcuate fasciculus.
E) the primary visual cortex.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
100) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, Broca’s area contains the neural programs of
A) articulation (speech production).
B) reading.
C) language comprehension.
D) language reception.
E) translation.
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 464
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
101) The Wernicke-Geschwind model is a
A) serial model.
B) parallel model.
C) holistic, nonlocalizationist model.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 465
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
518
102) “Broca’s aphasia” and “Wernicke’s aphasia” are confusing terms because
A) the disorders to which they refer probably do not exist in their pure forms.
B) the disorders to which they refer do not, as their names imply, necessarily result from
damage to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, respectively.
C) they are predictions of the Wernicke-Geschwind model rather than, as their names imply,
commonly occurring neuropsychological disorders.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
103) Early research indicated that much of the postoperative aphasia resulting from the surgical
excision of Broca’s area was a consequence of
A) the removal of the center for speech production.
B) temporary postsurgical edema.
C) the removal of the center for speech reception.
D) the inadvertent removal of the arcuate fasciculus.
E) inadvertent damage to Wernicke’s area.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 466
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
104) Following surgical excision of the classic Wernicke-Geschwind speech areas, patients often do
not display the permanent language deficits that are predicted by the theory. Supporters of the
Wernicke-Geschwind model discounted these results by arguing that
A) these studies were uncontrolled.
B) the speech deficits of the patients were not properly assessed.
C) the brain pathology that warranted the surgery may have reorganized the brain.
D) not enough tissue was excised.
E) the excisions never really damaged Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas.
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
105) Of the 214 aphasic patients in the classic He´caen and Angelergues’s study, how many
displayed the selective disorders predicted by the Wernicke-Geschwind model (i.e., Broca’s
and Wernicke’s aphasia)?
A) 0 B) 23 C) 47 D) 102 E) 148
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
519
106) CT scan and structural MRI studies of patients with language-related disorders have generally
confirmed the Wernicke-Geschwind model by showing that
A) lesions restricted to Broca’s area produce Broca’s aphasia in many patients.
B) lesions restricted to Wernicke’s area produce Wernicke’s aphasia in many patients.
C) large anterior lesions are more likely to produce deficits in language reception than are
large posterior lesions, and large posterior lesions are more likely to produce deficits in
language expression than are large anterior lesions.
D) both A and B
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 468
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
107) The results of CT and structural MRI studies of aphasic patients indicate that
A) not all aphasic patients have damage to the classic Wernicke-Geschwind areas; for
example, some have damage restricted to the medial frontal lobes.
B) most, if not all, aphasics have extensive damage to subcortical white matter.
C) few, if any, aphasics have damage restricted to the classic Wernicke-Geschwind areas.
D) large anterior lesions tend to be associated with deficits in language expression, whereas
large posterior lesions tend to be associated with deficits in language comprehension.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
108) In contrast to the predictions of the Wernicke-Geschwind model, CT and structural MRI
studies have identified aphasic patients who appear to have damage restricted to
A) the medial frontal lobes.
B) the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area.
C) subcortical structures.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 468
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
109) The first large-scale cortical electrical stimulation studies of conscious human patients were
conducted by
A) Lashley. B) Penfield. C) Hebb. D) Kimura. E) Milner.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
520
110) The brain stimulation studies of Ojemann suggest that language abilities might be organized in
the cortex like a
A) mosaic.
B) phonograph.
C) text book.
D) lexicon.
E) serial.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
111) Electrical stimulation of the left neocortex of conscious human patients often
A) disrupts language-related abilities, even when applied to sites outside the areas
designated by the Wernicke-Geschwind model.
B) has similar effects at both anterior and posterior sites.
C) has different effects at the same sites in different subjects.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
112) Electrical stimulation of the left cerebral cortex of conscious patients can influence their speech
in a variety of ways. Which of the following is not a commonly observed speech-related
response to cortical stimulation? The patient
A) reflexively says an unintended phrase.
B) is momentarily mute.
C) can speak but finds it difficult to name common objects.
D) can speak but makes errors in counting.
E) mispronounces well-known words.
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 470
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
521
113) Individual speech sounds are called
A) semantics.
B) syllables.
C) graphics.
D) lexicons.
E) phonemes.
Answer: E
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
114) The lack of empirical support for the major predictions of the Wernicke-Geschwind model has
contributed to the prominence of a new approach to the study of the cerebral localization of
language: the
A) semantic approach.
B) cognitive neuroscience approach.
C) linguistic neuroscience approach.
D) constituent emotional approach.
E) biopsychological approach.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
115) According to the cognitive neuroscience approach to the study of language,
A) constituent cognitive processes of language are localized in the brain.
B) the areas of the brain involved in language are not dedicated solely to that purpose.
C) because language is very complex it is likely controlled by several large homogeneous
areas of cortex.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
522
116) Cognitive neuroscientists interested in language search for the parts of the brain that mediate
A) its phonemes.
B) language production.
C) language comprehension.
D) its constituent cognitive processes.
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
117) Areas of the brain that analyze the sounds of a word are said to be performing a __________
analysis.
A) phonological
B) semantic
C) grammatical
D) serial
E) lexical
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
118) Areas of the brain that interpret the meaning of a word are said to be performing a __________
analysis.
A) phonological
B) semantic
C) grammatical
D) phonemic
E) serial
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
523
119) The cognitive neuroscience approach to language is based to a large degree on the following
method:
A) fMRI.
B) PET.
C) CT.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 472
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
120) Bavalier et al. (1997) used a particularly sensitive fMRI procedure to study reading. They
found that
A) areas of activity in individual subjects were patchy.
B) areas of activity varied from subject to subject and within individual subjects from trial to
trial.
C) activity was widespread over the lateral surfaces of brain.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
121) Evidence suggests that naming of different categories of nouns π such as faces, animals, or
tools π is each mediated by a different part of the
A) parietal lobe.
B) temporal lobe.
C) frontal lobe.
D) occipital lobe.
E) limbic lobe.
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 473
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
524
122) In functional brain-imaging studies of language, most people display
A) no right-hemisphere activity.
B) almost no right-hemisphere activity.
C) substantial right-hemisphere activity.
D) more activity in the right hemisphere than in the left.
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 473
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
123) The most powerful fMRI tests suggest that the language areas of the cortex are
A) large, prescribed, and homogeneous.
B) patchy and widespread.
C) variable.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 472
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
124) A specific pathological difficulty in reading is termed
A) phonemia. B) aphasia. C) dyslexia. D) apraxia. E) lexicalia.
Answer: C
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 474
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
125) Approximately __________ of males and __________ of females fail to learn to read and write
despite conventional schooling and normal or superior intelligence.
A) 5%; 15% B) 1%; 2% C) 2%; 1% D) 15%; 25% E) 15%; 5%
Answer: E
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 474
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
525
126) Many cases of dyslexia are classified as
A) developmental.
B) semantic.
C) agnostic.
D) phonological.
E) phonemic.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
127) In comparison to the causes of developmental dyslexia, the causes of acquired dyslexia tend to
be more
A) severe. B) apparent. C) enduring. D) insidious. E) chemical.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
128) In comparison to English speakers, Italian speakers are __________ to be diagnosed as dyslexic.
A) less likely
B) 10% more likely
C) 50% more likely
D) twice as likely
E) 250% more likely
Answer: A
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
129) Italian speakers are less likely than English speakers to be diagnosed with dyslexia because
A) Italian has more phonemes.
B) Italian has fewer phonemes.
C) Italians have larger temporal lobes.
D) Italians have smaller temporal lobes.
E) Italians read more.
Answer: B
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
526
130) Reading aloud can be accomplished in two different ways: by the
A) phonetic and semantic procedures.
B) linguistic and semantic procedures.
C) lexical and phonetic procedures.
D) phonetic and phonological procedures.
E) surface and deep procedures.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
131) There seem to be two different procedures for reading aloud. The procedure that is based on
stored information about the pronunciation of specific written words is called the __________
procedure.
A) phonetic B) surface C) lexical D) twipple E) parallel
Answer: C
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
132) There are two major categories of acquired dyslexia:
A) surface and deep.
B) lexical and phonetic.
C) linguistic and semantic.
D) semantic and phonological.
E) lexical and semantic.
Answer: A
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
133) In surface dyslexia, the __________ procedure has been lost.
A) semantic
B) phonetic
C) lexical
D) deep
E) phonological
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
527
134) Mary is dyslexic. Most of her errors involve the misapplication of common rules of English
pronunciation; for example, she pronounces “have” as if it rhymed with “cave.” Mary has
__________ dyslexia.
A) surface B) deep C) temporal D) phonemic E) semantic
Answer: A
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
135) The words “spleemer” and “twipple” are normally read aloud by a __________ procedure.
A) linguistic B) semantic C) phonetic D) surface E) lexical
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
136) Dyslexics in whom the phonetic procedure is disrupted while the lexical procedure remains
normal are said to have __________ dyslexia.
A) surface
B) semantic
C) phonological
D) grammatical
E) deep
Answer: E
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 476
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
137) Bob is dyslexic. Most of his errors occur because he has difficulty applying the rules of English
pronunciation. He might say “hen” for “chicken” or “wise” for “wisdom.” Bob has __________
dyslexia.
A) surface B) deep C) temporal D) phonemic E) semantic
Answer: B
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 476
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
528
138) N.I. had a left hemispherectomy at the age of 13. Her deficits suggest that
A) she has deep dyslexia.
B) the mechanisms mediating the phonetic procedure for reading aloud were lateralized in
her left hemisphere.
C) she has surface dyslexia.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 477
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) The corpus callosum is the largest cerebral __________.
Answer: commissure
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
2) The discovery of the lateralization of language abilities is usually attributed to __________
although Dax preceded him.
Answer: Broca
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
3) Broca’s area is in the left __________ lobe.
Answer: frontal
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
4) The sodium amytal test and the __________ test were the first widely used tests of language
lateralization.
Answer: dichotic listening
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
5) More people are dextrals, but some are __________.
Answer: sinestrals
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 445
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
529
6) Roger __________ conducted the first systematic studies of the abilities of split-brain patients,
and he received a Nobel prize for this research.
Answer: Sperry
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 449
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
7) The left planum temporale corresponds roughly to __________.
Answer: Wernicke’s area
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
8) Broca’ s area corresponds to the part of the cortex referred to as the left __________.
Answer: frontal operculum
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 458
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
9) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, __________ area is the center of speech
production.
Answer: Broca’s
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.4 Cortical Localization of Language
10) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, word salad results from damage to __________
area.
Answer: Wernicke’s
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462
Topic: 14.4 Cortical Localization of Language
11) According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, the visual form of a read word is translated into
a meaningful auditory code by the left __________.
Answer: angular gyrus
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 463
Topic: 14.4 Cortical Localization of Language
12) What proportion of patients with damage restricted to Broca’s area display pure Broca’s
aphasia? Approximately __________%.
Answer: 0.0
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
530
13) Individual speech sounds are called __________.
Answer: phonemes
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470
Topic: 14.5 Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model
14) Interpreting the meaning of a word is called a __________ analysis.
Answer: semantic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
15) PET and __________ are currently the main imaging techniques used by cognitive
neuroscientists to study language.
Answer: fMRI
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472
Topic: 16.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
16) It has been reported that naming faces, animals, and tools each activates a slightly different
area of the __________ lobe.
Answer: temporal
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 473
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
17) __________ is a specific pathological difficulty in reading.
Answer: Dyslexia
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 474
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
18) In comparison to English speakers, Italian speakers are less likely to be diagnosed as
__________.
Answer: dyslexic
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
19) In __________ dyslexia, the lexical procedure is lost and the phonetic procedure maintained.
Answer: surface
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 475
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
20) The inability to pronounce simple nonsense words is a symptom of __________ dyslexia.
Answer: deep
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 476
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
531
21) Left hemispherectomy induced severe __________ dyslexia in case N.I.
Answer: deep
Diff: 3 Page Ref: 477
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia
Essay Questions
1) Describe the discovery of the lateralization of aphasia and apraxia. What was the impact of
these discoveries on how brain organization was viewed?
Diff: 1
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
2) Compare three methods for studying lateralization of function.
Diff: 2
Topic: 14.1 Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction
3) Describe and discuss the ground-breaking study of Myers and Sperry on split-brain cats.
Diff: 2
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
4) Describe the methods used to study split-brain humans. Provide evidence that each
hemisphere of a split-brain patient can function independently.
Diff: 2
Topic: 14.2 The Split Brain
5) Discuss lateralization of function in human patients, being sure to emphasize some common
misunderstandings.
Diff: 2
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
6) Discuss anatomical asymmetries of the human brain. Discuss the functional (i.e., behavioral
significance) of these anatomical asymmetries.
Diff: 3
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
7) Compare the following three theories of cerebral asymmetry: the analytic-synthetic theory, the
motor theory, and the linguistic theory.
Diff: 3
Topic: 14.3 Differences Between the Left and Right Hemispheres
532
8) Briefly describe the Wernicke-Geschwind model and evaluate its ability to predict research
findings.
Diff: 2
Topic: 14.4 Cortical Localization of Language
9) Discuss the cognitive neuroscience approach to language. Describe one such study in detail.
Diff: 3
Topic: 14.6 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language
10) Describe cognitive neuroscientific studies of dyslexia. In your answer, explain the difference
between deep and surface dyslexia.
Diff: 3
Topic: 14.7 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach and Dyslexia

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