Atmosphere The An Introduction to Meteorology 12Th Ed By Frederick K. Lutgens – Test Bank

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Atmosphere The An Introduction to Meteorology 12Th Ed By Frederick K. Lutgens – Test Bank

The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12e (Lutgens/Tarbuck/Tasa)

Chapter 2   Heating Earth’s Surface and Atmosphere

 

1) Earth’s perihelion:

  1. A) coincides with the summer solstice.
  2. B) would not exist if the earth’s orbit were circular.
  3. C) coincides with the winter solstice.
  4. D) occurs when the earth is farthest from the Sun.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 36

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

2) Earth is closest to the Sun during:

  1. A) Northern hemisphere autumn.
  2. B) Southern hemisphere autumn.
  3. C) Southern hemisphere winter.
  4. D) Northern hemisphere winter.
  5. E) Northern hemisphere summer.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 36

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

3) Early in January the earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time of year. This position is termed:

  1. A) equinox.
  2. B) perihelion.
  3. C) aphelion.
  4. D) albedo.
  5. E) revolution.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 36

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

4) Low sun angles result in reduced solar energy because:

  1. A) energy is spread over a larger area.
  2. B) Sun – Earth distance is greater.
  3. C) absorption is reduced.
  4. D) day lengths are shorter.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 37

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

5) Over the course of this year, the tilt of Earth’s polar axis will:

  1. A) remains constant at 90 degrees.
  2. B) vary from 0 to 23.5 degrees.
  3. C) vary from 0 to 47 degrees.
  4. D) remain constant at 23.5 degrees.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 38

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

6) Flagstaff, AZ is at 35 degrees N latitude. What is the angle of the Sun’s noon rays here on March 21?

  1. A) 35 degrees
  2. B) 55 degrees
  3. C) 47 degrees
  4. D) 0 degrees

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 39

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

7) The 90 degrees angle rays strike the Tropic of Cancer on:

  1. A) June 21.
  2. B) March 21.
  3. C) September 22.
  4. D) December 21.
  5. E) July 4.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 39

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

8) Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?

  1. A) The length of daylight at the Arctic and Antarctic Circle is 24 hours.
  2. B) The Sun’s vertical rays are striking either the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn.
  3. C) Days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world.
  4. D) They occur in June and December.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

9) At 45 degrees S latitude, the angle of the noon Sun is lowest and the length of daylight is shortest on:

  1. A) December 21.
  2. B) January 23.
  3. C) June 21.
  4. D) March 21.
  5. E) September 22.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

10) The first day of the climatological season of summer is:

  1. A) June 1.
  2. B) June 21.
  3. C) July 1.
  4. D) July 4 (perihelion).

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

11) Which of the following associations is INCORRECT?

  1. A) aphelion — Earth furthest from the sun
  2. B) vernal equinox — equal day/equal night
  3. C) summer solstice — solar declination at the Tropic of Cancer
  4. D) autumnal equinox — shortest day of the year for the Arctic Circle

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

12) The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on approximately:

  1. A) June 21.
  2. B) March 21.
  3. C) September 22.
  4. D) December 21.
  5. E) January 3.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

13) At what time of year is the earth’s axis not tilted either toward or away from the Sun?

  1. A) autumnal equinox
  2. B) winter solstice
  3. C) summer solstice
  4. D) perihelion
  5. E) aphelion

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

14) The length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator on:

  1. A) June 21.
  2. B) December 21.
  3. C) September 22.
  4. D) March 21.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

15) New York City has its greatest length of daylight on:

  1. A) March 21.
  2. B) September 22.
  3. C) June 21.
  4. D) December 21.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

16) During the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, the circle of illumination passes directly through the:

  1. A) equator.
  2. B) Tropic of Capricorn.
  3. C) poles.
  4. D) Tropic of Cancer.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

17) The date that the Sun “sets” at the North Pole is:

  1. A) June 21.
  2. B) March 21.
  3. C) December 21.
  4. D) September 22.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

18) The date that the Sun “rises” at the North Pole is:

  1. A) January 3.
  2. B) June 21.
  3. C) March 21.
  4. D) September 22.
  5. E) December 21.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

19) The longest day of the year in the United States occurs on:

  1. A) June 21.
  2. B) March 3.
  3. C) November 18.
  4. D) December 4.
  5. E) September 30.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

20) The primary cause of Earth’s seasons is:

  1. A) changes in atmospheric thickness.
  2. B) varying orbital speed.
  3. C) tilt of Earth’s rotation axis, which causes sun angles and daylight length to vary.
  4. D) regular changes in radiation emitted by the Sun.
  5. E) varying distance from the Sun, which changes how much radiation Earth receives from the Sun.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 42

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

21) The energy associated with motion is called:

  1. A) kinetic energy.
  2. B) potential energy.
  3. C) vibrational energy.
  4. D) molecular motion energy.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 43

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

22) During natural processes, heat transfer is always from:

  1. A) warmer to cooler substances.
  2. B) cooler to warmer substances.
  3. C) solids to liquids.
  4. D) gases to solids.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 44

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

23) Heat:

  1. A) is a measure of the average kinetic energy possessed by molecules.
  2. B) is synonymous with temperature.
  3. C) is a transfer of energy from areas with high temperatures to those with low temperatures.
  4. D) measures the total kinetic energy in a substance.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 44

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

24) The two types of heat recognized by meteorologists are:

  1. A) latent heat and sensible heat.
  2. B) latent heat and kinetic heat.
  3. C) kinetic heat and radiative heat.
  4. D) sensible heat and conductive heat.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 44

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

25) The process of ________ involves the movement or circulation of a mass or substance.

  1. A) radiation
  2. B) conduction
  3. C) convection

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 45

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

26) The transfer of heat through matter by molecular collisions is called:

  1. A) conduction.
  2. B) radiation.
  3. C) convection.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 45

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

27) The longest wavelengths on the electromagnetic spectrum are:

  1. A) gamma.
  2. B) ultraviolet.
  3. C) infrared.
  4. D) radio.
  5. E) visible light.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

28) The earth receives energy from the Sun by:

  1. A) convection.
  2. B) radiation.
  3. C) conduction.
  4. D) scattering.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

29) Wind is an example of:

  1. A) advection.
  2. B) conduction.
  3. C) radiation.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

30) Thermals and advection are both types of:

  1. A) conduction
  2. B) radiation.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) transmission.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

31) Wavelengths of the visible spectrum are between:

  1. A) 0.4 and 0.7 meters.
  2. B) 0.25 and 2.5 micrometers.
  3. C) 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers.
  4. D) 4 and 7 micrometers.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

32) In meteorological terminology, the primary difference between convection and advection is:

  1. A) Convection represents vertical heat transfer and advection represents horizontal heat transfer.
  2. B) Convection represents horizontal heat transfer and advection represents vertical heat transfer.
  3. C) Convection represents upper atmosphere heat transfer and advection represents surface heat transfer.
  4. D) Convection represents surface heat transfer and advection represents upper atmosphere heat transfer.
  5. E) None of the above; the terms are used interchangeably.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

33) The wavelengths emitted by the earth are:

  1. A) shorter than those emitted by the Sun.
  2. B) longer than those emitted by the Sun.
  3. C) ultraviolet.
  4. D) about the same as those emitted by the Sun except when the Sun is experiencing sunspots.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

34) The type of energy that is responsible for sunburn is:

  1. A) infrared energy.
  2. B) ultraviolet energy.
  3. C) gamma ray energy.
  4. D) microwave energy.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  15: Physical Systems Affect Human Systems

 

 

35) The earth emits terrestrial radiation:

  1. A) only over the continents.
  2. B) all the time.
  3. C) only at night.
  4. D) only during winter.
  5. E) only during the day.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

36) Most of the radiation emitted by the earth and its atmosphere is in the category of:

  1. A) x-rays.
  2. B) ultraviolet.
  3. C) gamma.
  4. D) infrared.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

37) Radiation is intercepted in the atmosphere and its wavelength is measured at 1.0 micrometers. This radiation was most likely emitted by:

  1. A) the Earth.
  2. B) a cloud.
  3. C) the atmosphere.
  4. D) the Sun.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

38) Objects with higher temperatures:

  1. A) emit only shortwave radiation.
  2. B) emit more shortwave radiation than cooler objects do.
  3. C) emit most of their energy in the form of longwave energy.
  4. D) radiate less total energy than cooler objects radiate.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

E = σ

 

 

39) The equation shown above mathematically represents the:

  1. A) Wien’s Displacement Law.
  2. B) Stefan-Boltzmann Law.
  3. C) Surface Albedo calculation.
  4. D) Radiation Displacement Theory.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

40) The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that:

  1. A) the rate of radiation emitted by a body is based on its size.
  2. B) the wavelength of radiation emitted by a body is determined by its temperature.
  3. C) all bodies emit equivalent wavelengths of energy, regardless of size or temperature.
  4. D) the rate of radiation emitted by a body is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

 

 = C/T

 

 

41) In the equation for Wien’s Displacement Law (shown above), the  stands for:

  1. A) a radiating body’s wavelength of maximum emission.
  2. B) a radiating body’s maximum rate of energy emission.
  3. C) the maximum temperature associated with a given energy wavelength.
  4. D) the value of Wien’s constant associated with a given energy wavelength.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

42) The temperature of a pool of lava is measured at 1275 K. Given a Wien’s constant value of 2898 μmK, what is the wavelength of maximum emission from the lava?

  1. A) 149838.63 μm
  2. B) 2.273 μm
  3. C) 0.213 μm
  4. D) The answer cannot be determined from the information given.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

43) The temperature of a cloud is measured at 280 K. Given the Stefan-Boltzmann constant of 5.67 × 10-8, what is the rate of radiation emitted by the cloud?

  1. A) 349 W/m2
  2. B) 10.4 W/m2
  3. C) 4.9 × 10-8 W/m2
  4. D) The information cannot be determined with the information given.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

44) The primary factor which determines what type and how much radiation an object emits is its

  1. A) color.
  2. B) conductivity.
  3. C) size.
  4. D) density.
  5. E) temperature.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

45) The UV Index can tell you:

  1. A) the expected rate of skin cancer occurrence in a given city.
  2. B) the relative change in UV production during a severe solar wind event.
  3. C) the approximate time it will take you to sunburn on a given day, based on your skin type.
  4. D) what percent of Earth’s radiation is emitted as UV radiation.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 49

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  15: Physical Systems Affect Human Systems

 

 

46) Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40 percent. This means that:

  1. A) 60 percent of the Sun’s energy is reflected.
  2. B) 40 percent of the Sun’s energy is absorbed.
  3. C) 40 percent of the Sun’s energy is reflected.
  4. D) more energy is reflected than absorbed.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

47) On the average, how much of the Sun’s energy that is intercepted by the earth system is reflected to space?

  1. A) 19 percent
  2. B) 30 percent
  3. C) 25 percent
  4. D) 45 percent
  5. E) 51 percent

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

48) Most of the solar energy absorbed by planet Earth and its atmosphere is absorbed by:

  1. A) atmospheric dust.
  2. B) the earth’s surface.
  3. C) clouds.
  4. D) atmospheric gases.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

49) Which of the following does NOT happen to solar radiation as it passes through the atmosphere?

  1. A) Intensification
  2. B) Scattering
  3. C) Transmission
  4. D) Absorption

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

50) Clouds are most likely to ________ incoming solar radiation.

  1. A) conduct
  2. B) transmit
  3. C) reflect
  4. D) absorb

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

51) During reflection,

  1. A) radiation is separated into several groups of weaker rays that travel in different directions.
  2. B) radiation retains the same intensity but bounces back from the surface at a random angle.
  3. C) a portion of radiation is absorbed by the surface and the rest bounces off of the surface.
  4. D) radiation retains the same intensity and bounces back at the same angle with which it struck the surface.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

52) Of the following choices, the surface with the HIGHEST albedo is:

  1. A) fresh snow.
  2. B) grass.
  3. C) sand.
  4. D) water (Sun near zenith).
  5. E) thin cloud.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

53) Scattering:

  1. A) prevents nearly half of incoming solar radiation from reaching the surface of the earth.
  2. B) changes the wavelength of light.
  3. C) is responsible for the redness of sunsets.
  4. D) is the primary mechanism of heat transfer in the atmosphere.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 52

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

54) Crepuscular rays:

  1. A) are emitted by objects with very low temperatures.
  2. B) are usually tinted blue.
  3. C) occur only when no clouds, haze, or dust particles are present in the atmosphere.
  4. D) occur when water droplets scatter all wavelengths of sunlight equally.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 52

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

55) Which of the following gases does not absorb any portion of incoming solar radiation?

  1. A) nitrogen
  2. B) oxygen
  3. C) ozone
  4. D) water vapor

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 53

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

56) The atmosphere is strongly ________ with respect to terrestrial radiation.

  1. A) absorptive
  2. B) reflective
  3. C) transparent
  4. D) conductive

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 53

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

57) The atmosphere is highly ________ with respect to solar radiation.

  1. A) absorptive
  2. B) transparent
  3. C) reflective
  4. D) conductive

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 53

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

58) Which of the following gases is the best absorber of ultraviolet light?

  1. A) nitrogen dioxide
  2. B) water vapor
  3. C) carbon dioxide
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) carbon monoxide

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 53

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

59) The atmosphere is ________ to terrestrial radiation that has a wavelength between 8 and 11 micrometers.

  1. A) reflective
  2. B) absorptive
  3. C) conductive
  4. D) transparent

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

60) The atmosphere is heated primarily by:

  1. A) absorption of Earth’s longwave radiation.
  2. B) absorption of solar radiation.
  3. C) conduction from the ground.
  4. D) convection from the ground.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

61) Clouds play an important role in the earth’s energy budget because they:

  1. A) absorb longwave radiation and re-radiate it towards the surface.
  2. B) cool the air around them.
  3. C) reflect solar energy.
  4. D) reflect the earth’s infrared energy.
  5. E) Both A and C

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

62) When encountering terrestrial longwave radiation, clouds are most likely to ________ it.

  1. A) transmit
  2. B) scatter
  3. C) reflect
  4. D) absorb

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

63) The absorption of longwave radiation by certain gases in the lower atmosphere is responsible for:

  1. A) photon effect.
  2. B) greenhouse effect.
  3. C) atmospheric window effect.
  4. D) adiabatic effect.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

64) An astronomer tells you that he has discovered a new planet that he calls Planet X. All he knows about Planet X so far is that it has a very dense atmosphere with a temperature approximately 5 times warmer than that of Earth. What hypothesis can you reasonably make regarding the atmosphere of Planet X?

  1. A) The atmosphere of Planet X must not contain any oxygen, so people couldn’t live there.
  2. B) Planet X cannot contain water in any form.
  3. C) The nitrogen cycle does not operate on Planet X in the same way it does on Earth.
  4. D) The atmosphere of Planet X has a higher concentration of greenhouse gases than Earth’s does.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 55

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

65) If an imbalance occurs between incoming and outgoing energy at the earth’s surface,

  1. A) temperatures remain steady.
  2. B) maximum temperatures occur.
  3. C) minimum temperatures occur.
  4. D) temperatures either increase or decrease.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 56

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

66) Which of the following describes the role played by the water cycle in determining the earth’s heat budget?

  1. A) has no significant role
  2. B) transfers heat from atmosphere to space
  3. C) transfers heat from atmosphere to surface
  4. D) transfers heat from surface to atmosphere

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 56

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

67) An analemma is best used to determine:

  1. A) the distance between the sun and the earth on any day of the year.
  2. B) the tilt of Earth’s axis on any day of the year.
  3. C) the solar declination on any day of the year.
  4. D) solar altitude at any given time of the day.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 63

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

68) Based on the analemma above, what is the approximate location of the solar declination on August 26?

  1. A) 10° N
  2. B) 10° S
  3. C) 23.5° N
  4. D) 18°N

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 63

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

69) Using the analemma above, calculate the noon Sun angle for a latitude of 40° N on February 14. Choose the correct answer below.

  1. A) 15°
  2. B) 0°
  3. C) 47°
  4. D) 63°

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 63

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

70) Perihelion occurs during the Northern Hemisphere’s winter.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 36

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

71) Seasonal temperature variations are due primarily to the changing distance between the earth and the Sun.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 36

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

72) Low sun angles are associated with longer atmospheric path lengths.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 37

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

73) The North Pole remains pointed towards the sun at all times, regardless of where the Earth is in its orbit.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 38

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

74) The earth’s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 38

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

75) Sun angle is the angular distance from the observer’s horizon to the Sun at noon.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 39

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

76) The equator receives vertical rays from the Sun year ’round.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

77) In Australia, the summer solstice occurs a few days before Christmas.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 40

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

78) The Sun ‘rises’ at the South Pole on September 22.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

79) Fairbanks, Alaska, has more hours of daylight in June than Miami, Florida.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 41

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

80) A change in the temperature of an object signifies that its heat (or energy) content is stable.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 44

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

81) Heat transfer by convection in the atmosphere is usually downward, from air to ground.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 45

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

82) Meteorologically, conduction is the most important mechanism of heat transfer.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 45

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

83) Advection refers to vertical convection motions.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

84) Microwaves have the shortest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

85) Conduction in the oceans redistributes most of the “extra” heat from the equatorial regions to the polar regions.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

86) When an object absorbs radiant energy, its temperature increases.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

87) All objects emit radiation.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

88) Visible light comprises more than half of the total solar energy.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

89) Although electromagnetic radiation is described with a variety of names and wavelengths, it is all fundamentally similar in behavior.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 47

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

90) The primary reason why planet Earth radiates much less energy than the Sun is because of its much smaller size.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

91) The higher the temperature of a radiating body, the shorter the wavelength of maximum radiation.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

92) As an object cools, the wavelengths of its maximum radiation shorten.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 48

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

93) Snow-covered surfaces have a low albedo.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

94) A 300-meter-thick cloud cover can reflect no more than 14 percent of incoming solar radiation.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

95) Water vapor accounts for the majority of atmospheric warming in the lower troposphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

96) The troposphere warms as a direct result of shortwave energy passing into it.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

97) Deserts experience cool nighttime temperatures because of a weaker greenhouse effect.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

98) Distance variations between the earth and the Sun are extremely important in understanding seasonal temperature variations.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

99) The atmosphere is heated chiefly by radiation emitted from the earth’s surface.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

100) More solar energy is reflected back to space than is absorbed directly by the atmosphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

101) The atmosphere of Venus is composed primarily of carbon dioxide.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 55

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

102) The intensity of the Sun’s rays at a place is determined by the time of year and the ________ of the place.

Answer:  latitude

Page Ref: 42

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

103) ________ is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance.

Answer:  Temperature

Page Ref: 44

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

104) During a cold winter, snow can provide a useful shelter material for animals and humans because of its low ________.

Answer:  conductivity

Page Ref: 45

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

105) The wavelengths of energy that can be detected by the human eye are called ________.

Answer:  visible light

Page Ref: 46

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

106) What contributes the greatest amount of reflection to Earth’s total albedo?

Answer:  clouds

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

107) The fraction of the total radiation encountered that is reflected by a surface is called its ________.

Answer:  albedo

Page Ref: 50

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

108) The blue color of the sky is due to ________ of light.

Answer:  scattering

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

109) The brightness of the daytime sky is due to ________ of light.

Answer:  scattering

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

110) Light that is scattered and eventually reaches the earth’s surface after having its direction changed is called ________.

Answer:  diffused light

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

111) Part of the cause of the greenhouse effect is the near ________ of the atmosphere to solar radiation.

Answer:  transparency

Page Ref: 54

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

112) What energy transfer process is the most important in the transfer of energy from the earth’s surface into the atmosphere?

Answer:  radiation

Page Ref: 56

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

113) You are building a new home in a climate where there is a persistent snow cover for the 6 coldest months of the year. In order to improve your energy efficiency, should you choose light colored shingles or dark colored shingles? Justify your answer using appropriate terminology.

Answer:  While students might jump to the answer of dark shingles in order to help the roof absorb sunlight and thus be warmer in the winter, when energy bills are likely to be higher, the key is to remember the persistent snow cover. In an area with persistent winter snow cover, most roofs have an albedo above 90% all winter long because they are covered with snow. This is particularly true of new construction that is completed with good insulation in the attic, preventing heat loss to the roof. Therefore, the shingle color is most likely to play a role in the energy balance of a home during the summer when it is actually visible and interacting with incoming solar radiation. In that case, the lighter shingle is the better choice, as its higher albedo will ensure that the roof reflects a greater percentage of incoming solar radiation and stays cooler as a result.

Page Ref: 51

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyze

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12e (Lutgens/Tarbuck/Tasa)

Chapter 16   Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere

 

1) Reflection, refraction and diffraction all cause light to change its:

  1. A) direction.
  2. B) frequency.
  3. C) intensity.
  4. D) color.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 449-450, 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

2) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of ________.

  1. A) refraction
  2. B) reflection
  3. C) interference
  4. D) dispersion
  5. E) diffraction

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

3) Before sunlight interacts with the atmosphere, it is this color.

  1. A) violet
  2. B) white
  3. C) blue
  4. D) yellow
  5. E) red

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

4) ________ light allows you to see yourself in a mirror.

  1. A) Reflected
  2. B) Refracted
  3. C) Iridescent
  4. D) Infrared

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

5) The law of ________ states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

  1. A) refraction
  2. B) reflection
  3. C) interference
  4. D) light

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

6) When light encounters a rough surface, the rays will strike the surface at ________ angle(s), which tends to ________ the light rays.

  1. A) one; limit
  2. B) different; limit
  3. C) one; scatter
  4. D) different; scatter

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

7) ________ occurs when light that is traveling through a transparent material reaches the opposite surface and is reflected back into the transparent material.

  1. A) External refraction
  2. B) External reflection
  3. C) Internal refraction
  4. D) Internal reflection

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

8) The phenomenon that results from the speed of light changing as it passes into different substances is:

  1. A) internal reflection.
  2. B) interference.
  3. C) refraction.
  4. D) reflection.
  5. E) diffraction.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

9) When light is refracted, the degree of bending is determined in part by:

  1. A) the total change in velocity as the light passes from one medium to the next.
  2. B) the distance the light has traveled from its source.
  3. C) the temperature of the refracting medium.
  4. D) the length of time the light takes to travel through the refracting medium.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

10) Light bends because of a change in the ________.

  1. A) weight
  2. B) amplitude
  3. C) temperature
  4. D) velocity

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

11) The speed of light in space (between the Sun and Earth) is

  1. A) fastest for blue light.
  2. B) fastest for ultraviolet light.
  3. C) fastest for violet light.
  4. D) fastest for red light.
  5. E) same for all colors.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

12) If light enters a transparent medium at a right angle (perpendicular), what change occurs to the light?

  1. A) It is reflected rather than entering the medium.
  2. B) Both its direction and velocity are altered.
  3. C) Only its direction is changed.
  4. D) Only its velocity is changed.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

13) The property of light that causes your arm to look bent when it is submerged in water is called:

  1. A) reflection.
  2. B) refraction.
  3. C) dispersion.
  4. D) interference.
  5. E) diffraction.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

14) When light passes from water into air, it bends:

  1. A) away from the perpendicular.
  2. B) towards the perpendicular.
  3. C) at a 45° angle to the surface of the water.
  4. D) more slowly.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

15) Earth’s atmosphere is able to gradually refract light rays:

  1. A) because of the changing density of air as you get closer to the surface.
  2. B) only when it is very dry.
  3. C) only when the sun is very high in the sky.
  4. D) because of air pollution that is present.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

16) Which of these atmospheric properties is most important concerning whether mirages will be seen?

  1. A) visibility
  2. B) barometric pressure
  3. C) humidity
  4. D) temperature change with height
  5. E) wind speed

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

17) Mirages are caused by:

  1. A) reflection of sunlight.
  2. B) variations in air density.
  3. C) diffraction of sunlight.
  4. D) scattering of sunlight.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

18) The “wet area” or water surface mirage as seen on a highway occurs when:

  1. A) an inversion is present.
  2. B) humidity is high.
  3. C) air pressure is high.
  4. D) temperature lapse rate is large.
  5. E) air density is low.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

19) A layer of very warm, low density air near the surface causes light to:

  1. A) bend in a curve that follows the curvature of the Earth’s surface.
  2. B) bend in a curve opposite that of the Earth.
  3. C) reflect at a higher angle off of the surface.
  4. D) separate into its various color components.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

20) The desert vision of palm trees reflected in water is usually not reality but an example of:

  1. A) an inferior mirage.
  2. B) looming.
  3. C) a superior mirage.
  4. D) a lunar glory.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

21) Mirages result from which of these optical processes?

  1. A) diffraction
  2. B) dispersion
  3. C) reflection
  4. D) refraction
  5. E) interference

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

22) Mirages:

  1. A) are caused by the reflection of light.
  2. B) appear most often in air with a small temperature gradient.
  3. C) only occur in the desert.
  4. D) are known as superior mirages when an object appears higher than it really is.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

23) Superior mirages appear ________ the observed object, and inferior mirages appear ________.

  1. A) above; below
  2. B) below; above
  3. C) larger than; smaller
  4. D) smaller than; larger

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

24) A mirage will appear to be looming when:

  1. A) air is very unstable.
  2. B) there is a strong temperature inversion.
  3. C) there is a strong negative lapse rate.
  4. D) it appear smaller than the actual object.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

25) A looming mirage appears to be:

  1. A) closer than the actual object.
  2. B) below the actual object.
  3. C) larger than the actual object.
  4. D) suspended above the actual object.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

26) In terms of the process of formation, which one of the following optical phenomena is unlike the other three?

  1. A) sun dog
  2. B) halo
  3. C) mirage
  4. D) solar pillar

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 452, 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analyze

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

27) ________ occurs when cold air near the surface bends light in the same direction as the Earth’s curvature, causing the object to appear suspended above the horizon.

  1. A) Fata Morgana
  2. B) Towering
  3. C) Looming
  4. D) Aurora borealis

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

28) A mirage that changes the apparent size of an object is called:

  1. A) magnification.
  2. B) towering.
  3. C) looming.
  4. D) dispersion.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

29) If you see large towers or mountains that seem to appear out of thin air, you are probably witnessing:

  1. A) Fata Morgana
  2. B) Looming
  3. C) Inferior mirage
  4. D) Glory

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

30) The highway ahead of you appears “wet” on days when:

  1. A) light is refracted through the windshields of other cars.
  2. B) water vapor in the atmosphere reflects incoming light.
  3. C) light passes through colder air aloft into very warm air near the surface.
  4. D) light is refracted by very cold air near the surface.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

31) A green flash appears when:

  1. A) the sun is just rising or setting.
  2. B) there is a rainstorm in progress.
  3. C) light is refracted around the edges of clouds.
  4. D) there is a temperature inversion present.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 454

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

32) Secondary rainbows result from:

  1. A) temperature inversions.
  2. B) more cloud drops being present.
  3. C) drops being very small.
  4. D) multiple reflections inside the raindrops.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

33) When sunlight interacts with a raindrop to produce a rainbow, how many refractive events occur for each drop?

  1. A) 42
  2. B) 1
  3. C) 2
  4. D) zero

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  8: Characteristics and Distribution of Ecosystems

 

34) Which of these are the primary optical phenomena causing a rainbow?

  1. A) diffraction, reflection
  2. B) dispersion, interference
  3. C) reflection, interference
  4. D) refraction, reflection
  5. E) reflection, diffraction

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  8: Characteristics and Distribution of Ecosystems

35) Why do rainbows have a curved shape?

  1. A) Water molecules are circular.
  2. B) The earth is circular.
  3. C) The optical process is circularly symmetrical around the path of the sunlight.
  4. D) The Sun is a spherical body.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

36) The speed of light in water is:

  1. A) fastest for violet light.
  2. B) fastest for ultraviolet light.
  3. C) same for all colors.
  4. D) fastest for red light.
  5. E) fastest for blue light.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

37) Rainbows are always seen with the Sun:

  1. A) behind you.
  2. B) ahead of you.
  3. C) to your right.
  4. D) to your left.
  5. E) 42 degrees above the horizon.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

38) Which of these is most important for splitting the Sun’s light into its separate colors?

  1. A) interference
  2. B) internal reflection
  3. C) diffraction
  4. D) reflection
  5. E) refraction

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

39) The ________ is seen most often in morning and late afternoon when the Sun is near the horizon.

  1. A) sun dog
  2. B) halo
  3. C) rainbow
  4. D) glory
  5. E) A, B and C

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 455, 457, 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

40) Which of the following colors is never found in the interior of a rainbow?

  1. A) blue
  2. B) orange
  3. C) red
  4. D) green

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

41) A secondary rainbow:

  1. A) is above the primary rainbow.
  2. B) has a broader band of colors.
  3. C) is brighter than the primary rainbow.
  4. D) is formed from ice, not water.
  5. E) is typically seen in the early afternoon, not in the morning.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

42) In order to see a rainbow, an observer must ________ the Sun and ________ the rain.

  1. A) have his back to; have his back to
  2. B) face; face
  3. C) face; have his back to
  4. D) have his back to; face

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

43) Red light travels the ________ and is therefore bent the ________.

  1. A) fastest; least
  2. B) slowest; most
  3. C) slowest; least
  4. D) fastest; most

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

44) Violet-colored light travels at the ________ rate and is therefore refracted the ________.

  1. A) slowest; most
  2. B) fastest; least
  3. C) fastest; most
  4. D) slowest; least

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

45) The separation of colors by refraction is called:

  1. A) glory.
  2. B) dispersion.
  3. C) towering.
  4. D) looming.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

46) A rainbow in the morning signifies weather approaching because:

  1. A) weather moves from west to east, and you must be between the rising sun and the rain to see the rainbow.
  2. B) a rainbow only occurs when air is very unstable.
  3. C) a rainbow forms during the mature phase of a thunderstorm.
  4. D) you must have the sun between you and the storm to see a rainbow.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 456

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

47) The interpretation of a halo around the Moon as a sign of impending rain (or snow) stems from:

  1. A) the geometry of the Moon’s size and distance.
  2. B) a false weather proverb.
  3. C) the association of cirrus clouds with cyclonic storms.
  4. D) halos being present only when clouds are thick.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

48) The ________ is produced by refraction caused by ice crystals.

  1. A) rainbow
  2. B) halo
  3. C) corona
  4. D) glory

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

49) The ________ forms in association with the Moon as well as the Sun.

  1. A) rainbow
  2. B) sun dog
  3. C) glory
  4. D) halo

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

50) Halos:

  1. A) are usually red.
  2. B) come in four sizes.
  3. C) are formed by six-sided crystals.
  4. D) are actually invisible.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

51) A 46° halo results instead of a 22° halo when:

  1. A) light passes through the side of an ice crystal but exits through the base or the top.
  2. B) light passes through the side of an ice crystal and exits through the opposite side.
  3. C) light is refracted by liquid water droplets rather than frozen ice crystals.
  4. D) light reflects off of the side of ice crystals rather than passing through them.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

52) The ________ usually appears in conjunction with a halo.

  1. A) glory
  2. B) rainbow
  3. C) corona
  4. D) sun dog

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

53) Sun dogs create the appearance of:

  1. A) a ring around the sun.
  2. B) two “mock suns” on the outer rim of a halo.
  3. C) a rainbow around the observer’s shadow.
  4. D) shimmering water on the horizon.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

54) Why don’t halos display the colors of a rainbow?

  1. A) The shape and size of ice crystals are not uniform.
  2. B) Refraction does not occur with a halo.
  3. C) Reflection does not occur with a halo.
  4. D) Ice crystals are not transparent.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

55) Halos result from ice crystals with a ________ orientation, while sun dogs are created by ice crystals with a ________ orientation.

  1. A) horizontal; circular
  2. B) circular; horizontal
  3. C) random; vertical
  4. D) vertical; random

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

56) Usually seen near sunrise or sunset in association with falling ice crystals, ________ are vertical shafts of light that appear to extend upward from the Sun..

  1. A) sun pillars
  2. B) sun dogs
  3. C) Fata Morgana
  4. D) perihelion

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 459

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

57) Which optical process is most important in causing the corona?

  1. A) refraction
  2. B) absorption
  3. C) dispersion
  4. D) reflection
  5. E) diffraction

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  8: Characteristics and Distribution of Ecosystems

 

58) The ________ is not often seen by earthbound observers.

  1. A) halo
  2. B) sun dog
  3. C) corona
  4. D) glory
  5. E) rainbow

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

59) If you want to see the glory from the surface of the Earth, which conditions must be met?

  1. A) You must be above a bank of fog or clouds with the sun at your back.
  2. B) You must be near a body of water when the sun is low on the horizon.
  3. C) You must be viewing a halo when the sun is rising.
  4. D) It is impossible to see the glory from the ground; you must be on an airplane.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

60) Diffraction occurs when light:

  1. A) strikes ice crystals at a 90° angle.
  2. B) reflects more than twice inside a water droplet.
  3. C) passes through both liquid droplets and ice crystals.
  4. D) passes close to water droplets.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

61) A ________ is one of the few optical phenomena more frequently observed with the moon than the sun.

  1. A) halo
  2. B) corona
  3. C) green flash
  4. D) pillar

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 461

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

62) Clouds that refract sunlight or moonlight and take on bright violet, green, and pink colors are called:

  1. A) iridescent clouds.
  2. B) the glory.
  3. C) coronal clouds.
  4. D) sprites.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 461

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

63) Incident light striking a rough surface is diffused.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

64) It is the interaction of white sunlight with our atmosphere that creates the numerous optical phenomena that take place in the sky.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

65) The angle of incidence always equals the angle of reflection.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

66) Internal reflection is an important factor in the formation of optical phenomena.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 449

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

67) The bending of light by reflection is responsible for such common optical illusions as the apparent displacement of the position of the stars, the Moon, and the Sun.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

68) In the near vacuum of outer space, light typically travels in a straight line at uniform speed.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 450

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

69) Light will gradually bend due changes in velocity and density.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

70) We are able to perceive light as bending.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

71) Refraction only occurs when light crosses a boundary between different substances.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

72) Refraction of light bends it towards the perpendicular of the slower medium.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

73) Reflection always involves the passage of a light ray from one substance into another.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

74) The curving of light by air is greater when the light source is near the zenith.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 451

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

75) A mirage is an optical effect caused by refraction when light passes from air with one density into air with a different density, causing the object to appear displaced from its true position.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

76) We see the Sun for a few minutes after it has set below the horizon.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

77) When the air near the ground is substantially warmer than the air aloft, the light rays bend with a curvature that is the same as the Earth’s.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

78) A superior image is seen above its true position.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

79) Your mind’s interpretation that light travels only in straight lines is an important part of explaining mirages.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

80) A mirage is a real image and can be photographed.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

81) Fata Morgana is a type of halo that is frequently observed in mountainous areas.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

82) In any direction at an angle of 42 degrees from the path of the Sun’s rays, droplets will be directing the color blue toward the observer, thus forming a semicircle of color across the sky.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

83) When a rainbow is seen in the morning, the Sun is located to the west of the observer and the raindrops are located in the east.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

84) The secondary rainbow is located outside the primary bow.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

85) When two people view a rainbow, they both are observing the same bow.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

86) Violet light is refracted more than red light when it passes from air into water.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

87) Weather proverbs such as “Rainbow in the morning…” can be based on sound scientific facts.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 456

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

88) If you see a rainbow in the afternoon, it means the bad weather has already passed.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 456

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

89) Four basic types of ice crystals contribute to the formation of halos: plates, columns, bullets, and capped columns.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

90) Refraction is not a part of the optical process of forming halos.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

91) Although mostly seen by pilots, the glory’s name comes from its appearance when viewed by an observer located on the ground.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

92) Because the glory forms opposite the Sun’s position, the observer’s shadow will always be found within the glory.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

93) The cloud drops responsible for the glory are smaller than those responsible for the rainbow.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 460

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

94) The color sequence of a corona is exactly opposite that of a halo.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 461

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

95) Iridescent clouds form most often with cumulonimbus clouds.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 461

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

96) When a mirage appears below the true location of the observed object, it is called a(n) ________ mirage.

Answer:  inferior

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

97) Why are mirages generally associated with either very hot surface temperatures or very cold surface temperatures?

Answer:  Mirages occur when there are very rapid changes of air density with height and these require large temperature variations. The most likely situation for this is with very hot or cold temperatures at the surface.

Page Ref: 452

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

98) A type of mirage in which towering castles appear out of thin air is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  Fata Morgana

Page Ref: 453

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

99) Usually ________ color bands can be observed in a rainbow.

Answer:  six

Page Ref: 454

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

100) You will not be able to see a rainbow if the Sun is greater than ________° above the horizon.

Answer:  42

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

101) What well-known person is credited with explaining how the colors of the rainbow are produced using a prism?

Answer:  Sir Isaac Newton

Page Ref: 455

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

102) Why are halos and sun dogs associated with cirrus clouds and rainbows with cumulus clouds?

Answer:  Halos and sun dogs involve light interacting with ice crystals which comprise cirrus while liquid droplets from a warmer cumulus cloud are required to form a rainbow.

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

103) This type of cloud is most often present when halos form.

Answer:  cirrus

Page Ref: 457

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

104) These vertical shafts of light are created by slowly falling crystals of ice.

Answer:  sun pillars

Page Ref: 458

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

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