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Applied Statistics in Business And Economics 5th Edition by Doane Test Bank
Chapter 02
Data Collection
True / False Questions
1.  Categorical data have values that are described by words rather than numbers.
True False 
2.  Numerical data can be either discrete or continuous.
True False 
3.  Categorical data are also referred to as nominal or qualitative data.
True False 
4.  The number of checks processed at a bank in a day is an example of categorical data.
True False 
5.  The number of planes per day that land at an airport is an example of discrete data.
True False 
6.  The weight of a bag of dog food is an example of discrete data.
True False 
7.  In last year’s annual report, Thompson Distributors indicated that it had 12 regional warehouses. This is an example of ordinal level data.
True False 
8.  Nominal data refer to data that can be ordered in a natural way.
True False 
9.  This year, Oxnard University produced two football AllAmericans. This is an example of continuous data.
True False 
10.  The type of statistical test that we can perform is independent of the level of measurement of the variable of interest.
True False 
11.  Your weight recorded at your annual physical would not be ratio data, because you cannot have zero weight.
True False 
12.  The level of measurement for categorical data is nominal.
True False 
13.  Temperature measured in degrees Fahrenheit is an example of interval data.
True False 
14.  The closing price of a stock is an example of ratio data.
True False 
15.  The Statistical Abstract of the United States is a huge annual compendium of data for the United States, and it is available online free of charge.
True False 
16.  Ordinal data can be treated as if it were nominal data but not vice versa.
True False 
17.  Responses on a sevenpoint Likert scale are usually treated as ratio data.
True False 
18.  Likert scales are especially important in opinion polls and marketing surveys.
True False 
19.  Ordinal data are data that can be ranked based on some natural characteristic of the items.
True False 
20.  Ratio data are distinguished from interval data by the presence of a zero reference point.
True False 
21.  It is better to attempt a census of a large population instead of relying on a sample.
True False 
22.  Judgment sampling and convenience sampling are nonrandom sampling techniques.
True False 
23.  A problem with judgment sampling is that the sample may not reflect the population.
True False 
24.  When the population is large, a sample estimate is usually preferable to a census.
True False 
25.  Sampling error is avoidable by choosing the sample scientifically.
True False 
26.  A sampling frame is used to identify the target population in a statistical study.
True False 
27.  By taking a systematic sample, in which we select every 50^{th} shopper arriving at a specific store, we are approximating a random sample of shoppers.
True False 
28.  A worker collecting data from every other shopper who leaves a store is taking a simple random sample of customer opinion.
True False 
29.  Creating a list of people by taking the third name listed on every 10^{th} page of the phone book is an example of convenience sampling.
True False 
30.  Internet surveys posted on popular websites have no bias since anyone can reply.
True False 
31.  Analysis of monthbymonth changes in stock market prices during the most recent recession would require the use of time series data.
True False 
32.  A cluster sample is a type of stratified sample that is based on geographical location.
True False 
33.  An advantage of a systematic sample is that no list of enumerated data items is required.
True False 
34.  Telephone surveys often have a low response rate and fail to reach the desired population.
True False 
35.  Mail surveys are attractive because of their high response rates.
True False 
36.  A problem with convenience sampling is that the target population is not well defined.
True False 
37.  If you randomly sample 50 students about their favorite places to eat, the data collected would be referred to as crosssectional data.
True False 
38.  The number of FedEx shipping centers in each of 50 cities would be ordinal level data.
True False 
39.  Internet surveys posted on popular websites such as MSN.com suffer from nonresponse bias.
True False 
40.  Different variables are usually shown as columns of a multivariate data set.
True False 
41.  Each row in a multivariate data matrix is an observation (e.g., an individual response).
True False 
42.  A bivariate data set has only two observations on a variable.
True False 
43.  Running times for 3,000 runners in a 5k race would be a multivariate data set.
True False 
44.  Running times for 500 runners in a 5k race would be a univariate data set.
True False 
45.  A list of the salaries, ages, and years of experience for 50 CEOs is a multivariate data set.
True False 
46.  The daily closing price of Apple stock over the past month would be a time series.
True False 
47.  The number of words on 50 randomly chosen textbook pages would be crosssectional data.
True False 
48.  A Likert scale with an even number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree” is intended to prevent “neutral” choices.
True False 
49.  Private statistical databases (e.g., CRSP) are usually free.
True False 
Multiple Choice Questions
50.  An investment firm rates bonds for AardCo Inc. as “B+,” while bonds of Deva Corp. are rated “AA.” Which level of measurement would be appropriate for such data?

51.  Which variable is least likely to be regarded as ratio data?

52.  Which of the following is numerical data?

53.  Measurements from a sample are called:

54.  Quantitative variables use which two levels of measurement?

55.  Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is an example of a(n) __________ variable.

56.  Using a sample to make generalizations about an aspect of a population is called:

57.  Your telephone area code is an example of a(n) ____________ variable.

58.  Which is least likely to be regarded as a ratio variable?

59.  Automobile exhaust emission of CO_{2} (milligrams per mile) is ____________ data.

60.  Your rating of the food served at a local restaurant using a threepoint scale of 0 = gross, 1 = decent, 2 = yummy is ___________ data.

61.  The number of passengers “bumped” on a particular airline flight is ____________ data.

62.  Which should not be regarded as a continuous random variable?

63.  Which of the following is not true?

64.  Which of the following is true?

65.  Which statement is correct?

66.  A Likert scale:

67.  Which is most nearly correct regarding sampling error?

68.  Which statement is false?

69.  Judgment sampling is sometimes preferred over random sampling, for example, when:

70.  An advantage of convenience samples is that:

71.  Before deciding whether to assess heavy fines against noisy airlines, which sampling method would the Federal Aviation Administration probably use to measure the peak noise from departing jets as measured by a groundlevel observer at a point one mile from the end of the departure runway?

72.  Professor Hardtack chose a sample of 7 students from his statistics class of 35 students by picking every student who was wearing red that day. Which kind of sample is this?

73.  Thirty work orders are selected from a filing cabinet containing 500 work order folders by choosing every 15^{th} folder. Which sampling method is this?

74.  Which of the following is not a likely reason for sampling?

75.  Comparing a census of a large population to a sample drawn from it, we expect that the:

76.  A stratified sample is sometimes recommended when:

77.  A random sample is one in which the:

78.  An advantage of convenience samples over random samples is that:

79.  To measure satisfaction with its cell phone service, AT&T takes a stratified sample of its customers by age, gender, and location. Which is an advantage of this type of sampling, as opposed to other sampling methods?

80.  An accounting professor wishing to know how many MBA students would take a summer elective in international accounting did a survey of the class she was teaching. Which kind of sample is this?

81.  A binary variable (also called a dichotomous variable or dummy variable) has:

82.  A population has groups that have a small amount of variation within them, but large variation among or between the groups themselves. The proper sampling technique is:

83.  A manager chose two people from his team of eight to give an oral presentation because she felt they were representative of the whole team’s views. What sampling technique did she use in choosing these two people?

84.  Sampling bias can best be reduced by:

85.  A sampling technique used when groups are defined by their geographical location is:

86.  If we choose 500 random numbers using Excel’s function =RANDBETWEEN(1,99), we would most likely find that:

87.  A problem with nonrandom sampling is that:

88.  From its 32 regions, the FAA selects 6 regions, and then randomly audits 25 departing commercial flights in each region for compliance with legal fuel and weight requirements. This is an example of:

89.  Which of the following is a correct statement?

90.  Which of the following is false?

91.  When we are choosing a random sample and we do not place chosen units back into the population, we are:

92.  Which method is likely to be used by a journalism student who is casually surveying opinions of students about the university’s cafeteria food for an article that she is writing?

93.  Which of the following is false?

94.  Which is a time series variable?

95.  An observation in a data set would refer to:

96.  A multivariate data set contains:

97.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) wants to estimate the average extra hospital stay that occurs when heart surgery patients experience postoperative atrial fibrillation. They divide the United States into nine regions. In each region, hospitals are selected at random within each hospital size group (small, medium, large). In each hospital, heart surgery patients are sampled according to known percentages by age group (under 50, 50 to 64, 65 and over) and gender (male, female). This procedure combines which sampling methods?

98.  Which statement is correct?

99.  Which is a categorical variable?

100.  Which is a discrete variable?

101.  A section of the population we have targeted for analysis is:

102.  Which is not a time series variable?

103.  A good Likert scale may not have:

104.  A Likert scale with an odd number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree”:

105.  A Likert scale with an even number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree”:

106.  Which statement is correct?

107.  Which statement is correct?

Short Answer Questions
108.  Which survey method would you recommend to survey opinions of airline passengers about the cleanliness of the restrooms in the Detroit airport? Why not the others?

109.  What kind of sampling method would you suggest in order to tabulate the number of formulas on a typical page of the DoaneSeward textbook? Defend your choice.

110.  How would you design a study to see whether drivers using handsfree cell phones are distracted enough to slow their reactions to emergency situations? How would you collect data?

111.  Explain the concept of a focus group. In what ways does a focus group resemble a survey? Why is a moderator desirable? What else is required to make a successful focus group?

Chapter 02 Data Collection Answer Key
True / False Questions
1.  Categorical data have values that are described by words rather than numbers.
TRUE Categories are nominal data but could also be ranked (e.g., sophomore, junior, senior). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
2.  Numerical data can be either discrete or continuous.
TRUE Numerical data can be counts (e.g., cars owned) or continuous scales (e.g., height). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
3.  Categorical data are also referred to as nominal or qualitative data.
TRUE Categories are nominal data (nonnumerical), sometimes called qualitative data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
4.  The number of checks processed at a bank in a day is an example of categorical data.
FALSE Integers are actually numerical data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
5.  The number of planes per day that land at an airport is an example of discrete data.
TRUE Integers are discrete numerical data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
6.  The weight of a bag of dog food is an example of discrete data.
FALSE Weight is measured on a continuous scale. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
7.  In last year’s annual report, Thompson Distributors indicated that it had 12 regional warehouses. This is an example of ordinal level data.
FALSE “Number of” is a count, which is ratio data because a zero exists (better than ordinal). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
8.  Nominal data refer to data that can be ordered in a natural way.
FALSE Nominal (categorical) data would be called ordinal only if categories can be ranked. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
9.  This year, Oxnard University produced two football AllAmericans. This is an example of continuous data.
FALSE The “number of” anything is discrete. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
10.  The type of statistical test that we can perform is independent of the level of measurement of the variable of interest.
FALSE Some statistical operations are restricted unless you have ratio or interval data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
11.  Your weight recorded at your annual physical would not be ratio data, because you cannot have zero weight.
FALSE Zero is only a reference point, not necessarily an observable data value. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
12.  The level of measurement for categorical data is nominal.
TRUE Categorical and nominal are equivalent terms. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
13.  Temperature measured in degrees Fahrenheit is an example of interval data.
TRUE For temperature, scale distances are meaningful (20 to 25 is the same as 50 to 55 degrees), and 0 degrees Fahrenheit does not mean the absence of heat, so it is not a ratio measurement. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
14.  The closing price of a stock is an example of ratio data.
TRUE True zero exists as a reference, whether or not it is observed. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
15.  The Statistical Abstract of the United States is a huge annual compendium of data for the United States, and it is available online free of charge.
TRUE A useful reference for business (e.g., for marketing, economics, or finance). 
AACSB: Technology Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0208 Find everyday print or electronic data sources. Topic: Data Sources 
16.  Ordinal data can be treated as if it were nominal data but not vice versa.
TRUE You can always go back to a lower level of measurement (but not vice versa). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
17.  Responses on a sevenpoint Likert scale are usually treated as ratio data.
FALSE No true zero point exists on a Likert scale. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
18.  Likert scales are especially important in opinion polls and marketing surveys.
TRUE Likert scales are used in all kinds of surveys. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0205 Recognize a Likert scale and know how to use it. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
19.  Ordinal data are data that can be ranked based on some natural characteristic of the items.
TRUE For example, the eras Jurassic, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic can be ranked in time. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
20.  Ratio data are distinguished from interval data by the presence of a zero reference point.
TRUE The true zero is a reference that need not be observable. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
21.  It is better to attempt a census of a large population instead of relying on a sample.
FALSE A census may founder on cost and time, while samples can be quick and accurate. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
22.  Judgment sampling and convenience sampling are nonrandom sampling techniques.
TRUE To be random, every item must have the same chance of being chosen. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
23.  A problem with judgment sampling is that the sample may not reflect the population.
TRUE While better than mere convenience, judgment may still have flaws. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
24.  When the population is large, a sample estimate is usually preferable to a census.
TRUE A census may founder on cost and time, while samples can be quick and accurate. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
25.  Sampling error is avoidable by choosing the sample scientifically.
FALSE Sampling error is unavoidable, though it can be reduced by careful sampling. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
26.  A sampling frame is used to identify the target population in a statistical study.
TRUE Only some portion of the population may be targeted (e.g., independent voters). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
27.  By taking a systematic sample, in which we select every 50^{th} shopper arriving at a specific store, we are approximating a random sample of shoppers.
TRUE There is no bias if this method is implemented correctly. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
28.  A worker collecting data from every other shopper who leaves a store is taking a simple random sample of customer opinion.
FALSE Not unless the target population is customers who shopped today (cf., all customers). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
29.  Creating a list of people by taking the third name listed on every 10^{th} page of the phone book is an example of convenience sampling.
FALSE This resembles twostage cluster sampling combined with systematic sampling. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
30.  Internet surveys posted on popular websites have no bias since anyone can reply.
FALSE Selfselection bias exists (respondents may be atypical). 
AACSB: Technology Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Surveys 
31.  Analysis of monthbymonth changes in stock market prices during the most recent recession would require the use of time series data.
TRUE Data collected and recorded over time would be a time series. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
32.  A cluster sample is a type of stratified sample that is based on geographical location.
TRUE For example, sampling voters randomly within random zip codes. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
33.  An advantage of a systematic sample is that no list of enumerated data items is required.
TRUE Systematic sampling works with a list (like random sampling) but also without one. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
34.  Telephone surveys often have a low response rate and fail to reach the desired population.
TRUE Phone surveys are cheaper, but it is hard to avoid these problems. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Surveys 
35.  Mail surveys are attractive because of their high response rates.
FALSE Mail surveys have low response rates and invite selfselection bias. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Surveys 
36.  A problem with convenience sampling is that the target population is not well defined.
TRUE Convenience sampling is quick but not random, and the target population is unclear. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
37.  If you randomly sample 50 students about their favorite places to eat, the data collected would be referred to as crosssectional data.
TRUE Data for individuals would be a cross section (not a time series). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
38.  The number of FedEx shipping centers in each of 50 cities would be ordinal level data.
FALSE The “number of” anything is ratio data because a true zero reference point exists. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
39.  Internet surveys posted on popular websites such as MSN.com suffer from nonresponse bias.
TRUE Nonresponse or selfselection bias is rampant in such surveys. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Surveys 
40.  Different variables are usually shown as columns of a multivariate data set.
TRUE It is customary to use a column for each variable, while each row is an observation. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
41.  Each row in a multivariate data matrix is an observation (e.g., an individual response).
TRUE It is customary to use a column for each variable, while each row is an observation. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
42.  A bivariate data set has only two observations on a variable.
FALSE Bivariate refers to the number of variables, not the number of observations. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
43.  Running times for 3,000 runners in a 5k race would be a multivariate data set.
FALSE Regardless of the number of observations, we have only one variable (running time). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
44.  Running times for 500 runners in a 5k race would be a univariate data set.
TRUE Regardless of the number of observations, we have only one variable (running time). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
45.  A list of the salaries, ages, and years of experience for 50 CEOs is a multivariate data set.
TRUE We would have a data matrix with 50 rows and 3 columns. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
46.  The daily closing price of Apple stock over the past month would be a time series.
TRUE Data collected over time is a time series. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
47.  The number of words on 50 randomly chosen textbook pages would be crosssectional data.
TRUE Data were not collected over time, so we have crosssectional data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
48.  A Likert scale with an even number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree” is intended to prevent “neutral” choices.
TRUE An even number of scale points (e.g., 4) forces the respondent to “lean” toward one end of the scale or the other. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0205 Recognize a Likert scale and know how to use it. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
49.  Private statistical databases (e.g., CRSP) are usually free.
FALSE Private research databases generally require a subscription (often expensive). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0208 Find everyday print or electronic data sources. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Data Sources 
Multiple Choice Questions
50.  An investment firm rates bonds for AardCo Inc. as “B+,” while bonds of Deva Corp. are rated “AA.” Which level of measurement would be appropriate for such data?
Ranks are clear, but interval would require assumed equal scale distances (doubtful). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
51.  Which variable is least likely to be regarded as ratio data?
Likert scales have no true zero. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
52.  Which of the following is numerical data?
Fuel economy is numerical. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
53.  Measurements from a sample are called:
A measurement calculated from a sample is a statistic. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
54.  Quantitative variables use which two levels of measurement?
Numerical (quantitative) data can be interval or ratio. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
55.  Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is an example of a(n) __________ variable.
No true zero exists in temperature measurements except on the Kelvin scale. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
56.  Using a sample to make generalizations about an aspect of a population is called:
Generalizing from a sample to a population is an inference. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
57.  Your telephone area code is an example of a(n) ____________ variable.
Area codes are not even ranked, so just nominal. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
58.  Which is least likely to be regarded as a ratio variable?
Ratings on a Likert scale have no meaningful zero. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
59.  Automobile exhaust emission of CO_{2} (milligrams per mile) is ____________ data.
True zero exists. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
60.  Your rating of the food served at a local restaurant using a threepoint scale of 0 = gross, 1 = decent, 2 = yummy is ___________ data.
Only rankings implied (not equal scale distances). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
61.  The number of passengers “bumped” on a particular airline flight is ____________ data.
True zero exists (no passengers might be bumped). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
62.  Which should not be regarded as a continuous random variable?
Counting things yields integer (discrete) data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
63.  Which of the following is not true?
The “number of” anything is a discrete numerical variable. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
64.  Which of the following is true?
True zero exists (not observable, but as a reference point), so ratios have meaning. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0204 Recognize levels of measurement in data and ways of coding data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
65.  Which statement is correct?
Review the characteristics of each sampling method. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
66.  A Likert scale:
Marketers use Likert scales and try to make scales with meaningful intervals. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0205 Recognize a Likert scale and know how to use it. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
67.  Which is most nearly correct regarding sampling error?
Sampling involves error, though it can be minimized by proper methodology. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
68.  Which statement is false?
Selection bias occurs when respondents are atypical. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Surveys 
69.  Judgment sampling is sometimes preferred over random sampling, for example, when:
Judgment sampling can save time and may be better than mere convenience. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
70.  An advantage of convenience samples is that:
Convenience samples are quick, with a possible tradeoff of accuracy. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
71.  Before deciding whether to assess heavy fines against noisy airlines, which sampling method would the Federal Aviation Administration probably use to measure the peak noise from departing jets as measured by a groundlevel observer at a point one mile from the end of the departure runway?
From the cockpit, pilots can’t assess external noise levels, so a radio survey of pilots is not useful. Measurements must be taken from the ground. No list is available for the unpredictable mix of departing flights, so we can’t use a simple random sample. A judgment sample would not provide an objective basis for assessing fines. A reasonable option would be for ground observers to record the aircraft size, type, and carrier (airline) for each departing flight for a week and use this information to construct a stratified sample. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
72.  Professor Hardtack chose a sample of 7 students from his statistics class of 35 students by picking every student who was wearing red that day. Which kind of sample is this?
Quick but may not be representative of all students. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
73.  Thirty work orders are selected from a filing cabinet containing 500 work order folders by choosing every 15^{th} folder. Which sampling method is this?
Classic systematic sample from an accessible but unlisted population. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
74.  Which of the following is not a likely reason for sampling?
Random numbers are cheap (e.g., Excel). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
75.  Comparing a census of a large population to a sample drawn from it, we expect that the:
Census is often impractical, while samples can be extremely accurate. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
76.  A stratified sample is sometimes recommended when:
Identifiable strata such as gender, ethnicity, or region can be used. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
77.  A random sample is one in which the:
Each item must have the same chance of being picked if the sample is random. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
78.  An advantage of convenience samples over random samples is that:
Convenience samples are often used because they are quick (but maybe not accurate). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
79.  To measure satisfaction with its cell phone service, AT&T takes a stratified sample of its customers by age, gender, and location. Which is an advantage of this type of sampling, as opposed to other sampling methods?
Stratified sampling can yield more complete and accurate information. 
AACSB: Diversity Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Analyze Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Topic: Sampling Methods 
80.  An accounting professor wishing to know how many MBA students would take a summer elective in international accounting did a survey of the class she was teaching. Which kind of sample is this?
She may bias the estimate because only accounting students were surveyed. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
81.  A binary variable (also called a dichotomous variable or dummy variable) has:
Binary variables are used in every field of business to code qualitative (nominal) data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
82.  A population has groups that have a small amount of variation within them, but large variation among or between the groups themselves. The proper sampling technique is:
Identifiable strata call for stratified sampling if you can afford the extra time and cost. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
83.  A manager chose two people from his team of eight to give an oral presentation because she felt they were representative of the whole team’s views. What sampling technique did she use in choosing these two people?
Expert judgment may be better than just pointing a finger (we hope). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
84.  Sampling bias can best be reduced by:
Sampling error can’t be eliminated, but sampling bias can be avoided. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
85.  A sampling technique used when groups are defined by their geographical location is:
Strata based on location can be targeted through cluster sampling. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
86.  If we choose 500 random numbers using Excel’s function =RANDBETWEEN(1,99), we would most likely find that:
On average, we’d expect each number to occur around five times. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
87.  A problem with nonrandom sampling is that:
Only random sampling gives every item the same chance to be picked. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
88.  From its 32 regions, the FAA selects 6 regions, and then randomly audits 25 departing commercial flights in each region for compliance with legal fuel and weight requirements. This is an example of:
Twostage cluster sampling is being used (a special form of stratification). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
89.  Which of the following is a correct statement?
Review the sampling methods and their characteristics. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Analyze Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
90.  Which of the following is false?
Review the terminology of sampling. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
91.  When we are choosing a random sample and we do not place chosen units back into the population, we are:
Sampling without replacement avoids redundancy, yet nonreplacement is biased. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
92.  Which method is likely to be used by a journalism student who is casually surveying opinions of students about the university’s cafeteria food for an article that she is writing?
Quick and easy may trump true random sampling for a busy journalist. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
93.  Which of the following is false?
Coverage error is when you miss some segment of the target population. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Surveys 
94.  Which is a time series variable?
If x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n} do not refer to n time periods, it isn’t a time series. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
95.  An observation in a data set would refer to:
We usually put observations in rows on a spreadsheet, while each column is a variable. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
96.  A multivariate data set contains:
When you have more than two variables, it is multivariate data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0201 Use basic terminology for describing data and samples. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
97.  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) wants to estimate the average extra hospital stay that occurs when heart surgery patients experience postoperative atrial fibrillation. They divide the United States into nine regions. In each region, hospitals are selected at random within each hospital size group (small, medium, large). In each hospital, heart surgery patients are sampled according to known percentages by age group (under 50, 50 to 64, 65 and over) and gender (male, female). This procedure combines which sampling methods?
Identifiable strata were sampled, but also random within strata and regional clusters. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
98.  Which statement is correct?
Done carefully, systematic sampling is close to random when there is no list. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Methods 
99.  Which is a categorical variable?
Categories have only names (e.g., Calvin Klein). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
100.  Which is a discrete variable?
The “number of” anything is discrete numerical data. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Variables and Data 
101.  A section of the population we have targeted for analysis is:
We must define the segment we want to look at (e.g., independent voters). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0206 Use the correct terminology for samples and populations. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Sampling Concepts 
102.  Which is not a time series variable?
If x_{1}, x_{2},…, x_{n} do not refer to n time periods, it isn’t a time series. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0203 Explain the difference between time series and crosssectional data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
103.  A good Likert scale may not have:
Surveys try to create scales with meaningful intervals. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0202 Explain the difference between numerical and categorical data. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
104.  A Likert scale with an odd number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree”:
Likert scales should have arguably equal intervals. A middle neutral response is possible with an odd number of scale points (e.g., 5 or 7). 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0205 Recognize a Likert scale and know how to use it. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
105.  A Likert scale with an even number of scale points between “Strongly Agree” and “Strongly Disagree”:
Likert scales should have arguably equal intervals. An even number of scale points (e.g., 4) forces the respondent to “lean” toward one end of the scale or the other. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0205 Recognize a Likert scale and know how to use it. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Level of Measurement 
106.  Which statement is correct?
Periodicals are often uptodate and readily available data sources. Web data may be unreliable, and searches may be directed toward obtaining payment for data. Private research databases generally require a subscription, while government data sources generally are free. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0208 Find everyday print or electronic data sources. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Data Sources 
107.  Which statement is correct?
Periodicals are often uptodate and readily available data sources. Web data may be unreliable, and searches may be directed toward obtaining payment for data. Private research databases generally require a subscription, while government data sources generally are free. 
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 0208 Find everyday print or electronic data sources. Learning Objective: 0209 Describe basic elements of survey types, survey designs, and response scales. Topic: Data Sources 
Short Answer Questions
108.  Which survey method would you recommend to survey opinions of airline passengers about the cleanliness of the restrooms in the Detroit airport? Why not the others?
Restroom users are usually in a hurry and do not wish to talk to anyone while entering or leaving the facility, so direct observation or handout surveys would not work. A questionnaire could be emailed or mailed to a sample of frequent flyers. No telephone surveys, because people would distrust the call. A web survey would have nonresponse bias. Feedback: This is a difficult sampling problem. Restroom users are usually in a hurry and do not wish to talk to anyone while entering or leaving the facility. Thus, direct observation or handout surveys would not work. Perhaps a questionnaire could be emailed or mailed to a sample of frequent flyers who departed or arrived at this airport in a recent month, if a major airline were willing to cooperate. This assumes that frequent flyers are a reasonable target population. You would probably not use a telephone survey, because people would distrust the call. A web survey would have nonresponse bias (i.e., respondents would probably be those with a gripe). Students may digress into sampling methods (random, systematic, cluster, stratified) instead of survey types. Ingenious students may propose other novel methods of sampling opinions. 
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Surveys 
109.  What kind of sampling method would you suggest in order to tabulate the number of formulas on a typical page of the DoaneSeward textbook? Defend your choice.
Pages are numbered, so a simple random sample would be easy, or a systematic sample (e.g., every 20^{th} page starting at page 17). Case could be made for cluster or stratified samples (e.g., by chapter or topic). Feedback: Since the pages are numbered, a simple random sample would be quite easy. Have Excel print n random integers between 001 and 773 (or whatever the length of the book is). You would want to exclude the table of contents, appendixes, indexes, and so on). Another good choice would be a systematic sample (e.g., every 20^{th} page starting at page 17) or a variation such as every page divisible by 20. These methods would be unbiased. Possible cases could be made for cluster or stratified samples (e.g., by chapter or topical area), but these might offer little gain. 
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Topic: Sampling Methods 
110.  How would you design a study to see whether drivers using handsfree cell phones are distracted enough to slow their reactions to emergency situations? How would you collect data?
No observation of drivers (too dangerous). Tests using a simulator would permit data to be collected automatically and would permit stratified sampling by driver characteristics (e.g., age group, gender, cell phone type). Feedback: Don’t use direct observation of drivers (too dangerous). Tests using a simulator would permit data to be collected automatically on reaction times to emergencies. This would permit stratified sampling by driver characteristics (e.g., age group, gender, cell phone type). Many answers are possible. The emphasis should be on how carefully the student has thought about the question. Beware of simplistic answers or impossible data collection schemes. 
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Surveys 
111.  Explain the concept of a focus group. In what ways does a focus group resemble a survey? Why is a moderator desirable? What else is required to make a successful focus group?
Data collected in a focus group are richer in qualitative details and may contain information that would be missed in a survey. A trained moderator can help keep the group on track and manage interpersonal issues that may arise. Feedback: Data collected in a focus group are richer in qualitative details, and may contain information that would be missed in a survey. Yet a focus group is like a survey in that it seeks to extract useful information and patterns from individuals. Participants are not chosen completely at random, but rather are selected to represent different backgrounds and diverse viewpoints of interest to the researchers. A welltrained moderator can help keep the group on track and manage interpersonal issues that may arise. 
AACSB: Reflective Thinking Blooms: Evaluate Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 0207 Explain the common sampling methods and how to implement them. Topic: Sampling Methods 
Chapter 16
Nonparametric Tests
True / False Questions
1.  Nonparametric tests can be used in small samples.
True False 
2.  Nonparametric tests may require special tables for small samples.
True False 
3.  Nonparametric tests generally are more powerful than parametric tests when normality cannot be assumed.
True False 
4.  Parametric tests generally are more powerful than nonparametric tests when normality can be assumed.
True False 
5.  Rejection of a hypothesis using a nonparametric test is less convincing than using an equivalent parametric test, since nonparametric tests generally make fewer assumptions.
True False 
6.  Rejection of a hypothesis using a nonparametric test is more convincing than using an equivalent parametric test when the data are badly skewed.
True False 
7.  If the population is normal, we would usually prefer a nonparametric test.
True False 
8.  Most nonparametric tests assume ordinal data.
True False 
9.  Most nonparametric tests require data measured on a ratio scale.
True False 
10.  The onesample runs test compares medians of two or more groups.
True False 
11.  The onesample runs test uses binary data (only two possible values).
True False 
12.  The Spearman rank correlation test compares medians of two paired data sets.
True False 
13.  The onesample runs test uses a test statistic that is normally distributed, as long as the number of runs of each type is large enough.
True False 
14.  The onesample runs test is useful to detect nonrandom patterns in timeseries data.
True False 
15.  The onesample runs test is similar to a test for autocorrelation.
True False 
16.  The onesample runs test is also called the WaldWolfowitz test named after its inventors.
True False 
17.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is useful to compare one sample median with a benchmark.
True False 
18.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is useful to compare more than two sample medians.
True False 
19.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a onesample parametric test of a mean.
True False 
20.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a parametric twosample t test of means from independent samples.
True False 
21.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a parametric t test comparing three or more medians.
True False 
22.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is robust to outliers in the data if the population is at least somewhat symmetric.
True False 
23.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test does not assume a normal population, but it does require a roughly symmetric population.
True False 
24.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is less powerful than a onesample test of a mean when the population is actually normal.
True False 
25.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test has good power over a range of nonnormal populations.
True False 
26.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is an alternative to the onesample t test for paired observations.
True False 
27.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) can be used as a test for equality of two population medians.
True False 
28.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) requires two independent samples.
True False 
29.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) can be used even if population variances are unequal.
True False 
30.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) utilizes the ranks of two independent samples.
True False 
31.  The MannWhitney test is sometimes called the “Wilcoxon rank sum test” because it was formulated independently by different statisticians.
True False 
32.  We sometimes call the Wilcoxon rank sum test the Mann/Whitney test, but the two are the same.
True False 
33.  The MannWhitney test is analogous to a onesample t test comparing a mean with a benchmark.
True False 
34.  The KruskalWallis test requires c independent samples (where usually c > 2).
True False 
35.  The KruskalWallis test applies even if the c samples to be compared are not independent.
True False 
36.  The KruskalWallis test is analogous to the onesample parametric t test for a mean.
True False 
37.  The KruskalWallis test is analogous to the parametric onefactor ANOVA.
True False 
38.  The KruskalWallis test does not require normal populations, but it does require them to be of similar shape.
True False 
39.  The KruskalWallis test is equivalent to comparing medians in c groups.
True False 
40.  The KruskalWallis test is a test for randomness in sequential data.
True False 
41.  The KruskalWallis test is less useful in finance or marketing, because normal populations can usually be assumed in financial or marketing data.
True False 
42.  The KruskalWallis test is almost as powerful as onefactor ANOVA even when normality can be assumed.
True False 
43.  The Friedman test is a nonparametric equivalent to twofactor ANOVA without replication.
True False 
44.  The Friedman test is a nonparametric equivalent to a parametric onesample t test comparing a mean with a benchmark.
True False 
45.  The Friedman test requires groups of equal size.
True False 
46.  The Friedman test compares medians when there are two grouping factors (rows, columns).
True False 
47.  The Friedman test resembles the KruskalWallis test except that there are two grouping factors (rows, columns) instead of one grouping factor (columns).
True False 
48.  The Friedman test is often almost as powerful as twofactor ANOVA without replication (randomized block design).
True False 
49.  Spearman’s rank correlation always lies within the range 1.00 to +1.00.
True False 
50.  Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient lies within the range 0 to 1.00 inclusive.
True False 
51.  Spearman’s rank correlation is named for a British brewer who was testing beer samples.
True False 
52.  Spearman’s rank correlation is named for a British behavioral psychologist who was studying human intelligence.
True False 
53.  Spearman’s rank correlation is used to measure agreement in rankings of paired (x, y) data.
True False 
Multiple Choice Questions
54.  All of these are nonparametric tests except:

55.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric twosample t test for means?

56.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric ksample test for means?

57.  Which nonparametric test is used to compare a onesample median with a benchmark?

58.  Which nonparametric test has no parametric counterpart?

59.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric onesample t test for differences in paired data?

60.  Which nonparametric test would we use to compare ratings assigned to n pairs of bonds by two different rating agencies, if the bonds are rated on an ordinal scale (Aaa, Aa, A, Baa, Ba B, etc.)?

61.  Which is not true of the onesample runs test?

62.  Which nonparametric test is used to detect nonrandomness in sequential observations?

63.  Which is a nonparametric test for runs (autocorrelation) in a sequence of binary data?

64.  Which parametric test resembles the nonparametric Spearman’s rank test?

65.  Which nonparametric test is used to test for agreement in ranks of paired data?

66.  Twenty customers are randomly chosen and each is given a sample of Nut Butter ice cream to taste. The customers rank the taste of the ice cream on a 10point scale. Each is then given a sample of Chewy Gooey ice cream to taste and rank on a 10point scale. Based on the 20 customers’ ratings of each flavor, the research analyst conducting the survey wishes to determine if one flavor is preferred over the other. Which nonparametric test would you use to determine if there is a difference in the ratings?

67.  Which is not a characteristic of the Wilcoxon rank sum (MannWhitney) test?

68.  Delta Air Lines wants to determine if the number of noshows for flights originating from Detroit is higher than from Minneapolis. A sample of 20 flights from each city is taken and the number of noshows is determined for each flight. Which nonparametric test would you use to determine whether the number of noshows is greater in Detroit?

69.  The dean of Oxnard business school wants to know if there is a difference in computer skills in four majors (marketing, finance, operations, accounting). A 20question skills test is given to 10 randomly chosen students in each major. Which nonparametric test could be used by the dean to see if there is a difference in computer skills of students in the various majors?

70.  Which is not a characteristic of the KruskalWallis test?

71.  Individuals in four different age groups are asked to rate, on a scale of 1 to 10, three flavors of ice creams. Each group has the same number of individuals. Median ratings by the individuals are grouped by the flavor of ice cream and by age group. Which nonparametric test could be used to see if there is a difference in median ratings among the four age groups and three flavors?

72.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a twofactor ANOVA without replication?

73.  If there are three or more populations with ordinal data, what is the appropriate test to determine whether the distributions are equal?

74.  Hoping to reduce the waiting time, a doctor’s office tried a new way of scheduling its appointments. Populations of waiting times are believed to be similar except in central tendency. However, waiting times may not be normally distributed, so a nonparametric test was chosen to compare the waiting times. The Wilcoxon/MannWhitney test results are shown below:
Which is the best conclusion?

75.  At the Food Barn, children can order from the adult menu (A) or the child’s menu (C). Below is the pattern of menu orders for 24 children last Wednesday evening.
A, A, A, A, C, A, A, C, C, C, A, A, A, A, A, A, C, C, C, A, C, C, C, C Which test would you choose to see if this pattern is random?

76.  At the Food Barn, children can order from the adult menu (A) or the child’s menu (C). Below is the pattern of menu orders for 24 children last Wednesday evening.
A, A, A, A, C, A, A, C, C, C, A, A, A, A, A, A, C, C, C, A, C, C, C, C Which statement is most accurate?

77.  A clinic has four doctors. They wish to compare the amount of time that doctors spend with their patients. It is suspected that times may not be normally distributed but are otherwise assumed similar except in center, so a nonparametric test was chosen. The KruskalWallis test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?

78.  Returns on an investor’s stock portfolio (n = 19 stocks) are compared for the same stock in each of two consecutive quarters. Since the returns are not normally distributed (normality test pvalues were .005 and .126 respectively), a nonparametric test was chosen. The test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?

79.  Returns on an investor’s stock portfolio (n = 19 stocks) are compared for the same stock in each of two consecutive quarters. Since the returns are not normally distributed (normality test pvalues were .005 and .126 respectively), a nonparametric test was chosen. The test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?

80.  Attendees at an outdoor concert can buy pavilion tickets (A) or lawn tickets (B). Below is the output for the onesample runs to test whether there is a pattern in 32 consecutive ticket purchases.
The best conclusion at α = .05 would be:

81.  To compare the cost of three shipping methods, a firm shipped five orders to each of four different destinations over a sixmonth period. Their total shipping costs are shown below.
Which nonparametric test would you use to compare the median shipping costs among destinations and among shippers?

82.  At the Seymour Clinic, the total number of patients seen by three doctors over three days is as follows:
Which nonparametric test would you use to compare the median number of patients seen by the doctors on each day?

83.  Systolic blood pressure of randomly selected HMO patients was recorded on a particular Wednesday, with the results shown here:
The appropriate hypothesis test to compare the medians is:

84.  You do not wish to assume normality in the population, yet you wish to compare central tendency in c samples. You decide to utilize MegaStat, whose menu is shown here:
Which menu would you choose?

85.  You do not wish to assume normality in the population, yet you wish to compare central tendency in c samples. You decide to utilize MINITAB, whose menu is shown here:
Which menu would you choose?

Chapter 16 Nonparametric Tests Answer Key
True / False Questions
1.  Nonparametric tests can be used in small samples.
TRUE Special tables (or suitable software) are required when sample sizes are small. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
2.  Nonparametric tests may require special tables for small samples.
TRUE Special tables (or suitable computer software) will be required for small samples. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
3.  Nonparametric tests generally are more powerful than parametric tests when normality cannot be assumed.
TRUE When justified, parametric tests generally have more power (but at the cost of making more restrictive assumptions). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
4.  Parametric tests generally are more powerful than nonparametric tests when normality can be assumed.
TRUE When justified, parametric tests generally have more power. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
5.  Rejection of a hypothesis using a nonparametric test is less convincing than using an equivalent parametric test, since nonparametric tests generally make fewer assumptions.
FALSE Rejection in a nonparametric test is persuasive because fewer assumptions are made. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
6.  Rejection of a hypothesis using a nonparametric test is more convincing than using an equivalent parametric test when the data are badly skewed.
TRUE Rejection in a nonparametric test is persuasive when normality is in doubt. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
7.  If the population is normal, we would usually prefer a nonparametric test.
FALSE When justified, parametric tests generally have more power. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
8.  Most nonparametric tests assume ordinal data.
TRUE Many nonparametric tests convert ratio or interval data into ranks (ordinal data). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
9.  Most nonparametric tests require data measured on a ratio scale.
FALSE Many nonparametric tests convert ratio or interval data into ranks (ordinal data). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
10.  The onesample runs test compares medians of two or more groups.
FALSE The runs test checks for randomness. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
11.  The onesample runs test uses binary data (only two possible values).
TRUE Data may be any sequence of two values (e.g., + or ). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
12.  The Spearman rank correlation test compares medians of two paired data sets.
FALSE To compare medians we use a MannWhitney test (Wilcoxon rank sum test). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
13.  The onesample runs test uses a test statistic that is normally distributed, as long as the number of runs of each type is large enough.
TRUE As long as we have enough runs of each type, we can use a normal z test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
14.  The onesample runs test is useful to detect nonrandom patterns in timeseries data.
TRUE Random pattern is essentially the null hypothesis. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
15.  The onesample runs test is similar to a test for autocorrelation.
TRUE We can use the runs test to check for autocorrelation in regression residuals. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
16.  The onesample runs test is also called the WaldWolfowitz test named after its inventors.
TRUE Wald and Wolfowitz first demonstrated the runs test, so it goes by either name. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
17.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is useful to compare one sample median with a benchmark.
TRUE The null hypothesis is for one population median versus a target or benchmark. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
18.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is useful to compare more than two sample medians.
FALSE For two medians, we would use the Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
19.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a onesample parametric test of a mean.
TRUE The idea is to test a measure of center (in this case, a median) against a benchmark. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
20.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a parametric twosample t test of means from independent samples.
FALSE For two medians, we would use the Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
21.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is analogous to a parametric t test comparing three or more medians.
FALSE The null hypothesis is for one population median versus a target or benchmark. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
22.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is robust to outliers in the data if the population is at least somewhat symmetric.
TRUE The test does require reasonably symmetric populations. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
23.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test does not assume a normal population, but it does require a roughly symmetric population.
TRUE The test does require reasonably symmetric populations. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
24.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is less powerful than a onesample test of a mean when the population is actually normal.
TRUE When justified, a t test of a mean would generally be more powerful. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
25.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test has good power over a range of nonnormal populations.
TRUE Studies show good power when populations are not too skewed. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
26.  The Wilcoxon signedrank test is an alternative to the onesample t test for paired observations.
TRUE One version of the Wilcoxon signedrank test utilizes paired data. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
27.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) can be used as a test for equality of two population medians.
TRUE This test for identical populations is a test of medians if variances are equal. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
28.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) requires two independent samples.
TRUE Samples must be independent. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
29.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) can be used even if population variances are unequal.
FALSE WMW is a test for identical populations, but it is a test for equal medians if variances are equal. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
30.  The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) utilizes the ranks of two independent samples.
TRUE Raw data in each sample are converted into ranks. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
31.  The MannWhitney test is sometimes called the “Wilcoxon rank sum test” because it was formulated independently by different statisticians.
TRUE This test has two names. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
32.  We sometimes call the Wilcoxon rank sum test the Mann/Whitney test, but the two are the same.
TRUE This test has two names. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
33.  The MannWhitney test is analogous to a onesample t test comparing a mean with a benchmark.
FALSE The Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney test) compares two populations. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
34.  The KruskalWallis test requires c independent samples (where usually c > 2).
TRUE KruskalWallis compares several populations. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
35.  The KruskalWallis test applies even if the c samples to be compared are not independent.
FALSE Samples must be independent in the KruskalWallis test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
36.  The KruskalWallis test is analogous to the onesample parametric t test for a mean.
FALSE KruskalWallis compares several populations. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
37.  The KruskalWallis test is analogous to the parametric onefactor ANOVA.
TRUE KruskalWallis compares c population medians (similar to comparing c means). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
38.  The KruskalWallis test does not require normal populations, but it does require them to be of similar shape.
TRUE KruskalWallis is a test for identical populations but becomes a test for equal medians if population shapes are the same. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
39.  The KruskalWallis test is equivalent to comparing medians in c groups.
TRUE KruskalWallis is a test for identical populations, but it becomes a test for equal medians if population shapes are the same. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
40.  The KruskalWallis test is a test for randomness in sequential data.
FALSE KruskalWallis compares c population medians. To test for randomness, you would use a runs test rather than a KruskalWallis test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
41.  The KruskalWallis test is less useful in finance or marketing, because normal populations can usually be assumed in financial or marketing data.
FALSE Normal populations are rare in many business applications, so the KW test is useful. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
42.  The KruskalWallis test is almost as powerful as onefactor ANOVA even when normality can be assumed.
TRUE Studies suggest that the KW test is about as powerful as the F test (ANOVA). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
43.  The Friedman test is a nonparametric equivalent to twofactor ANOVA without replication.
TRUE Unreplicated ANOVA data can be tested using the Friedman test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
44.  The Friedman test is a nonparametric equivalent to a parametric onesample t test comparing a mean with a benchmark.
FALSE The Friedman test is a nonparametric equivalent to twofactor ANOVA without replication. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
45.  The Friedman test requires groups of equal size.
TRUE By definition, there must be one observation per cell. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
46.  The Friedman test compares medians when there are two grouping factors (rows, columns).
TRUE We can think of the Friedman test as comparing medians if population shape is similar. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
47.  The Friedman test resembles the KruskalWallis test except that there are two grouping factors (rows, columns) instead of one grouping factor (columns).
TRUE The Friedman test is analogous to unreplicated twofactor ANOVA. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
48.  The Friedman test is often almost as powerful as twofactor ANOVA without replication (randomized block design).
TRUE The Friedman test has good power versus twofactor unreplicated ANOVA. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
49.  Spearman’s rank correlation always lies within the range 1.00 to +1.00.
TRUE Spearman’s rho lies between 1 and +1. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
50.  Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient lies within the range 0 to 1.00 inclusive.
FALSE Spearman’s rho lies between 1 and +1. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
51.  Spearman’s rank correlation is named for a British brewer who was testing beer samples.
FALSE Charles Spearman was a behavioral psychologist. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
52.  Spearman’s rank correlation is named for a British behavioral psychologist who was studying human intelligence.
TRUE Charles Spearman was a behavioral psychologist studying human IQs. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
53.  Spearman’s rank correlation is used to measure agreement in rankings of paired (x, y) data.
TRUE Spearman’s rho is similar in this regard to the usual (Pearson) correlation. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
Multiple Choice Questions
54.  All of these are nonparametric tests except:
Student’s t test (Chapter 10) is a parametric test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
55.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric twosample t test for means?
The Wilcoxon rank sum (MannWhitney) test compares medians (assuming that populations have similar shape). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
56.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric ksample test for means?
The KW test compares medians (assuming populations have similar shape). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
57.  Which nonparametric test is used to compare a onesample median with a benchmark?
The Wilcoxon signedrank test compares a median with a benchmark or target. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
58.  Which nonparametric test has no parametric counterpart?
The runs test is not quite like any parametric test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
59.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a parametric onesample t test for differences in paired data?
One version of the Wilcoxon signedrank test is for paired data. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
60.  Which nonparametric test would we use to compare ratings assigned to n pairs of bonds by two different rating agencies, if the bonds are rated on an ordinal scale (Aaa, Aa, A, Baa, Ba B, etc.)?
One version of the Wilcoxon signedrank test is for paired data. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
61.  Which is not true of the onesample runs test?
The runs test is for randomness in a sequence of twovalued data (e.g., + and ). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
62.  Which nonparametric test is used to detect nonrandomness in sequential observations?
The runs test is for randomness in a sequence of twovalued data (e.g., + and ). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
63.  Which is a nonparametric test for runs (autocorrelation) in a sequence of binary data?
The runs test is for randomness in a sequence of twovalued data (e.g., + and ). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
64.  Which parametric test resembles the nonparametric Spearman’s rank test?
The t test of a correlation coefficient can be used to test for zero correlation. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
65.  Which nonparametric test is used to test for agreement in ranks of paired data?
To see if the ranks agree, we could use Spearman’s rho. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
66.  Twenty customers are randomly chosen and each is given a sample of Nut Butter ice cream to taste. The customers rank the taste of the ice cream on a 10point scale. Each is then given a sample of Chewy Gooey ice cream to taste and rank on a 10point scale. Based on the 20 customers’ ratings of each flavor, the research analyst conducting the survey wishes to determine if one flavor is preferred over the other. Which nonparametric test would you use to determine if there is a difference in the ratings?
For two independent samples, use the Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
67.  Which is not a characteristic of the Wilcoxon rank sum (MannWhitney) test?
The Wilcoxon/MannWhitney test uses two samples (not c samples). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
68.  Delta Air Lines wants to determine if the number of noshows for flights originating from Detroit is higher than from Minneapolis. A sample of 20 flights from each city is taken and the number of noshows is determined for each flight. Which nonparametric test would you use to determine whether the number of noshows is greater in Detroit?
For two independent samples, use the Wilcoxon rank sum test (MannWhitney). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
69.  The dean of Oxnard business school wants to know if there is a difference in computer skills in four majors (marketing, finance, operations, accounting). A 20question skills test is given to 10 randomly chosen students in each major. Which nonparametric test could be used by the dean to see if there is a difference in computer skills of students in the various majors?
Because we have four samples, we would use the KW test to compare the medians. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
70.  Which is not a characteristic of the KruskalWallis test?
The KW test requires populations of similar shape if we want to compare medians. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
71.  Individuals in four different age groups are asked to rate, on a scale of 1 to 10, three flavors of ice creams. Each group has the same number of individuals. Median ratings by the individuals are grouped by the flavor of ice cream and by age group. Which nonparametric test could be used to see if there is a difference in median ratings among the four age groups and three flavors?
This is a twofactor comparison using medians, so we would use Friedman’s test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
72.  Which nonparametric test is analogous to a twofactor ANOVA without replication?
Friedman’s test uses a twofactor experiment with one observed median per cell. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
73.  If there are three or more populations with ordinal data, what is the appropriate test to determine whether the distributions are equal?
KW is a test for identical populations (or equal medians, if populations differ only in center). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
74.  Hoping to reduce the waiting time, a doctor’s office tried a new way of scheduling its appointments. Populations of waiting times are believed to be similar except in central tendency. However, waiting times may not be normally distributed, so a nonparametric test was chosen to compare the waiting times. The Wilcoxon/MannWhitney test results are shown below:
Which is the best conclusion?
The pvalue is less than .01, so we reject equal medians. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1604 Use the Wilcoxon rank sum test for two samples. Topic: Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test 
75.  At the Food Barn, children can order from the adult menu (A) or the child’s menu (C). Below is the pattern of menu orders for 24 children last Wednesday evening.
A, A, A, A, C, A, A, C, C, C, A, A, A, A, A, A, C, C, C, A, C, C, C, C Which test would you choose to see if this pattern is random?
Use the runs test for sequences that indicate a nonrandom pattern. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
76.  At the Food Barn, children can order from the adult menu (A) or the child’s menu (C). Below is the pattern of menu orders for 24 children last Wednesday evening.
A, A, A, A, C, A, A, C, C, C, A, A, A, A, A, A, C, C, C, A, C, C, C, C Which statement is most accurate?
We need 10 outcomes of each type to use a largesample z test. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
77.  A clinic has four doctors. They wish to compare the amount of time that doctors spend with their patients. It is suspected that times may not be normally distributed but are otherwise assumed similar except in center, so a nonparametric test was chosen. The KruskalWallis test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?
The pvalue is less than .01. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
78.  Returns on an investor’s stock portfolio (n = 19 stocks) are compared for the same stock in each of two consecutive quarters. Since the returns are not normally distributed (normality test pvalues were .005 and .126 respectively), a nonparametric test was chosen. The test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?
The pvalue is less than .01. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1603 Use the Wilcoxon signedrank test. Topic: Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 
79.  Returns on an investor’s stock portfolio (n = 19 stocks) are compared for the same stock in each of two consecutive quarters. Since the returns are not normally distributed (normality test pvalues were .005 and .126 respectively), a nonparametric test was chosen. The test results are shown below.
Which is the best conclusion?
The correlation differs from zero at α = .05 and .01 (close decision). 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1607 Use the Spearman rank correlation test. Topic: Spearman Rank Correlation Test 
80.  Attendees at an outdoor concert can buy pavilion tickets (A) or lawn tickets (B). Below is the output for the onesample runs to test whether there is a pattern in 32 consecutive ticket purchases.
The best conclusion at α = .05 would be:
The pvalue is greater than .05 so we cannot reject randomness. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1602 Use the onesample runs test. Topic: OneSample Runs Test 
81.  To compare the cost of three shipping methods, a firm shipped five orders to each of four different destinations over a sixmonth period. Their total shipping costs are shown below.
Which nonparametric test would you use to compare the median shipping costs among destinations and among shippers?
It’s like unreplicated twofactor ANOVA except that data are converted to ranks. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
82.  At the Seymour Clinic, the total number of patients seen by three doctors over three days is as follows:
Which nonparametric test would you use to compare the median number of patients seen by the doctors on each day?
Like unreplicated twofactor ANOVA except that data are converted to ranks. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 1606 Use the Friedman test for related samples. Topic: Friedman Test for Related Samples 
83.  Systolic blood pressure of randomly selected HMO patients was recorded on a particular Wednesday, with the results shown here:
The appropriate hypothesis test to compare the medians is:
Like onefactor ANOVA except that data are converted to ranks. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1605 Use the KruskalWallis test for c independent samples. Topic: KruskalWallis Test for Independent Samples 
84.  You do not wish to assume normality in the population, yet you wish to compare central tendency in c samples. You decide to utilize MegaStat, whose menu is shown here:
Which menu would you choose?
We would need the KruskalWallis nonparametric test for c medians. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
85.  You do not wish to assume normality in the population, yet you wish to compare central tendency in c samples. You decide to utilize MINITAB, whose menu is shown here:
Which menu would you choose?
We would need the KruskalWallis nonparametric test for c medians. 
AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 1601 Define nonparametric tests and explain when they may be desirable. Topic: Why Use Nonparametric Tests? 
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