Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau Test Bank

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Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau Test Bank

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 02-A: The Chemical Basis of Life

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biochemistry involves the chemical makeup of living organisms and the underlying process of life activities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines its atomic mass.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. The positively charged electrons are found in clouds outside the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. Two shared pairs of electrons represent a single covalent bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a decomposition reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atom’s outer shell determine its chemical activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom is chemically inert if its outermost shell has two pairs of electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Electrovalent and ionic bonds are the same.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Radiation results from the breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Radioactivity can cause an atom of one element to change to that of another element.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Gamma radiation has less mass than alpha or beta radiation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. A substance that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added is called a buffer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

  1. The chemical reaction of an acid with a base will produce a salt and water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Water acts as a very effective solvent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Electrolytes include acids, bases, and salts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. By definition, inorganic compounds do not contain carbon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Electrolytes are characterized by having either a positive or a negative charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. Acids are electrolytes that produce OH+ ions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Proteins are the most abundant of the carbon-containing compounds in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Glycogen and starch are both examples of polysaccharides.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. There are a total of 21 essential amino acids.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Steroids are often called tissue hormones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. DNA molecules are the largest molecules in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Adenine and thymine are referred to as purine bases, which are important constituents of a DNA molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Metabolism includes the processes of both anabolism and catabolism.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The ability of proteins to perform their function depends on their shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Enzymes are proteins that function by the lock-and-key theory.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. ATP is broken down in an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41|Page 42

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. Catabolism and anabolism are major types of metabolic activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic bond.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a synthesis reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The pH scale indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Litmus paper will turn red in the presence of a base.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is also called the “bad” cholesterol.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. The nonessential amino acids cannot be produced from the other amino acids or from simple organic molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. The mass of a proton is almost exactly equal to the mass of an electron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Hydrogen will react with other atoms to get 8 electrons in its outer energy level.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A double covalent bond involves the sharing of 2 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Synthesis reactions release energy for use by the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes dissociate to form ions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Sugars and starches are both considered to be carbohydrates.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glucose is a hexose and ribose is a pentose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Nonessential amino acids are rarely used in the making of proteins in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Fats, steroids, and prostaglandins are all considered lipids.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Fats are composed of three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Saturated fats are more likely than unsaturated fats to be liquid at room temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Phospholipids have a fat-soluble end and a water-soluble end.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49|Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins are associated with the prostate gland and therefore are not found in women.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the structure, arrangement, and composition of substances and the reactions they undergo.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The nucleus of the atom will always have a positive charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic mass of 25, it must have 13 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Consider an atom that has an atomic mass of 18. For it to be electrically neutral, it must have 18 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure, Atomic Number, and Atomic Mass

 

  1. Atoms become positively charged by gaining protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Inorganic compounds do not play an important role in living systems.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Acids release protons in solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A denatured protein has lost its functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. RNA never exists in a double-stranded form.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Glycoproteins contain both a fat molecule and a protein molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 59

TOP:    Combined Forms

 

  1. The “aliveness” of a living organism depends on the mixture of elements of which it is made.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Four elements are considered to be the major elements in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Dalton named the atom after the Greek word for invisible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 electrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 neutrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons could have 25 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. Oxygen has 8 electrons, but only 6 of them are in its outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds between atoms do not form molecules or compounds.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Attraction Between Molecules

 

  1. According to the general formula, in synthesis reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in decomposition reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in exchange reactions, the number of reactants and the number of products are usually equal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 6 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 3 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A sucrose molecule is formed by the synthesis reaction between glucose and fructose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. The quaternary structure of a protein contains more than one polypeptide chain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Both phospholipids and steroids are found in cell membranes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49|Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. Steroids are the only lipid that contains a ring structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Nucleotides are used to make only RNA or DNA molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. The distance between the sugar-phosphate structures in a DNA molecule is equal to the distance of one purine and one pyrimidine molecule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 56|Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

  1. When ATP is in short supply, muscles can use creatine phosphate for extra energy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. Because oxygen has 8 electrons, it has achieved its octet and will not react with other elements.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Both triglycerides and prostaglandins can contain unsaturated fat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48|Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Prostaglandins

 

  1. Trace elements in the body make up about 1% of the body weight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. The atomic number of an atom determines its identity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. An ionic bond forms crystals whereas a covalent bond forms molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38|Page 39

TOP:    Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom in areas of probability rather than in defined orbits.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The idea that electrons are found in areas of probability distribution around the nucleus was first proposed by Niels Bohr.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The term atomic weight refers to the average mass number for a particular element based on the typical proportions of different isotopes found in nature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. A molecule can be an element or a compound.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms-Chemical Bonds

 

  1. There cannot be an electrically neutral ion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Ions gain or lose electrons to try to attain four pairs of electrons in their outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds form as a result of the attraction between polar molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. In a formula for a chemical reaction, the substances on the right of the arrow are referred to as products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A type of chemical reaction called hydrolysis is an example of an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. During catabolic reactions, some of the energy is released as heat to help keep the body warm.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. A type of chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis is an example of an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Anabolism

 

  1. A few inorganic compounds contain both C-C bonds but no inorganic compound has a C-H bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Fifty percent or more of a normal adult’s body weight is water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. One of the functions of water in the body is that of helping to maintain a constant body temperature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. One function of carbon dioxide is to help maintain proper pH balance in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

 

  1. A substance that releases an OH ion in solution is called a base.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Bases

 

  1. A solution containing the same number of H+ ions and OH ions would have a pH of zero.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. The three most common disaccharides—sucrose, lactose, and maltose—each contain at least one molecule of glucose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. A saturated fat is saturated with hydrogen atoms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Types of Fatty Acids

 

  1. A triglyceride is composed of a glycerol molecule and three of the same type of fatty acid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49

TOP:    Formation of Triglycerides

 

  1. The body uses the steroid cholesterol to make hormones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. Proteins can be divided into functional proteins and structural proteins.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Amino acids get their name because they have an amino group (NH3+) and an acid group (COO).

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. When two amino acids are joined, a peptide bond is formed and an H+ ion is released.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The joining of amino acids in a peptide bond is an example of the process of hydrolysis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Chaperone proteins assist in the proper folding of other proteins so they can have the correct functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. RNA and DNA have the same pyrimidine bases but different purine bases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. The function of transfer RNA is to select and adhere to a specific amino acid and place it in the correct sequence in the primary protein strand.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. If one side of the DNA molecule was CCTAGGC, the opposite side of the molecule would be CCTAGGC.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 02-B: The Chemical Basis of Life

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following represents a trace element in the body?
a. Sulfur
b. Chlorine
c. Iron
d. Phosphorus

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 35 (Table 2-1)                            TOP:    Basic Chemistry

 

  1. The kind of element is determined by the number of:
a. protons.
b. neutrons.
c. mesotrons.
d. electrons.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. Atomic weight is determined by the number of:
a. protons and electrons.
b. neutrons and electrons.
c. neutrons, protons, and electrons.
d. protons and neutrons.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. The number of electrons found in the first shell is:
a. 2.
b. 4.
c. 6.
d. 8.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus is a(n):
a. orbital.
b. proton.
c. neutron.
d. electron.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. When atoms combine, they may gain, lose, or share:
a. electrons.
b. protons.
c. neutrons.
d. nuclei.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38|Page 39

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms

 

  1. An ionic bond is formed by:
a. two or more positive ions combining.
b. two or more negative ions combining.
c. a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
d. sharing of a pair of electrons.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. An example of an element would be:
a. Ne.
b. CO2.
c. C6H12O6.
d. H2O.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains different numbers of ____ than other atoms of the same element.
a. electrons
b. protons
c. neutrons
d. both protons and neutrons

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following elements is least likely to combine with another element?
a. Hydrogen
b. Helium
c. Oxygen
d. Carbon

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms-Chemical Bonds

 

  1. The hydrogen isotope tritium consists of:
a. one proton.
b. one proton and one neutron.
c. two protons and one neutron.
d. one proton and two neutrons.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following bonds are the weakest?
a. Ionic
b. Hydrogen
c. Electrovalent
d. Covalent

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. The type of reaction in which substances are combined to form more complex substances is called a(n) _____ reaction
a. reversible
b. exchange
c. synthesis
d. decomposition

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The process of the digestion of food is an example of which type of reaction?
a. Synthesis
b. Decomposition
c. Exchange
d. Reversible

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Substances that accept hydrogen ions are called:
a. acids.
b. bases.
c. buffers.
d. salts.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Bases

 

  1. Acids:
a. are proton donors.
b. taste sour.
c. release hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution.
d. are all of the above.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions (OH) than hydrogen ions (H+) is a(n) _____ solution.
a. acidic
b. alkaline (basic)
c. neutral
d. Not enough information is given to determine the character of the solution.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Bases

 

  1. In the presence of a base, red litmus paper will:
a. stay red.
b. turn blue.
c. turn green.
d. turn yellow.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is(are):
a. air.
b. water.
c. proteins.
d. nucleic acids.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of body weight is water?
a. 40%
b. 50%
c. 60%
d. 70%

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. AB + CD  AD + CB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction.
a. synthesis
b. exchange
c. decomposition
d. reversible

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following represent(s) properties of water?
a. High specific heat
b. High heat of vaporization
c. Strong polarity
d. All of the above

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. The approximate pH of gastric fluid is:
a. 10.
b. 8.
c. 4.
d. 2.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major groups of organic substances in the human body?
a. Proteins
b. Salts
c. Lipids
d. Nucleic acids

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 45

TOP:    Organic Molecules

 

  1. The amino group in an amino acid is:
a. NH3+.
b. COO.
c. symbolized by the letter R.
d. SO2.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Peptide bonds join together molecules of:
a. glycerol.
b. glucose.
c. amino acids.
d. water.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Which lipid is part of vitamin D?
a. Glycerol
b. Steroids
c. Prostaglandins
d. Fatty acids

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. All of the following substances are organic except:
a. lipids.
b. electrolytes.
c. carbohydrates.
d. proteins.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45

TOP:    Organic Molecules

 

  1. The simple sugars that are the building blocks for other carbohydrates are:
a. disaccharides.
b. monosaccharides.
c. polysaccharides.
d. starches.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. The element that is present in all proteins but not in carbohydrates is:
a. carbon.
b. hydrogen.
c. oxygen.
d. nitrogen.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 46|Page 51

TOP:    Carbohydrates and Proteins

 

  1. The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called:
a. hydrolysis.
b. oxidation.
c. decomposition.
d. dehydration synthesis.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 42           TOP:    Anabolism

 

  1. Humans can synthesize 13 of 21 basic amino acids; the remaining 8, which must be included in the diet, are called:
a. enzymes.
b. essential amino acids.
c. structural proteins.
d. peptide bonds.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The basic building blocks of fats are:
a. monosaccharides.
b. disaccharides.
c. amino acids.
d. fatty acids and glycerol.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. A structural lipid found in the cell membrane is a:
a. triglyceride.
b. phospholipid.
c. steroid.
d. Both B and C are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 49|Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. DNA:
a. is a single strand of nucleotides.
b. contains the sugar ribose.
c. is a double helix strand of nucleotides.
d. transports amino acids during protein synthesis.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

  1. The study of metabolism includes examination of:
a. catabolism.
b. anabolism.
c. ATP requirements.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. An example of a catabolic process is
a. hydrolysis.
b. dehydration synthesis.
c. formation of a peptide bond.
d. both B and C.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The type of lipoprotein associated with “bad” cholesterol and the production of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels is:
a. HDL.
b. LDL.
c. VHDL.
d. none of the above.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. The type of lipid found in sex hormones is:
a. triglycerides.
b. phosphoglycerides.
c. steroids.
d. prostaglandins.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the three major ingredients of a DNA molecule?
a. Sugar
b. Nitrogenous bases
c. Phosphate
d. Lipid

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 55|Page 56

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major elements present in the human body?
a. Oxygen
b. Zinc
c. Carbon
d. Potassium

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 35 (Table 2-1)

TOP:    Basic Chemistry

 

  1. Which of the following is not a subatomic particle?
a. Proton
b. Electron
c. Radon
d. Neutron

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The total number of electrons in a neutral atom equals the number of:
a. neutrons orbiting the atom.
b. protons plus the number of neutrons in its nucleus.
c. protons in its nucleus.
d. ions in its nucleus.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom can be described as chemically inert if its outermost electron shell contains _____ electrons.
a. 8
b. 9
c. 2
d. Both A and C are correct.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Ionic bonds are chemical bonds formed by the:
a. sharing of electrons between molecules.
b. donation of protons from one atom to another.
c. transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
d. acceptance of neutrons from one atom to another.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are called:
a. ionic.
b. covalent.
c. hydrogen.
d. isotopic.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The type of chemical reaction most likely to require energy is _____ reaction.
a. synthesis
b. decomposition
c. exchange
d. All of the above reactions are equally likely to require energy.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Proteins are composed of ____ commonly occurring amino acids.
a. 10
b. 18
c. 21
d. 22

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51|Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Amino acids frequently become joined by:
a. peptide bonds.
b. catabolic reactions.
c. atrophic reactions.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up which percentage of the human body?
a. 50%
b. 69%
c. 78%
d. 96%

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Which subatomic particles carry a charge?
a. Protons and neutrons
b. Neutrons and electrons
c. Protons and electrons
d. Neutrons only

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The element oxygen has an atomic number of 8, which means it contains:
a. 4 protons and 4 neutrons.
b. 8 protons.
c. 8 neutrons.
d. 4 protons and 4 electrons.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. For sodium to transform from a neutral atom to a positive ion, it must:
a. gain an electron.
b. gain a proton.
c. lose an electron.
d. lose a proton.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. A molecule that is polar:
a. can form a hydrogen bond.
b. must be ionic.
c. has an unequal charge.
d. is both A and C.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen needed to form water is an example of a:
a. hydrogen bond.
b. synthesis reaction.
c. decomposition reaction.
d. None of the above is correct.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes are:
a. organic compounds.
b. called cations if they have a negative charge.
c. called cations if they have a positive charge.
d. both A and B.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. A weak acid:
a. dissociates very little in solution.
b. dissociates almost completely in solution.
c. will cause the pH of the solution to rise above 7.
d. do both B and C.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Salts:
a. can form as the result of a chemical reaction between acids and bases.
b. are electrolytes.
c. will form crystals if the water is removed.
d. All of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Hydrolysis _____ a water molecule.
a. joins compounds by removing
b. breaks down compounds by removing
c. joins compounds by adding
d. breaks down compounds by adding

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Unsaturated fats:
a. contain all the hydrogen atoms they can hold.
b. contain only single bonds between carbon atoms.
c. are usually solids at room temperature.
d. will kink or bend because of the double bonds between the carbon atoms.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

 

  1. As the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) increases, the:
a. solution becomes more basic.
b. solution becomes more acidic.
c. pH rises.
d. Both A and C are correct.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. As the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH) increases, the:
a. solution becomes more basic.
b. solution becomes more acidic.
c. pH rises.
d. Both A and C are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Which lipid acts as a “tissue hormone”?
a. Triglyceride
b. Prostaglandin
c. Steroid
d. Phospholipid

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. A magnesium atom has an atomic number of 12, an atomic mass of 25, and a +2 charge. This atom would contain _____ protons, _____ neutrons, and _____ electrons.
a. 12; 25; 2
b. 12; 13; 14
c. 12; 13; 10
d. Not enough information is given to answer the question.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The octet rule refers to the:
a. stability of the nucleus when the protons are in a multiple of 8.
b. stability of the atom when there are 8 electrons in the outermost energy level.
c. stable configuration of the nucleus when there are 8 more neutrons than protons.
d. principle that one atom can combine with a maximum of 8 other atoms.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

 

  1. The type of reaction most likely to release energy is a(n) _____ reaction.
a. synthesis
b. decomposition
c. exchange
d. All of the above reactions are equally likely to release energy.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following is not true about oxygen and carbon dioxide?
a. They are both important organic compounds.
b. Molecular oxygen is present as O2 in the body.
c. Oxygen is needed for energy release in cellular respiration.
d. Carbon dioxide is important in maintaining the proper acid-base balance in the body.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 43|Page 44

TOP:    Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 4 has_____ times more _____ ions than a solution with a pH of 6.
a. 10; H+
b. 10; OH
c. 100; H+
d. 100; OH

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. The alpha helix is an example of which level of protein structure?
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Quaternary

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of RNA?
a. It contains ribose sugar.
b. It contains adenine.
c. It is composed of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
d. All of the above are true of RNA.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 55|Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of all isotopes of oxygen?
a. They can all react with two hydrogen atoms to form water.
b. They have the same number of protons.
c. They have the same atomic mass.
d. All of the above are true of isotopes of oxygen.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Hydrogen can form only when the hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to:
a. an oxygen atom.
b. a nitrogen atom.
c. a fluorine.
d. any of the above.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. A strong acid:
a. holds on strongly to its hydrogen atoms, releasing very few in solution.
b. would cause a drop in the pH of a solution.
c. would cause a rise in the pH of a solution.
d. is both A and C.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids

 

  1. Which of the following is not a major function of protein?
a. Provides structure for the body
b. Acts as a catalyst for chemical reactions in the form of enzymes
c. Provides energy for the body
d. All of the above are functions of protein.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Which level of protein structure refers to the number, kind, and sequence of amino acids?
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Quaternary

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

 

 

  1. Which level of protein structure is one that contains several polypeptide chains?
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Quaternary

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of both triglycerides and phospholipids?
a. They both contain glycerol.
b. They both contain fatty acids.
c. They both contain a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end.
d. All of the above are true of both triglycerides and phospholipids.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48|Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins and steroids share which of the following characteristics?
a. Both are found in the cell membrane.
b. Both have a ring structure in their molecule.
c. Both have a saturated fat in their structure.
d. None of the above are shared characteristics.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Steroids and Prostaglandins

 

  1. Which energy-releasing or energy-transferring molecule does not contain a nucleotide?
a. FAD
b. Creatine phosphate
c. NAD
d. ATP

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. If one side of a DNA molecule was CTAGGCTG, the other side would be:
a. CTAGGCTG.
b. GATCCGAC.
c. CUAGGCUG.
d. GAUCCGAC.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57           TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

 

 

  1. If the pH of a person’s blood was 7.4, it would be described as:
a. strongly acidic.
b. neutral.
c. slightly acidic.
d. slightly alkaline.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Bases

 

  1. When sodium (Na) gives up an electron to chlorine, the result is the formation of a sodium ion (Na+) with a positive charge. This happens because there is then one more _____ than _____.
a. proton; electron
b. electron; proton
c. proton; neutron
d. electron; neutron

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. If an atom with a total of nine (9) electrons was to ionically bond with an atom with a total of three (3) electrons, what would occur?
a. The atom with 9 electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.
b. The atom with 9 electrons would lose one of its electrons, and the atom with 3 electrons would accept it.
c. The atom with 9 electrons would accept one of the electrons from the atom with 3 electrons.
d. The atom with 3 electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The carbon-containing molecules formed by living things are often called:
a. buffers.
b. inorganic molecules.
c. organic molecules.
d. salts.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. The term that is used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells is:
a. catabolism.
b. metabolism.
c. synthesis.
d. anabolism.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41           TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The term glycoprotein, a combination of two words, tells you that the compound is made of _____ with _____ being the dominant component.
a. a lipid and a protein; the lipid
b. carbohydrate and protein; carbohydrate
c. a lipid and a protein; the protein
d. carbohydrate and protein; protein

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 59

TOP:    Combined Forms

 

  1. When your body is building larger and more complex chemical molecules from smaller subunits, what is occurring?
a. Anabolic reactions that expend energy
b. Anabolic reactions that require energy
c. Catabolic reactions that expend energy
d. Catabolic reactions that require energy

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41|Page 42

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. Which type of radiation consists of an electron that is released by the nucleus of an atom?
a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Which type of radiation consists of electromagnetic radiation, a form of light energy?
a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Which type of radiation consists of two protons and two neutrons?
a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. A + B  AB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction.
a. decomposition reaction.
b. reversible reaction.
c. exchange reaction.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of carbohydrates?
a. They include substances commonly called sugars.
b. They are the body’s primary source of energy.
c. They are a part of both DNA and RNA.
d. All of the above are true of carbohydrates.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. When two molecules of glucose are joined, they form which disaccharide?
a. Sucrose
b. Maltose
c. Lactose
d. Fructose

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term to its corresponding descriptive phrase.

a. Proton
b. Neutron
c. Electron
d. Isotopes
e. Ionic bonds
f. Covalent bonds
g. Octet rule
h. Atomic number
i. Atomic mass
j. Hydrogen bonds

 

 

  1. number of protons an atom has

 

  1. subatomic particle with no charge

 

  1. bond formed between atoms when they share electrons

 

  1. subatomic particle with a positive charge

 

  1. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

 

  1. value determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

 

  1. bond that requires a polar molecule

 

  1. subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found in a “cloud” surrounding the nucleus of the atom

 

  1. bond that is formed by the transfer of an electron from one atom to another

 

  1. indicates an atom will react until it has 8 electrons in its outermost energy level

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Mass Number

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

Match each term to its corresponding descriptive phrase.

a. Acid
b. Base
c. RNA
d. DNA
e. Carbohydrate
f. Fat
g. Steroid
h. Protein
i. Prostaglandins
j. ATP

 

 

  1. substance composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules

 

  1. releases a hydrogen ion into a solution, which lowers the pH

 

  1. starch or sugar

 

  1. releases a hydroxide ion into solution, which raises the pH

 

  1. lipid found in sex hormones that is made up of four rings

 

  1. types of lipids that are called tissue hormones

 

  1. molecule that is the body’s usual source of direct energy

 

  1. nucleic acid that contains thymine and deoxyribose sugar

 

  1. substance that is made up of a long chain of amino acids

 

  1. nucleic acid that contains ribose sugar and uracil

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 55

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 55

TOP:    Nucleic Acids and Related Molecules

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the Bohr model of the atom.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the type of chemical bonds discussed in this chapter.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38|Page 40

TOP:    Covalent Bonds, Ionic of Electrovalent Bonds, and Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. List the types of lipids and give a function for each type.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48|Page 50                                 TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Explain the different functions performed by RNA in the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57           TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Explain the types of chemical reactions discussed in this chapter and give the formula for each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40|Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Name and describe the types of radiation discussed in the chapter.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Radiation

 

  1. Explain why the properties of water are important in the functioning of the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 43           TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. Explain the role of buffers in maintaining the proper environment in which the body can function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

  1. Explain what is meant by anabolism and catabolism and name a process that is an example of each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41|Page 42

TOP:    Metabolism

 

 

 

  1. Name and describe the structural levels of protein.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52|Page 53

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Compare and contrast the structures of DNA and RNA.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 55|Page 57                                 TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

ESSAY

 

  1. If one side of a DNA molecule is A-T-C-G-G-T-C-A-G, what would the bases be on the other side of the molecule? On what do you base your answer?

 

ANS:

T-A-G-C-C-A-G-T-C

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 57           TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Enzymes that are exposed to high heat or low pH solutions lose their ability to function. What causes this to happen? Be specific.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 54|Page 55                                 TOP:    Proteins

 

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 36-A: Growth and Development

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The prenatal period begins at conception and continues until the end of infancy.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Prenatal Period

 

  1. Human cells contain a total of 23 chromosomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. Meiotic division II is essentially the same as mitotic division I.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. During meiosis II, the phenomenon of “crossing over” occurs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Most of the primary oocytes develop to prophase I of meiosis before birth, and they stay at that stage until puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In both oogenesis and spermatogenesis, the cytoplasm is equally divided among the daughter cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The postnatal period begins at birth and ends when sexual maturity is attained.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. The daughter cells formed by meiotic division II contain a diploid number of chromosomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1098 (Figure 36-1)                     TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The expulsion of seminal fluid from the male urethra into the female vagina is called insemination.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Ovulation and Insemination

 

  1. The ovum lives for only about 24 hours.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Experiments have shown that the ovum actually attracts and “traps” sperm with special receptor molecules on the surface of the ovum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The fertilized ovum, or zygote, is genetically complete.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Once the zygote is formed, it immediately begins to cleave, and in about 3 days a solid mass of cells called a blastocyst is formed.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. In the human, the function of the yolk sac is to provide nutrients to the embryo.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1104

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Both spermatogonia and oogonia are diploid cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1099 (Figure 36-2)

TOP:    Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

 

 

 

  1. A major function of amniotic fluid is to act as a shock absorber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The chorion develops from the trophoblast to become an important fetal membrane in the placenta.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The science of the development of the individual before birth is prenatology.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1105 (Box 36-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. The blastocyst is a solid mass of cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropin to reduce luteal secretion of estrogen and progesterone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The brain and the spinal cord originate in the ectoderm.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Developmental biology is the name given to the branch of life science that studies the process of change over the life cycle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1105 (Box 36-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. In early pregnancy, hormones to sustain pregnancy are produced by the corpus luteum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The placenta is composed of both maternal and embryonic tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. In a normally developing fetus, maternal blood and fetal blood should never mix.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Alcohol can cross the placental barrier and cause injury to the developing fetus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The placenta, a structural “anchor” and nutritive bridge, is also an excretory, respiratory, and endocrine organ.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion peaks about 16 weeks after fertilization and then drops to a continuous low level by about week 24.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. By day 35 of gestation, the heart of the embryo is beating.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. By the second month of gestation, all organ systems of the embryo are formed and functioning.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Cells of the embryonic disk differentiate into distinct types that form each of the three primary germ layers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The mesoderm forms the linings of various tracts, as well as several glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The process by which the primary germ layers develop into many different kinds of tissues is called organogenesis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Pregnancy may produce pressure on the bladder, reducing the urine-storing capacity and resulting in frequent urination.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1113

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Stage two of labor is the period from the time of maximal cervical dilation until the expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage two of labor normally lasts from a few minutes to an hour.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage two of labor is the period from the onset of uterine contractions until expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage three of labor normally lasts from 12 to 36 hours.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Identical twins are not absolutely identical in terms of structure and function.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Fraternal twins are always of two different sexes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

 

 

  1. The neonatal period lasts from birth until 1 year.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1116

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. The average age-range of adolescence is from 13 to 19 years.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Fraternal twins result from the splitting of embryonic tissue from the same zygote early in development.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. It is possible for fraternal twins to have two different biological fathers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The infant head is approximately one-fourth the total height of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1116 (Figure 36-22)                   TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. Early in infancy, the baby has only one spinal curvature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Many of the developmental changes that occur during childhood are controlled by the secretion of sex hormones and are classified as secondary sex characteristics.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. In older adulthood, the bones develop indistinct and shaggy-appearing margins with spurs, a process called lipping.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. Degenerative heart and blood vessel disease is one of the most common and serious effects of aging.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. The decrease in progesterone levels accounts for the common symptoms of menopause.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. A tubal pregnancy is an example of an ectopic pregnancy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Atherosclerosis results when fatty accumulations or other substances in blood vessels calcify.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Progesterone therapy may be used to relieve some symptoms of menopause.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. The event that divides the prenatal and postnatal stages of development is birth.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Another name for a sex cell is a gamete.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Enzymes in the acrosome of the sperm are used to break down the zona pellucida of the egg.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. A woman is fertile for only about 24 hours during each reproductive cycle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

 

  1. The morula is about three times the size of the zygote.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Because the virus that causes German measles can cross the placenta, it has the potential to cause developmental defects in the fetus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Because progesterone and estrogen are needed throughout pregnancy, the corpus luteum is maintained until the baby is born.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. In most situations, stage II of labor is longer than stages I or III.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Fertility drugs that produce multiple births result in fraternal rather than identical siblings.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. By age 14, all of the deciduous teeth have been lost.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Childhood

 

  1. The full closure of skeletal growth plates does not occur until late childhood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Scientists call the single cell of the zygote totipotent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. One theory of aging proposes that a lack of ATP in the cell causes aging.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1119

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. Adult stem cells are called pluripotent.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Adult stem cells can be found in the skin, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. The end products of both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are gametes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The goal of meiosis is to convert haploid cells to diploid cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The function of polar bodies is to reduce the number of chromosomes in the developing ova.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1101       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. In mitosis, DNA replicates once. In meiosis, DNA replicates twice.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Several thousand primary oocytes formed in the fetus do not survive to puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Even though they are in the female, theca cells produce androgens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. If an egg is not fertilized, the first polar body is not formed.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. If an egg is not fertilized, the second polar bodies are not produced.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Although there are several thousand primary follicles in the ovary, only one becomes a secondary follicle during each reproductive cycle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Only slightly more than 1% of the sperm deposited in the vagina reach the egg.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. After ovulation, the ovum first enters the infundibulum and moves toward the middle of the uterine tube where fertilization occurs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. As the blastocyst develops, the outer layer cell mass forms the amniotic cavity and the yolk sac.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The placenta produces both progesterone and estrogen.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Gestation is divided into three approximately equal time periods called trimesters.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The developing baby is referred to as a zygote during the first trimester, an embryo during the second trimester, and a fetus during the third trimester.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Constipation and a hiatal hernia can be caused by the increasing size of the uterus during late pregnancy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1113

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Because of the size and position of the uterus, the center of gravity of a pregnant woman is shifted backward, making walking difficult.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1113

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. A cesarean section is the delivery of a baby by a surgical procedure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Multiple-birth babies are at greater risk for complications because they are often born prematurely.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Identical twins share an umbilical cord and a placenta.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The first forceful breath of a newborn baby is stimulated by the increasing carbon dioxide level in the blood.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Gerontologists have found that aging may be linked to the reproductive limit of human cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. Progeria is a condition in which a person appears to age rapidly.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1119 (Box 36-3)                        TOP:    Progeria

 

  1. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that is common in elderly adults.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. With aging, the skin thickens, causing wrinkles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Integumentary System

 

  1. The “barrel chest” in some elderly adults results from the calcification of the costal cartilages.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1121

TOP:    Respiratory System

 

  1. A change in the organ of Corti, which is common in the elderly, requires bifocal glasses for correction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. Because of the reduction of blood levels of progesterone in postmenopausal women, they are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis than are men.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. Ectopic pregnancy can never end in the successful development of the fetus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Agents that disrupt normal development of the fetus are called teratogens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. When the blastocyst implants too close to the cervix, a condition called abruptio placentae may develop.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. A tetrad is a structure that occurs during meiosis I and is a homologous pair of chromosomes that are moved together.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis rely on polar bodies to reduce the chromosome number.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1098 |Page 1101                        TOP:    Spermatogenesis | Oogenesis

 

  1. The first polar body is a diploid structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1101       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. The only thing contributed to the egg by the fertilizing sperm is the nucleus of the sperm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The ultimate purpose of the human chorionic gonadotropin is to maintain the lining of the uterus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1106       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. By day 35 of development, not only is the heart beating, but the embryo has eyes and limb buds, which will eventually develop into arms and legs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The development of the primary germ layers from the undifferentiated cells of the embryo is called apoptosis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. In the male, the gonads attach to the wolffian duct, which along with the urethra, develop into the male reproductive tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1112

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. In the female, the müllerian duct develops into the female reproductive tract separate from the urinary tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1112

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

 

 

  1. Identical twins are always of the same sex.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The crossing over that occurs during meiosis increases the genetic diversity of the offspring.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. Each primary spermatocyte will produce four functional sperm cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Spermatogenesis

 

  1. During oogenesis, two polar bodies are produced, one during meiosis I and one during meiosis II.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Sperm are attracted to the warmer temperatures of the uterine tubes; this attraction is called thermotaxis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. When a sperm enters the egg, the sperm causes an increase in potassium ions in the ovum, which inactivates the sperm receptors in the zona pellucida.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The morula is more developmentally advanced than the blastocyst.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. In the blastocyst, the inner layer forms the amniotic cavity and the outer layer forms the yolk sac.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

 

 

  1. Stem cells of the early embryo are called totipotent.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Shortly after birth, all of the systems are fully differentiated; because of that, adults do not have stem cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. The cells of the primary germ layers are not totipotent stem cells, but they are multipotent stem cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Histogenesis must come before organogenesis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Hormones such as cortisol and oxytocin, along with prostaglandins E and F, are important in the birth process.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1114|Page 1115                         TOP:    Birth or Parturition

 

  1. One possible cause of the degenerative process of aging is the limit on the number of times a human cell can go through mitosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. Both peristaltic contractions and cilia assist the sperm in moving through the uterine tubes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The cumulus cells surrounding the ovum release estrogen and other molecules to attract the sperm toward the ovum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The fertilization membrane formed by the ovum assists the sperm in its passage through the cell membrane and into the egg.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Implantation occurs about 3 days after fertilization.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Over-the-counter pregnancy tests detect the presence of hCG in the urine of the woman.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The gestation period lasts for about 39 weeks.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. By the end of the first trimester, the sex of the baby can be identified.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1107|Page 1110                         TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. One of the early signs of the beginning of labor is the rupture of the amniotic sac.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1114

TOP:    Birth or Parturition

 

  1. If twins are of two different sexes, they must be fraternal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Over the next 40 years, the fastest growing age group will be people between the ages of 45 and 65.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1116

TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. Childhood lasts from the end of infancy to puberty, which is from 10 to 12 years of age in girls and 12 to 14 years of age in boys.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Childhood

 

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 36-B: Growth and Development

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Regarding human developmental biology, which of the following statements is(are) true?
a. The study of human developmental biology includes the prenatal period.
b. The study of human developmental biology includes the postnatal period.
c. Human developmental biology is the study of the many changes that occur during the cycle of life from conception to death.
d. All of the above are true regarding human developmental biology.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Introduction to Growth and Development

 

  1. The normal phenomenon of “crossing over” occurs:
a. during meiosis I.
b. during meiosis II.
c. in both meiosis and mitosis.
d. in both A and B.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The process of spermatogenesis forms _____ spermatozoa, each with _____ chromosomes.
a. two; 23
b. four; 23
c. two; 46
d. four; 46

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The main difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis is that in oogenesis:
a. the primary oocytes contain 46 chromosomes.
b. the cytoplasm is equally divided among the daughter cells.
c. meiosis I does not occur.
d. only one ovum is produced from each primary oocyte, plus three polar bodies.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. After leaving the graafian follicle, the ovum lives approximately _____ day(s).
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Fertilization takes place in the:
a. vagina.
b. uterus.
c. uterine tube.
d. ovary.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Implantation occurs during the _____ stage.
a. zygote
b. morula
c. blastocyst
d. trophoblast

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst contains the:
a. yolk sac.
b. amniotic cavity.
c. trophoblast.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The solid mass of cells formed when the zygote begins to divide is called the:
a. blastocyst.
b. trophoblast.
c. morula.
d. embryo.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

 

  1. The structure known as the “bag of waters” is the:
a. placenta.
b. amniotic cavity.
c. yolk sac.
d. chorion.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the placenta?
a. Excretory organ
b. Respiratory organ
c. Endocrine organ
d. Barrier to alcohol

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The normal length of gestation for humans is approximately _____ weeks.
a. 37
b. 39
c. 41
d. 43

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The chorion, which develops from the trophoblast, becomes:
a. an important fetal membrane in the placenta.
b. the inner cell mass.
c. the amniotic cavity.
d. the yolk sac.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by the placental tissue peaks about _____ weeks after fertilization.
a. 2 to 3
b. 3 to 4
c. 8 to 9
d. 13 to 14

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The function of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is to:
a. act as a gonadotropin.
b. stimulate the corpus luteum.
c. maintain high luteal estrogen and progesterone levels.
d. do all of the above.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. All organ systems are formed and functioning by the _____ month of fetal development.
a. second
b. third
c. fourth
d. fifth

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. In the developing human embryo, the heart begins to beat at about _____ weeks.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Which of the following is derived from mesoderm during embryonic development?
a. Bones and muscles
b. Epithelium of GI tract
c. Nervous tissue and skin
d. Nervous tissue and bones

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The primary germ layer that forms many of the structures around the periphery of the body is the:
a. endoderm.
b. mesoderm.
c. ectoderm.
d. epiderm.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Histogenesis may be defined as the process during which:
a. implantation occurs.
b. the tissues arrange themselves into organs.
c. the primary germ layers develop into many different kinds of tissues.
d. both B and C occur.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. The third stage of labor is the:
a. period of uterine contractions until dilation of the cervix is complete.
b. period of maximal cervical dilation.
c. period when the baby exits the vagina.
d. process of expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. In most cases, stage one of labor lasts from _____ hours.
a. 2 to 4
b. 6 to 12
c. 6 to 24
d. 24 to 36

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Identical twins result from the:
a. splitting of embryonic tissue from the same zygote early in development.
b. inner cell mass dividing into two masses during the blastocyst stage of development.
c. fertilization of two different ova by two different spermatozoa.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The second stage of labor is the:
a. period from the onset of contractions until dilation of the cervix is complete.
b. period from the time of maximal cervical dilation until the baby exits through the vagina.
c. point at which the amniotic sac ruptures.
d. process of expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. As the body develops, the:
a. head becomes proportionately smaller.
b. face decreases from one half to one eighth of the skull surface.
c. trunk becomes proportionately longer.
d. thoracic and abdominal contours become more rounded.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1116 (Figure 36-22)                   TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. Birth weight generally doubles during the first _____ months and then _____.
a. 3; triples by 1 year
b. 4; triples by 1 year
c. 6; doubles again by 1 year
d. 6; triples by 18 months

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. At what age do boys generally complete rapid growth stage?
a. 12
b. 14
c. 16
d. 18

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. At what age do girls generally begin to menstruate?
a. 10
b. 12 to 13
c. 14
d. 15 to 16

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Fraternal twins:
a. have only one placenta.
b. have two placentas.
c. must always have the same biological father.
d. are genetically identical.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. During infancy, the lumbar curvature appears between the _____ months.
a. second and fourth
b. fourth and sixth
c. sixth and tenth
d. twelfth and eighteenth

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. An infant is able to follow a moving object with its eyes by the end of the _____ month.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. The deciduous teeth:
a. begin to appear at about 6 months of age.
b. are lost during childhood.
c. start to erupt at about 6 years of age.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117

TOP:    Childhood

 

  1. Between the ages of 30 and 75, the number of nephron units in the kidney decreases by almost:
a. 20%.
b. 30%.
c. 40%.
d. 50%.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1121

TOP:    Urinary System

 

  1. The condition caused by buildup of fatty deposits in blood vessel walls is:
a. arteriosclerosis.
b. atherosclerosis.
c. myocardial infarction.
d. hypertension.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Clouding of the lens of the eye is called:
a. presbyopia.
b. myopia.
c. glaucoma.
d. cataract.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. The most serious age-related eye disorder is:
a. presbyopia.
b. glaucoma.
c. cataract.
d. hyperopia.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. If a creature had 36 chromosomes in its normal body cells, its gametes would contain _____ chromosomes.
a. 72
b. 36
c. 18
d. 9

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1097       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. If a creature had 36 chromosomes in its normal body cells, the zygote of the creature would contain _____ chromosomes.
a. 72
b. 36
c. 18
d. an indeterminable number of

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1097       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. The most potent stem cells, those that can generate many types of human tissue, can be found in the:
a. red bone marrow.
b. zygote
c. blastocyst stage.
d. Both B and C are correct.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. DNA replication occurs during:
a. prophase I.
b. prophase II.
c. interphase before prophase I.
d. both A and B.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Crossing over occurs to:
a. reduce the chromosome number in a gamete.
b. assist in tetrad formation.
c. allow chromatin to condense into chromosomes.
d. transfer genes from one chromosome to another.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. After puberty, about how many primary oocytes resume meioses each month?
a. 10
b. 100
c. 1000
d. 10,000

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. At ovulation, the ovum is at which stage of meiosis?
a. Telophase II
b. Anaphase II
c. Telophase I
d. None of the above

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In the female reproductive system, which of the following does not assist the sperm in reaching the egg?
a. Cilia in the uterine tubes
b. Polar bodies produced by the egg
c. Mucus strands in the cervical canal
d. All of the above assist the sperm in reaching the egg.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Meiosis I produces what in oogenesis?
a. Ovum
b. Primary polar body
c. Primary oocyte
d. Both B and C

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. The sequence of early development of the fetus is:
a. morula, zygote, and blastocyst.
b. zygote, morula, and blastocyst.
c. zygote, blastocyst, and morula.
d. morula, blastocyst, and zygote.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. A nonfunctioning yolk sac could hinder the fetus in:
a. receiving proper nutrition.
b. producing blood cells.
c. receiving enough oxygen.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1104

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Which of the following hormones is not produced by the placenta?
a. FSH
b. hCG
c. Estrogen
d. All of the above hormones are produced by the placenta.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the endoderm?
a. Tonsils
b. Kidneys
c. Lining of the pancreatic duct
d. Glandular epithelium of the thyroid gland

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the mesoderm?
a. Skeletal muscles
b. Bones
c. Kidneys
d. All of the above structures are formed by the mesoderm.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the ectoderm?
a. Cornea of the eye
b. Dermis of the skin
c. Brain
d. Enamel of the teeth

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Which of the following conditions associated with the eye does not directly involve the lens?
a. Glaucoma
b. Presbyopia
c. Cataracts
d. All of the above conditions directly involve the lens.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. A condition in which the placenta grows too close to the cervical opening is called:
a. ectopic pregnancy.
b. abruptio placentae.
c. placenta previa.
d. eclampsia.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. A condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall is called:
a. ectopic pregnancy.
b. abruptio placentae.
c. placenta previa.
d. eclampsia.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1124

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. In the human, the haploid number of chromosomes is:
a. 23.
b. 46.
c. the result of meiosis.
d. both A and C.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In the human, the diploid number of chromosomes is:
a. 23.
b. 46.
c. the result of meiosis.
d. both B and C.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. A tetrad is:
a. formed only in spermatogenesis.
b. formed only in oogenesis.
c. homologous pairs of chromosomes that are moved together.
d. None of the above describe a tetrad.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. During human oogenesis, which structure contains 46 chromosomes?
a. Ovum
b. Secondary oocyte
c. First polar body
d. Both B and C

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Theca cells produce:
a. an androgen that is converted to estrogen.
b. the granulosa cells.
c. the oogonia.
d. none of the above.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Only about what percent of the sperm deposited in the female reproductive tract actually reach the ovum?
a. 10%
b. 5%
c. 1%
d. Less than 0.1%

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1102       TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. At fertilization, what part of the sperm cell enters the egg?
a. Nucleus of the sperm
b. RNA from the sperm
c. Proteins from the sperm
d. All of the above

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. If the process of oogenesis goes to completion, how many polar bodies will be produced?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1101       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. What layer of the ovum has receptors for sperm cells?
a. Zona pellucida
b. Corona radiata
c. Theca cells
d. Both A and B

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The term used for the fertilized ovum is:
a. morula.
b. zygote.
c. fetus.
d. blastocyst.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following describe the development of the female reproductive system?
a. Gonads attach to the mesonephrotic duct.
b. Gonads attach to the paramesonephrotic duct.
c. It develops along with the urethra in the reproductive system.
d. Both A and C describe the development of the female reproductive system.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1112

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. The primary germ layers developed from stem cells are referred to as:
a. omnipotent.
b. pluripotent.
c. totipotent.
d. multipotent.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Stem cells in adults are referred to as:
a. totipotent.
b. pluripotent.
c. multipotent.
d. Adults do not have stem cells.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

a. Parturition
b. Chorion
c. Neonate
d. Zygote
e. Organogenesis
f. Blastocyst
g. Gestation
h. Morula
i. Senescence
j. Primary germ layers
k. Histogenesis
l. Embryology
m. Implantation
n. Fertilization

 

 

  1. three layers of specialized cells that give rise to definite structures as the embryo develops

 

  1. length of pregnancy; approximately 39 weeks in humans

 

  1. fertilized ovum

 

  1. study of prenatal development; study of the development of an individual before birth

 

  1. formation of organs from tissue derived from the primary germ layers of the embryo

 

  1. post-morula stage of developing embryo; hollow ball of cells

 

  1. aging; older adulthood

 

  1. infant during its first 4 weeks of life

 

  1. when a fertilized ovum attaches to the uterus

 

  1. develops into an important fetal membrane in the placenta

 

  1. formation of tissues from the primary germ layers of the embryo

 

  1. solid mass of cells formed after several divisions of a fertilized egg

 

  1. moment at which the ovum and sperm unite

 

  1. giving birth

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1107

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. ANS:   L                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1105 (Box 36-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 1116       TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. ANS:   M                    DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1105

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   N                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1101

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1114

TOP:    Birth or Parturition

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition or description.

a. Atherosclerosis
b. Arteriosclerosis
c. Stroke
d. Osteoarthritis
e. “Barrel chest”
f. Lipping
g. Cataract
h. Hypertension
i. Glaucoma
j. Presbyopia

 

 

  1. “old eye”

 

  1. degenerative joint disease

 

  1. condition in which fatty deposits build up on the walls of blood vessels

 

  1. disease characterized by an increase in the pressure inside the eyeball; can cause blindness

 

  1. process by which older bones develop bone margins that become indistinct and shaggy-appearing

 

  1. condition that results from clouding of the lens, which causes a loss of transparency that impairs vision

 

  1. “hardening of the arteries”; occurs when the fatty deposits calcify

 

  1. results when the costal cartilage connecting the ribs and sternum hardens and the ribs become fixed

 

  1. high blood pressure

 

  1. results from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1121

TOP:    Respiratory System

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 1098|Page 1101

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Describe (or diagram) the hormone levels during pregnancy.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1106       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Briefly discuss the three stages of labor.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Compare and contrast the two different processes that can result in twinning.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Discuss the major developmental changes that occur during infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 1116|Page 1118                         TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. What is the function of polar bodies in oogenesis?

 

ANS:

Reduction of the chromosome number.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1101       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Some home pregnancy tests measure the amount of hCG in a woman’s urine. Why is this substance an accurate sign of pregnancy? What structure produces hCG?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1106       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Explain what occurs in the phases of meiosis. How does this process differ from mitosis?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. Explain the process of fertilization. How does the female reproductive system assist the sperm in reaching the ovum?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1102|Page 1103

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Explain the development of the fertilized ovum from the time of fertilization to implantation in the wall of the uterus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1103

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. What are stem cells? Differentiate between totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent stem cells. Which type of stem cells are found in adults?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1110|Page 1111

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

 

  1. Name the three primary germ layers and name several structures or systems that develop from each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1111

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Select four systems and explain the effects of aging on each system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1120|Page 1122

TOP:    Effects of Aging

 

  1. Explain the theories of aging discussed in this chapter.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1118|Page 1119

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Bob has a condition that may require a kidney transplant. He is not concerned because he has a twin sister and he knows that twins are genetically the same. Is Bob correct in his thinking? Explain why or why not.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Tommy’s mother told the pediatrician during Tommy’s 1-year visit that he had tripled his birth weight, was crawling actively, and could stand alone. Is Tommy’s development normal, retarded, or advanced?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1117       TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Polly is 70 years old. She has always enjoyed food and has had a hearty appetite. Lately, however, she has complained that “food just doesn’t taste as good anymore.” What is a possible explanation?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1122       TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. Stan and Dan are twins. Stan suffers from kidney disease. The physicians said Stan can receive Dan’s kidney with very little chance of rejection. Explain why.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1115       TOP:    Multiple Births

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