Anatomy Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

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Anatomy Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Biochemistry deals with the chemical makeup of living organisms and the underlying process of life activities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines its atomic mass.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. The positively charged electrons are found in clouds outside the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. Two shared pairs of electrons represent a single covalent bond.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a decomposition reaction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atom’s outer shell determine its chemical activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom is chemically inert if its outermost shell has two pairs of electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Electrovalent and ionic bonds are the same.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Radiation results from the breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Radioactivity can cause an atom of one element to change to that of another element.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. Ionizing radiation can be cancer-producing.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Radioactivity

 

  1. A substance that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added is called a buffer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

  1. The chemical reaction of an acid with a base always produces a salt and water.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Water is the universal solvent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Electrolytes include acids, bases, and salts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. All inorganic substances are free from carbon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Electrolytes are characterized by having either a positive or a negative charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. Acids are electrolytes that produce OH+ ions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. pH stands for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Proteins are the most abundant of the carbon-containing compounds in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Glycogen and starch are both examples of polysaccharides.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. There are a total of 20 essential amino acids.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Steroids are often called tissue hormones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. DNA molecules are the largest molecules in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Adenine and thymine are referred to as purine bases, which are important constituents of a DNA molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Metabolism includes the processes of both anabolism and catabolism.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The ability of proteins to perform their function depends on their shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Enzymes are proteins that function by the lock-and-key theory.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. ATP is broken down in an anabolic reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41           TOP:    Catabolism

 

  1. Catabolism and anabolism are major types of metabolic activity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic bond.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The digestion of food is an example of a synthesis reaction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The pH scale indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Litmus paper will turn red in the presence of a base.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is also called the “bad” cholesterol.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. The nonessential amino acids cannot be produced from the other amino acids or from simple organic molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The atomic weight of an atom is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. The mass of a proton is almost exactly equal to the mass of an electron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 33

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Hydrogen will react with other atoms to get 8 electrons in its outer energy level.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A double covalent bond involves the sharing of 2 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. Synthesis reactions release energy for use by the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes dissociate to form ions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Sugars and starches are both considered to be carbohydrates.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glucose is a hexose and ribose is a pentose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. Nonessential amino acids are rarely used in the making of proteins in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Fats, steroids, and prostaglandins are all considered lipids.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Fats are composed of three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Saturated fats are more likely than unsaturated fats to be liquids at room temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 49

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. Phospholipids have a fat-soluble end and a water-soluble end.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins are associated with the prostate gland and therefore are not found in women.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51           TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the structure, arrangement, and composition of substances and the reactions they undergo.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The nucleus of the atom will always have a positive charge.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 25, it must have 13 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Consider an atom that has an atomic mass of 18. For it to be electrically neutral, it must have 18 electrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure, Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Atoms become positively charged by gaining protons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Inorganic compounds do not play an important role in living systems.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. Acids release protons in solution.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A denatured protein has lost its functional shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 56

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. RNA never exists in a double-stranded form.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Glycoproteins contain both a fat molecule and a protein molecule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 60

TOP:    Combined Forms

 

  1. The terms molecule and compound mean the same thing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Interaction Between Atoms

 

  1. Four elements are considered to be the major elements in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Dalton named the atom after the Greek word for invisible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 electrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 neutrons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. A neutral atom that has 22 protons could have 25 neutrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atoms

 

  1. Oxygen has 8 electrons, but only 6 of them are in its outermost energy level.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds between atoms do not form molecules or compounds.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Attraction Between Molecules

 

  1. According to the general formula, in synthesis reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in decomposition reactions, the number of reactants is usually greater than the number of products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. According to the general formula, in exchange reactions, the number of reactants and the number of products are usually equal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 6 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 3 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. A sucrose molecule is formed by the synthesis reaction between glucose and fructose.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

 

  1. The quaternary structure of a protein contains more than one polypeptide chain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 55

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Both phospholipids and steroids are found in cell membranes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. Steroids are the only lipid that contains a ring structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. Nucleotides are only used to make RNA or DNA molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. The distance between the sugar-phosphate structures in a DNA molecule is equal to the distance of one purine and one pyrimidine molecule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57           TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. When ATP is in short supply, muscles can use creatine phosphate for extra energy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 59

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. Because oxygen has 8 electrons, it has achieved its octet and will not react with other elements.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Both triglycerides and prostaglandins can contain a saturated fat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 49 | Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Prostaglandins

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following represents a trace element in the body?
A. Sulfur
B. Chlorine
C. Iron
D. Phosphorus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Basic Chemistry

 

  1. The kind of element is determined by the number of:
A. proton.
B. neutrons.
C. mesotrons.
D. electrons.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Atomic weight is determined by the number of:
A. protons and electrons.
B. neutrons and electrons.
C. neutrons, protons, and electrons.
D. protons and neutrons.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. The number of electrons found in the first shell is:
A. 2.
B. 4.
C. 6.
D. 8.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus is a(n):
A. orbital.
B. proton.
C. neutron.
D. electron.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. When atoms combine, they may gain, lose, or share:
A. electrons.
B. protons.
C. neutrons.
D. nuclei.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms: Chemical Bonds

 

  1. An ionic bond is formed by:
A. two or more positive ions combining.
B. two or more negative ions combining.
C. a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
D. sharing of a pair of electrons.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. An example of an element would be:
A. Ne.
B. CO2.
C. C6H12O6.
D. H2O.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 34

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. An isotope of an element contains a different number of ____ than other atoms of the same element.
A. electrons
B. protons
C. neutrons
D. protons and neutrons

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following elements is least likely to combine with another element?
A. Hydrogen
B. Helium
C. Oxygen
D. Carbon

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 37 (Figure 2-6)

TOP:    Attraction Between Atoms: Chemical Bonds

 

  1. The hydrogen isotope tritium consists of:
A. one proton.
B. one proton and one neutron.
C. two protons and one neutron.
D. one proton and two neutrons.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38 (Figure 2-7)

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following bonds are the weakest?
A. Ionic bonds
B. Hydrogen bonds
C. Electrovalent bonds
D. Covalent bonds

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. The type of reaction in which substances are combined to form more complex substances is called a(n):
A. reversible reaction.
B. exchange reaction.
C. synthesis reaction.
D. decomposition reaction.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. The process of the digestion of food is an example of which type of reaction?
A. Synthesis
B. Decomposition
C. Exchange
D. Reversible

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Substances that accept hydrogen ions are called:
A. acids.
B. bases.
C. buffers.
D. salts.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Bases

 

  1. Acids:
A. are proton donors.
B. taste sour.
C. release hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution.
D. are all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids

 

  1. A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydrogen ions (H+) is a(n):
A. acidic solution.
B. alkaline (basic) solution.
C. neutral solution.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Bases

 

  1. In the presence of a base, red litmus paper will:
A. stay red.
B. turn blue.
C. turn green.
D. turn yellow.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is/are:
A. air.
B. water.
C. proteins.
D. nucleic acids.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of body weight is water?
A. 40%
B. 50%
C. 60%
D. 70%

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Water

 

  1. AB + CD  AD + CB is an example of a(n):
A. synthesis reaction.
B. exchange reaction.
C. decomposition reaction.
D. reversible reaction.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following represent(s) properties of water?
A. Cohesion
B. High heat of vaporization
C. Strong polarity
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 43

TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. The approximate pH of gastric fluid is:
A. 10.
B. 8.
C. 4.
D. 2.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 45 (Figure 2-15)                         TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major groups of organic substances in the human body?
A. Proteins
B. Salts
C. Lipids
D. Nucleic acids

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Organic Molecules

 

  1. The enzyme lactase catalyzes the chemical reaction that changes lactose to:
A. glucose only.
B. glucose and fructose.
C. fructose and galactose.
D. glucose and galactose.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 56 (Table 2-6)

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Peptide bonds join together molecules of:
A. glycerol.
B. glucose.
C. amino acids.
D. water.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Vitamin D functions to:
A. form retinol.
B. increase calcium uptake.
C. promote wound healing.
D. aid in the synthesis of blood clotting proteins.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48 (Table 2-5)

TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. All of the following substances are organic except:
A. lipids.
B. electrolytes.
C. carbohydrates.
D. proteins.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Organic Molecules

 

  1. The simple sugars that are the building blocks for other carbohydrates are:
A. disaccharides.
B. monosaccharides.
C. polysaccharides.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. The element that is present in all proteins but not in carbohydrates is:
A. carbon.
B. hydrogen.
C. oxygen.
D. nitrogen.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 46 | Page 52

TOP:    Carbohydrates and Proteins

 

  1. The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called:
A. hydrolysis.
B. oxidation.
C. decomposition.
D. dehydration synthesis.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 42           TOP:    Anabolism

 

  1. Humans can synthesize 12 of 20 basic amino acids; the remaining 8, which must be included in the diet, are called:
A. enzymes.
B. essential amino acids.
C. structural proteins.
D. peptide bonds.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The basic building blocks of fats are:
A. monosaccharides.
B. disaccharides.
C. amino acids.
D. fatty acids and glycerol.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. A structural lipid found in the cell membrane is a:
A. triglyceride.
B. phospholipid.
C. steroid.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Phospholipids and Steroids

 

  1. DNA:
A. is a single strand of nucleotides.
B. contains the sugar ribose.
C. is the heredity molecule.
D. transports amino acids during protein synthesis.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57 | Page 58

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. The study of metabolism includes examination of:
A. catabolism.
B. anabolism.
C. ATP requirements.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The bonds that exist between phosphate groups of the ATP molecule are:
A. hydrogen bonds.
B. high-energy bonds.
C. covalent bonds.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41 | Page 42

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. The type of lipoprotein associated with cholesterol and the production of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels is:
A. HDL.
B. LDL.
C. VLDL.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 51 (Box 2-2)

TOP:    Formation of Triglycerides

 

  1. The type of lipid found in sex hormones is:
A. triglycerides.
B. phosphoglycerides.
C. steroids.
D. prostaglandins.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50           TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the three major ingredients of a DNA molecule?
A. Sugar
B. Nitrogenous bases
C. Phosphate
D. Lipid

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major elements present in the human body?
A. Oxygen
B. Zinc
C. Carbon
D. Potassium

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 35 (Table 2-1)

TOP:    Basic Chemistry

 

  1. Which of the following is not a subatomic particle?
A. Proton
B. Electron
C. Radon
D. Neutron

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The total number of electrons in a neutral atom equals the number of:
A. neutrons orbiting the atom.
B. protons plus the number of neutrons in its nucleus.
C. protons in its nucleus.
D. ions in its nucleus.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. An atom can be described as chemically inert if its outermost electron shell contains:
A. 8 electrons.
B. 9 electrons.
C. 2 electrons.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Ionic bonds are chemical bonds formed by the:
A. sharing of electrons between molecules.
B. donation of protons from one atom to another.
C. transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
D. acceptance of neutrons from one atom to another.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are called:
A. ionic.
B. covalent.
C. hydrogen.
D. isotopic.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. The type of chemical reaction most likely to require energy is:
A. synthesis reaction.
B. decomposition reaction.
C. exchange reaction.
D. All of the above reactions are equally likely to require energy.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Proteins are composed of ____ commonly occurring amino acids.
A. 10
B. 18
C. 20
D. 22

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Amino acids frequently become joined by:
A. peptide bonds.
B. catabolic reactions.
C. atrophic reactions.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 52           TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. The elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up which percentage of the human body?
A. 50%
B. 69%
C. 78%
D. 96%

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 35

TOP:    Elements and Compounds

 

  1. Which subatomic particles carry a charge?
A. Protons and neutrons
B. Neutrons and electrons
C. Protons and electrons
D. Only neutrons carry a charge.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The element oxygen has an atomic number of 8, which means it contains:
A. 4 protons and 4 neutrons.
B. 8 protons.
C. 8 neutrons.
D. 4 protons and 4 electrons.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. For sodium to go from a neutral atom to a positive ion, it must:
A. gain an electron.
B. gain a proton.
C. lose an electron.
D. lose a proton.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. A molecule that is polar:
A. can form a hydrogen bond.
B. must be ionic.
C. has an unequal charge.
D. is both A and C above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 39           TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen needed to form water is an example of a:
A. hydrogen bond.
B. synthesis reaction.
C. decomposition reaction.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Electrolytes are:
A. organic compounds.
B. called cations if they have a negative charge.
C. called cations if they have a positive charge.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Electrolytes

 

  1. A weak acid:
A. dissociates very little in solution.
B. dissociates almost completely in solution.
C. will cause the pH of the solution to rise above 7.
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Salts:
A. can form as the result of a chemical reaction between acids and bases.
B. are electrolytes.
C. will form crystals if the water is removed.
D. are all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Salts

 

  1. Hydrolysis:
A. joins compounds by removing a water molecule.
B. breaks down compounds by removing a water molecule.
C. joins compounds by adding a water molecule.
D. breaks down compounds by adding a water molecule.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 54 (Figure 2-27)                         TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Unsaturated fats:
A. contain all the hydrogen atoms they can hold.
B. contain only single bonds between carbon atoms.
C. are usually solids at room temperature.
D. will kink or bend because of the double bonds between the carbon atoms.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48 | Page 49

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. As the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) increases, the:
A. solution becomes more basic.
B. solution becomes more acidic.
C. pH rises.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. As the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH) increases, the:
A. solution becomes more basic.
B. solution becomes more acidic.
C. pH rises.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. Which lipid acts as a “tissue hormone”?
A. Triglyceride
B. Prostaglandin
C. Steroid
D. Phospholipid

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. A magnesium atom has an atomic number of 12, an atomic mass of 25, and a +2 charge. This atom would contain:
A. 12 protons, 25 neutrons, and 2 electrons.
B. 12 protons, 13 neutrons, and 14 electrons.
C. 12 protons, 13 neutrons, and 10 electrons.
D. Not enough information is given to answer the question.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 36           TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. The octet rule refers to:
A. the stability of the nucleus when the protons are in a multiple of 8.
B. the stability of the atom when there are 8 electrons in the outermost energy level.
C. the stable configuration of the nucleus when there are 8 more neutrons than protons.
D. the principle that one atom can combine with a maximum of 8 other atoms.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. The type of reaction most likely to release energy is a(n):
A. synthesis reaction.
B. decomposition reaction.
C. exchange reaction.
D. all of the above reactions are equally likely to release energy.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 40

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Which of the following is not true about oxygen and carbon dioxide?
A. They are both important organic compounds.
B. Molecular oxygen is present as O2 in the body.
C. Oxygen is needed for energy release in cellular respiration.
D. Carbon dioxide is important in maintaining the proper acid-base balance in the body.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 4 has:
A. 10 times more H+ ions than a solution with a pH of 6.
B. 10 times more OH ions than a solution with a pH of 6.
C. 100 times more H+ ions that a solution with a pH of 6.
D. 100 times more OH ions than a solution with a pH of 6.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    The pH Scale

 

  1. The alpha helix is an example of which level of protein structure?
A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
D. Quaternary

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of RNA?
A. It contains ribose sugar.
B. It contains adenine.
C. It is composed of smaller molecules called nucleotides.
D. All of the above are true of RNA.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of all isotopes of oxygen?
A. They can all react with two hydrogen atoms to form water.
B. They have the same number of protons.
C. They have the same atomic mass.
D. All of the above are true of isotopes of oxygen.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 37           TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds are important in the attractive forces between:
A. water molecules.
B. large protein molecules.
C. nucleic acids.
D. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39 | Page 40

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. A strong acid:
A. holds on strongly to its hydrogen atoms, releasing very few in solution.
B. would cause a drop in the pH of a solution.
C. would cause a rise in the pH of a solution.
D. is both A and C above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Acids

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of protein?
A. Provides structure for the body
B. Acts as a catalyst for chemical reactions
C. Provides energy for the body
D. All of the above are functions of protein

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. Which level of protein structure refers to the number, kind, and sequence of amino acids?
A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
D. Quaternary

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 54

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Which level of protein structure is one that contains several polypeptide chains?
A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
D. Quaternary

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 55

TOP:    Levels of Protein Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of both triglycerides and phospholipids?
A. They both contain glycerol.
B. They both contain fatty acids.
C. They both contain a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end.
D. All of the above are true of both triglycerides and phospholipids.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48 | Page 50

TOP:    Triglycerides and Phospholipids

 

  1. Prostaglandins and steroids share which of the following characteristics?
A. Both are found in the cell membrane.
B. Both have a ring structure in their molecule.
C. Both have a saturated fat in their structure.
D. None of the above are shared characteristics.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 50 | Page 51

TOP:    Steroids and Prostaglandins

 

  1. Which energy-releasing or energy-transferring molecule does not contain a nucleotide?
A. FAD
B. Creatine phosphate
C. NAD
D. ATP

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 58 | Page 59

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. The twisted, double-strand arrangement of nucleotides in a DNA molecule is a(n):
A. deoxyribose.
B. double helix.
C. guanine.
D. uracil.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 57           TOP:    RNA and DNA

 

  1. If the pH of a person’s blood was 7.4, it would be described as:
A. strongly acidic.
B. neutral.
C. slightly acidic.
D. slightly alkaline.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 44           TOP:    Bases

 

  1. When sodium (Na) gives up an electron to chlorine, the result is the formation of a sodium ion (Na+) with a positive charge. This happens because there is then:
A. one more proton (+) than electron (–).
B. one more electron (–) than proton (–).
C. one more proton (+) than neutron.
D. one more electron (–) than neutron.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. If an atom with nine (9) electrons was to ionically bond with an atom with three (3) electrons, what would occur?
A. The atom with 9 electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.
B. The atom with 9 electrons would lose one of its electrons, and the atom with three electrons would accept it.
C. The atom with 9 electrons would accept one of the electrons from the atom with 3 electrons.
D. The atom with 3 electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38           TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. The carbon-containing molecules formed by living things are often called:
A. buffers.
B. inorganic molecules.
C. organic molecules.
D. salts.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42

TOP:    Organic and Inorganic Compounds

 

  1. The term that is used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells is:
A. catabolism.
B. metabolism.
C. synthesis.
D. anabolism.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 41           TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. If your physician encourages you to take a daily aspirin, it is likely because aspirin can increase prostaglandin synthesis and play a:
A. therapeutic role in preventing abnormal blood clots.
B. therapeutic role in preventing abnormal blood clots.
C. role in preventing the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries.
D. role in preventing the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 51           TOP:    Prostaglandin

 

  1. When your body is building larger and more complex chemical molecules from smaller subunits, what is occurring?
A. Anabolic reactions that expend energy
B. Anabolic reactions that require energy
C. Catabolic reactions that expend energy
D. Catabolic reactions that require energy

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 42           TOP:    Metabolism

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term to its corresponding descriptive phrase.

A. proton
B. neutron
C. electron
D. isotopes
E. ionic bonds
F. covalent bonds
G. Octet rule
H. atomic number
I. atomic weight
J. hydrogen bonds

 

 

  1. number of protons an atom has

 

  1. subatomic particle with no charge

 

  1. bond formed between atoms when they share electrons

 

  1. subatomic particle with a positive charge

 

  1. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

 

  1. value determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

 

  1. bond that requires a polar molecule

 

  1. subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found in a “cloud” surrounding the nucleus of the atom

 

  1. bond that is formed by the transfer of an electron from one atom to another

 

  1. reaction of an atom that results in 8 electrons in the outer energy level

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Covalent Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 37

TOP:    Isotopes

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Number and Atomic Weight

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 39

TOP:    Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36

TOP:    Atomic Structure

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 38

TOP:    Ionic Bonds

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36 | Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

Match each term to its corresponding descriptive phrase.

A. acid
B. base
C. RNA
D. DNA
E. carbohydrate
F. fat
G. steroid
H. protein
I. prostaglandins
J. ATP

 

 

  1. substance composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules

 

  1. releases a hydrogen ion into a solution, which lowers the pH

 

  1. starch or sugar

 

  1. releases a hydroxide ion into solution, which raises the pH

 

  1. lipid found in sex hormones that is made up of four rings

 

  1. types of lipids that are called tissue hormones

 

  1. molecule that is the body’s usual source of direct energy

 

  1. nucleic acid that contains thymine and deoxyribose sugar

 

  1. substance that is made up of a long chain of amino acids

 

  1. nucleic acid that contains ribose sugar and uracil

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 48 | Page 49

TOP:    Triglycerides or Fats

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 46

TOP:    Carbohydrates

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 44

TOP:    Acids and Bases

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Steroids

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 50

TOP:    Prostaglandins

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 41 | Page 42

TOP:    Metabolism

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 52

TOP:    Proteins

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57

TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the Bohr model of the atom.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 36 | Page 37

TOP:    Energy Levels

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the type of chemical bonds discussed in this chapter.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 38 | Page 40

TOP:    Covalent Bonds, Ionic of Electrovalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds

 

  1. List the four types of lipids and give a function for each type.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 48 | Page 51                               TOP:    Lipids

 

  1. Explain the different functions performed by RNA in the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 57 | Page 58

TOP:    DNA and RNA

 

  1. Explain the three types of chemical reactions discussed in this chapter and give the formula for each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 40 | Page 41

TOP:    Chemical Reactions

 

  1. Explain the body’s reaction to a shortage of ATP as an energy source for the cell.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 58 | Page 59

TOP:    Nucleotides and Related Molecules

 

  1. Explain why the properties of water are important in the functioning of the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 43           TOP:    Properties of Water

 

  1. Explain the role of buffers in maintaining the proper environment in which the body can function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 45           TOP:    Buffers

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: If one side of a DNA molecule is A-T-C-G-G-T-C-A-G, what would the bases be on the other side of the molecule?

 

ANS:

T-A-G-C-C-A-G-T-C

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 57 | Page 58                               TOP:    Nucleic Acids

 

  1. Challenge: Enzymes that are exposed to high heat or low pH solutions lose their ability to function. What causes this to happen? Be specific.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 56           TOP:    Proteins

 

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 8: Skeletal System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The adult skeleton consists of 206 separate bones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Skeletal System Introduction

 

  1. The term margin, as it relates to bone markings, means a tubelike opening or channel.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Bones of the appendicular skeleton form the brain case and vertebral column.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. The upper extremities and the lower extremities are subdivisions of the axial skeleton.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)

TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Mastoiditis, if untreated, may lead to inflammation of the brain or of its coverings.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mastoiditis

 

  1. The two maxillae together serve as the keystone in the architecture of the face.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The lacrimal bones contain openings for the tear ducts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 232         TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The vomer forms part of the hard palate.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 232         TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. Fontanels are immovable joints between skull bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 234 | Page 235

TOP:    The Fetal Skull

 

  1. The hyoid is unique in that it is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other bone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 235

TOP:    Hyoid Bone

 

  1. The five sacral vertebrae remain separate until about 40 years of age; at that point they fuse to form one wedge-shaped bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. Damage to the cribriform plate may also injure the olfactory nerves and cause a loss of the sense of smell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 232 (Box 8-1)

TOP:    The Cribriform Plate

 

  1. The mandible and the temporal bone form the only movable joint within the structure of the face.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The lacrimal bone contains grooves for the paranasal sinuses.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 232         TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. An immovable joint in the skull is called a fontanel.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The blunt, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum is called the xiphoid process.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. There are five pairs of false ribs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The shoulder girdle consists of the sternum, the clavicle, and the scapula.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 242         TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. All shoulder movements involve the sternoclavicular joint.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 242

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Costal cartilages provide cushions between the bodies of vertebrae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 240 (Table 8-6)

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. The tubercle of each rib articulates with the vertebra’s body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. There are 12 pairs of ribs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The floating ribs do not articulate with any other bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The shoulder girdle consists of only the scapula and the clavicle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 242

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The humerus articulates proximally with the clavicle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 243

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Palpable bony landmarks are bones that can be touched and identified through the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 251 (Box 8-2)                            TOP:    Palpable Bone Landmarks

 

  1. The only bone of the wrist that is evident from the outside is the lunate.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 246         TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Before childbirth, the symphysis pubis softens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 247

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. The largest of the bones making up the innominate bone is the ischium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 247         TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. One similarity between the structures of the foot and hand is the equivalent degrees of movement of both the thumb and the big toe.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 251         TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. Young children’s bones have a greater risk of fracturing because of incompletely ossified bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 254

TOP:    Cycle of Life: Skeletal System

 

  1. Normal curvature of the spine is convex through the thoracic region and concave through the cervical and lumbar regions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 257

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Kyphosis is often seen during pregnancy.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 258

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The number of bones in the skeleton is constant from person to person.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. There are more bones in the appendicular skeleton than in the axial skeleton.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Infectious material can accumulate in the air space within the mastoid bone because it does not drain into the nose like other sinuses.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mastoiditis

 

  1. The skull contains more than 25 bones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 218

TOP:    Skull

 

  1. The face contains more bones than the cranium.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 224

TOP:    Skull

 

  1. Most of the facial bones are single (unpaired) bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 224

TOP:    Skull

 

  1. The joint connecting the two parietal bones and the frontal bone is called the coronal suture.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 230

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The cribriform plate is part of the sphenoid bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 232 (Box 8-1)                            TOP:    The Cribriform Plate

 

  1. Turbinates is another name for the inferior nasal conchae.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 231 (Figure 8-9)                         TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The sagittal suture joins the right and left parietal bones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)                          TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The dens is found on the first cervical vertebra, or atlas.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The dens is found on the second cervical vertebra, or axis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. Vertebroplasty is a procedure in which a type of “super glue” is injected into the spine to help heal broken vertebral bodies.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 256 (Box 8-3)                            TOP:    Vertebroplasty

 

  1. The number of thoracic vertebra is the same as the number of ribs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 239 | Page 241

TOP:    Vertebral Column | Ribs

 

  1. Floating ribs attach to neither the sternum nor the vertebral column.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The joint between the scapula and ribs is a fibrocartilage joint.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 242

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The olecranon and coronoid fossae are markings of the scapula.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 244 (Table 8-7)                          TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Only the radius has a direct articulation with the bones of the wrist.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 243

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The wrist consists of six irregular carpal bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 246

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The lesser trochanter is a marking of the tibia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. Both the tibia and fibula articulate with the femur.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. When the knee is flexed, the patella can be easily distinguished.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. There are two arches of the foot—one lengthwise and one crosswise.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 251

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. An open fracture is also known as a compound fracture.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. A dentate fracture involves the mandible or maxilla and results in tooth loss.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The parietal bone is involved in three sutures—the lambdoidal, the squamous, and the coronal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 230

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The bones of the skull form only sutures (immovable joints), not movable joints.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. Although the mandible seems to be one bone, it is the result of a fusion of two bones in infancy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The term “blowout fracture” refers to a serious injury to the knee joint.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Eye Orbits

 

  1. The vomer bone forms immovable joints with four other bones—the sphenoid, the palatine, the ethmoid, and the frontal.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Eye Orbits

 

  1. False ribs attach only to the thoracic vertebrae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The two bones of the lower arm are the ulna and radius, and the two bones of the lower leg are the tibia and fibula.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 243 | Page 249                           TOP:    Upper Extremity | Lower Extremity

 

  1. The frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones are all considered cranial bones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 230 | Page 231                           TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The maxilla is the largest and strongest bone of the face.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The cheek is shaped by the zygomatic bone underlying it.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. The thumb has one fewer phalange than the other fingers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 246 (Figure 8-20)                       TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. In the male, the subpubic angle is wider than it is in the female.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 253 | Page 254                           TOP:    Skeletal Differences in Men and Women

 

  1. In the female, the coccyx is more movable than it is in the male.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 254 (Table 8-9)                          TOP:    Skeletal Differences in Men and Women

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which is not a part of the axial skeleton?
A. Rib
B. Vertebral column
C. Mandible
D. Clavicle

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Which is not a part of the appendicular skeleton?
A. Coxal bones
B. Parietal bones
C. Radius
D. Clavicle

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. The axial skeleton consists of:
A. 60 bones.
B. 68 bones.
C. 74 bones.
D. 80 bones.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. The appendicular skeleton consists of:
A. 102 bones.
B. 118 bones.
C. 126 bones.
D. 137 bones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. The term sinus, as it relates to bone markings, may be defined as a:
A. raised area or projection.
B. cavity within a bone.
C. tubelike opening or channel.
D. groove or elongated depression.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Which bone is a part of the axial skeleton?
A. Rib
B. Clavicle
C. Radius
D. Coxal bones

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Which bone is a part of the appendicular skeleton?
A. Scapula
B. Vertebra
C. Parietal
D. Mandible

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Which suture is between the occipital and parietal bones?
A. Squamous
B. Lambdoidal
C. Sagittal
D. Coronal

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)                          TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. Mastoiditis is the inflammation of a sinus within which bone(s)?
A. Maxillae
B. Frontal
C. Sphenoid
D. Temporal

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mastoiditis

 

  1. Which skull bone articulates with the first vertebra?
A. Temporal
B. Occipital
C. Sphenoid
D. Ethmoid

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 230

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The upper parts of the nasal septum and the side walls of the nasal cavity are formed by which bone(s)?
A. Nasal
B. Sphenoid
C. Ethmoid
D. Maxillae

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 231         TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement?
A. The ethmoid is a flat bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid.
B. The ethmoid is an irregular bone that lies posterior to the sphenoid but anterior to the nasal bones.
C. The ethmoid is an irregular bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid but posterior to the nasal bones.
D. The ethmoid is a short bone that lies anterior to the nasal bones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 231

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. Which of the following bones does not articulate with the maxillae?
A. Palatine
B. Mandible
C. Inferior concha
D. Zygomatic

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. If the cribriform plate is damaged, there is a chance of:
A. infectious materials passing from the ear to the brain.
B. food passing from the mouth into the nose.
C. difficulty chewing.
D. infectious materials passing from the nose to the brain.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 232 (Box 8-1)

TOP:    The Cribriform Plate

 

  1. A fontanel can best be described as a(n):
A. bone in the skull.
B. unossified area in the infant’s skull.
C. articulation between two skull bones.
D. small opening.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 234

TOP:    The Fetal Skull

 

  1. The upper part of the sternum is called the:
A. costal cartilage.
B. xiphoid process.
C. body.
D. manubrium.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. The skeletal framework of the neck consists of:
A. lumbar vertebrae.
B. thoracic vertebrae.
C. sacral vertebrae.
D. cervical vertebrae.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The number of thoracic vertebrae is:
A. 5.
B. 7.
C. 10.
D. 12.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. All vertebrae except the sacrum and coccyx have a central opening called the:
A. spinous process.
B. vertebral foramen.
C. dens.
D. transverse process.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The thoracic cage (the thorax) includes all of the following bones except:
A. the scapula.
B. 12 pairs of ribs.
C. the vertebral column.
D. the sternum.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The layman’s name for the clavicle is the:
A. collarbone.
B. kneecap.
C. shinbone.
D. elbow.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 243 (Table 8-7)                          TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The trochlea and capitulum can be described as:
A. markings on the scapula.
B. parts of the proximal end of the ulna.
C. distal portions of the humerus.
D. metacarpal bones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 243         TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The human hand has greater dexterity than the forepaw of any animal because of the freely movable joint of the:
A. elbow.
B. shoulder.
C. wrist.
D. thumb.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 246         TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The ulna articulates proximally with the:
A. carpal bones.
B. humerus.
C. scapula.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 243

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Metacarpal bones form the framework of the:
A. wrist.
B. hand.
C. ankle.
D. foot.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 246

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The pisiform bone can be found in the:
A. wrist.
B. ankle.
C. neck.
D. skull.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 246

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. The structure above the pelvic inlet, which is bordered by muscle in the front and bone along the sides and back, is called the:
A. pelvic brim.
B. false pelvis.
C. pelvic girdle.
D. true pelvis.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 247

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. The anterior of the pelvic girdle is formed by the:
A. sacrum.
B. ilium.
C. ischium.
D. pubis.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 247         TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. During childbirth, a baby passes through an imaginary plane called the:
A. pelvic outlet.
B. symphysis pubis.
C. pelvic brim.
D. ilium.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 247         TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. The longest and heaviest bone in the body is the:
A. tibia.
B. fibula.
C. coxal.
D. femur.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. A person with a fractured patella would expect discomfort in the:
A. elbow.
B. knee.
C. head.
D. ankle.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 249         TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. Which of the following is not a tarsal bone?
A. Cuneiform
B. Navicular
C. Scaphoid
D. Talus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 252 (Table 8-8)

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. Which of the following is not true?
A. The pubic arch in the male is less than a 90-degree angle.
B. The female facial area is more pronounced than that of the male.
C. The iliac crest is more flared in the female than in the male.
D. The male pelvic cavity is more narrow than that of the female.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 254 (Table 8-9)

TOP:    Skeletal Differences in Men and Women

 

  1. A hunchback appearance of the thoracic region is probably caused by:
A. lordosis.
B. scoliosis.
C. kyphosis.
D. slipped disks.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 258

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Lateral curvature of the spine is called:
A. scoliosis.
B. lordosis.
C. kyphosis.
D. convexity.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 258

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. All of the following are clinical signs and symptoms of a fracture except:
A. soft tissue edema.
B. realignment of the bone.
C. false motion.
D. pain.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Which of the following bones is not a part of the face?
A. Frontal
B. Zygomatic
C. Lacrimal
D. Maxilla

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 230

TOP:    Skull

 

  1. Which of the following bones do not contain paranasal sinuses?
A. Frontal
B. Maxilla
C. Zygomatic
D. Sphenoid

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)                          TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The occipital bone forms how many joints with other bones?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 230         TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. The largest of the paranasal sinuses is found in which bone?
A. Sphenoid
B. Maxilla
C. Ethmoid
D. Frontal

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. Another name for the zygomatic bone is the:
A. malar.
B. sphenoid.
C. ethmoid.
D. sesamoid.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. Going from superior to inferior, the sequence of the vertebral column is:
A. sacral, coccyx, thoracic, lumbar, and cervical.
B. coccyx, sacral, lumbar, thoracic, and cervical.
C. cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral, and coccyx.
D. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 237         TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The structure that furnishes the axis for the rotation of the head from side to side is the:
A. dens.
B. spinous process.
C. vertebral foramen.
D. transverse process.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. Going from proximal to distal, the bones of the upper extremity would be:
A. metacarpals, carpals, ulna, and humerus.
B. carpals, metacarpals, ulna, and humerus.
C. humerus, radius, metacarpals, and carpals.
D. humerus, radius, carpals, and metacarpals.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 243 | Page 246

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. Going from proximal to distal, the bones of the lower extremity are:
A. femur, tibia, carpals, and metacarpals.
B. metacarpals, tarsals, femur, and tibia.
C. femur, tibia, tarsals, and metatarsals.
D. tarsals, metatarsals, femur, and tibia.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 249 | Page 251

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. The adult skeleton is composed of:
A. 206 bones.
B. 126 bones.
C. 80 bones.
D. 260 bones.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The bones of the middle ear are:
A. considered part of the appendicular skeleton.
B. considered part of the axial skeleton.
C. not included in either group.
D. There are no bones in the middle ear; it is composed only of cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1)                          TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. The two bones of the face that are not paired are the:
A. maxilla and mandible.
B. maxilla and vomer.
C. nasal and maxilla.
D. mandible and vomer.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Skull

 

  1. The palatine bone:
A. makes up the side of the skull.
B. completes the nasal septum.
C. makes up part of the hard palate.
D. makes up none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Eye Orbits

 

  1. What is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with another bone?
A. Vomer
B. Palatine
C. Ethmoid
D. Hyoid

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 235

TOP:    Hyoid Bone

 

  1. The dens is part of the:
A. sacrum.
B. cervical vertebrae.
C. lumbar vertebrae.
D. thoracic vertebrae.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The number of true pairs of ribs in the body is:
A. 7.
B. 12.
C. 5.
D. 3.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. The sphenoid bone acts as the keystone for the cranium, whereas this bone acts as the keystone for the face.
A. Mandible
B. Zygomatic
C. Maxilla
D. Nasal

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. Which of the following is not associated with the vertebral column?
A. Spinous process
B. Vertebral foramen
C. Dens
D. All of the above are associated with the vertebral column.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 237

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. The blunt cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum is the
A. body.
B. xiphoid process.
C. manubrium.
D. costal cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. The floating ribs articulate with which of the following?
A. The vertebrae
B. The sternum
C. The costal cartilage
D. Both A and C

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. Which bone marking can be defined as a depression in a bone and often receives an articulating bone?
A. Trochanter
B. Fossa
C. Foramen
D. Ramus

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. Which bone marking can be defined as a curved portion of the bone?
A. Trochanter
B. Fossa
C. Foramen
D. Ramus

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. Which bone marking can be defined as a large bump for the attachment of muscles?
A. Trochanter
B. Fossa
C. Foramen
D. Ramus

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. Which bone marking can be defined as a round hole in the bone through which vessels and nerves can pass?
A. Trochanter
B. Fossa
C. Foramen
D. Ramus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

MATCHING

 

Match each bone with its location.

A. frontal
B. hyoid
C. mandible
D. maxillae
E. occipital
F. palatine
G. sphenoid
H. temporal
I. zygomatic

 

 

  1. neck bone

 

  1. upper jaw

 

  1. cheek bone

 

  1. lower jaw

 

  1. forehead

 

  1. contains middle and inner ear structures

 

  1. lower, posterior skull bone

 

  1. bat-shaped skull bone

 

  1. posterior of hard palate

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 235

TOP:    Hyoid Bone

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Facial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 231

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)                          TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 230

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 231

TOP:    Cranial Bones

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 232

TOP:    Eye Orbits

 

Match each bone with its corresponding bone marking.

A. femur
B. fibula
C. humerus
D. coxal
E. radius
F. ribs
G. scapula
H. sternum
I. tibia
J. ulna
K. vertebrae

 

 

  1. olecranon fossa

 

  1. acetabulum

 

  1. lateral malleolus

 

  1. semilunar notch

 

  1. xiphoid process

 

  1. transverse process

 

  1. medial malleolus

 

  1. costal cartilage

 

  1. glenoid cavity

 

  1. radial tuberosity

 

  1. greater trochanter

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 244 (Table 8-7)                          TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 248 (Table 8-8)                          TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 249 (Table 8-8)

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 245 (Table 8-7)

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 240 (Table 8-6)                          TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 236 (Table 8-6)

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 249 (Table 8-8)

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 240 (Table 8-6)

TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 243 (Table 8-7)

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 245 (Table 8-7)

TOP:    Upper Extremity

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 249 (Table 8-8)

TOP:    Lower Extremity

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. body
B. false ribs
C. floating ribs
D. manubrium
E. true rib
F. xiphoid process
G. costal cartilage

 

 

  1. first seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum

 

  1. eleventh and twelfth ribs, which have no attachment to the sternum

 

  1. middle part of the sternum

 

  1. most superior part of the sternum

 

  1. the blunt, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum

 

  1. the five pairs of ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum

 

  1. the material that attaches the rib, directly or indirectly, to the sternum

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 240

TOP:    Sternum

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. lordosis
B. spontaneous fracture
C. scoliosis
D. open fracture
E. kyphosis
F. avulsion fracture
G. greenstick fracture

 

 

  1. an abnormally accentuated lumbar curve or “sway back”

 

  1. another term for a compound fracture

 

  1. an incomplete fracture of a long bone in which the bone is bent on one side but broken only on the outer arc of the bend

 

  1. type of fracture that can be caused by bone cancer, a cyst, or a metabolic bone disorder

 

  1. an abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine

 

  1. type of fracture that occurs when bone fragments are pulled free of the underlying bone surface by some force or trauma

 

  1. an abnormally increased curvature of the thoracic curvature, or “hunchback”

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 257

TOP:    Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Bone Fractures

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Bone Fractures

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Bone Fractures

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 258

TOP:    Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256

TOP:    Bone Fractures

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 258

TOP:    Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

 

Match each bone marking term with its corresponding description.

A. condyle
B. trochanter
C. fossa
D. sinus
E. ramus
F. sulcus
G. foramen
H. fissure

 

 

  1. a curved portion of a bone

 

  1. large bump for muscle attachment

 

  1. rounded bump; usually fits into a fossa of another bone

 

  1. long, cracklike hole for blood vessels and nerves

 

  1. cavity within a bone

 

  1. depression; often receives an articulating bone

 

  1. a groove or an elongated depression

 

  1. round hole for blood vessels and nerves

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-2)                          TOP:    Terms Used to Describe Bone Markings

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Identify the two main divisions of the human skeleton, and list the total number of bones found in each division.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 216

TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

 

  1. Describe the bones of the skull.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 230 | Page 232                           TOP:    Skull

 

  1. What is mastoiditis?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 256         TOP:    Mastoiditis

 

  1. Explain the clinical significance of the cribriform plate.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 232 (Box 8-1)

TOP:    The Cribriform Plate

 

  1. Identify the special features of the skull.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 233 (Table 8-5)                          TOP:    Skull

 

  1. Describe the hyoid bone, including shape, location, and any unique features.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 235         TOP:    Hyoid Bone

 

  1. List all the major divisions of the vertebral column, including the number of individual vertebrae found in each division.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 237         TOP:    Vertebral Column

 

  1. Differentiate among true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 240         TOP:    Ribs

 

  1. What is the clinical significance of palpable bony landmarks?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 251 (Box 8-2)

TOP:    Palpable Bone Landmarks

 

  1. Beginning at the shoulder, name the bones in the upper extremity from proximal to distal.

 

ANS:

humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 243 | Page 246

TOP:    Bones of the Upper Extremity

 

  1. Beginning at the hip, name the bones of the lower extremity from proximal to distal.

 

ANS:

femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 249 | Page 251

TOP:    Bones of the Lower Extremity

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: A 10-year-old boy came into the emergency room with a painful knee joint. He had full range of motion but was in pain. The attending physician suspected a fracture and ordered an x-ray examination. What was the purpose of the x-ray evaluation? (Do not forget the epiphyseal growth plate.)

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 258 (Box 8-4)

TOP:    Sports and Fitness: Chondromalacia Patellae

 

  1. Challenge: What are the differences between the male and female skeleton that have clinical importance? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 253 | Page 254

TOP:    Skeletal Differences in Men and Women

 

  1. Challenge: The text says that 28 bones are in the skull; 8 bones form the cranium, and 14 bones form the face. That leaves 6 bones unaccounted for. What are these bones, and where are they found?

 

ANS:

Bones of the middle ear, in the temporal bone.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 218 (Table 8-1) | Page 233 (Table 8-5)

TOP:    Divisions of the Skeleton

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 12: Nervous System Cells

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 373

TOP:    Nervous System Cells Introduction

 

  1. The afferent nervous system consists of all outgoing motor pathways.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. Multiple sclerosis is the most common primary disease of the CNS.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 378 (Box 12-2)                          TOP:    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 

  1. Ependymal cells engulf and destroy microbes and cellular debris in inflamed or degenerating brain tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Oligodendrocytes form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the CNS.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Nerve fibers with many Schwann cells forming a thick myelin sheath are called myelinated fibers, or gray fibers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Small, lipid-soluble molecules can diffuse easily across the blood-brain barrier.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 377 (Box 12-1)                          TOP:    The Blood-Brain Barrier

 

  1. Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord are unipolar.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. In a contralateral reflex arc, the receptors and effectors are located on opposite sides of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. In an ipsilateral arc, the effectors and receptors are on opposite sides of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Groups of cell bodies located in the brain or spinal cord are referred to as ganglia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Most injuries to the brain and spinal cord cause permanent damage.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. In an adult, brain cells do not undergo mitosis, except to replace neurons that have been damaged or destroyed.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 384 | Page 385                           TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Regeneration of nerve fibers will occur only if the cell body is intact and the fibers have a neurilemma.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 384 | Page 385                           TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. The repair of a damaged CNS nerve fiber is very similar to the repair of a peripheral nerve fiber.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Neurons are the only living cells that maintain a difference in the concentration of ions across their membranes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Membrane Potential

 

  1. When a neuron is resting, the inner surface of its plasma membrane is slightly positive compared with its outer surface.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. The sodium-potassium pump actively pumps three potassium ions out of the neuron and two sodium ions into the neuron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. If the threshold potential is surpassed, the full peak of the action potential is always reached.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 388         TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. The magnitude of the action potential peaks when the sodium channels close.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 388 (Table 12-2)

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a membrane is called the membrane potential.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Membrane Potential

 

  1. In depolarization the membrane potential moves toward zero, whereas in hyperpolarization the membrane potential moves away from zero.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Local Potentials

 

  1. When repolarization has occurred, an impulse cannot be conducted.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. In a myelinated fiber, the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. The speed of a nerve impulse depends on the neuron’s resting potential.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. The larger the diameter of an axon, the faster it conducts an impulse.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. The action potential is called an all-or-none response because if the threshold potential is surpassed, the full peak of the action is always reached; if the threshold potential is not surpassed, no action potential will occur.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 388 | Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Myelinated fibers conduct impulses faster than unmyelinated fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. Many anesthetics produce their effects by inhibiting the opening of the potassium channels, blocking the repolarization of nerve impulses.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 396 (Box 10-5)                          TOP:    Anesthetics

 

  1. The sensory fibers from the skin generally conduct impulses up to about 130 meters per second.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. The receptors embedded in the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron are protein molecules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 393

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential is produced through the hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Spatial summation is the effect produced by a rapid succession of stimuli on a single postsynaptic neuron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 395

TOP:    Summation

 

  1. Excitatory neurotransmitters are most likely to initiate an action potential.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. A neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory, not both.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 396

TOP:    Classification of Neurotransmitters

 

  1. A neurotransmitter can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on the postsynaptic receptor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 396

TOP:    Classification of Neurotransmitters

 

  1. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine always has an excitatory effect.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 398

TOP:    Acetylcholine

 

  1. When epinephrine and norepinephrine are released into the bloodstream, they are called hormones instead of neurotransmitters.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Amines

 

  1. Enkephalins and endorphins are subclasses of amines that are pain relievers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 402         TOP:    Neuropeptides

 

  1. When a neuropeptide is secreted with one or two other neurotransmitters, it is thought to serve as a neuromodulator, regulating the effects of the other neurotransmitters.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402

TOP:    Neuropeptides

 

  1. Tumors in the nervous system (called neuroma) generally arise from neurons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 403

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits may be indicative of astrocytoma.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 403

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Multiple neurofibromatosis starts as small nodules in the Schwann cells of nerve fibers and can spread throughout the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 404

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Small, distinct regions of gray matter within the CNS are called nuclei.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Most nerves in the human nervous system are mixed.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Neurons have, at best, a limited ability to repair themselves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Regeneration of nerve fibers is impossible, even if the cell body is intact and the fibers have a neurilemma.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 384 | Page 385                           TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. There are differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems concerning the repair of damaged fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 384 | Page 385                           TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. A membrane that exhibits a membrane potential is said to be depolarized.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Membrane Potential

 

  1. Bundles of unmyelinated fibers make up what is referred to as white matter.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Action potential and membrane potential are synonymous terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 384 | Page 387                           TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Once repolarization has occurred, an impulse can then be conducted.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Action potentials travel in only one direction along a nerve fiber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. Rapid succession stimulation of a postsynaptic neuron by a synaptic knob is called an ipsilateral reflex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Many biologists believe that amino acids are among the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Cocaine produces a temporary feeling of well-being by blocking the release of dopamine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 402 (Box 12-7)                          TOP:    Antidepressants

 

  1. Glutamate is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Cranial nerves are considered part of the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. Spinal nerves are considered part of the peripheral nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. When “central” and “peripheral” are used as directional terms in the nervous system, a nerve fiber may be called peripheral if it extends from the cell body toward the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 374 | Page 375                           TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. When “central” and “peripheral” are used as directional terms in the nervous system, a nerve fiber may be called peripheral if it extends from the cell body away from the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 374 | Page 375                           TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. The central nervous system is composed of efferent nerves only.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system includes both efferent and afferent nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. Pathways from the autonomic nervous system that form the thoracic region of the spinal cord would be sympathetic pathways.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. Pathways from the autonomic nervous system that leave the central nervous system from the brain would be sympathetic pathways.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. The name for the astrocyte comes from its shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Part of the function of the astrocyte is to help feed the neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Microglia are functionally and developmentally very close to neurons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The microglia engulf and destroy microorganisms and cellular debris.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Oligodendrocytes are found only around dendrites of neurons of the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Gray fibers have no association with Schwann cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Gray fibers probably do not have nodes of Ranvier.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 379         TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Cell body and perikaryon are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. In neurons, microtubules are called neurofibrils.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Unipolar neurons have no axons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. Nerves are usually made up of a single large neuron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Whether a group of nerve fibers is called a nerve or a tract depends on its location.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Astrocytes attempt to assist the neurons of the central nervous system in healing and regrowth.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. If a membrane exhibits a membrane potential, it is said to be polarized.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Membrane Potential

 

  1. When a neuron is resting, its membrane potential is zero.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. The resting potential of a neuron is maintained by having mostly negative ions on the inside and mostly positive ions on the outside.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. Action potential and nerve impulse are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. The opening of stimulus-gated channels is always followed by the opening of voltage-gated channels.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 388         TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Myelinated axons without gaps in the myelin (nodes of Ranvier) conduct impulses more efficiently than axons with nodes of Ranvier.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. In a synapse, both the presynaptic cell and postsynaptic cell must be neurons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 391

TOP:    Structure of the Synapse

 

  1. An electrical synapse occurs when a strong action potential is able to arc across a small synaptic cleft.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. In the mature nervous system, electrical synapses can occur only where there are gap junctions.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. All neurotransmitters are organic molecules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Other Small Molecule Transmitters

 

  1. Like other cells of the nervous system, glia cells have lost their capacity for cell division.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Astrocytes, the star-shaped glia cells, may be able to transmit information along “astrocyte pathways.”

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The Greek word for tree correctly describes the shape of the axon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Microtubules and microfilaments provide a type of “railway” for the rapid transport of organelles to and from the ends of the neuron.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. The word nerve and the word neuron mean the same thing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Damage to a single neuron can have a “domino” effect causing the shutdown of an entire nerve pathway.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. The neuron is able to maintain an internal negative charge by pumping out sodium (Na+) and pumping in chlorine (Cl).

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. There is a time when a neuron will not send a nerve impulse no matter how strong the stimulus is.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. Electrical synapses can be found in muscle tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. As the nervous system matures, the number of the more efficient electrical synapses continues to increase.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. Some neurotransmitters use cyclic AMP as a second messenger to cause a response in the postsynaptic cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 397

TOP:    Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Carbon monoxide (CO) is the only neurotransmitter that is a gas rather than a liquid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Most tumors of the nervous system do not develop directly from neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 403

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The nervous system and the endocrine system share a common function of communication.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 373

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The function of the parasympathetic nervous system is commonly described as that which prepares the body for “fight-or-flight.”

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. If a person were in a high stress, emergency situation, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system would be active.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. If a skeletal muscle moved, it would be responding to the somatic nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. Microglia are associated with the formation of the blood-brain barrier.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The blood-brain barrier is so effective that only water molecules are able to cross it.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes share a common function, but in different parts of the nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 377 | Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Satellite cells are oligodendrocytes that surround the cell bodies of neurons in the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Bipolar and multipolar are examples of the structural classification of neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. All reflex arcs contain an interneuron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 383         TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. One distinction between ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes is that contralateral reflexes have interneurons and ipsilateral reflexes do not.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Only astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes are found in the central nervous system; Schwann cells and ependymal cells are found in the peripheral nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 376 | Page 379                           TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The endoneurium is deep to the epineurium.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384         TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. The epineurium is deep to the perineurium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384         TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. It is now known that fresh new neurons are often added to existing networks of neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Local potentials can also be called graded potentials.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Local Potentials

 

  1. Local potentials usually occur in the dendrite or soma of the neuron.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Local Potentials

 

  1. Action potentials usually occur in the axon of the cell.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. No impulse can be sent if a nerve cell is in the absolute refractory period.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. Absolute refractory periods occur in the axon of the cell; relative refractory periods occur in the dendrite or soma of the cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 390         TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. The cell will send an impulse during the relative refractory period as long as the stimulus is below threshold.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. How long a memory lasts is related to what occurs at a synapse.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 396

TOP:    Synapses and Memory

 

  1. The basic tenet of the neuron doctrine is that neurons function as independent units connected by chemical synapses.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402

TOP:    Role of Nervous System Cells

 

  1. The presence of numerous electrical synapses in the nervous system supports the neuron doctrine regarding the functioning of the nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402

TOP:    Role of Nervous System Cells

 

  1. The axon hillock is actually part of the cell body of the neuron.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The autonomic nervous system consists of the:
A. peripheral and afferent nervous systems.
B. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
C. sympathetic and efferent nervous systems.
D. parasympathetic and somatic nervous systems.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. A neuron that transmits a nerve impulse toward the central nervous system is called a(n):
A. motor neuron.
B. sensory neuron.
C. interneuron.
D. bipolar neuron.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. The largest and most numerous type(s) of neuroglia is/are the:
A. astrocytes.
B. microglia.
C. ependymal cells.
D. oligodendrocytes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the central nervous system (CNS)?
A. Integrating sensory information
B. Evaluating the information
C. Initiating an outgoing response
D. All of the above are functions.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. The part of the nervous system that transmits impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscle is the:
A. somatic nervous system.
B. autonomic nervous system.
C. central nervous system.
D. afferent division.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. The myelin sheath is formed by:
A. Nissl bodies.
B. nodes of Ranvier.
C. Schwann cells.
D. neuron cell bodies.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Which is not true of the myelin sheath?
A. It is associated with white fibers in the brain.
B. It is important for nerve impulse conduction.
C. It covers cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord.
D. It is destroyed in multiple sclerosis.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 384         TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Nissl bodies are comparable to which organelle in other cells?
A. Golgi apparatus
B. Endoplasmic reticulum
C. Mitochondria
D. Lysosomes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Along a neuron, the correct pathway for impulse conduction is:
A. dendrite, axon, cell body, and receptor.
B. dendrite, cell body, and axon.
C. axon, cell body, and dendrite.
D. receptor, axon, and cell body.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 379 | Page 381

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. A neuron that has only one axon but several dendrites is classified as a:
A. multipolar neuron.
B. bipolar neuron.
C. unipolar neuron.
D. multidendritic neuron.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. Which is true of a reflex arc?
A. It does not involve the brain.
B. It always consists of an afferent neuron and an efferent neuron.
C. It always consists of an afferent neuron, an efferent neuron, and an interneuron.
D. It always consists of an afferent neuron, an efferent neuron, the brain, and the spinal cord.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Multipolar neurons have:
A. multiple axons and multiple dendrites.
B. multiple axons and one dendrite.
C. multiple dendrites and one axon.
D. one dendrite and one axon.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. Sensory neurons are usually:
A. unipolar.
B. bipolar.
C. multipolar.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Structural Classification

 

  1. Fascicles are held together by a connective tissue layer called the:
A. endoneurium.
B. perineurium.
C. macroneurium.
D. epineurium.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord consists primarily of:
A. nerve fibers.
B. neuroglia.
C. axons.
D. cell bodies.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. The white matter of the nervous system is made up of:
A. myelinated fibers.
B. nuclei.
C. unmyelinated fibers.
D. ganglia.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Regeneration of nerve fibers will take place only if the cell body is intact and the fibers have:
A. nodes of Ranvier.
B. a neurilemma.
C. a myelin sheath.
D. neurofibrils.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Which is true of a neuron with a resting potential?
A. The cell membrane is permeable to Na+ but impermeable to K+ ions.
B. The outer surface of the plasma membrane has a negative charge.
C. The highest concentration of K+ is extracellular.
D. The sodium pump has moved Na+ to the outside of the plasma membrane.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. The first event to occur when an adequate stimulus is applied to a neuron is:
A. the membrane potential moves immediately to a value of 30 mV.
B. the potassium channels open.
C. the sodium channels are inactivated.
D. some of the sodium channels at the point of stimulation open.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 388

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Which is true of an action potential?
A. The plasma membrane is impermeable to Na+ and K+ ions.
B. Na+ ions move extracellularly.
C. The charges become equal on the outside and inside of the plasma membrane.
D. The outside of the plasma membrane is negatively charged, and the inside is positively charged.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 388 | Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Which of the following compounds cannot cross the blood-brain barrier?
A. Water
B. Carbon dioxide
C. Glucose
D. Dopamine

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 377 (Box 12-1)                          TOP:    The Blood-Brain Barrier

 

  1. The only ion(s) that can diffuse across a neuron’s membrane when the neuron is at rest is/are:
A. sodium.
B. potassium.
C. proteins.
D. phosphate.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 386

TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. A slight shift away from the resting membrane potential in a specific region of the plasma membrane is called a:
A. membrane potential.
B. resting membrane potential.
C. local potential.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Local Potentials

 

  1. During a relative refractory period:
A. the action potential cannot be initiated.
B. a resting potential exists.
C. the cell membrane is impermeable to Na+ and K+.
D. the action potential can be initiated with a strong stimulus.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. Within the nervous system, coding for the strength of a stimulus is accomplished through:
A. changes in the magnitude of the action potential.
B. changes in the length or duration of the action potential.
C. the frequency of nerve impulses.
D. an increase in the number of opening sodium channels.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. The fastest nerve fibers in the body can conduct impulses up to approximately:
A. 60 meters per second.
B. 85 meters per second.
C. 130 meters per second.
D. 190 meters per second.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. A synapse consists of:
A. a synaptic knob.
B. a synaptic cleft.
C. the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. A synaptic knob would be located on a(n):
A. cell body.
B. axon.
C. dendrite.
D. cell body, axon, or dendrite.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. When an impulse reaches a synapse:
A. two nerve fibers come in direct contact.
B. impulses will pass in either direction.
C. an electrical spark will jump the gap.
D. chemical transmitters are released.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 393 | Page 394                           TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Excitatory neurotransmitters are most likely to:
A. increase the speed of impulse conduction.
B. make the cell membrane impermeable.
C. initiate an action potential.
D. make the resting potential more negative.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. When current leaps across an insulating myelin sheath from node to node, the type of impulse conduction is called:
A. repolarization.
B. refraction.
C. saltatory conduction.
D. diffusion.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. For a neurotransmitter to produce an inhibitory postsynaptic potential, which of the following channels must open?
A. Sodium and potassium channels
B. Potassium and/or chloride channels
C. Sodium and chloride channels
D. Only the sodium channels

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Which of the following is true of spatial summation?
A. Simultaneous stimulation of more than one postsynaptic neuron occurs.
B. Impulses are fired in a rapid succession by the same neuron.
C. Neurotransmitters released simultaneously from several presynaptic knobs converge on one postsynaptic neuron.
D. Speed of impulse transmission is increased when several neurotransmitters are released.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 395

TOP:    Summation

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the main chemical classes of neurotransmitters?
A. Triglycerides
B. Amines
C. Amino acids
D. Neuropeptides

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 397

TOP:    Classification of Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Serotonin is an example of a(n):
A. amino acid neurotransmitter.
B. amine neurotransmitter.
C. acetylcholine derivative.
D. neuropeptide neurotransmitter.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Classification of Neurotransmitters

 

  1. The neurotransmitter(s) that inhibit(s) the conduction of pain impulses is/are:
A. acetylcholine.
B. enkephalins.
C. dopamine.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402

TOP:    Classification of Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Neurotransmitters are released in a synapse and bind to:
A. presynaptic terminals.
B. the synaptic cleft.
C. the base of the axon.
D. receptors on the postsynaptic neuron.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. The neurotransmitters in the brain that affect learning, motor control, and emotions are:
A. acetylcholine.
B. amines.
C. amino acids.
D. neuropeptides.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 400         TOP:    Amino Acids

 

  1. Severe depression can be caused by a deficit in certain brain synapses of:
A. acetylcholine.
B. amines.
C. amino acids.
D. neuropeptides.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 402 (Box 12-7)

TOP:    Antidepressants

 

  1. A lack of this/these neurotransmitter(s) in the basal ganglia is/are associated with Parkinson disease.
A. Norepinephrine
B. Endorphins
C. Dopamine
D. Enkephalins

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Amines

 

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters is not associated with the states of depression and mania?
A. Serotonin
B. Enkephalins
C. Norepinephrine
D. Dopamine

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402

TOP:    Neuropeptides

 

  1. Which of the following antidepressants acts by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase (MAO)?
A. Phenelzine
B. Imipramine
C. Amitriptyline
D. Cocaine

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 402 (Box 12-7)                          TOP:    Antidepressants

 

  1. Dendrites conduct impulses:
A. toward cell bodies.
B. away from cell bodies.
C. within cell bodies.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Interneurons reside in:
A. the CNS and peripheral nervous system.
B. the CNS only.
C. the peripheral nervous system only.
D. in none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Functional Classification

 

  1. Which of the following is the deepest connective tissue layer of a nerve?
A. Endoneurium
B. Perineurium
C. Epineurium
D. Fascicle

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Nerves that contain mostly afferent fibers are called:
A. sensory nerves.
B. motor nerves.
C. mixed nerves.
D. Schwann nerves.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382

TOP:    Functional Classification

 

  1. White matter in the CNS consists of:
A. myelinated nerve fibers.
B. neuroglia.
C. axons.
D. cell bodies.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Compared with the outside of the neuron, the inside has a(n) ____ charge.
A. positive
B. negative
C. equal
D. none of the above

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 385

TOP:    Membrane Potential

 

  1. Acetylcholine is in the same class of neurotransmitters as:
A. serotonin.
B. histamine.
C. dopamine.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 398

TOP:    Acetylcholine

 

  1. Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine are classified as:
A. acetylcholine.
B. neuropeptides.
C. catecholamines.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 400

TOP:    Amines

 

  1. The nervous system is organized to do which of the following?
A. Detect changes in the external environment
B. Detect changes in the internal environment
C. Evaluate changes in the environment
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Organization of the Nervous System

 

  1. In the human nervous system:
A. most of the cells are neurons.
B. most of the cells are glia cells.
C. there are almost equal numbers of glia cells and neurons.
D. the ratio of cells is unknown because of the complexity of the nervous system.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Astrocytes attach to:
A. neurons.
B. oligodendrocytes.
C. blood vessels.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. One of the components of the blood-brain barrier is:
A. astrocytes.
B. neurons.
C. myelin.
D. oligodendrocytes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 377 (Box 12-1)                          TOP:    The Blood-Brain Barrier

 

  1. Which of the following statements does not apply to ependymal cells?
A. They form the sheets of cells that line fluid-filled cavities in the brain.
B. They make up part of the blood-brain barrier.
C. They produce fluid that fills the cavities in the brain.
D. They have cilia to move fluid in the brain.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Schwann cells have a function in the peripheral nervous system that is similar to that of which cells in the central nervous system?
A. Oligodendrocytes
B. Astrocytes
C. Microglia
D. Ependymal cells

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 378         TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The telodendria are:
A. the receptor portion of the dendrite.
B. where the dendrite attaches to the cell body.
C. where the axon leaves the cell body.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Which of the following is not a factor in the velocity of nerve impulse conduction?
A. Length
B. Diameter
C. Whether or not it is myelinated
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. In a three-neuron reflex arc, the afferent neurons synapse with the:
A. interneuron.
B. efferent neuron.
C. contralateral neuron.
D. ipsilateral neuron.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383

TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Stimulus-gated channels open in response to:
A. sensory stimuli.
B. the influx of potassium.
C. hyperpolarization.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 387

TOP:    Local Potentials

 

  1. The fastest nerve fibers in the body can conduct an impulse that is how much faster than the slowest fibers in the body?
A. Almost 50 times faster
B. Almost 100 times faster
C. Almost 300 times faster
D. Almost 500 times faster

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. The nervous system can be divided:
A. according to its structure.
B. according to direction of information flow.
C. by control of effectors.
D. by all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Organization of the Nervous System

 

  1. The autonomic nervous system does not stimulate:
A. skeletal muscles.
B. smooth muscles.
C. glands.
D. cardiac muscle.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. The afferent pathways of the
A. stimulate the fight-or-flight response.
B. maintain normal resting activity.
C. carry feedback information to integrating centers in the brain.
D. do both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. The other term for cell body is:
A. telodendria.
B. perikaryon.
C. Nissl body.
D. axon hillock.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Which neuron could transmit a nerve impulse the fastest?
A. A small diameter neuron without myelin
B. A large diameter neuron without myelin
C. A large diameter neuron with myelin
D. A small diameter neuron with myelin

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a three-neuron ipsilateral reflex?
A. It contains an interneuron.
B. The impulse leaves the CNS on the same side as the one on which it entered.
C. The impulse leaves the CNS on the side opposite to the one from which it entered.
D. It stimulates an action potential in a motor neuron.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 383         TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Which is the only glia cell that is found outside of the central nervous system?
A. Schwann cell
B. Oligodendrocyte
C. Astrocyte
D. Ependymal cell

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. The parasympathetic nervous system is part of the:
A. afferent pathway of the somatic nervous system.
B. afferent pathway of the autonomic nervous system.
C. efferent pathway of the somatic nervous system.
D. efferent pathway of the autonomic nervous system.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. Preparing the body for “fight or flight” describes the function of:
A. the parasympathetic nervous system.
B. the sympathetic nervous system.
C. the somatic nervous system.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. Which of the following structures are not found in the axon?
A. Axon hillock
B. Telodendria
C. Synaptic knob
D. All of the above are found on the axon.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. No impulse can be sent through a neuron:
A. during the relative refractory period.
B. when the charge of the neuron is a -70.
C. during the absolute refractory period.
D. with a strong enough stimulus, a neuron can always send an impulse.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. A synapse can occur only between an axon and:
A. a dendrite.
B. a cell body.
C. another axon.
D. any of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. What is the relationship between the afferent and efferent neurons of the reflex arc?
A. The afferent neurons move signals to the central nervous system and the efferent neurons move signals away from the central nervous system.
B. The afferent neurons move signals away from the central nervous system and the efferent neurons move signals to the central nervous system.
C. Afferent neurons are present in the brain and efferent neurons are present at the sensory site.
D. None. Efferent neurons are only present in gray matter of the brain and are needed for the reflex arc to work correctly.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 383         TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. If there were lesions on a bundle of myelinated fibers, what would occur?
A. Nerve conduction would be enhanced with an increase in motor coordination.
B. There would be no side effects of this type of lesion.
C. Nerve conduction would be impaired, and weakness, loss of coordination, and visual impairment would occur.
D. Nerve conduction would be impaired and neuromas would develop.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384 (Box 12-2)

TOP:    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 

  1. Neurons have:
A. complete regeneration capacity.
B. no regeneration capacity.
C. very limited capacity to repair themselves.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of the Nerve Fibers

 

  1. The difference between sodium and potassium in the generation of action potential is:
A. sodium causes repolarization of the cell membrane and potassium causes depolarization of the cell membrane.
B. sodium causes unipolarization of the cell membrane and potassium causes repolarization of the cell membrane.
C. sodium causes repolarization and potassium is not required in the action potential mechanism.
D. sodium causes depolarization of the cell membrane and potassium causes repolarization of the cell membrane.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 388 | Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. A neurologist is using a voltmeter to measure potential. The membrane potential of a neuron was recorded at +30 mV. This is what type of membrane potential?
A. Action membrane potential
B. Conduction membrane potential
C. Polarized membrane potential
D. Resting membrane potential

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 389 (Table 12-3)

TOP:    Types of Membrane Potential

 

  1. When operating to maintain the resting membrane potential, how does the sodium-potassium pump maintain a difference in electrical charge across the plasma membrane?
A. By transporting positive sodium ion and negative potassium ions across the membrane, an imbalance of charged ions is maintained.
B. By transporting negative sodium ions and positive potassium ions across the membrane, an imbalance of charged ions is maintained.
C. By transporting sodium and potassium ions at different rates across the membrane, the inside of the membrane becomes slightly less negative, that is, slightly more positive with respect to the outside of the membrane.
D. By transporting sodium and potassium ions at different rates across the membrane, the inside of the membrane becomes slightly less positive, that is, slightly more negative with respect to the outside of the membrane.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 386 (Figure 12-16)

TOP:    Sodium-Potassium Pump

 

  1. After a stroke, there is usually some damage to brain tissue. What type of neuroglia would you expect to find invading the affected area?
A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglia
D. Oligodendrocytes

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 377         TOP:    Glia

 

MATCHING

 

Match each of the following cell types with its corresponding description.

A. astrocyte
B. oligodendrocyte
C. microglia
D. Schwann cell
E. ependymal cells

 

 

  1. have the capability of phagocytosis

 

  1. help form the blood-brain barrier

 

  1. type of neuroglia that forms neurilemma

 

  1. resemble epithelial cells and line fluid-filled cavities in the brain and spinal cord

 

  1. produce the myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 377

TOP:    Glia

 

Listed below are steps in the conduction of an impulse at a synapse. Place them in proper sequence beginning with Number 1.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
F. 6

 

 

  1. neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules

 

  1. neurotransmitters are inactivated by enzymes

 

  1. action potential reaches the synaptic knob

 

  1. neurotransmitters move across synaptic cleft

 

  1. opening of ion channels in postsynaptic membrane

 

  1. intercellular Ca++ concentration triggers movement of neurotransmitter vesicles to the plasma membrane

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 393

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 393

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

Match each part of the nervous system with its corresponding description.

A. afferent division
B. autonomic nervous system
C. central nervous system
D. efferent division
E. parasympathetic division
F. peripheral nervous system
G. somatic nervous system
H. sympathetic division

 

 

  1. consists of the brain and spinal cord

 

  1. consists of nerves that lie in the periphery of the nervous system

 

  1. PNS subdivision that transmits incoming information from the sensory organs to CNS

 

  1. produces the “fight-or-flight” response

 

  1. subdivision that carries information from the CNS to skeletal muscle

 

  1. subdivision of the efferent division that transmits information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

 

  1. consists of all the outgoing motor pathways

 

  1. sometimes called the “rest-and-repair” division

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 374

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Afferent and Efferent Divisions

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

Match each term with its definition or description.

A. Nissl body
B. cell body
C. axon
D. nodes of Ranvier
E. dendrite
F. myelin
G. neurofibrils

 

 

  1. nerve fiber that is highly branched; the name comes from the Greek word for tree

 

  1. fatty sheath around nerve fibers made by Schwann cells

 

  1. distal tips of these nerve fibers end in branches called telodendria

 

  1. microscopic gaps in the myelin sheath

 

  1. contains the nucleus and various organelles for the neuron

 

  1. type of rough endoplasmic reticulum containing ribosomes in the cell body

 

  1. bundles of intermediate filaments in the neuron

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

Match each term with its definition or description.

A. presynaptic cell
B. neurotransmitter
C. postsynaptic cell
D. synaptic knob
E. electrical synapse
F. chemical synapses
G. synaptic cleft

 

 

  1. type of synapse that occurs when two cells are joined by a gap junction

 

  1. space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells

 

  1. tiny bulge at the end of the presynaptic cell

 

  1. cell that releases the neurotransmitter

 

  1. chemical that carries a nerve impulse across a synaptic cleft

 

  1. type of cell that could be a neuron or a muscle cell

 

  1. type of synapse in which the signal from the presynaptic to postsynaptic cell is carried by a neurotransmitter

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Chemical Synapse

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 392

TOP:    Types of Synapses

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What two systems perform the vital functions of communication and integration of body processes?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 373

TOP:    Nervous System Cells Introduction

 

  1. What comprises the central nervous system?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 373

TOP:    Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

 

  1. What is the major function of neurons?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Cells of the Nervous System

 

  1. What type of neurons are always sensory receptors?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 382         TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Name two types of tissue that are effectors.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 383         TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. What is the difference between nuclei and ganglia?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 384         TOP:    Nerves and Tracts

 

  1. Describe resting potential, including the position of potassium and sodium ions.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 386         TOP:    Resting Membrane Potential

 

  1. Describe the process of impulse conduction across a synapse.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 393 | Page 394

TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Choose either IPSP or EPSP and explain on a physiological basis how it will affect a postsynaptic neuron.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 394         TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Define IPSP and EPSP.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 394         TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Explain the ways in which the activity of the neurotransmitter is stopped at the postsynaptic receptor.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 394         TOP:    Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission

 

  1. Explain both temporal and spatial summation.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 395         TOP:    Summation

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the different types of neurotransmitters used by the nervous system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 402         TOP:    Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Describe the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 375

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the types of glia cells found in the nervous system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 376 | Page 378

TOP:    Glia

 

  1. Name and describe the three parts of the neuron.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 379 | Page 380

TOP:    Neurons

 

  1. Name the two ways in which neurons are classified. Name and describe the types of neurons in each classification.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 382         TOP:    Classification of Neurons

 

  1. Explain the types of reflex arc. Differentiate between a contralateral reflex arc and an ipsilateral reflex arc.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 383         TOP:    Reflex Arc

 

  1. Other than their color, describe the differences between white matter and gray matter. Which is able to conduct impulses more rapidly?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384 | Page 390

TOP:    Nerves and Tracts, and Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. Explain how a neuron can repair itself. What increases the likelihood of repair, what decreases the likelihood of repair? If repair is not possible, what other options are possible to innervate the effector organ?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 384 | Page 385

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Explain the process of an action potential moving down a neuron.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 388 | Page 389

TOP:    Action Potential

 

  1. Explain the two types of refractory periods. Explain how the relative refractory period can help determine the strength of the stimulus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 390         TOP:    Refractory Period

 

  1. Explain what characteristics of the neuron impact the speed at which action potentials are conducted. What is the range of speed at which an impulse can be conducted?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 390

TOP:    Conduction of the Action Potential

 

  1. Explain the neuron doctrine and the reticular theory of the nervous system. Which is currently held to be the most correct?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 402         TOP:    Role of Nervous System Cells

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Donna looked out the window and saw a man trapped under the wheel of a car. Although slightly built, she rushed to the car, lifted it, and freed the man. What division of her autonomic nervous system made this task possible? What neurotransmitters were involved in the process?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 375 | Page 399 (Table 12-4)

TOP:    Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems | Neurotransmitters

 

  1. Challenge: Sue was in a severe car accident. She had injuries to her arm and lower spinal column. Her physician told her that she most likely would regain the use of her arm but her legs would be paralyzed. Why did he say that? Explain the differences in the neuron structures.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 384 | Page 385

TOP:    Repair of Nerve Fibers

 

  1. Challenge: Explain a way that the nerve cell is able to respond to stimuli of different strengths.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 390         TOP:    Refractory Period

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 28: Urinary System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A cushion of fat normally encases a kidney and helps hold it in position.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Generally, the right kidney is larger than the left kidney.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Each renal papilla juts into a cuplike structure called the renal pyramid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The outer portion of the kidney is referred to as the cortex.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. There are three openings in the floor of the urinary bladder—two from the ureters and one into the urethra.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The urinary meatus is the tube leading from the bladder to the exterior.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. In both males and females, the urethra serves urinary and reproductive functions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The male urethra is part of two different body systems—the urinary system and the integumentary system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. A glomerulus is a group of capillaries located in a Bowman capsule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. In the nephron, the wall of the distal tubule is much thinner than that of the ascending limb of the Henle loop.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 957 (Figure 28-17)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The renal corpuscle is another name for the nephron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 953

TOP:    Microscopic Structure

 

  1. The kidney could best be described as pear-shaped.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidneys are located in the right and left iliac regions of the abdomen.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The outer portion of the kidney is called the medulla.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. As the basic functional unit of the kidney, the nephron’s function is blood plasma processing and urine formation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 953

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Blood leaves the glomerulus through efferent arterioles and then moves into peritubular capillaries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 955 | Page 956                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Blood leaves the glomerulus through efferent venules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 955 | Page 956                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Blood enters the glomerulus through afferent arterioles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 955 | Page 956                            TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Blood leaving the glomerular capillaries flows into the efferent venules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 955 | Page 956                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidneys influence secretion of the hormone aldosterone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 965

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. A hydrostatic pressure gradient causes fluids to move from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. A hydrostatic pressure gradient drives the filtration of much of the plasma into the nephron.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. When compared with most other capillaries in the body, the capillaries in the glomerulus have many more pores.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 | Page 959                           TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Glomerular endothelium is similar to tissue capillary endothelium in that both have approximately the same number of pores, or fenestrations.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 959

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. The reabsorption of electrolytes by the peritubular capillaries will cause obligatory water reabsorption.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. When the mean arterial blood pressure doubles, so does glomerular filtration.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 | Page 959                           TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. The kidney filters out only harmful and excess material.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure and filtration are directly related to systemic blood pressure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 | Page 959                           TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Filtrate in the descending limb of the Henle loop has the highest osmolality.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 | Page 961                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Both ADH and aldosterone attempt to decrease normal urine output.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 966 | Page 967                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Creatinine is often measured to determine normal kidney function.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 968 (Box 28-5)                          TOP:    Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. Urine consists of approximately 75% water.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urinary Composition

 

  1. Glycosuria refers to blood in the urine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 961 (Box 28-4)                          TOP:    Glucose in the Urine

 

  1. In the proximal tubule of the nephron, glucose and amino acids are transported with sodium and actively move out of the tubule fluid by means of the sodium cotransport mechanism.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Both sodium and glucose are moved into the peritubular capillaries by the active transport process.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 | Page 961                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. With increased ADH, urine becomes hypotonic to blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 964

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. An increase in ADH causes a decrease in the osmolarity of urine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 964

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Aldosterone tends to increase urine volume, thereby promoting water loss.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 | Page 966                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. ADH and aldosterone both attempt to decrease urine output.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 | Page 966                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. An increase in solutes in the urine will cause an increase in the urine output.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 | Page 966                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. A person with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus will have a higher-than-normal solute concentration in the urine.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 | Page 966                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. The volume of urine is normally determined by the glomerular filtration rate.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 | Page 966                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Freshly voided urine is generally acidic.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 968 (Table 28-2) TOP:               Characteristics of Urine

 

  1. Gout is a disease characterized by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Gout

 

  1. The urinary system can be seen as a urine producer and a blood plasma balancer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The connective tissue that anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures is called the renal cortex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The renal pyramids are in the medulla of the kidney.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The calyx surrounds the renal papilla.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Kidney disease can be diagnosed by taking a tissue sample by means of a needle biopsy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 948 (Box 28-2)                          TOP:    Kidney Biopsy

 

  1. In the blood vessels in the kidney, lobar arterioles divide to become segmental arterioles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidney is similar to the hepatic portal system because it has a venule connecting two capillary beds—the glomerulus and the peritubular capillaries.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The renal artery branches directly from the abdominal aorta.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Gravity moves urine from the kidney to the bladder through the ureter.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Ureter

 

  1. The fibrous adventitia covers only the superior surface of the bladder; the rest is covered by the parietal peritoneum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The detrusor muscle is the name given to the smooth muscle that makes up the bladder.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Urinary Bladder

 

  1. Contraction of the bladder and relaxation of the internal sphincter are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The proximal tubule is called “proximal” because it is nearest to Bowman capsule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. One factor that influences the hydrostatic pressure of the glomerulus is the difference in diameter between the efferent and afferent arterioles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 959

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. The myogenic mechanism helps regulate GFR by regulating the diameter of the efferent arterioles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Nitrogen wastes are removed only by the urinary system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. Electrolytes are excreted by both the urinary and integumentary system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. The respiratory system is the only system that removes carbon dioxide from the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. The kidneys are surrounded by fat and are enclosed by the parietal peritoneum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 | Page 948                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The hilum is a concave notch on the lateral side of the kidney.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Structures such as the ureter and blood vessels enter and leave the kidney through the hilum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The blood vessel that supplies the loop of Henle is called the vasa recta.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure

 

  1. The urinary bladder is a collapsible bag located behind the symphysis pubis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The folds in the bladder wall are called rugae.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The bladder wall is made up mostly of crisscrossing bundles of smooth muscle called the detrusor muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The transitional epithelium that lines the bladder wall is one factor that allows the bladder to distend.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The three openings on the bladder floor make up the trigone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The prostatic urethra is found only in men.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Micturition is the process of voiding urine.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The mechanism of voiding urine begins with the involuntary relaxation of the external sphincter muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The male urethra is about twice as long as the female urethra.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The kidney and bladder are the principal organs of the urinary system.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. When urine “backs up,” causing swelling in the renal pelvis and calyces, the condition is called hydronephrosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 970

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Proteinuria can indicate damage in the glomerular-capsular membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. There are approximately 500,000 nephrons per kidney.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The function of the slit diaphragm is to prevent the filtration slits from closing under pressure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 954

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The fenestrations increase the porosity of the glomerulus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The proximal tubule is the second part of the nephron but the first part of the renal tubules.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Just as in the lumen of the small intestine, the lumen of the proximal tubule has microvilli.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. In the loop of Henle, the descending limb is thicker than the ascending limb.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus release renin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Renin is released in response to a rise in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The macula densa is considered a mechanoreceptor.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The macula densa is considered a chemoreceptor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The renal fasciae anchor the kidney to surrounding structures.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Urea is a nitrogenous waste product excreted by the kidney. About 90% of the filtered urea is excreted in the urine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 959 (Figure 28-19)                     TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Intense exercise causes temporary proteinuria. This is caused by minor kidney damage from the intense exercise.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 (Box 28-3)                          TOP:    Changes in Glomerular Flow Rate

 

  1. Intense exercise causes temporary proteinuria. This is probably caused by an increase in permeability of the nephron’s filtration membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 (Box 28-3)                          TOP:    Changes in Glomerular Flow Rate

 

  1. Most reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. The loop of Henle and the vasa recta have a countercurrent structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. The ion pumps in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle can maintain an osmotic difference of 400 mOsm across the wall of the tubule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. The descending limb of the loop of Henle is usually in osmotic equilibrium with the interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. The fluid at the top of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is about 100 mOsm, which makes it hypertonic to most other body fluids.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Just like the kidneys, the ureters are retroperitoneal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The yellowish pigment in the urine is derived from the breakdown of old red blood cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urinary Composition

 

  1. The osmolality of the urine excreted by the body can be as high as the osmolality in the medulla’s interstitial fluid.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 962 | Page 963

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. A hormone that affects reabsorption in the kidney is made in the wall of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 966

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. ANH reinforces and adds to the effect of aldosterone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 966 | Page 967                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. The urochrome pigments impart a yellowish color to the urine.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urinary Composition

 

  1. The excessive metabolism of purines can lead to gout.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Gout

 

  1. Chronic kidney failure is a condition that progresses through four stages; the last one is called uremic syndrome.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 973

TOP:    Renal and Urinary Disorders

 

  1. Mesangial cells may have the same role in the nephron as the glia cells do in the nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Mesangial cells may have a role in regulating blood flow through the glomerular loop.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The interlobular artery carries blood directly to the glomerulus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. The segmental veins drain into the renal vein.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. Just as in the bladder, the ureter is lined with transitional epithelium, which allows it to stretch without damage.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Ureter

 

  1. About 85% of the nephrons are juxtamedullary nephrons, which means that the Henle loop extends into the medulla of the kidney.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 957

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Podocytes on the parietal walls of Bowman capsule help support the slit diaphragms that allow filtrate to leave the blood and enter Bowman’s capsule.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 954

TOP:    Bowman Capsule

 

  1. The juxtaglomerular apparatus has components in both the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arterioles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Distal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The collecting duct receives filtrate from many different nephrons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Collecting Duct

 

  1. One important function of the slit diaphragms is the prevention of large molecules such as proteins from passing through.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Bowman Capsule

 

  1. If the Tmax for glucose was 300 mg/100 ml and a person had a glucose of 325 mg/100 ml, that person would have a glucose level of 25 mg/100 ml in the blood leaving the kidney and 300 mg/100 ml in the urine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Glomerular osmotic pressure and capsular osmotic pressure are equally important in determining the GFR.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Negative ions such as chloride and phosphate are pulled out of the filtrate by the positive charge established by the sodium that was actively transported into the blood.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 961

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Even though urea is a waste product, it is reabsorbed into the blood in the proximal convoluted tubule.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The parts of the nephron most effected by the hormone ADH are the proximal and distal convoluted tubules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 964

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Ducts

 

  1. Any material such as water or glucose that enters the collecting duct will be lost to the body in the urine.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 964

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Ducts

 

  1. As the amount of sodium increases in the blood around the distal convoluted tubule, the amount of potassium or hydrogen ions in the filtrate increases.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 965         TOP:    Tubular Secretion

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is/are classified as an accessory organ of the urinary system?
A. Ureters
B. Urinary bladder
C. Urethra
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The shape of the kidney could best be described as:
A. bean-shaped.
B. pear-shaped.
C. pea-shaped.
D. potato-shaped.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. The calyces of the kidney join together to form a large collection reservoir called the:
A. renal columns.
B. renal pyramids.
C. renal pelvis.
D. hilum.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. There are how many openings in the urinary bladder?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Urinary Bladder

 

  1. The function of the urinary bladder is to:
A. serve as a reservoir for urine before it leaves the body.
B. expel urine from the body, aided by the urethra.
C. help concentrate the urine in periods of dehydration.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. One difference between the male urethra and the female urethra is the male urethra is:
A. shorter.
B. part of two different body systems.
C. unique in that there are no additional ducts that merge with it.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. At the beginning of the “plumbing system” of the urinary system, urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in the cuplike structures called:
A. renal columns.
B. renal pyramids.
C. calyces.
D. ureters.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Urine is conducted from the kidney to the urinary bladder through a tube called the:
A. renal column.
B. renal pelvis.
C. urethra.
D. ureter.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Substances travel from the glomerulus into Bowman capsule by the process of:
A. diffusion.
B. active transport.
C. filtration.
D. osmosis.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Of all the blood pumped per minute by the heart, approximately ____ goes through the kidneys.
A. 1/5
B. 1/3
C. 1/2
D. 3/4

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Cells called podocytes make up the:
A. parietal layer of Bowman capsule.
B. visceral layer of Bowman capsule.
C. glomerulus.
D. proximal tubule.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 954

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. The portion of the nephron that empties into a calyx is the:
A. distal tubule.
B. loop of Henle.
C. collecting tubule.
D. proximal tubule.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Which of the following is not a part of the glomerular-capsular membrane?
A. Parietal layer of Bowman capsule
B. Visceral layer of Bowman capsule
C. Glomerular endothelium
D. Basement membrane

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. A portion of the nephron that can lie within the medulla is the:
A. proximal tubule.
B. Bowman capsule.
C. distal tubule.
D. loop of Henle.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Approximately how much blood flows through the kidneys per minute?
A. 500 ml
B. 750 ml
C. 1200 ml
D. 3500 ml

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. In the kidney, blood flows from the interlobular artery into the:
A. glomerulus.
B. efferent arteriole.
C. afferent arteriole.
D. peritubular capillaries.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Reabsorption, as performed in the kidney, may be defined as the:
A. movement of molecules out of the tubule and into the peritubular blood.
B. movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion.
C. movement of water and solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus, across the glomerular-capsular membrane, and into the capsular space of Bowman capsule.
D. volume of plasma from which a substance is removed by the kidney per minute.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Which of these statements is not true of the kidney?
A. The kidney is usually located next to the vertebrae from T12 to L3.
B. The kidney is retroperitoneal.
C. The kidney is protected by a heavy layer of fat.
D. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 948 | Page 949                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not a normal function of the kidney?
A. Synthesize prostaglandins
B. Regulate blood sugar
C. Produce hormones
D. Regulate blood electrolytes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. The normal osmotic pressure of the capsular filtrate is:
A. 60 mm Hg.
B. 32 mm Hg.
C. 18 mm Hg.
D. 0 mm Hg.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 (Box 28-3)                          TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. A drop in systemic blood pressure would cause the filtration rate to:
A. increase.
B. decrease.
C. stay the same.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 959

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. The ion most likely to be reabsorbed after the reabsorption of sodium ions is:
A. potassium.
B. chloride.
C. phosphate.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 961

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Under normal conditions, most nutrients are reabsorbed in which portion of the nephron?
A. Proximal tubule
B. Ascending loop of Henle
C. Distal tubule
D. Collecting tubule

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 | Page 961                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Regarding reabsorption in the proximal tubules, which of the following statements is not true?
A. Sodium is actively transported out of the tubule fluid and into the blood.
B. Chloride ions are transported actively into the blood plasma.
C. Glucose and amino acids are transported with sodium and passively move out of the tubule fluid by means of the sodium cotransport mechanism.
D. About half of the urea present in the tubule fluid passively moves out of the tubule, leaving half the urea to move on to the loop of Henle.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 960 | Page 961                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Which of the following is the approximate threshold level for the reabsorption of glucose?
A. 100 mg/100 ml
B. 300 mg/100 ml
C. 200 mg/100 ml
D. 250 mg/100 ml

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. The substance most often measured to determine normal kidney function is:
A. creatinine.
B. glucose.
C. sodium.
D. potassium.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 968 (Box 28-5)                          TOP:    Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. The portion of the nephron tubule that is essentially always impermeable to water is the:
A. proximal tubule.
B. distal tubule.
C. collecting tubule.
D. ascending loop of Henle.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Filtrate in which part of the nephron tubule has the highest osmolality?
A. Proximal tubule
B. Ascending loop of Henle
C. Descending loop of Henle
D. Distal tubule

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Urine formation involves all the following processes except:
A. filtration.
B. catabolism.
C. reabsorption.
D. secretion.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of the ureter?
A. The ureter is approximately 28 cm long.
B. The ureter conducts urine inferiorly from the kidney to the bladder.
C. The ureter is composed of two layers of tissue—an inner mucous layer and an outer fibrous layer.
D. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 949 | Page 950                           TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. When aldosterone is released, secretion of ____ occurs.
A. ammonium
B. hydrogen
C. potassium
D. sodium

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 965

TOP:    Tubular Secretion

 

  1. In the ascending limb of Henle:
A. sodium and chloride are reabsorbed from the tubule fluid.
B. the tubule fluid becomes dilute (hypotonic).
C. antidiuretic hormone causes the cells to become more permeable to water.
D. both A and B occur.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 962 | Page 963                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. ADH has the greatest effect on the reabsorption of water in the:
A. proximal tubule.
B. ascending loop of Henle.
C. descending loop of Henle.
D. distal tubule.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 964

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Which of the following best describes secretion in the formation of urine? The movement of substances out of the:
A. blood into the tubule.
B. blood into Bowman capsule.
C. tubules into interstitial fluids.
D. glomerulus into the tubules.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 965

TOP:    Tubular Secretion

 

  1. Which of the following is not normally secreted into the distal or collecting tubules?
A. Potassium ions
B. Hydrogen ions
C. Ammonium ions
D. Sodium ions

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 (Table 28-1) TOP:               Tubular Secretion

 

  1. The movement of molecules out of the tubules and into the peritubular blood defines:
A. glomerular filtration.
B. secretion.
C. micturition.
D. reabsorption.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. In which parts of the nephron do all of the following functions occur: passive reabsorption, active reabsorption, passive secretion, and active secretion?
A. Proximal tubule and the renal corpuscle
B. Collecting duct and the distal tubule
C. Collecting duct and the ascending limb of Henle
D. Collecting duct and the descending limb of Henle

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 (Table 28-1) TOP:               Summary of Nephron Function

 

  1. Water will move by osmosis only in the presence of ADH in the:
A. distal tubule.
B. collecting duct.
C. ascending limb of Henle.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 963 | Page 964                           TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine?
A. Nitrogenous wastes
B. Hormones
C. Pigments
D. Plasma proteins

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urine Composition

 

  1. The percentage of water in urine is approximately:
A. 55%.
B. 65%.
C. 80%.
D. 95%.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urine Composition

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true?
A. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.
B. The right kidney is often slightly larger than the left kidney.
C. The kidneys extend above the level of the twelfth rib.
D. The kidneys are retroperitoneal.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following structures does not enter or leave through the hilum of the kidney?
A. Calyx
B. Renal artery
C. Renal vein
D. Ureter

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 949 (Figure 28-3)                       TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the proximal tubule? It:
A. is highly convoluted.
B. is nearest to Bowman capsule.
C. is the second part of the renal tubules.
D. contains microvilli.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 955 | Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. If the Tmax for glucose in the nephron was 300 mg/100 ml and a person had a blood glucose level of 380 mg/100 ml, there would be:
A. 300 mg/100 ml of glucose in the urine.
B. 80 mg/100 ml of glucose in the urine.
C. 80 mg/100 ml of glucose in the blood leaving the kidney.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 960

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. The nitrogenous wastes in the urine are usually the result of protein catabolism. They include all but:
A. urea.
B. ammonia.
C. creatinine.
D. amino acids.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968

TOP:    Urinary Composition

 

  1. A good description of the urinary system function is that it:
A. produces urine.
B. balances blood plasma.
C. maintains the dynamic consistency of the internal fluid environment.
D. does all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 947

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. What is the first branch of the segmental artery?
A. Interlobar arteries
B. Afferent arterioles
C. Lobar arteries
D. Arcuate arteries

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. Which blood vessel empties into the glomerulus?
A. Interlobar arteries
B. Afferent arterioles
C. Lobar arteries
D. Arcuate arteries

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. Which blood vessel drains the vasa recta?
A. Lobar vein
B. Arcuate vein
C. Interlobular vein
D. Segmental vein

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. Which vein drains into the renal vein?
A. Lobar vein
B. Arcuate vein
C. Interlobular vein
D. Segmental vein

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Blood Vessels of the Kidney

 

  1. Which structure of the kidney narrows as it exits the kidney to become the ureter?
A. Renal pyramids
B. Renal pelvis
C. Renal columns
D. Hilum

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. In the average bladder, what amount of urine would cause a moderately distended sensation and the desire to void?
A. 250 ml
B. 100 ml
C. 600 ml
D. 150 ml

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Micturition

 

  1. The mechanism for voiding begins with:
A. the relaxation of the internal sphincter.
B. the contraction of the muscles of the bladder.
C. the relaxation of the external sphincter.
D. a parasympathetic impulse sent to the bladder.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 951 | Page 952                           TOP:    Micturition

 

  1. A person in good health has about how many nephrons?
A. 500,000
B. 2.5 million
C. 1.25 million
D. 4.5 million

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Which hormone tends to increase the amount of urine produced?
A. ANH
B. Aldosterone
C. ADH
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 966

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Which hormone tends to decrease the amount of urine produced?
A. ANH
B. Aldosterone
C. ADH
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 966 | Page 967                           TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. As the amount of sodium reabsorbed by the distal convoluted tubule increases the amount of:
A. potassium ions absorbed also increases.
B. hydrogen ions absorbed also increases.
C. potassium ions secreted increases.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 965         TOP:    Tubular Secretion

 

  1. If the glomerular hydrostatic pressure = 67 mm Hg, the glomerular osmotic pressure = 28 mm Hg, the capsular hydrostatic pressure = 17 mm Hg, and the capsular osmotic pressure = 0 mm Hg, the effective filtration pressure (EFP) would be:
A. 22 mm Hg.
B. 56 mm Hg.
C. 78 mm Hg.
D. Not enough information has been given to determine the EFP.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 958 | Page 959

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. What effect do aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) have on urine volume?
A. Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules doesn’t require ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work separately from the ADH mechanism to maintain homeostasis of the fluid content in the body.
B. Both aldosterone and ADH decrease distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that drives the reabsorption of water from the tubule.
C. Because water reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules requires ADH, the aldosterone mechanism must work in concert with the ADH mechanism if homeostasis of the fluid content in the body is to be maintained.
D. Both aldosterone and ADH increase distal and collecting tubule absorption of sodium, which in turn causes an osmotic imbalance that stops the reabsorption of water from the tubule.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 966 | Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. What effect on the treatment of secondary hypertension would you expect from angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs?
A. When secondary hypertension occurs, the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete renin, which in turn results in angiotensin production and increased blood pressure, so giving ACE inhibitors may reduce the production of angiotensin and lower the blood pressure.
B. Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal artery, so ACE inhibitors will relax the vessel, thus reducing blood pressure.
C. Secondary hypertension is caused by stenosis of the renal artery, so ACE inhibitors will decrease atherosclerotic plaque and result in a lower blood pressure.
D. ACE inhibitors will not have any effect on secondary hypertension.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 969

TOP:    Secondary Hypertension

 

  1. Why would the response of the kidney to arteriosclerosis actually compound the problem of hypertension?
A. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will not cause any changes in kidney function or status.
B. When the kidney responds to widening of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause an increase in blood pressure and an increase in kidney perfusion.
C. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause a decrease in blood pressure and possibly even death.
D. When the kidney responds to narrowing of a renal artery due to this disease, it will cause an increase in blood pressure and ischemia of kidney tissues.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 969         TOP:    Hypertension

 

  1. Which statement best explains the process of filtration in the nephron?
A. Filtration occurs as a result of passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules; a major portion of reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubule.
B. Filtration is the movement of molecules out of peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion.
C. Filtration is the movement of molecules out of the tubule and into peritubular blood.
D. Filtration is the movement of water and protein-free solutes from plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of Bowman capsule.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 958

TOP:    Overview of Kidney Function

 

  1. If a person becomes dehydrated, which hormone would you expect to find in high concentration in the blood?
A. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
B. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
C. Para-aminohippurate acid (PAH)
D. Prolactin (PRL)

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Which statement best explains why the insertion of a urinary catheter would be an ineffective treatment for renal suppression?
A. Renal suppression occurs when effective filtration pressure falls to zero and the kidneys shut down, so a urinary catheter would not help this situation.
B. Renal suppression occurs when effective filtration pressure is elevated and urine production is increased, thus allowing free-flowing urine. A urinary catheter isn’t needed in this situation.
C. Renal suppression occurs when there is a disruption of nervous input to the bladder, resulting in loss of control of voiding. A urinary catheter would not be a treatment for the condition.
D. Renal suppression is caused by a urinary tract infection, and a urinary catheter would not be effective in treating this condition.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 958 | Page 959

TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Which statement identifies two blood indicators of renal dysfunction and best explains why they can be as such?
A. Increased urea and creatinine levels in the blood indicate the inability of the kidney to filter creatinine and urea.
B. Glucose in urine and complete blood count elevations indicate the kidney’s inability to produce red blood cells.
C. pH and specific gravity elevation indicate kidney dysfunction because an increase in solutes prevents the kidney from filtering correctly.
D. Albumin and acetone decreases indicate that the kidney is unable to reabsorb these in the loop of Henle.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 968 (Box 28-5)

TOP:    Blood Indicators of Renal Dysfunction

 

  1. Which best explains why a person who has uncontrolled diabetes mellitus voids a large amount of urine?
A. Excess glucose “spills over” into urine, thereby decreasing the solute concentration of urine (and decreasing the solute concentration of plasma), which in turn leads to diuresis.
B. Excess glucose “spills over” into urine, thereby increasing the solute concentration of urine (and decreasing the solute concentration of plasma), which in turn leads to diuresis.
C. Low levels of insulin stimulate the kidney to not reabsorb water in the tubules.
D. Decreased glucose is caused by withdrawal of sugar from urine, causing an increase in urine production.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 960 | Page 961

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Within the male urethra, how is urine prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation?
A. Urine is prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation by the conscious control of a sphincter muscle guarding the bladder opening.
B. Urine is prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation by the contraction of the detrusor muscle of the bladder.
C. Urine is prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation by the urinary meatus.
D. Urine is prevented from mixing with semen during ejaculation by a reflex closure of sphincter muscles guarding the bladder opening.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 951         TOP:    Urethra

 

  1. The microvilli on the luminal surface of each epithelial cell in the proximal tubule wall will:
A. form a brush border that increases absorptive surface area of the entire inner surface of the proximal tubule.
B. form an electrical gradient that drives the diffusion of negative ions from the filtrate into the interstitial fluid.
C. participate in the countercurrent mechanism, which allows the contents to flow in opposite directions.
D. increase the secretory surface area of the entire inner surface of the proximal tubule.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 960 | Page 961

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

  1. Which of the following is not a primary function of the loop of Henle?
A. The loop of Henle reabsorbs water from the tubule fluid in its descending limb.
B. In addition to reabsorption, the loop of Henle secretes hydrogen ions.
C. By reabsorbing salt from its ascending limb, it makes the tubule fluid hypotonic.
D. Reabsorption of salt in the ascending limb also creates and maintains a high osmotic pressure.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 962 | Page 963

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Henle Loop

 

  1. How does autoregulation of glomerular filtration by tubuloglomerular feedback protect the kidney?
A. This regulatory mechanism helps protect the kidney from rapid systemic arterial pressure variations that would otherwise cause large glomerular filtration rate changes.
B. This regulatory mechanism helps protect the kidney from rapid systemic venous pressure variations that would otherwise cause large glomerular filtration rate changes.
C. This regulatory mechanism helps protect the kidney by contracting the walls of the efferent arterioles, thus increasing systemic blood pressure.
D. This regulatory mechanism helps protect the kidney by relaxing the walls of the efferent arterioles, thus reducing systemic blood pressure.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 965 | Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Terry has lupus erythematosus and has been complaining of feelings of urgency, pain in urination, and the appearance of blood in the urine. More than likely, Terry is suffering from:
A. interstitial cystitis.
B. renal calculi.
C. renal ptosis.
D. renal sarcoma.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Glomerular Disorders

 

MATCHING

 

Match each body system with the “unwanted” material of which it excretes the most.

A. urinary system
B. digestive system
C. integumentary system
D. respiratory system

 

 

  1. digestive wastes

 

  1. carbon dioxide

 

  1. toxins

 

  1. nitrogen compounds through sweat

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 947 (Box 28-1)                          TOP:    Excretion

 

Place in correct anatomical order the structures of the pathway of urine leaving the distal tubule. Begin with the number 1.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
F. 6
G. 7

 

 

  1. renal papilla

 

  1. calyx

 

  1. renal pelvis

 

  1. collecting duct

 

  1. ureter

 

  1. urethra

 

  1. urinary bladder

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 950

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding definition.

A. glycosuria
B. hematuria
C. incontinence
D. dysuria
E. pyuria
F. proteinuria
G. polyuria
H. oliguria
I. anuria
J. renal calculi

 

 

  1. pus in the urine

 

  1. scanty urine

 

  1. involuntary urination

 

  1. another name for kidney stones

 

  1. blood in the urine

 

  1. the presence of protein in the urine

 

  1. painful urination

 

  1. unusually large amounts of urine

 

  1. absence of urine

 

  1. sugar in the urine

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)                          TOP:    Urination Difficulties

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 970 (Box 28-6)

TOP:    Clinical Terms Associated With Urine Abnormalities

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 961 (Box 28-4)                          TOP:    Glucose in the Urine

 

Match each of the following renal and urinary disorders with its corresponding statement or definition.

A. acute glomerulonephritis
B. cystitis
C. hypoalbuminemia
D. lithotripsy
E. nephritis
F. renal failure
G. urethritis

 

 

  1. inflammation of the urethra

 

  1. a general term referring to kidney diseases, especially inflammation

 

  1. failure of the kidney to properly process blood plasma and form urine

 

  1. the most common form of kidney disease

 

  1. inflammation of the bladder

 

  1. a procedure that uses ultrasound to pulverize kidney stones

 

  1. low albumin concentration in the blood, resulting in loss of albumin from the blood through holes in damaged glomeruli

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 971

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 971

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 971

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 970

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 972

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

Below are listed parts of the nephron. Starting with the glomerulus, place them in correct anatomical order. Begin with the number 1.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
F. 6
G. 7

 

 

  1. distal tubule

 

  1. loop of Henle

 

  1. ascending limb of the loop of Henle

 

  1. descending limb of the loop of Henle

 

  1. proximal tubule

 

  1. Bowman capsule

 

  1. collecting tubules

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 958 (Figure 28-18)                     TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

Match each of the structures of the nephron with its description, function, or location.

A. distal convoluted tubule
B. glomerulus
C. Bowman capsule
D. Henle loop
E. proximal convoluted tubule
F. collecting duct
G. peritubular capillary
H. vasa recta

 

 

  1. tube nearest to Bowman capsule

 

  1. structure into which the proximal convoluted tubule empties

 

  1. name given to the blood vessel surrounding the Henle loop

 

  1. name given to the blood vessel in Bowman capsule

 

  1. blood vessel that surrounds the tubules of the nephron

 

  1. structure other than the collecting duct in which adjustment of blood pH can occur

 

  1. part of the nephron that establishes a countercurrent multiplier mechanism

 

  1. cup-shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 955

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Loop of Henle

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 956

TOP:    Blood Supply of the Nephron

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 965 (Table 28-1) TOP:               Summary of Nephron Function

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 962

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 963

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List two functions of the urinary bladder.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 951         TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. How do renal calculi form, and how are they treated?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 970

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 952

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. What structures make up the renal corpuscle?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 953

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Outline the flow of blood through the kidney tissue. What is unique about this blood flow?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 949         TOP:    Gross Structure

 

  1. Determine the filtration pressure based on the following values:
  2. The glomerular hydrostatic pressure is 55 mm Hg:
  3. The glomerular osmotic pressure is 27 mm Hg:
  4. The capsular hydrostatic pressure is 18 mm Hg:

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 958 | Page 959                           TOP:    Filtration

 

  1. Identify two blood indicators of renal dysfunction, and explain why they can be used as such.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 968 (Box 28-4)

TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Explain how the response of the kidney to an arteriosclerotic condition may actually compound the problem of hypertension.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 969         TOP:    Hypertension

 

  1. Explain why a person who has uncontrolled diabetes mellitus voids a large amount of urine.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 965 | Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a popular type of drug used to reduce high blood pressure. They act by preventing the activation of angiotensin. Briefly explain how the drugs can lower blood pressure.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 956         TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Trace the movement of filtrate through the nephron from the glomerulus to the collecting duct.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 953 | Page 956

TOP:    Microscopic Structure of the Nephron

 

  1. Describe the internal structure of the kidney.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 948 | Page 949

TOP:    Kidney

 

  1. Explain how the Henle loop establishes a solute concentration gradient from the top of the loop to the bottom of the loop.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 962 | Page 963

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Henle Loop

 

  1. Explain how ADH regulates the amount of urine produced and explain how the Henle loop allows ADH to increase water absorption.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 962 | Page 967

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Henle Loop and Regulation of Urine Volume

 

  1. Explain how the active transport of sodium out of the nephron tubules acts as the driving force for the passive transport of other materials.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 961

TOP:    Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Corky was in a diving accident that resulted in her spinal cord being severed. She was paralyzed from the waist down and, as a result, became incontinent. Her physician was concerned about the continuous residual urine buildup. What was the reason for this concern?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 970 | Page 971

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Challenge: While washing her picture window, Martha sustained a large, deep laceration to her leg when the ladder accidentally crashed through the window as she attempted to reposition it. She experienced a large loss of blood before the paramedics arrived. Her blood pressure was very low, and her heart rate was rapid and thready. The paramedics treated her aggressively with intravenous fluids and pressure to stop any more blood loss. They were also concerned about Martha’s renal function. Why?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 969

TOP:    The Big Picture: Urinary System and the Whole Body

 

  1. Challenge: It is true that women suffer from urinary bladder infections more often than men do. Why?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 971

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Challenge: Assume that the nephron is able to return 150 mg/100 ml of glucose back to the blood. If the blood entering the glomerulus contains 192 mg/100 ml of glucose, what is the glucose concentration of the blood leaving the nephron and the concentration of the urine being formed?

 

ANS:

Blood: 150 mg/100 ml of glucose

Urine: 42 mg/100 ml of glucose

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 960         TOP:    Reabsorption

 

  1. Challenge: A person had been working hard on a hot day and had been perspiring freely and drinking very little water. If a blood sample were taken, would you expect ANH or ADH to have the greater concentration? Explain your answer.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 965 | Page 967

TOP:    Regulation of Urine Volume

 

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