Anatomy Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

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Anatomy Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 5: Tissues

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Matrix may be defined as the living intracellular material surrounding the cells of a tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Tissues

 

  1. The study of how the primary germ layers differentiate into the different kinds of tissues is called histogenesis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. Epithelial tissue attaches to connective tissue by means of a basement membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 131 | Page 132                           TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Epithelial tissue is moderately vascular, which results in very little blood loss when cuts occur.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Epithelial tissue is characterized by large amounts of intercellular matrix and few cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 131

TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Transitional epithelium is unique in that it is composed of differing cell shapes in a stratified, or layered, epithelial sheet.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 133

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Stratified columnar epithelium is the most common type of epithelium and is found in many areas throughout the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Stratified transitional epithelium, such as is found in the urinary bladder, allows for distention.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Compound exocrine glands have one duct and secrete two or more products.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Mammary glands are endocrine glands that produce milk.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Salivary glands are an example of ductless exocrine glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Oil-producing glands that self-destruct in order to function are referred to as holocrine glands.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Loose connective tissue is also called areolar tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Fibrous Connective Tissue

 

  1. Bone-destroying cells are called osteoblasts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Elastic cartilage is the most prevalent type of cartilage.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 146         TOP:    Cartilage

 

  1. Mucous membranes are important because they lubricate and protect passageways.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 152

TOP:    Mucous Membranes

 

  1. Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Adipose tissue contains predominantly fat cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141

TOP:    Adipose Tissue

 

  1. Areolar tissue forms protective pads around the kidneys and other organs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 142         TOP:    Adipose Tissue

 

  1. Osseous tissue serves as a reservoir for blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 144         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Osteoblasts are specialized cells that build bone tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 145         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Haversian systems are microscopic structures in cartilage.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 144 | Page 145                           TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Striated muscle tissue can be controlled both voluntarily and involuntarily.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 148 | Page 149

TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. Skeletal muscle tissue is striated and voluntary.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 148

TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. Skeletal muscle cells are referred to as muscle fibers and are characterized by a high degree of contractility.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 149         TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. Basic characteristics of the nervous system are excitation and conduction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. Phagocytosis is a condition of having an excessive amount of white blood cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 151

TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. All the cells that make up tissues are held together by intracellular structures called desmosomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Introduction to Tissues

 

  1. In some tissues, the cells are held together by desmosomes and in other tissues they are held together by nonliving matrix.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Introduction to Tissues

 

  1. Tissue differentiation begins in the zygote.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. Epithelial tissue performs different functions based on the different types of matrix that make up the tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 131

TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Epithelial tissue produces the reticular lamina of the basement membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Classification of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Connective tissue produces the reticular lamina of the basement membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Classification of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Adhesive molecules called integrins help bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Classification of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Because connective tissue is avascular, food and oxygen must pass through the basement membrane to reach the vessels in the epithelial tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Classification of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Epithelial tissue can be classified by the shape of the cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 132

TOP:    Classification Based on Cell Shape

 

  1. Epithelial tissue can be classified by the number of layers the tissue has.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 133

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. The upper layer of stratified cuboidal epithelium can be keratinized for protection of the tissue below them.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Stratified Epithelium

 

  1. When transitional epithelium stretches, the cell shape changes from cuboidal to squamous in appearance.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Stratified Epithelium

 

  1. Hormones are released into ducts by exocrine glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Hormones are released into the blood by endocrine glands.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Endocrine glands can be classified by the shape and complexity of their ducts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Apocrine gland cells die as a result of their functioning.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Both collagenous fibers and reticular fibers are made of collagen.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Characteristics of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Elastic fibers are made of the protein elastin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Characteristics of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Proteoglycans are composed of glucosamine bound to a polysaccharide core.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Characteristics of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Connective tissue can be classified based on the type of matrix it contains.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Hyaluronidase assists in the absorption of injected drugs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Fibrous Connective Tissue

 

  1. Tendons have more elastic fibers than do ligaments.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 144

TOP:    Dense Fibrous Tissue

 

  1. Canaliculi allow osteocytes to stay alive within the bone tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 145         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Osteocytes were once osteoclasts that became trapped in the hardening bone tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 145         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Osteoclasts are bone-destroying cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. The lack of blood vessels in cartilage tissue hinders its ability to heal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Cartilage

 

  1. The matrix for blood tissue is plasma.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Blood

 

  1. Because of the stripes visible under the microscope, smooth muscle is called striated muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 148 | Page 149                           TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. When epithelial tissue is badly injured, a thick scar, or keloid, may develop.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 149 | Page 150                           TOP:    Tissue Repair

 

  1. Many of the sugars attached to the protein backbone of a proteoglycan molecule are fibronectin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 130

TOP:    Extracellular Matrix

 

  1. The process by which blastocyst cells differentiate into the three primary germ layers is called gastrulation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. The most numerous type of cell found in areolar tissue is the macrophage.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141

TOP:    Fibrous Connective Tissue

 

  1. Both axons and dendrites are found in nervous tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. The serous membrane covering the lungs is the visceral pleura.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 151

TOP:    Epithelial Membranes

 

  1. A malignant tumor that arises from epithelial tissue is generally called a sarcoma.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 153 | Page 154                           TOP:    Neoplasms

 

  1. A type of abnormal gene that seems to cause cancer is called an oncogene.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 154

TOP:    Neoplasms

 

  1. A group of cells that performs a common function is called a tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Introduction to Tissues

 

  1. Epithelial tissue can be subdivided into two types: squamous and columnar.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 131

TOP:    Types and Location of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Simple cuboidal epithelium is one cell layer thick; stratified cuboidal epithelium is more than one layer thick.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134 (Table 5-2)

TOP:    Classification Scheme of Membranous Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. The type of tissue that lines the vagina, mouth, and esophagus is called keratinized squamous epithelium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Stratified Epithelium

 

  1. The concentric layers of bone matrix are called lacunae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Compact Bone Tissue

 

  1. In the process of endochondral ossification, the bone that is formed replaces cartilage.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 144

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. An example of a cutaneous membrane is the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 150

TOP:    Cutaneous Membranes

 

  1. Connective tissue membranes are made up of two kinds of tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 152

TOP:    Connective Tissue Membranes

 

  1. Astrocytes form the blood-brain barrier that helps protect the brain from harmful substances.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. Oligodendrocytes help destroy damaged tissue and pathogens in the brain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The biology of tissues is called:
A. anatomy.
B. physiology.
C. histology.
D. cytology.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Introduction to Tissues

 

  1. The most widespread and abundant tissue in the body is:
A. epithelial.
B. connective.
C. muscle.
D. nervous.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Connective Tissue

 

  1. Nerve tissue is derived from what germ layer?
A. Endoderm
B. Ectoderm
C. Mesoderm
D. More than one of the above

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. Epithelial tissues develop from:
A. endoderm.
B. ectoderm.
C. mesoderm.
D. more than one of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. Muscle tissue develops from:
A. endoderm.
B. ectoderm.
C. mesoderm.
D. more than one of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. A tissue is:
A. a membrane that lines body cavities.
B. a group of similar cells that perform a common function.
C. a thin sheet of cells embedded in a matrix.
D. the most complex organizational unit of the body.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Introduction to Tissues

 

  1. Blood is a member of which basic tissue type?
A. Epithelial
B. Connective
C. Muscle
D. Nervous

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Connective Tissue

 

  1. Which tissue lines body cavities and protects body surfaces?
A. Epithelial
B. Connective
C. Muscle
D. Nervous

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 131

TOP:    Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following epithelial functions is a primary activity of glandular epithelium?
A. Protection
B. Secretion
C. Sensation
D. Excretion

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 131         TOP:    Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. What structure is formed by the union of the basal and reticular lamina?
A. Nucleus
B. Basement membrane
C. Lysosome
D. Endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 131 | Page 132                           TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Which is not a function of epithelial tissue?
A. Absorption
B. Secretion
C. Assimilation
D. Protection

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 131         TOP:    Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Epithelial cells can be classified according to shape. Which is not a characteristic shape of epithelial cells?
A. Rectangular
B. Cubed
C. Cylindrical
D. Flat

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 132 | Page 133

TOP:    Classification Based on Cell Shape

 

  1. One of the characteristics of which type of epithelial tissue is that of being able to readily diffuse material through it, such as occurs in alveoli?
A. Stratified columnar
B. Simple columnar
C. Stratified squamous
D. Simple squamous

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Goblet cells, cilia, and microvilli are modifications of which type of epithelial tissue?
A. Simple squamous
B. Simple cuboidal
C. Simple columnar
D. Pseudostratified squamous

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found in the:
A. mouth.
B. esophagus.
C. epidermis.
D. vagina.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Glands that are not ducted, but release their products directly into tissue fluid and blood, are called:
A. endocrine.
B. exocrine.
C. holocrine.
D. apocrine.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Oil-producing glands that self-destruct in order to function are referred to as:
A. merocrine.
B. apocrine.
C. endocrine.
D. holocrine.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

 

  1. How many layers make up pseudostratified epithelium?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Numerous

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Which of the following would be found as skin covering?
A. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
B. Stratified squamous (keratinized) epithelium
C. Pseudostratified squamous (keratinized) epithelium
D. Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 135

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. Which of the following exocrine glands constitute the mammary glands?
A. Merocrine
B. Apocrine
C. Holocrine
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

 

  1. Which of the following is the functional classification of salivary glands?
A. Merocrine
B. Endocrine
C. Apocrine
D. Holocrine

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

 

  1. Which is not a function of connective tissue?
A. Transport
B. Support
C. Defense
D. Communication

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Functions of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following can be found in the extracellular matrix?
A. Water
B. Proteoglycans
C. Bone cells
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 130

TOP:    Extracellular Matrix

 

  1. Collagenous fibers can be found extensively in:
A. epithelial tissue.
B. connective tissue.
C. muscle tissue.
D. nervous tissue.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Characteristics of Connective Tissue

 

  1. The type of tissue referred to as loose ordinary connective tissue is:
A. areolar.
B. adipose.
C. reticular.
D. cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Which is not characteristic of reticular tissue?
A. It is a major component of the body’s defense process.
B. It is found in bone marrow.
C. It makes reticular fibers.
D. It produces red blood cells.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 142 | Page 143

TOP:    Reticular Tissue

 

  1. The basic organizational or structural unit of bone is called the:
A. canaliculi.
B. lamellae.
C. lacunae.
D. haversian system.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 144 | Page 145                           TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Cartilage is a form of:
A. epithelial tissue.
B. connective tissue.
C. muscle tissue.
D. osseous tissue.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of adipose tissue?
A. Insulates to conserve body heat
B. Defends the body from microbes and injurious substances
C. Supports and protects the kidneys
D. Stores excess food

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 142         TOP:    Adipose Tissue

 

  1. The mature cells of bone are called:
A. fibroblasts.
B. osteoclasts.
C. osteocytes.
D. osteoblasts.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. The most prevalent type of cartilage is:
A. hyaline cartilage.
B. fibrous cartilage.
C. elastic cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Cartilage

 

  1. The red marrow of bones is a form of:
A. skeletal muscle tissue.
B. cartilage tissue.
C. hematopoietic tissue.
D. smooth muscle tissue.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 147

TOP:    Blood

 

  1. The type of tissue that contains cells called neurons is:
A. muscle.
B. epithelial.
C. connective.
D. nervous.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 149         TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following is another name for skeletal muscle?
A. Striated voluntary
B. Nonstriated involuntary
C. Striated involuntary
D. Pseudostriated involuntary

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 147 (Table 5-7)                          TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. The peritoneum is an example of a:
A. cutaneous membrane.
B. serous membrane.
C. mucous membrane.
D. cuboidal membrane.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 150 | Page 151                           TOP:    Epithelial Membranes

 

  1. Connective tissue membranes differ from cutaneous and serous membranes in that they:
A. contain fewer layers of cells.
B. do not contain epithelial components.
C. are not smooth and slick.
D. do not secrete fluids.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 152

TOP:    Epithelial Membranes

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of connective tissue?
A. Typically holds its cells together tightly by means of desmosomes
B. Protects the body from foreign invaders
C. Supports the body
D. Transports substances throughout the body

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Principal Types of Tissues

 

  1. The most complex tissue in the body is:
A. connective.
B. epithelial.
C. nervous.
D. muscle.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Principal Types of Tissues

 

  1. Basement membrane is composed of molecules made by:
A. muscle tissue.
B. connective tissue.
C. epithelial tissue.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 131 | Page 132                           TOP:    Generalizations About Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of simple squamous epithelium?
A. It is one layer thick.
B. It prevents the diffusion of material from one part of the body to another.
C. It is composed of flat, scale-like cells.
D. All of the above are true of simple squamous epithelium.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134         TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of simple cuboidal epithelium?
A. It is one layer thick.
B. It is composed of cuboidal-shaped cells.
C. It is found in ducts or tubules of the kidney.
D. All of the above are true of simple cuboidal epithelium.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134         TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Microvilli are found on which types of cells in the lining of the intestine?
A. Pseudostratified epithelium
B. Simple columnar epithelium
C. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
D. Simple cuboidal epithelium

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Cilia are found on which type of cells lining the respiratory tract?
A. Pseudostratified epithelium
B. Simple columnar epithelium
C. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
D. Simple cuboidal epithelium

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Glandular epithelium is usually composed of:
A. stratified cuboidal epithelium.
B. stratified columnar epithelium.
C. pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. The functioning of which of the following glandular tissues does not injure the cell or cause a loss of cytoplasm?
A. Apocrine
B. Endocrine
C. Merocrine
D. Holocrine

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Areolar tissue usually contains which type of cell in the greatest number?
A. Macrophages
B. Fibroblasts
C. Mast cells
D. Phagocytes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141

TOP:    Fibrous Connective Tissue

 

  1. Reticular tissue does not form the framework for which of the following?
A. Kidney
B. Spleen
C. Lymph nodes
D. All of the above are composed of reticular tissue

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 142 | Page 143                           TOP:    Reticular Tissue

 

  1. Cells found only in cartilage include:
A. chondrocytes and fibroblasts.
B. chondrocytes and macrophages.
C. chondrocytes and mast cells.
D. only chondrocytes.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Cartilage

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of skeletal muscles?
A. Have one nucleus per cell
B. Are attached to bone
C. Have striations
D. Are voluntary or “willed” muscles

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 148         TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of smooth muscles?
A. Have one nucleus per cell
B. Have intercalated disks
C. Make up the walls of the viscera
D. Usually are not under voluntary control

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 148 | Page 149

TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. The serous membrane covering the stomach is called the:
A. visceral pleura.
B. visceral peritoneum.
C. parietal pleura.
D. parietal peritoneum.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 151

TOP:    Serous Membranes

 

  1. Which of the following is not a primary germ layer?
A. Epiderm
B. Mesoderm
C. Endoderm
D. Ectoderm

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. Microvilli assist epithelial tissue in:
A. protecting the underlying tissue.
B. releasing substances from glands.
C. absorbing nutrients.
D. all of the above functions.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Another term for a ductless gland is an:
A. exocrine gland.
B. endocrine gland.
C. alveolar gland.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. The type of cell found in connective tissue that releases histamine is a(n):
A. fibroblast.
B. macrophage.
C. mast cell.
D. areolar cell.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141

TOP:    Loose Connective Tissue

 

  1. Cancellous tissue is an example of which type of connective tissue?
A. Cartilage
B. Bone
C. Dense connective
D. Loose connective

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Cancellous (Spongy) Bone Tissue

 

  1. An axon is an important part of which kind of tissue?
A. Nervous
B. Smooth muscle
C. Cardiac muscle
D. Glandular epithelium

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. The membrane lining the wall of the thoracic cavity is the:
A. visceral pleura.
B. parietal pleura.
C. visceral peritoneum.
D. parietal peritoneum.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 151

TOP:    Epithelial Membranes

 

  1. The membrane lining the wall of the abdominal cavity is the:
A. visceral pleura.
B. parietal pleura.
C. visceral peritoneum.
D. parietal peritoneum.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 151

TOP:    Epithelial Membranes

 

  1. Connective tissue forms from stem cell tissue called:
A. mesenchyme.
B. blastocyst.
C. endoderm.
D. ectoderm.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Connective Tissue

 

  1. Which of the following is not a class of cartilage tissue?
A. Hyaline
B. Fibrocartilage
C. Cancellous
D. Elastic

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 146

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. Fat cells would most likely be found in:
A. reticular tissue.
B. adipose tissue.
C. irregular dense fibrous tissue.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141

TOP:    Adipose Tissue

 

  1. Small spaces in the bone where osteocytes are located are called:
A. lacunae.
B. lamellae.
C. canaliculi.
D. marrow.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 145

TOP:    Compact Bone Tissue

 

  1. Hematopoietic tissue can be found in the:
A. heart.
B. lungs.
C. bones.
D. intestines.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 147

TOP:    Blood Tissue

 

  1. Which cells form the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood?
A. Oligodendrocytes
B. Neurons
C. Astrocytes
D. Microglia

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. Which cells electrically insulate axons to increase the speed of conduction?
A. Oligodendrocytes
B. Schwann cells
C. Astrocytes
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. Which cells help destroy pathogens and damaged tissue in the brain?
A. Oligodendrocytes
B. Schwann cells
C. Astrocytes
D. Microglia

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term with its corresponding description.

A. calor
B. diapedesis
C. edema
D. hematopoiesis
E. histamine
F. dolor
G. rubor
H. leukocytosis
I. chemotaxis
J. phagocytosis

 

 

  1. process by which white blood cells engulf and destroy bacteria

 

  1. formation and development of blood cells

 

  1. increased blood flow and pooling of blood that cause reddening after an injury

 

  1. warmth that results from the increased blood flow to the area of injury

 

  1. pain

 

  1. attraction of leukocytes

 

  1. causes increased blood vessel permeability

 

  1. increased number of white blood cells

 

  1. presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in intercellular tissue spaces

 

  1. movement of white blood cells through blood vessel walls

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 147

TOP:    Blood

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 141 (Table 5-3)                          TOP:    Inflammation

 

Match each category of epithelial cells with its corresponding definition.

A. simple squamous
B. simple cuboidal
C. simple columnar
D. pseudostratified columnar
E. stratified squamous
F. transitional

 

 

  1. single layer of cube-shaped cells

 

  1. multiple layers of cells with flat cells at the outer surface

 

  1. single layer of cells; some are tall and thin and reach the free surface, and others do not

 

  1. layers of cells that appear cubelike when an organ is relaxed and flattened when the organ is distended by fluid

 

  1. single layer of flat, scalelike cells

 

  1. single layer of tall, thin cells; modification may appear goblet-shaped

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Classification Based on Layers of Cells

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 134

TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. neuron
B. neuroglia
C. axon
D. soma
E. dendrite

 

 

  1. the cell body of the neuron

 

  1. supportive cells of nervous tissue

 

  1. cell process that transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body

 

  1. the conducting cells of the nervous system

 

  1. cell process that carries nerve impulses toward the cell body

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

Match each type of gland to its corresponding description.

A. endocrine
B. holocrine
C. merocrine
D. apocrine

 

 

  1. ductless glands that produce hormones, such as the thyroid gland

 

  1. glands that complete their function without incurring damage to or loss of cytoplasm, such as salivary glands

 

  1. glands that pinch off their tips to release their products, such as milk-producing mammary glands

 

  1. glands that self-destruct to complete their function, such as glands that produce oil to lubricate the skin

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 137

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 138

TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

Match each general tissue type with a corresponding specific tissue.

A. epithelial
B. connective
C. muscle
D. nerve

 

 

  1. bone and adipose tissue

 

  1. neurons and neuroglia

 

  1. tissue in the heart and the biceps of the arm

 

  1. tissue that lines the stomach and intestines

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 139

TOP:    Classification of Connective Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 149

TOP:    Nervous Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 148

TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 131

TOP:    Epithelial Tissue

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the embryonic development of tissues in terms of the three primary germ layers.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 128         TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues

 

  1. List and describe the five important functions performed by the various types of epithelial tissues.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 131         TOP:    Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Differentiate among simple, stratified, and transitional epithelia.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 134 | Page 135

TOP:    Classification of Epithelial Tissue

 

  1. Describe the three functional classifications of exocrine glands.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 138         TOP:    Glandular Epithelium

 

  1. Explain why body composition is a good indicator of health and fitness.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 142 ( Box 5-4 )                          TOP:    Sports and Fitness

 

  1. Describe how the distribution of fat storage areas differs in males and females.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 142 (Figure 5-17)                       TOP:    Adipose Tissue

 

  1. Differentiate among the three types of cartilage: hyaline, fibrous, and elastic.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 146         TOP:    Cartilage

 

  1. Why is blood considered to be the most unusual type of connective tissue?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 146         TOP:    Blood

 

  1. List the four cardinal signs of inflammation.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 141 (Box 5-3)

TOP:    Inflammation

 

  1. Give a brief description of tissue repair, including the varying capacities with which the different types of tissues can accomplish this task.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 149 | Page 150                           TOP:    Tissue Repair

 

  1. Describe the three types of muscle tissue and give a location and function of each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 148 | Page 149                           TOP:    Muscle Tissue

 

  1. Name and differentiate the two types of stem cells. What are some possible uses for stem cells?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 128 (Box 5-1)                            TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Briefly describe cutaneous membranes and mucous membranes and give the location of each in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 150 | Page 152

TOP:    Cutaneous Membranes and Mucous Membranes

 

  1. Briefly describe serous membranes and give their location in the body. Differentiate between visceral and parietal membranes and give an example of each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 150 | Page 151

TOP:    Serous Membranes

 

  1. Briefly describe connective tissue membranes and give their location in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 152

TOP:    Connective Tissue Membranes

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the four principle types of tissue in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Principal Types of Tissue

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Mr. Melbourne has emphysema and has been admitted to the cardiac care unit with oxygen administered per nasal cannula. Emphysema destroys the tiny air sacs in the lungs, reducing the diffusion of oxygen into the blood. These tiny air sacs, alveoli, are formed by what type of tissue? What tissue type will form in place of the damaged alveoli, and why will this impair the diffusion process?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 128

TOP:    Embryonic Development of Tissues | Tissue Repair

 

  1. Challenge: Diana is 5 foot, 4 inches tall and weighs 125 pounds. She appears very healthy and fit, yet her doctor advised her that she is over-fat. What might be the explanation for this assessment?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 142 (Box 5-4)                            TOP:    Sports and Fitness

 

  1. Challenge: Explain how simple squamous epithelium and the microvilli and cilia illustrate the relationship between structure and function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 134         TOP:    Simple Epithelium

 

  1. Challenge: During a heart attack, heart muscle is damaged. Explain why, even when a person is fully “recovered,” the heart is not as good as new.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 149 | Page 150                           TOP:    Tissue Repair

 

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 15: Sense Organs

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Sensory receptors make it possible for the body to respond to stimuli caused by changes occurring in our external or internal environment.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Sensory Receptors

 

  1. Touch and pressure are examples of stimuli that activate mechanoreceptors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 500

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. As we wear our sneakers, we lose the constant feeling of their presence; this is called adaptation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Somatic sense receptors are distributed evenly throughout the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Distribution of Receptors

 

  1. Taste buds are both exteroceptors and chemoreceptors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location | Taste Buds

 

  1. Somatic sense receptors located in muscles and joints are called visceroceptors.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Olfaction requires the chemical response of a dissolved substance for a stimulus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Sense of Smell

 

  1. The olfactory receptor cells lie in an excellent position functionally to smell delicate odors.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Olfactory Receptors

 

  1. The transmission pathway for olfactory sensations is olfactory cilia, olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and cerebral cortex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 503

TOP:    Olfactory Pathway

 

  1. The tip of the tongue reacts best to bitter taste.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Muscle spindles are stimulated by excessive muscle contraction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. The tip of the tongue reacts best to a salty taste and, to a lesser extent, to a sweet taste.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. The eustachian tube connects the inner ear with the trachea.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. High-frequency sound waves cause the narrow portion of the basilar membrane near the oval window to vibrate.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. The auditory ossicles include the malleus, incus, and stapes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Movement of hair cells in the organ of Corti against the cochlear membrane can stimulate nerve impulse conduction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 508         TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. The sense organs associated with the semicircular canals function in static equilibrium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. Dynamic equilibrium depends on the functioning of the crista ampullaris.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 511

TOP:    Sense of Balance

 

  1. The retina is the incomplete innermost coat of the eyeball, in that it has no anterior portion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 515

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. The posterior cavity of the eye contains aqueous humor.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. The eye is the only organ in the body in which both voluntary and involuntary muscles are found.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 513 | Page 514                           TOP:    Muscles

 

  1. Glaucoma is a disease in which the lens becomes opaque.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. Movement of the eyeball in any desired direction is accomplished by several intrinsic muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 513 | Page 514                           TOP:    Muscles

 

  1. All muscles of the eye are involuntary.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Muscles

 

  1. Three processes focus light rays so that they form a clear image on the retina: refraction of the light rays, constriction of the pupil, and convergence of the eye.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 518 | Page 519                           TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Visual acuity is the clearness or sharpness of visual perception.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 518 (Box 15-5)                          TOP:    Visual Acuity

 

  1. Aqueous humor is a gelatinous substance that fills the posterior cavity of the eyeball.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. Refraction means the deflection, or bending, of light rays.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 518

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Rhodopsin, the photopigment in rods, is less sensitive to light than cone pigments are.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Color blindness is caused by mistakes in producing three photopigments in the cones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 521 (Box 15-6)                          TOP:    Color Blindness

 

  1. The photo pupil reflex is an accommodation process normally used to see objects that are close.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 518

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Usually the closer an object is, the greater the degree of convergence that is necessary to maintain single vision.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Both rods and cones function to produce color vision.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 578

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Rhodopsin is a photopigment present in rods that is used for night vision.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Strabismus is more of a problem with the internal ciliary muscle than with the external muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Because rhodopsin is less sensitive to light than the cone photopigments, brighter light is necessary for its breakdown.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Convergence of impulses from cones is common.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Each optic nerve contains fibers from both retinas.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 522

TOP:    Neuronal Pathway of Vision

 

  1. Proprioceptors are receptors for touch, pain, heat, and cold.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. You feel hungry because of a proprioceptor.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Proprioceptors are activated by a change in temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Mechanoreceptors are the simplest, most common, and most widely distributed sensory receptors.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Classification by Structure

 

  1. Somatic sense receptors located in muscles and joints are called proprioceptors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Golgi tendon receptors are stimulated by touch.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. Exteroceptors are often called somatic senses.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Olfactory receptors and taste buds are chemoreceptors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. The number of pure, or “primary,” olfactory scents is about 15.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Olfactory Receptors

 

  1. Spicy is one of the “primary” taste sensations.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 504 | Page 505                           TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. The tip of the tongue reacts best to sweet taste.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. The sense organs responsible for the sense of balance are located in the vestibule and cochlea.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 510

TOP:    Vestibule and Semicircular Canals

 

  1. The membranous labyrinth is filled with perilymph.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. The correct order of the auditory ossicles deep to the tympanic membrane is malleus, incus, and stapes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Movement of the tympanic membrane caused by sound waves initiates vibration of cranial nerve VIII.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 508         TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. From superficial to deep, the three layers of tissue that compose the eyeball are sclera, choroid, and retina.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. The white of the eye is called the choroid.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. The function of the lacrimal gland is to secrete tears.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 513

TOP:    External Structures

 

  1. Light from red colors causes the breakdown of rhodopsin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. Farsightedness, which is often the inability to focus the lens properly as we age, is also called presbyopia.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. The canal of Schlemm drains the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 517 (Figure 15-25)                     TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. Aqueous humor is formed by secretion of the ciliary body into the posterior chamber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. The correct order of flow of tears is lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct, punctum, lacrimal sac, lacrimal canal, and nasolacrimal duct.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 513

TOP:    External Structures

 

  1. The opening and separation of opsin and rhodopsin in the presence of light is called bleaching.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. The retina is the complete outermost coat of the eyeball.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 515

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. A person with 20-100 vision can see objects at 20 feet that a person with normal vision can see at 100 feet.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 518 (Box 15-5)                          TOP:    Visual Acuity

 

  1. Special sense organs can respond to only one type of stimuli, whereas general sense organs can respond to several different types of stimuli.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Adaptation by a receptor causes an increase in the rate of impulse but a decrease in its intensity.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Proprioceptors in muscles and joints tend to adapt faster than other types of receptors.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. The two-point discrimination test measures the visual acuity of the eye.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Distribution of Receptors

 

  1. Proprioceptors are specialized types of visceroceptors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Proprioceptors respond to pressure in such organs as the intestine and the urinary bladder.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Referred pain may be caused by deep organ receptors and skin area receptors entering the same segment of the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 497 (Box 15-1)                          TOP:    Referred Pain

 

  1. In referring to proprioceptors, the terms tonic and phasic are interchangeable.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Nociceptors can respond to intense light.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Nociceptors serve as the primary receptor for pain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Free Nerve Endings

 

  1. Because of its importance to survival, the brain has a high concentration of pain receptors.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Free Nerve Endings

 

  1. The term “crude touch” implies that the sensation is easily recognized but its exact location is hard to determine.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. Anatomically, each muscle spindle consists of a discrete grouping of about 5 to 10 modified muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Stretch Receptors

 

  1. The stretch reflex helps maintain posture.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Stretch Receptors

 

  1. Golgi tendon receptors respond in a way similar to muscle spindles to maintain posture.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Stretch Receptors

 

  1. Unlike other neurons, olfactory receptors are replaced on a regular basis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Olfactory Receptors

 

  1. Germinative epithelial basal cells constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Olfactory Receptors

 

  1. Taste buds are stimulated by chemicals called tastants.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. A new primary taste, called umami, found in protein foods has been proposed by researchers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 505

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Chemical structure of a food is the sole determinant of its flavor or taste.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 505

TOP:    Neural Pathway for Taste

 

  1. The terms auricle and pinna refer to the same anatomical structure of the ear.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 506

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. The stapes rests on the inner surface of the tympanic membrane, or eardrum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. The function of the eustachian tube is to equalize all pressure on either side of the oval window.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. The tectorial membrane is responsible for generating impulses to maintain static equilibrium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. As the frequency of a sound wave increases, it causes the basilar membrane to vibrate nearer the oval window.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. Otoliths are “ear stones” that are found in the matrix of the macula of the ear.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 511

TOP:    Static Equilibrium

 

  1. The cell most likely to be found in the fovea centralis of the eye would be a rod cell.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 516

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. Both the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye are found in the anterior cavity of the eye.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. Chemically, all photopigments in rods can be broken down into opsin and retinal.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. The vitamin A derivative opsin is an important component of photopigments in rods.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. The terms sensation and perception mean the same thing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Another term for a cutaneous receptor is an exteroceptor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Another term for a visceroceptor is an interoceptor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Tonic proprioceptors allow us to know the location of our body parts without having to look.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Merkel disks and muscle spindles provide the body with information about muscle and the strength of muscle contraction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. The stapes fits into the round window in the middle ear.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. The number of sound waves that occur during a specific timeframe is called its frequency.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. The frequency of a sound determines its pitch.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. Osmoreceptors measure the type of chemicals in the blood and stimulate the hypothalamus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Osmoreceptors detect changes in the concentration of electrolytes in body fluids and can stimulate the hypothalamic thirst center.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Photoreceptors are found only in the eye.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Mechanoreceptors are activated by stimuli that in some way deform or change the position of the receptor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Referred pain is psychosomatic pain brought on by intense stress.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 497 (Box 15-1)                          TOP:    Referred Pain

 

  1. In referred pain, pain in a visceral organ is referred to skin sensors directly above it.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 497 (Box 15-1)                          TOP:    Referred Pain

 

  1. Pain that develops quickly and can be localized easily is called visceral pain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Pain Sensation

 

  1. If you cut yourself on the finger, the fiber sending the message to your brain would be a type A pain fiber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 496         TOP:    Pain Sensation

 

  1. An itch is caused by a rapidly adapting free nerve ending called a root hair plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 498

TOP:    Tactile Sensation

 

  1. The interpretation of the sensation of being tickled requires a complex interaction of many parts of the brain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 499         TOP:    Tactile Sensation

 

  1. The terms Merkel disk and tactile meniscus refer to the same structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. The tactile receptor is made up of two cells: a tactile epithelial cell and a tactile disk.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. Tactile disks adapt rapidly to make sure current information is being sent to the brain.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. The Ruffini corpuscle is an example of a bulboid corpuscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Touch and Pressure Receptors

 

  1. The ability to sense the presence of your books when you have been holding them for a long time depends on the functioning of the Krause end bulbs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Touch and Pressure Receptors

 

  1. The slow adaptation of the sense of smell is due to the adaptation inhibition of the granule cells in the olfactory bulb.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 502

TOP:    Olfactory Reception

 

  1. Gustatory cells are responsible for the sense of taste.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Because rods only see in “black and white,” they are equally responsive to the entire range of visible wavelengths.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    Rods

 

  1. Palpebrae is the scientific name for the eyelashes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 512

TOP:    Eyelids

 

  1. Recovering from the effects of rapidly traveling through many time zones (jet lag) requires the functioning of the ganglion cells of the eye.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 521         TOP:    Ganglion Cells

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The special senses:
A. are widely distributed throughout the body.
B. enable us to detect pain.
C. are dense in the fingertips.
D. are grouped in the tongue, nose, eye, and ear.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Distribution of Receptors

 

  1. Pain that is perceived as being superficial but actually is caused by an underlying organ is called:
A. phantom pain.
B. referred pain.
C. chronic pain.
D. acute pain.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 497 (Box 15-1)                          TOP:    Referred Pain

 

  1. Visceroceptors are located in which of the following?
A. Skin
B. Tendons
C. Internal organs
D. Skeletal muscles

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. The somatic senses enable us to detect sensations such as:
A. touch.
B. temperature.
C. pain.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Sense Organs Introduction

 

  1. Intense stimuli of any type that results in tissue damage will activate:
A. mechanoreceptors.
B. thermoreceptors.
C. nociceptors.
D. photoreceptors.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Chemoreceptors are most likely to be activated by:
A. cold temperatures.
B. noxious odors.
C. pain.
D. a change of receptor position.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. The receptors responsible for sensing crude and persistent touch are the:
A. Meissner corpuscles.
B. Krause end bulbs.
C. Ruffini corpuscles.
D. free nerve endings.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. Which of the following is true of proprioceptors? They:
A. function in relation to movement and position.
B. are superficial receptors.
C. are internal receptors.
D. are receptors for general senses such as touch, pressure, heat, and cold.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Free nerve endings respond to all of the following stimuli except:
A. tickling.
B. itching.
C. strength of muscle contractions.
D. pain.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 496 (Table 15-1) TOP:               Free Nerve Endings

 

  1. Pacinian corpuscles are least numerous in the:
A. palms of the hands.
B. joints of the body.
C. skin of the back.
D. soles of the feet.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. Which of the following receptors are found in most body tissues?
A. Free nerve endings
B. Meissner corpuscles
C. Krause end bulbs
D. Ruffini corpuscles

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Free Nerve Endings

 

  1. The olfactory tract carries impulses associated with:
A. taste.
B. equilibrium.
C. smell.
D. pain.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Sense of Smell

 

  1. There are ____ openings into the middle ear.
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Both olfactory receptors and taste buds are:
A. thermoreceptors.
B. chemoreceptors.
C. nociceptors.
D. mechanoreceptors.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. The number of pure, or “primary,” tastes is about:
A. 4.
B. 15.
C. 30.
D. 100.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 505

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. All of the following are “primary” taste sensations except:
A. sweet.
B. sour.
C. spicy.
D. bitter.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 505

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. The auditory ossicles include the:
A. malleus.
B. incus.
C. stapes.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Which of the following is not a part of the bony labyrinth?
A. Semicircular canal
B. Malleus
C. Vestibule
D. Cochlea

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. The organ of Corti is located in the:
A. vestibule.
B. semicircular canal.
C. scala vestibuli.
D. cochlear duct.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. Movement of hair cells in the organ of Corti against the ____ membrane can stimulate nerve impulse condition.
A. tectorial
B. basilar
C. vestibular
D. cochlear

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not a component of the external ear?
A. Auricle
B. Cerumen-secreting glands
C. Eustachian tube
D. External auditory meatus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 506 | Page 507                           TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. The tympanic membrane:
A. leads from the auricle into the temporal bone.
B. surrounds the cochlea and the semicircular canals.
C. is continuous with the external auditory meatus.
D. is also known as the inner ear.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. Impulses are transmitted from the inner ear to the brainstem by way of the:
A. vestibular nerve.
B. cochlear nerve.
C. tectorial nerve.
D. oculomotor nerve.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. The sense organs responsible for static equilibrium are located in the:
A. utricle.
B. saccule.
C. semicircular canals.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 510

TOP:    Sense of Balance

 

  1. The semicircular canals are in ____ planes of the body.
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 510

TOP:    Vestibule and Semicircular Canals

 

  1. The major function of the utricle and saccule in the vestibule is:
A. transmitting sound waves through bones.
B. changing sound waves into nerve impulses.
C. detecting the position of the head.
D. conducting sound waves through endolymph.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 510

TOP:    Sense of Balance

 

  1. Blood vessels are found in which of the following parts of the eye?
A. Cornea
B. Lens
C. Choroid
D. Aqueous humor

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. The white of the eye is referred to as the:
A. sclera.
B. choroid.
C. retina.
D. cornea.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. The part of the eye containing nervous tissue is the:
A. sclera.
B. choroid.
C. iris.
D. retina.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 515

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement?
A. Cones are more numerous than rods.
B. Cones are most densely concentrated in the fovea centralis.
C. Rods are most densely concentrated in the macula lutea.
D. Cones increase in density toward the periphery of the retina.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 516

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. To produce a clear image, the aqueous humor is involved in the process of:
A. refraction.
B. constriction.
C. accommodation.
D. convergence.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 518

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. The function of the lacrimal apparatus is to:
A. secrete aqueous humor.
B. secrete vitreous humor.
C. drain aqueous humor.
D. secrete tears.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 513

TOP:    External Structures

 

  1. Presbyopia is a condition resulting from:
A. excessive aqueous humor.
B. opacity of the lens.
C. loss of lens elasticity.
D. irregular curvature of the cornea.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Which of the following must happen for near vision to occur?
A. Increased tension of the suspensory ligament
B. Relaxation of the ciliary muscle
C. Increased curvature of the lens
D. Contraction of the superior rectus muscle

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 518

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Strabismus is a problem related to:
A. convergence.
B. accommodation.
C. refraction.
D. constriction.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Which of the following is a primary photopigment?
A. Green
B. Orange
C. White
D. Purple

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. There are how many types of cones in the retina?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. The inability to focus the lens properly as we age is called:
A. myopia.
B. hyperopia.
C. presbyopia.
D. astigmatism.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Which is not true of nearsightedness?
A. Light rays converge in front of the retina.
B. The eyeball may be too long.
C. Convex glasses are used for correction.
D. If uncorrected, the image is blurred.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Irregular curvature of the cornea can produce:
A. myopia.
B. glaucoma.
C. hyperopia.
D. astigmatism.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Which of the following is not a structure of the middle ear?
A. Incus
B. Stapes
C. Auditory tube
D. Vestibule

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Which of the following structures is concerned with hearing?
A. Utricle
B. Saccule
C. Semicircular canals
D. Cochlear duct

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. The passageway leading to the tympanic membrane is the:
A. external auditory meatus.
B. auditory tube.
C. eustachian tube.
D. oval window.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 506

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. The eyelids and anterior surface of the eye are lined by the:
A. cornea.
B. iris.
C. lens.
D. conjunctiva.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 512

TOP:    External Structures

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of a receptor potential?
A. It follows the all-or-none law.
B. It is a graded response.
C. It occurs when an adequate stimulus acts on a receptor.
D. It can stimulate an action potential in the axon of a sensory neuron.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a somatic sense?
A. Smell
B. Taste
C. Equilibrium
D. None of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Distribution of Receptors

 

  1. Proprioceptors can be found in:
A. the urinary bladder.
B. the major blood vessels of the body.
C. skeletal muscles.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. The word “deform” describes the stimulus detected by:
A. chemoreceptors.
B. mechanoreceptors.
C. photoreceptors.
D. thermoreceptors.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Which of the following is true about pain receptors?
A. A fibers respond to chronic pain.
B. A fibers are associated with dull, aching pain.
C. A fibers are associated with sharp, localized pain.
D. B fibers are associated with sharp, localized pain.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496

TOP:    Free Nerve Endings

 

  1. Which of the following is an anatomical variant of a Meissner corpuscle?
A. Krause end bulb
B. Pacinian corpuscle
C. Ruffini corpuscle
D. Both A and C

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501

TOP:    Encapsulated Nerve Endings

 

  1. Taste buds can be found:
A. in the lining of the mouth.
B. on the soft palate.
C. on the tongue.
D. in all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Which of the following tongue papillae do not have taste buds?
A. Fungiform
B. Filiform
C. Foliate
D. All of the above contain taste buds.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Which structure is not inside the vestibule of the inner ear?
A. Cochlear duct
B. Utricle
C. Saccule
D. All of the above are in the vestibule.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 507 | Page 508                           TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. Which of the following is not an accessory structure of the eye?
A. Eyebrows
B. Eyelashes
C. The palpebrae
D. All of the above are accessory structures.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 512

TOP:    External Structures

 

  1. The two general classes of sense organs are:
A. auditory and visual.
B. peripheral and central.
C. general and special.
D. chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. When referring to the sensory neurons, the term end organ refers to the:
A. occipital lobe of the brain.
B. temporal lobe of the brain.
C. parietal lobe of the brain.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Sensory impulses ending in what part of the central nervous system may affect the so-called “vital sign” reflexes?
A. Thalamus
B. Cerebellum
C. Brainstem
D. Cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Sensory impulses ending in what part of the central nervous system trigger imprecise or “crude” sensation awareness?
A. Thalamus
B. Cerebellum
C. Brainstem
D. Cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Sensory impulses ending in what part of the central nervous system give specific awareness of a specific type of sensation, its exact location, and its level of intensity?
A. Thalamus
B. Cerebellum
C. Brainstem
D. Cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. The two-point discrimination test can be used to measure:
A. visual acuity.
B. the ability to determine the location of a sound.
C. the sensitivity of the skin in various parts of the body.
D. the ability to measure the relative temperature of two different objects.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Distribution of Receptors

 

  1. What types of receptors are important in stimulating the thirst center?
A. Mechanoreceptors
B. Osmoreceptors
C. Chemoreceptors
D. Thermoreceptors

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. The sequence of auditory ossicles in the middle ear starting at the tympanic membrane and ending at the oval window is:
A. malleus, incus, and stapes.
B. malleus, stapes, and incus.
C. stapes, malleus, and incus.
D. stapes, incus, and malleus.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. If you slammed your finger in a car door, it would stimulate:
A. B pain fibers.
B. A pain fibers.
C. visceral pain fibers.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 496         TOP:    Pain Sensation

 

  1. Which term is another name for a variant of a Meissner corpuscle called the bulboid corpuscle?
A. Krause end bulb
B. Ruffini corpuscle
C. Pacini corpuscle
D. Root hair plexus

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. Which term is another name for a variant of a Meissner corpuscle called the bulbous corpuscle?
A. Krause end bulb
B. Ruffini corpuscle
C. Pacini corpuscle
D. Root hair plexus

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. Which large mechanoreceptor, when sectioned, shows thick laminated connective tissue capsules?
A. Krause end bulb
B. Ruffini corpuscle
C. Pacini corpuscle
D. Root hair plexus

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 499

TOP:    Discriminative Touch

 

  1. Which tongue papillae are huge dome-shaped bumps that form a transverse row near the back of the tongue?
A. Fungiform papillae
B. Circumvallate papillae
C. Foliate papillae
D. Filiform papillae

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Which tongue papillae do not contain taste buds but allow us to experience food texture and “feel”?
A. Fungiform papillae
B. Circumvallate papillae
C. Foliate papillae
D. Filiform papillae

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Which tongue papillae are large, mushroom-shaped bumps found in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue surface?
A. Fungiform papillae
B. Circumvallate papillae
C. Foliate papillae
D. Filiform papillae

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 504

TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Of all the papillae on the tongue, which one contains the most taste buds?
A. Fungiform papillae
B. Circumvallate papillae
C. Foliate papillae
D. All papillae contain about the same number of taste buds.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 504         TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Cones that are sensitive to light in the blue wavelength wave are referred to as:
A. B cones.
B. L cones.
C. S cones.
D. M cones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    Cones

 

  1. When you are looking at a large green field, which cones would be sending the green wavelength to the brain?
A. G cones
B. L cones
C. S cones
D. M cones

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 520         TOP:    Cones

 

  1. The photopigment melanopsin is found in:
A. rods only.
B. cones only.
C. ganglion cells.
D. both rods and cones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 521

TOP:    Ganglion Cells

 

MATCHING

 

Place in proper sequence the structures through which sound waves are conducted, starting with the number 1 and ending with 9.

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
F. 6
G. 7
H. 8
I. 9

 

 

  1. perilymph

 

  1. stapes

 

  1. tympanic membrane

 

  1. malleus

 

  1. external auditory canal

 

  1. oval window

 

  1. round window

 

  1. incus

 

  1. organ of Corti

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

Match each receptor type with its corresponding description.

A. chemoreceptors
B. mechanoreceptors
C. nociceptors
D. photoreceptors
E. thermoreceptors

 

 

  1. activated by intense stimuli of any type that results in tissue damage

 

  1. found only in the eye; this receptor responds to light

 

  1. activated by stretch or pressure in muscle tissue

 

  1. could be activated by a concentration of blood glucose

 

  1. activated by heat or cold

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

Match each outer ear term with its corresponding description.

A. auricle
B. cerumen
C. external auditory meatus
D. tympanic membrane

 

 

  1. fleshy part of external ear on the outside of head

 

  1. earwax

 

  1. passageway that leads to the tympanic membrane

 

  1. thin membrane that separates the inner and middle ear; vibrates in response to sound waves

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 506

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 506

TOP:    External Ear

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    External Ear

 

Match each middle ear term with its corresponding description.

A. auditory ossicles
B. auditory tube
C. mastoid air spaces
D. oval window
E. round window

 

 

  1. membrane-covered opening between the middle and inner ear; the stapes attaches to the membrane

 

  1. membrane-covered opening between the middle and inner ear; nothing attaches to the membrane

 

  1. spaces in the temporal bone that are connected to the middle ear

 

  1. structure that enables air pressure to be equalized between the outside air and the middle ear; also known as the eustachian tube

 

  1. ear bones that transmit and amplify vibrations of the tympanic membrane to the oval window; the malleus, incus, and stapes

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Middle Ear

 

Match each inner ear term with its corresponding description.

A. basilar membrane
B. bony labyrinth
C. cochlea
D. cochlear duct
E. endolymph
F. membranous labyrinth
G. organ of Corti
H. perilymph
I. scala tympani
J. scala vestibule
K. semicircular canals
L. tectorial membrane
M. vestibular membrane
N. vestibule

 

 

  1. the organ of hearing; located in the cochlea and filled with endolymph

 

  1. consists of vestibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals

 

  1. membranes that are found within the bony labyrinth

 

  1. fluid between the bony and membranous labyrinths

 

  1. fluid within the membranous labyrinth

 

  1. part of the inner ear involved with hearing

 

  1. a part of the inner ear involved with equilibrium

 

  1. cavity at the entrance of the semicircular canal

 

  1. membrane that separates the scala vestibuli and cochlear duct

 

  1. membrane that separates the scala tympani and the cochlear duct

 

  1. upper section of the cochlea

 

  1. lower section of the cochlea

 

  1. space that contains the organ of Corti

 

  1. the organ of Corti rests on the basilar membrane, and its hair cells extend to this membrane

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 580

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 507 | Page 508                           TOP:    Inner Ear

 

  1. ANS:   N                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 808

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   M                    DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

  1. ANS:   L                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 508

TOP:    Cochlea and Cochlear Duct

 

Match each structure of the eye with its corresponding description.

A. aqueous humor
B. choroid
C. cones
D. cornea
E. fovea centralis
F. iris
G. optic disc
H. retina
I. rods
J. vitreous humor

 

 

  1. humor found in the posterior chamber

 

  1. humor found in the anterior chamber

 

  1. iris is a part of this layer

 

  1. transparent portion of the anterior of the eye

 

  1. innermost layer of the eyeball

 

  1. receptors for day vision

 

  1. area of dense concentration of cones

 

  1. receptor that is more concentrated in the peripheral area of the retina

 

  1. referred to as the blind spot in the eye

 

  1. changes in size or shape determine the size of the pupil

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Cavities and Humors

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 515

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 515

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 520

TOP:    The Role of Photopigments

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 516

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 516

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 514

TOP:    Muscles of the Eye

 

Match each disorder with its corresponding description.

A. presbycusis
B. myopia
C. Ménière disease
D. tinnitus
E. presbyopia
F. cataracts
G. otosclerosis
H. glaucoma

 

 

  1. cloudy spots on the lens that develop as we age

 

  1. inherited bone disorder that impairs sound conduction by causing structural irregularities in the stapes

 

  1. a progressive hearing loss associated with aging

 

  1. condition caused by excessive intraocular pressure

 

  1. chronic inner ear disease of unknown cause that is characterized by tinnitus, nerve deafness, and vertigo

 

  1. another name for nearsightedness

 

  1. the inability to focus the lens properly as we age

 

  1. another term for ringing in the ear

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 522

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 523

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 525

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 523

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 522

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe each of the five receptor categories, based on the types of stimuli that activate them.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Stimulus Detected

 

  1. Identify the sensation or function of the following somatic sense receptors: free nerve endings, Meissner corpuscles, Krause end bulbs, Ruffini corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, muscle spindles, and Golgi tendon receptors.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Structure

 

  1. Describe the neuronal pathway for taste.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 505         TOP:    Neuronal Pathway of Taste

 

  1. What is the function of the eustachian tube?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 507         TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Sound waves are transmitted through solids, liquids, and gases. Give a specific example of each of these states as related to hearing and the ear.

Solid:

Liquid:

Gas:

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 508         TOP:    Pathway of Sound Waves

 

  1. How does the ear differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency sound waves?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 508         TOP:    Sense of Hearing

 

  1. What is the difference between static and dynamic equilibrium? Where are the sense organs for each located?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 510 | Page 511

TOP:    Sense of Balance

 

  1. Where is the blind spot located? Why can’t light rays striking this area be seen?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 517

TOP:    Layers of the Eyeball

 

  1. Explain the processes that allow for the focusing of light rays so that they form a clear image on the retina.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 518 | Page 519

TOP:    Formation of Retinal Image

 

  1. Explain why watering of the eyes occurs when a person gets a common cold.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 513         TOP:    Lacrimal Apparatus

 

  1. Describe how light is converted into action potentials that are transmitted to the brain and interpreted as vision.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 518 | Page 519

TOP:    The Process of Seeing

 

  1. In a generalized manner, describe the dual sensory functions of the ear.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 508 | Page 509

TOP:    Sense of Hearing | Sense of Balance

 

  1. Define or explain the terms sensation, perception, and adaptation. Explain specifically how sensation and perception differ.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 494

TOP:    Receptor Response

 

  1. Differentiate between exteroceptors, visceroceptors, and proprioceptors.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 495

TOP:    Classification by Location

 

  1. Differentiate between the pain receptors in the body—both fast and slow fibers and visceral and somatic pain.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 496 | Page 497

TOP:    Pain Sensations

 

  1. Explain the different functions of the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon receptors.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 501         TOP:    Stretch Receptors

 

  1. Explain the olfactory pathway. Why is it possible to link odors so powerfully to memory?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 503

TOP:    Olfactory Pathway

 

  1. Differentiate between myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 524

TOP:    Refraction Disorders

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Although Donald’s vision was normal, he began experiencing headaches and pain in his eyes. The ophthalmologist suggested a test to determine the pressure in the anterior cavity of Donald’s eyes. Why did the doctor recommend this test, and what disease state was he anticipating?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 525         TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Challenge: An A&P student is conducting a test on the sense of taste. A volunteer is blindfolded and then asked to identify, by taste, the items placed on her tongue. For each item, predict the likelihood that the volunteer will correctly identify the item.

Sugar water placed on the tip of the tongue:

Unsweetened tea placed on the tip of the tongue:

The tongue is dried, and a few sugar crystals are placed on the tip of the tongue:

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 504 | Page 505                           TOP:    Taste Buds

 

  1. Challenge: Grandpa Joe notices that his vision is becoming cloudy. What is the likely cause of his problem?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 524         TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Challenge: Amanda repeatedly became ill with throat infections during her first few years of school. Lately she has noticed that whenever she has a throat infection, her ears become very sore also. What might be the cause of this additional problem?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 507         TOP:    Middle Ear

 

  1. Challenge: Explain why the smell of a newly painted room becomes less noticeable the longer you are in it but seems very strong again if you leave for a while and then return to the room.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 502         TOP:    Olfactory Receptors

 

  1. Challenge: Explain why the smell of a hospital or dentist office can bring about negative emotions and why the smell of baking cookies or a baking turkey around Thanksgiving time can bring about positive emotions.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 503         TOP:    Olfactory Pathway

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 33: Growth and Development

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The prenatal period begins at conception and continues until the end of infancy.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Prenatal Period

 

  1. Human cells contain a total of 23 chromosomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1079 | Page 1078                       TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Meiotic division II is essentially the same as mitotic division I.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. During meiosis II, the phenomenon of “crossing over” occurs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1072

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Most of the primary oocytes develop to prophase I of meiosis before birth, and they stay at that stage until puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In both oogenesis and spermatogenesis, the cytoplasm is equally divided among the daughter cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1074 | Page 1076                       TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The postnatal period begins at birth and ends when sexual maturity is attained.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1092

TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. The daughter cells formed by meiotic division II contain a diploid number of chromosomes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1073 | Page 1074 (Figure 33-1)

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The expulsion of seminal fluid from the male urethra into the female vagina is called fertilization.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Ovulation and Insemination

 

  1. The ovum lives for only about 24 hours.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Experiments have shown that the ovum actually attracts and “traps” sperm with special receptor molecules on the surface of the ovum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The fertilized ovum, or zygote, is genetically complete.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Once the zygote is formed, it immediately begins to cleave, and in about 3 days a solid mass of cells called a blastocyst is formed.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. In the human, the function of the yolk sac is to provide nutrients to the embryo.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1080

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. A test tube baby is the result of an embryo transfer process.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    In Vitro Fertilization

 

  1. A major function of amniotic fluid is to act as a shock absorber.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1080 | Page 1081                       TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The chorion develops from the trophoblast to become an important fetal membrane in the placenta.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The science of the development of the individual before birth is prenatology.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1081 (Box 33-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. The blastocyst is a solid mass of cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropin to reduce luteal secretion of estrogen and progesterone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The brain and the spinal cord originate in the ectoderm.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Embryology is the name given to the branch of life science that studies the process of change over the life cycle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1081 (Box 33-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. In early pregnancy, hormones to sustain pregnancy are produced by the corpus luteum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The placenta is composed of both maternal and embryonic tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. In a normally developing fetus, maternal blood and fetal blood should never mix.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The placenta is formed from tissues from the fetus only.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The placenta, a structural “anchor” and nutritive bridge, is also an excretory, respiratory, and endocrine organ.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion peaks about 16 weeks after fertilization and then drops to a continuous low level by about week 24.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. By day 35 of gestation, the heart of the embryo is beating.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. By the second month of gestation, all organ systems of the embryo are formed and functioning.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Cells of the embryonic disk differentiate into distinct types that form each of the three primary germ layers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The mesoderm forms the linings of various tracts, as well as several glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The process by which the primary germ layers develop into many different kinds of tissues is called organogenesis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Pregnancy may produce pressure on the bladder, reducing the urine-storing capacity and resulting in frequent urination.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1089

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Stage two of labor is the period from the time of maximal cervical dilation until the expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage two of labor normally lasts from a few minutes to an hour.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage two of labor is the period from the onset of uterine contractions until expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Stage three of labor normally lasts from 12 to 36 hours.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Identical twins are not absolutely identical in terms of structure and function.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Fraternal twins are always of two different sexes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The neonatal period lasts from birth until 1 year.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. The average age-range of adolescence is from 13 to 19 years.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Fraternal twins result from the splitting of embryonic tissue from the same zygote early in development.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. It is possible for fraternal twins to have two different biological fathers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The infant head is approximately one-fourth the total height of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1092 (Figure 33-22)                   TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. Early in infancy, the baby has only one spinal curvature.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Many of the developmental changes that occur during childhood are controlled by the secretion of sex hormones and are classified as secondary sex characteristics.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. In older adulthood, the bones develop indistinct and shaggy-appearing margins with spurs, a process called lipping.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1096

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. Degenerative heart and blood vessel disease is one of the most common and serious effects of aging.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. The decrease in progesterone levels accounts for the common symptoms of menopause.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. A tubal pregnancy is an example of an ectopic pregnancy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Atherosclerosis results when fatty accumulations or other substances in blood vessels calcify.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Progesterone therapy may be used to relieve some symptoms of menopause.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. The event that divides the prenatal and postnatal stages of development is birth.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Another name for a sex cell is a gamete.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Enzymes in the acrosome of the sperm are used to break down the zona pellucida of the egg.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. A woman is fertile for only about 24 hours during each reproductive cycle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The morula is about three times the size of the zygote.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Because the virus that causes German measles can cross the placenta, it has the potential to cause developmental defects in the fetus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Because progesterone and estrogen are needed throughout pregnancy, the corpus luteum is maintained until the baby is born.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. In most situations, stage II of labor is longer than stages I or III.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Fertility drugs that produce multiple births result in fraternal rather than identical siblings.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. By age 14, all of the deciduous teeth have been lost.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Childhood

 

  1. The full closure of skeletal growth plates does not occur until late childhood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Umbilical cord blood can be a source of stem cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1086 | Page 1087                       TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. One theory of aging proposes that a lack of ATP in the cell causes aging.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1095

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. Stem cells found in umbilical cord blood can be used in place of bone marrow for transplantation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1086 | Page 1087                       TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Cell therapy uses special cells to treat specific diseases.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. The end products of both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are gametes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The goal of meiosis is to convert haploid cells to diploid cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The goal of mitosis is to convert diploid cells into haploid cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In mitosis, DNA replicates once. In meiosis, DNA replicates twice.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Several thousand primary oocytes formed in the fetus do not survive to puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Even though they are in the female, theca cells produce androgens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. If an egg is not fertilized, the first polar body is not formed.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. If an egg is not fertilized, the second polar bodies are not produced.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The advantage of the egg not developing beyond the process of meiosis in the fetal stage is an increase in the efficiency of RNA synthesis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Only slightly more than 1% of the sperm deposited in the vagina reach the egg.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The success rate today for in vitro fertilization is between 80% and 85%.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    In Vitro Fertilization

 

  1. As the blastocyst develops, the outer layer cell mass forms the amniotic cavity and the yolk sac.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The placenta produces both progesterone and estrogen.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Gestation is divided into three equal time periods called trimesters.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The developing baby is referred to as a zygote during the first trimester, an embryo during the second trimester, and a fetus during the third trimester.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Constipation and a hiatal hernia can be caused by the increasing size of the uterus during late pregnancy.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1089

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Because of the size and position of the uterus, the center of gravity of a pregnant woman is shifted backward, making walking difficult.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1089

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. A cesarean section is the delivery of a baby by a surgical procedure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Multiple-birth babies are at greater risk for complications because they are often born prematurely.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Identical twins share an umbilical cord and a placenta.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The first forceful breath of a newborn baby is stimulated by the increasing carbon dioxide level in the blood.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Gerontologists have found that aging may be linked to the reproductive limit of human cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. Progeria is a condition in which a person appears to age rapidly.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1095 (Box 33-3)                        TOP:    Progeria

 

  1. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that is common in elderly adults.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1096

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. With aging, the skin thickens, causing wrinkles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Integumentary System

 

  1. The “barrel chest” in some elderly adults results from the calcification of the costal cartilages.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Respiratory System

 

  1. A change in the organ of Corti, which is common in the elderly, requires bifocal glasses for correction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. Because of the reduction of blood levels of progesterone in postmenopausal women, they are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis than are men.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Reproductive System

 

  1. Ectopic pregnancy can never end in the successful development of the fetus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Agents that disrupt normal development of the fetus are called teratogens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Eclampsia occurs in about 1 in 20 pregnancies.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. A tetrad is a structure that occurs during meiosis I and is a homologous pair of chromosomes that are moved together.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis rely on polar bodies to reduce the chromosome number.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1074 | Page 1077                       TOP:    Spermatogenesis | Oogenesis

 

  1. The first polar body is a diploid structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1077       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. The only thing contributed to the egg by the fertilizing sperm is the nucleus of the sperm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The ultimate purpose of the human chorionic gonadotropin is to maintain the lining of the uterus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1082       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. By day 35 of development, not only is the heart beating, but the embryo has eyes and limb buds, which will eventually develop into arms and legs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The development of the primary germ layers from the undifferentiated cells of the embryo is called apoptosis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. In the male, the gonads attach to the wolffian duct, which along with the urethra develop into the male reproductive tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1088

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. In the female, the müllerian duct develops into the female reproductive tract separate from the urinary tract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1088

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Identical twins are always of the same sex.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The crossing over that occurs during meiosis increases the genetic diversity of the offspring.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. Each primary spermatocyte will produce four functional sperm cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Spermatogenesis

 

  1. During oogenesis, two polar bodies are produced, one during meiosis I and one during meiosis II.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Sperm are attracted to the warmer temperatures of the uterine tubes, this attraction is called thermotaxis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. When a sperm enters the egg, the sperm causes an increase in potassium ions in the ovum, which inactivates the sperm receptors in the zona pellucida.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The morula is more developmentally advanced than the blastocyst.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. In the blastocyst, the inner layer forms the amniotic cavity and the outer layer forms the yolk sac.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Stem cells of the early embryo are called totipotent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1086

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Shortly after birth, all of the systems are fully differentiated, because of that, adults do not have stem cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1086 | Page 1087                       TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. The cells of the primary germ layers are not totipotent stem cells, but they are multipotent stem cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Histogenesis must come before organogenesis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. Hormones such as cortisol and oxytocin, along with prostaglandins E and F, are important in the birth process.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1090

TOP:    Birth or Parturition

 

  1. One possible cause of the degenerative process of aging is the limit on the number of times a human cell can go through mitosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Regarding human developmental biology, which of the following statements is/are true?
A. The study of human developmental biology includes the prenatal period.
B. The study of human developmental biology includes the postnatal period.
C. Human developmental biology is the study of the many changes that occur during the cycle of life from conception to death.
D. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Introduction to Growth and Development

 

  1. The normal phenomenon of “crossing over” occurs:
A. during meiosis I.
B. during meiosis II.
C. in both meiosis and mitosis.
D. in both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The process of spermatogenesis forms:
A. two spermatozoa, each with 23 chromosomes.
B. four spermatozoa, each with 23 chromosomes.
C. two spermatozoa, each with 46 chromosomes.
D. four spermatozoa, each with 46 chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. The main difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis is that in oogenesis:
A. the primary oocytes contain 46 chromosomes.
B. the cytoplasm is equally divided among the daughter cells.
C. meiosis I does not occur.
D. only one ovum is produced from each primary oocyte, plus three polar bodies.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. After leaving the graafian follicle, the ovum lives approximately:
A. 1 day.
B. 2 days.
C. 3 days.
D. 4 days.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Fertilization takes place in the:
A. vagina.
B. uterus.
C. uterine tube.
D. ovary.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Implantation occurs during the:
A. zygote stage.
B. morula stage.
C. blastocyst stage.
D. trophoblast stage.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst contains the:
A. yolk sac.
B. amniotic cavity.
C. trophoblast.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1080

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The solid mass of cells formed when the zygote begins to divide is called the:
A. blastocyst.
B. trophoblast.
C. morula.
D. embryo.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The structure known as the “bag of waters” is the:
A. placenta.
B. amniotic cavity.
C. yolk sac.
D. chorion.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the placenta?
A. Excretory organ
B. Respiratory organ
C. Endocrine organ
D. Barrier to alcohol

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The normal length of gestation for humans is approximately:
A. 37 weeks.
B. 39 weeks.
C. 41 weeks.
D. 43 weeks.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. The chorion, which develops from the trophoblast, becomes:
A. an important fetal membrane in the placenta.
B. the inner cell mass.
C. the amniotic cavity.
D. the yolk sac.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by the placental tissue peaks about:
A. 2 to 3 weeks after fertilization.
B. 3 to 4 weeks after fertilization.
C. 8 to 9 weeks after fertilization.
D. 13 to 14 weeks after fertilization.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. The function of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is:
A. to act as a gonadotropin.
B. to stimulate the corpus luteum.
C. to maintain high luteal estrogen and progesterone levels.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. All organ systems are formed and functioning by the:
A. second month of fetal development.
B. third month of fetal development.
C. fourth month of fetal development.
D. fifth month of fetal development.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1083 | Page 1086                       TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. In the developing human embryo, approximately when does the heart begin to beat?
A. At 5 weeks
B. At 10 weeks
C. At 15 weeks
D. At 20 weeks

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. Which of the following is derived from mesoderm during embryonic development?
A. Bones and muscles
B. Epithelium of GI tract
C. Nervous tissue and skin
D. Nervous tissue and bones

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. The primary germ layer that forms many of the structures around the periphery of the body is the:
A. endoderm.
B. mesoderm.
C. ectoderm.
D. epiderm.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Histogenesis may be defined as the process during which:
A. implantation occurs.
B. the tissues arrange themselves into organs.
C. the primary germ layers develop into many different kinds of tissues.
D. both B and C occur.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. The third stage of labor is the:
A. period of uterine contractions until dilation of the cervix is complete.
B. period of maximal cervical dilation.
C. period when the baby exits the vagina.
D. process of expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. In most cases, stage one of labor lasts from:
A. 2 to 4 hours.
B. 6 to 12 hours.
C. 6 to 24 hours.
D. 24 to 36 hours.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Identical twins result from:
A. the splitting of embryonic tissue from the same zygote early in development.
B. the inner cell mass dividing into two masses during the blastocyst stage of development.
C. the fertilization of two different ova by two different spermatozoa.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. The second stage of labor is the:
A. period from the onset of contractions until dilation of the cervix is complete.
B. period from the time of maximal cervical dilation until the baby exits through the vagina.
C. point at which the amniotic sac ruptures.
D. process of expulsion of the placenta through the vagina.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091

TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. As the body develops, the:
A. head becomes proportionately smaller.
B. face decreases from one half to one eighth of the skull surface.
C. trunk becomes proportionately longer.
D. thoracic and abdominal contours become more rounded.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1092

TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. Birth weight generally doubles during the first:
A. 3 months and then triples by 1 year.
B. 4 months and then triples by 1 year.
C. 6 months and then doubles again by 1 year.
D. 6 months and then triples by 18 months.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. At what age do boys generally complete rapid growth stage?
A. 12 years
B. 14 years
C. 16 years
D. 18 years

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. At what age do girls generally begin to menstruate?
A. 10 years
B. 12 to 13 years
C. 14 years
D. 15 to 16 years

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Adolescence and Adulthood

 

  1. Fraternal twins:
A. have only one placenta.
B. have two placentas.
C. must always have the same biological father.
D. are genetically identical.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1091 (Figure 33-21)                   TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. During infancy, the lumbar curvature appears between the:
A. second and fourth months.
B. fourth and sixth months.
C. sixth and tenth months.
D. twelfth and eighteenth months.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. An infant is able to follow a moving object with its eyes by the end of the:
A. first month.
B. second month.
C. third month.
D. fourth month.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. The deciduous teeth:
A. begin to appear at about 6 months of age.
B. are lost during childhood.
C. start to erupt at about 6 years of age.
D. both A and B

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093

TOP:    Childhood

 

  1. Between the ages of 30 and 75, the number of nephron units in the kidney decreases by almost:
A. 20%.
B. 30%.
C. 40%.
D. 50%.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Urinary System

 

  1. The condition caused by buildup of fatty deposits in blood vessel walls is:
A. arteriosclerosis.
B. atherosclerosis.
C. myocardial infarction.
D. hypertension.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Cardiovascular System

 

  1. Clouding of the lens of the eye is called:
A. presbyopia.
B. myopia.
C. glaucoma.
D. cataract.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. The most serious age-related eye disorder is:
A. presbyopia.
B. glaucoma.
C. cataract.
D. hyperopia.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. If a creature had 36 chromosomes in its normal body cells, its gametes would contain:
A. 72 chromosomes.
B. 36 chromosomes.
C. 18 chromosomes.
D. 9 chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1073       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. If a creature had 36 chromosomes in its normal body cells, the zygote of the creature would contain:
A. 72 chromosomes.
B. 36 chromosomes.
C. 18 chromosomes.
D. an indeterminable number.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1073       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. The most potent stem cells, those that can generate many types of human tissue, can be found in the:
A. red bone marrow.
B. morula stage.
C. blastocyst stage.
D. both B and C

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Stem Cell Research

 

  1. DNA replication occurs during:
A. prophase I.
B. prophase II.
C. interphase before prophase I.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Crossing over occurs to:
A. reduce the chromosome number in a gamete.
B. assist in tetrad formation.
C. allow chromatin to condense into chromosomes.
D. transfer genes from one chromosome to another.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. After puberty, about how many primary oocytes resume meioses each month?
A. 10
B. 100
C. 1000
D. 10,000

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. At ovulation, the ovum is at which stage of meiosis?
A. Telophase II
B. Anaphase II
C. Telophase I
D. None of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In the female reproductive system, which of the following does not assist the sperm in reaching the egg?
A. Cilia in the uterine tubes
B. Polar bodies produced by the egg
C. Mucus strands in the cervical canal
D. All of the above assist the sperm.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. In vitro fertilization will help treat infertility caused by:
A. blocked uterine tubes.
B. nonfunctioning ovaries.
C. unformed graafian follicle.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    In Vitro Fertilization

 

  1. The sequence of early development of the fetus is:
A. morula, zygote, and blastocyst.
B. zygote, morula, and blastocyst.
C. zygote, blastocyte, and morula.
D. morula, blastocyst, and zygote.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. A nonfunctioning yolk sac could hinder the fetus in:
A. receiving proper nutrition.
B. producing blood cells.
C. receiving enough oxygen.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1080

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. Which of the following hormones is not produced by the placenta?
A. FSH
B. hCG
C. Estrogen
D. All of the above hormones are produced by the placenta.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1082 | Page 1083                       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the endoderm?
A. Tonsils
B. Kidneys
C. Lining of the pancreatic duct
D. Glandular epithelium of the thyroid gland

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the mesoderm?
A. Skeletal muscles
B. Bones
C. Kidneys
D. All of the above structures are formed by the mesoderm.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Which of the following structures is not formed by the ectoderm?
A. Cornea of the eye
B. Dermis of the skin
C. Brain
D. Enamel of the teeth

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Which of the following conditions associated with the eye does not directly involve the lens?
A. Glaucoma
B. Presbyopia
C. Cataracts
D. All of the above conditions directly involve the lens.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. A condition in which the placenta grows too close to the cervical opening is called:
A. ectopic pregnancy.
B. abruptio placentae.
C. placenta previa.
D. eclampsia.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. A condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall is called:
A. ectopic pregnancy.
B. abruptio placentae.
C. placenta previa.
D. eclampsia.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1100

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. In the human, the haploid number of chromosomes is:
A. 23.
B. 46.
C. the result of meiosis.
D. both A and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. In the human, the diploid number of chromosomes is:
A. 23.
B. 46.
C. the result of meiosis.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. A tetrad is:
A. formed only in spermatogenesis.
B. formed only in oogenesis.
C. homologous pairs of chromosomes that are moved together.
D. None of the above describe a tetrad.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. During human oogenesis, which structure contains 46 chromosomes?
A. Ovum
B. Secondary oocyte
C. First polar body
D. Both B and C

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Theca cells produce:
A. an androgen that is converted to estrogen.
B. the granulosa cells.
C. the oogonia.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1077

TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Only about what percent of the sperm deposited in the female reproductive tract actually reach the ovum?
A. 10%
B. 5%
C. 1%
D. Less than 0.1%

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1078       TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. At fertilization, what part of the sperm cell enters the egg?
A. Nucleus of the sperm
B. RNA from the sperm
C. Proteins from the sperm
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. If the process of oogenesis goes to completion, how many polar bodies will be produced?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1077       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. What layer of the ovum has receptors for sperm cells?
A. Zona pellucida
B. Corona radiata
C. Theca cells
D. Both A and B

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. The term used for the fertilized ovum is:
A. morula.
B. zygote.
C. fetus.
D. blastocyst.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. The early embryo has stem cells referred to as:
A. omnipotent.
B. totipotent.
C. pluripotent.
D. multipotent.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1086

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. The primary germ layers develop from stem cells referred to as:
A. omnipotent.
B. pluripotent.
C. totipotent.
D. multipotent.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1086

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Stem cells in adults are referred to as:
A. totipotent.
B. pluripotent.
C. multipotent.
D. Adults do not have stem cells.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. parturition
B. chorion
C. neonate
D. zygote
E. organogenesis
F. blastocyst
G. gestation
H. morula
I. senescence
J. primary germ layers
K. histogenesis
L. embryology
M. implantation
N. fertilization

 

 

  1. three layers of specialized cells that give rise to definite structures as the embryo develops

 

  1. length of pregnancy; approximately 39 weeks in humans

 

  1. fertilized ovum

 

  1. study of prenatal development; study of the development of an individual before birth

 

  1. formation of organs from tissue derived from the primary germ layers of the embryo

 

  1. post-morula stage of developing embryo; hollow ball of cells

 

  1. aging; older adulthood

 

  1. infant during its first 4 weeks of life

 

  1. when a fertilized ovum implants in the uterus

 

  1. develops into an important fetal membrane in the placenta

 

  1. formation of tissues from the primary germ layers of the embryo

 

  1. solid mass of cells formed after several divisions of a fertilized egg

 

  1. moment at which the ovum and sperm unite

 

  1. giving birth

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1083

TOP:    Periods of Development

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. ANS:   L                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 1081 (Box 33-1)                        TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 1093       TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. ANS:   M                    DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   N                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1169

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1090

TOP:    Birth or Parturition

 

Match each of the following terms with its corresponding statement or definition.

A. amniotic cavity
B. blastocyst
C. chorion
D. endoderm
E. histogenesis
F. morula

 

 

  1. process by which the primary germ layers develop into different kinds of tissues

 

  1. develops from the trophoblast to become an important fetal membrane in the placenta

 

  1. forms the lining of various tracts and glands of the body

 

  1. fluid-filled, shock-absorbing sac in which the embryo floats during development

 

  1. solid mass of cells formed about 3 days after the zygote begins to divide

 

  1. stage at which the embryo is a hollow ball of cells

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Histogenesis and Organogenesis

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of the Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1080

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition or description.

A. atherosclerosis
B. arteriosclerosis
C. stroke
D. osteoarthritis
E. “barrel chest”
F. lipping
G. cataract
H. hypertension
I. glaucoma
J. presbyopia

 

 

  1. “old eye”

 

  1. degenerative joint disease

 

  1. condition in which fatty deposits build up on the walls of blood vessels

 

  1. disease characterized by an increase in the pressure inside the eyeball; can cause blindness

 

  1. process by which older bones develop bone margins that become indistinct and shaggy-appearing

 

  1. condition that results from clouding of the lens, which causes a loss of transparency that impairs vision

 

  1. “hardening of the arteries”; occurs when the fatty deposits calcify

 

  1. results when the costal cartilage connecting the ribs and sternum hardens and the ribs become fixed

 

  1. high blood pressure

 

  1. results from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1096

TOP:    Skeletal System

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1097

TOP:    Respiratory System

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098

TOP:    Circulatory System

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 1073       TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. What are the functional advantages of the arresting of oocyte development during prophase I?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073 | Page 1074

TOP:    Production of Sex Cells

 

  1. Discuss the history of in vitro fertilization. What is the current status of this procedure?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078

TOP:    In Vitro Fertilization

 

  1. Discuss what is meant by developmental biology. Include in your response the various branches of human developmental biology.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1081 (Box 33-1)

TOP:    Developmental Biology

 

  1. Describe (or diagram) the hormone levels during pregnancy.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1082 (Figure 33-12)

TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Briefly discuss the three stages of labor.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Stages of Labor

 

  1. Define antenatal medicine. Give examples of some procedures that fall into this area.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1086 (Box 33-2)

TOP:    Antenatal Diagnosis and Treatment

 

  1. Compare and contrast the two different processes that can result in twinning.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Discuss the major developmental changes that occur during infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 1093 | Page 1094                       TOP:    Postnatal Period

 

  1. What is the function of polar bodies in oogenesis?

 

ANS:

Reduction of the chromosome number.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1077       TOP:    Oogenesis

 

  1. Some home pregnancy tests measure the amount of hCG in a woman’s urine. Why is this substance an accurate sign of pregnancy? What structure produces hCG?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1083       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Many medications are removed from the body by the kidneys or the liver. Explain why it is recommended that older patients be given a reduced dose of such medications.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1097       TOP:    Effects of Aging

 

  1. Explain what would occur if, for some reason, a pregnant woman did not produce hCG.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 1082       TOP:    Placenta

 

  1. Explain what occurs in the phases of meiosis. How does this process differ from mitosis?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1073       TOP:    Meiosis

 

  1. Explain the process of fertilization. How does the female reproductive system assist the sperm in reaching the ovum?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1078       TOP:    Fertilization

 

  1. Explain the development of the fertilized ovum from the time of fertilization to implantation in the wall of the uterus.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1079 | Page 1081

TOP:    Cleavage and Implantation

 

  1. What are stem cells? Differentiate between totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent stem cells. Which type of stem cells are found in adults?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1086 | Page 1087

TOP:    Stem Cells

 

  1. Name the three primary germ layers and name several structures or systems that develop from each.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1087

TOP:    Formation of Primary Germ Layers

 

  1. Select four systems and explain the effects of aging on each system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098 | Page 1099

TOP:    Effects of Aging

 

  1. Explain how the causes of death differ between developed and underdeveloped countries.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1098 | Page 1099                       TOP:    Causes of Death

 

  1. Explain the theories of aging discussed in Chapter 33.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1094 | Page 1096

TOP:    Older Adulthood and Senescence

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Bob has a condition that may require a kidney transplant. He is not concerned because he has a twin sister and he knows that twins are genetically the same. Is Bob correct in his thinking? Explain why or why not.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Multiple Births

 

  1. Challenge: Tommy’s mother told the pediatrician during Tommy’s 1-year visit that he had tripled his birth weight, was crawling actively, and could stand alone. Is Tommy’s development normal, retarded, or advanced?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1093       TOP:    Infancy

 

  1. Challenge: Polly is 70 years old. She has always enjoyed food and has had a hearty appetite. Lately, however, she has complained that “food just doesn’t taste as good anymore.” What is a possible explanation?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1098       TOP:    Special Senses

 

  1. Challenge: Stan and Dan are twins. Stan suffers form kidney disease. The physicians said Stan can receive Dan’s kidney with very little chance of rejection. Explain why.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 1091       TOP:    Multiple Births

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