Aging And Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By by Lori Campbell, Herbert C. – Test Bank

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Aging And Society Canadian Perspectives 7th Edition By by Lori Campbell, Herbert C. – Test Bank

CHAPTER 2: THEORIES AND METHODS

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In 1980, the Gerontological Society surveyed 111 scholars to establish a core program for the field of gerontology. Though the experts disagreed as to the content and boundaries of the field, which of the following items did the scholars collectively believe?
a. Three areas of study should form the core of the curriculum.
b. The socioeconomic-environmental aspects of aging should be the main focus of courses at the introductory level.
c. A consensus on the definition must be reached before gerontology can grow as a discipline.
d. A comprehensive program would be difficult to construct because of problems in deciding what aspects of aging are the most important.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which area of study in gerontology examines the physiological and health changes that occur as people age?
a. physio-environmental studies
b. cohort medical studies
c. psycho-physiological studies
d. biomedical studies

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a psychosocial study in gerontology?
a. formal social supports
b. causes of dementia
c. relationships between individuals and groups
d. effects of healthcare systems

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   22                  BLM: HO

 

  1. George is conducting research about the effects of aging on the educational structure as well as the effects of social structures on older people. Which area of gerontology is he studying?
a. psychosocial studies
b. socio-individual studies
c. multi-stage development social studies
d. socioeconomic-environmental studies

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   22                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which areas of research are combined in the field of social gerontology?
a. socioeconomic-environmental, psychosocial, and practice-related research
b. biomedical and socioeconomic-environmental research
c. psychosocial, social policy, and social sciences research
d. biological, psychological, and health sciences research

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which field looks at aging from the points of view of both the individual and the social system?
a. geriatrics
b. psychosocial studies
c. social gerontology
d. didactic-senescence

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   22                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Why do social gerontologists examine the biological and physical changes that occur in old age?
a. to adapt the research obtained to their field of study
b. to study the relationship between biological aging and personal relationships
c. to see how the changes affect the individual or society as a whole
d. to establish a unified basis for the studies of biomedical, psycho-social, and socioeconomic-environmental studies

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What do social gerontologists use to guide their research and interpret the results of studies?
a. statistics and demographics
b. test sampling
c. theories
d. focus groups

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23                  BLM: REM

 

  1. How is a theory deemed to be a valuable tool for a researcher?
a. It gives concrete and final answers to questions.
b. It provides practical information for the development of social programs and interventions.
c. It provides essential trivial information about aging.
d. It explains all the facts about aging.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to the text, how does a researcher select a theory to use in order to explain a set of research findings?
a. according to the researcher’s sense of how the world works
b. according to the original hypotheses of the study
c. according to recent academic trends
d. according to journal preferences and peer reviews

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 23                    BLM: REM

 

 

  1. Kayla is examining a theory that focuses on individuals and their interactions with one another, such as a brief confrontation at a parents’ school meeting. Which of the following is Kayla studying?
a. micro-level
b. interpersonal
c. psychological
d. organic

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which theories focus on social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationship?
a. macro-level theories
b. socio-political interactive theories
c. global perspectives
d. micro-level theories

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23-24             BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of a phenomenon explained by micro-level theories?
a. the effect of positive attitudes on older people
b. the effect of industrialization on older peoples’ social status
c. changes in memory with age
d. how gender and income affect older people’s well-being

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   23-24             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of micro-level theories?
a. They oversimplify social life.
b. They minimize the individual’s ability to act.
c. They emphasize what people do rather than the economic and social conditions that cause them to act as they do.
d. They support a definition of old age as a time of decline.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of the theories that examine aging in terms of the social structures that influence behaviour?
a. that they are not well-supported by research
b. that they underestimate people’s ability to overcome the limits of social structures
c. that they focus too much on outcomes, and not enough on processes
d. that they focus too much on perceptions, and not enough on actions

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following methods assists social gerontologists to disentangle the effects of history,

biology, and the social life on the aging person?

a. theory
b. concept
c. evaluation
d. model

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   23-24             BLM: REM

 

  1. Which aspect of social life does the interpretive perspective mainly focus on?
a. micro-level
b. reorganization
c. problems
d. functions

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which perspective looks at how people define situations, create social order, and relate to one another?
a. normative perspective
b. interpretive perspective
c. social perspective
d. ethnomethodology

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which perspective has historically been used the least by social gerontologists and is now making a resurgence over the last few decades?
a. normative perspective
b. psycho-social perspective
c. associative perspective
d. interpretive perspective

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which type of theory exemplifies the interpretive perspective?
a. social pathophysiology
b. ethnocentrism
c. symbolic interactionist
d. disengagement

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Weber developed the social phenomenological theory. What does Weber say the researcher needs to do in order to understand a social phenomenon?
a. develop an unbiased description of the phenomena
b. understand the meaning that people in the situation attach to the events and their actions
c. develop a theory to clearly specify the relationships between people and events
d. examine the social structures that enable the phenomenon to occur

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   25                  BLM: REM

 

  1. The Elks Lodge is a Canadian club that has its foundations in social order and organization. The club’s first Canadian female Exalted Ruler, Debby Ray, follows which of the following concepts in which the individual is the originator of social order and organization?
a. the interpretive perspective
b. conflict theory
c. subculture methodology
d. face-to-face interactions

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   25                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem with the interpretive perspective?
a. It suggests that social life does not have quantifiable measures.
b. It talks of social order and organization, without considering their source.
c. It places subjective interpretations on objective phenomena.
d. It does not focus enough on macro-level social phenomena.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   25-26             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following terms describes the theories within the interpretive perspective?
a. interpretation constructionism
b. situational constructionism
c. social constructionism
d. interactional constructionism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   24                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What are the basic units at work in the social system as described by functionalist theories?
a. social institutions
b. families
c. individuals
d. ethnic groups and cohorts

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to structural functionalism, social institutions adjust to one another as the system responds to internal and external pressures to maintain which of the following?
a. social evolution
b. dynamic equilibrium
c. static balance
d. homeostasis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Structural functionalism sometimes draws an analogy between which of the following?
a. group interactions and the postal system
b. an individual and a social institution
c. society and a living organism
d. macro- and micro-level action

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an assumption made by structural functionalism?
a. Society changes and evolves in a negative direction more often than a positive direction.
b. Functionalism draws connections only between micro-social structures and individuals’ actions.
c. People conform to norms because of a belief in a society’s underlying value system.
d. Social problems are natural responses, and should be allowed to resolve themselves.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. How are social problems described in structural functionalism?
a. as internal pressures for change
b. as dysfunctions that should be corrected by planning
c. as conflicts between social institutions
d. as the initial reaction to social change and evolution

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which perspective is used most often by gerontologists?
a. interactive perspective
b. age-stratification perspective
c. functionalist perspective
d. conflict perspective

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the focus of age stratification theory?
a. the pressure that leads to the formation of social status and classes
b. the transmission of social life from one generation to the next
c. the movement of age cohorts during the life cycle
d. how micro- and macro-level structures influence the individual’s experience of old age

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   26-27             BLM: REM

 

  1. Michael J. Fox was born in the 1960s during the height of events such as the Canadian Centennial in 196 and the introduction of colour TV in Canada. Fox is a member of an age cohort. Which of the following sentences describes an age cohort?
a. a group of people born at the same time
b. a unit of study in gerontology
c. a social institution
d. a social norm that is unique to a specific age group

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   26                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for a period of life defined by society, such as adolescence or childhood?
a. cohort
b. life stage
c. social age
d. age grade

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Why is the concept of “age cohorts” important in understanding aging?
a. because people born in the same period experience the same historical events at the same time in their life cycle
b. because it standardizes the effects of biology and history on the behaviours observed in the elderly
c. because longitudinal studies cannot control for the effects of cultural changes on behaviours, and therefore nested designs need to be employed
d. because qualitative, rather than quantitative, study designs are more effective in describing inter-cohort differences

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. Which of the following does age stratification offer as an explanation of why society changes as people age?
a. Each generation of younger people reinvents social norms for itself and cannot rely on older cohorts for guidance.
b. The norms and roles learned by each new cohort change with society.
c. Social problems appear in predictable waves as each new age strata replaces the preceding cohort.
d. Social structures are not permanent, as predicted by structural functionalism, but are fluid and respond to changes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The text compares movement of age cohorts through the life cycle to movement on which of the following?
a. an airplane
b. an escalator
c. a ship
d. an elevator

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which theory relies on structural functionalist assumptions?
a. life course theory
b. cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory
c. activity theory
d. age stratification theory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the dialectic between individuals and societal structures as described by age stratification theory?
a. Changes in values lead to changes in social organizations that influence the process of aging.
b. As people age, they take on the norms and roles of their age grade.
c. New institutions are the result of the institutions that preceded them.
d. Society is a homogeneous set of structures and functions that most people experience in the same way.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of the dialectic between individuals and societal structures described by age stratification theory?
a. gradual change in radio station formats through market forces
b. growing acceptance of extramarital sex among the older population, and how the young define their values
c. effect of seniors’ needs on senior centre programs, and of programs on attitudes toward old age
d. interaction of family, caregivers, and researchers to create the concept of Alzheimer’s disease

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which theory provides new ways to explore differences related to time, period, and cohort?
a. structural investment theory
b. disengagement theory
c. age stratification theory
d. continuity theory

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes one of the problems with age stratification theory?
a. It overlooks inequality within age cohorts.
b. It does not examine the effects of a changing society on the values of its members.
c. It overemphasizes norms and values, and ignores the effects of folkways and mores.
d. It becomes inaccurate at the micro-level.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   27                  BLM: HO

 

  1. A limitation of the age stratification theory is that which of the following may have a greater influence on people’s lives than the norms and values related to their age grade?
a. political changes
b. socio-historical events
c. inequality within age cohorts
d. personal interpretations of the world

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   27-28             BLM: HO

 

  1. What does the life course perspective accomplish by incorporating social interaction and social structure within a functionalist perspective?
a. It completely explains the observed differences in equality between age groups.
b. It bridges the micro- and macro-levels of analysis.
c. It avoids addressing issues related to conflicts between social groups.
d. It provides a holistic approach to the study of gerontology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. What occurs in the life course approach at the micro-level?
a. It studies later life in relation to early events and conditions.
b. It focuses on the struggles between social classes.
c. It tries to explain the conflict within social classes.
d. It shows how social change can create differences between age grades.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Why is the life course approach an improvement upon older functionalist theories?
a. It more accurately describes the roles of older people in modern societies.
b. It accounts for differences in life course patterns due to differences between and within age cohorts.
c. It incorporates physiological, psychological, and social processes into a unified process.
d. It links physical changes to specific social stages.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   28                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The life course approach specifically studies lives in terms of which of the following?
a. dialectics
b. work, family, and the individual
c. transitions and trajectories
d. shared norms and values

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   28                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Within the life course approach, what are transitions considered to be?
a. positive processes that enable achieving a healthy old age
b. negative processes that prevent achieving a healthy old age
c. relatively stable periods between life-cycle crises
d. changes in social status or social roles

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   28-29             BLM: REM

 

  1. In the life course approach, what are trajectories?
a. long-term patterns of stability and change
b. a sequence of two or more transitions
c. branch points on the continuum of the life cycle
d. differences within age cohorts that affect aging

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF: 28-29                          BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a trajectory in the life course approach?
a. a lifelong marriage
b. retirement
c. parenthood
d. death

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   29                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following involves the view that society consists of problems between dominant and subordinate social groups?
a. the normative perspective
b. engagement theory
c. modernization theory
d. the conflict perspective

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   29                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Political economy theory grew out of the work of which of the following theorists?
a. Weber
b. Goffman
c. Marx
d. Durkheim

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 30                    BLM: REM

 

  1. What does Marxist theory predict regarding older workers?
a. They use their experience and knowledge to hold on to resources and power in industry.
b. They are less valuable to industry, and will be fired or retired to make room for faster, cheaper workers.
c. They move up in a company until they reach their level of optimum effectiveness.
d. They are more socially disadvantaged than most workers because of the stigma of old age.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to political economy theory, what can the origins of older people’s problems be traced to?
a. the political and economic structure of capitalist society
b. ageism
c. the decline in health and intelligence that occurs as people age
d. the influence of middle-aged, middle-class values on social support programs

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the political economy theory, social programs and policies for older people most benefit which of the following groups?
a. retirees aged 65–74
b. elderly widows
c. industrialists and the bourgeoisie
d. middle-aged, middle-class professionals

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   30                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of the political economy approach to aging?
a. It accurately explains micro-level phenomena.
b. It openly discusses the poverty and other problems older people face, and it offers solutions.
c. It incorporates the experiences of individuals to explain the differences between cohorts.
d. It looks beyond the individual to understand the forces that shape individual aging.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF: 30                    BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem with the political economy approach?
a. It does not offer viable solutions to social problems.
b. It pays too much attention to an individual’s interpretations of social life.
c. It can overemphasize the poverty and problems older people face.
d. It becomes inaccurate at the micro-level.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 30                               BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes the feminist perspective of aging?
a. It distorts the importance of gender in relation to other factors (such as race and social class).
b. It states that gender defines life experiences, including aging.
c. It reverses the traditional perspective by examining aging in terms of strengths, rather than weaknesses.
d. It describes how women have distinct social advantages over men when it comes to aging.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF: 30-31                          BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of the feminist theory of aging?
a. It is congruent with most “mainstream” feminist theories.
b. It illustrates an ability to control for gender, and thereby focus on other social characteristics (such as race and social class).
c. It acknowledges the “feminization of aging.”
d. It recognizes the importance of social structure and individual characteristics.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   31                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Period effects cause changes in old age due to which of the following?
a. similar background experiences
b. age group differences
c. the time of measurement
d. physiological changes

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

 

 

  1. What is the term for the interpretive theory that is concerned with the social consensus that underlies issues between the generations?
a. symbolic-interactionism
b. moral economic theory
c. conflict theory
d. disengagement theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   32                  BLM: REM

 

  1. A researcher is examining the shared moral assumptions held by the members of a society to describe the effect of the society’s values on policy. Which of the following is the researcher using?
a. moral economy theory
b. phenomenology
c. symbolic interactionism
d. cross-sectional theory

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   32                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What does critical gerontology highlight?
a. conflict between age groups over economic resources
b. the transition from traditional to modern society
c. movement from one age grade to the next
d. limitations in mainstream gerontological theory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   32                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Gerontologists describe three causes for changes in old age. Which of the following is one of these effects?
a. economic effects
b. period effects
c. somatic effects
d. social effects

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   33                  BLM: REM

 

  1. As a cause for change in later life, age effects are due to which of the following?
a. the effects of the aging population on a society
b. changes within a culture that affect the aging process
c. differences between people of different ages
d. physical decline

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following are cohort effects?
a. the observation that no two people or age groups are exactly alike
b. changes in culture that affect the development of groups differently
c. shared backgrounds and experiences of people born around the same time
d. researchers confusing age differences with age changes

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a period effect?
a. genetic differences between age groups
b. historical events
c. wrinkled skin
d. increased use of medication

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   33                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What must the researcher be careful to do when conducting a study on the effects of aging?
a. allow for a large margin of error due to variability in performance
b. acknowledge the difference between age groups and changes due to aging
c. use at least three methods of data analysis
d. use only the cross-sectional methods of analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following defines age-group differences?
a. differences in age between specific groups of people
b. differences between cohort effects
c. similarities of characteristics due to differing age groups
d. differences due to the effects of aging

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

 

  1. Which of the following defines age changes?
a. the changes that occur between groups of people due to differences in aging
b. age effects
c. changes in characteristics due to aging
d. differences due to the results of aging

 

 

  1. The influence of factors such as educational differences between cohorts on studies of aging confound observed age changes. What are these influences known as?
a. mediators
b. cohort variables
c. differences between age groups
d. socialization factors

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Researchers such as Baltes and Schaie (1982) found that a large part of the intelligence difference between younger and older people was due to which of the following?
a. test biases
b. biased subject sampling techniques
c. differences in health status
d. educational differences

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the main problem with a cross-sectional method of analysis in investigating aging?
a. It is very expensive.
b. It requires a long period of time to show significant results.
c. It confuses cohort effects with age changes.
d. It cannot distinguish between cohort effects and environmental effects.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which method of analysis looks at a single group of people through two or more points in time?
a. cross-sectional analysis
b. longitudinal research designs
c. maturational change analysis
d. time-lag comparison

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Dr. Phillips is doing memory and reaction-time studies on a group of college graduates, and plans to re-test them when they retire. What is the term for this type of study?
a. phenomenological experiment
b. cross-sectional methodology
c. longitudinal design
d. test retest validation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the main benefit of longitudinal research designs?
a. They avoid comparing different cohorts.
b. They avoid environmental effects.
c. They can isolate and study period effects.
d. They give relatively accurate data quickly and at a low cost.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   34                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes a problem with longitudinal studies?
a. Maturational effects confound changes due to aging.
b. Cohort differences cannot be studied.
c. Environmental changes confound age changes.
d. Economic effects confound changes due to aging.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem with studies that follow a single group of older people over time?
a. Differences between age groups cannot be compared.
b. A shift in the sex ratio due to the deaths of more men than women.
c. Differences between individual characteristics (such as ethnicity or social class) cannot be compared.
d. Lack of randomization invalidates many types of statistical analysis.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   34                  BLM: HO

 

  1. How do time-lag comparisons work?
a. by assigning members of different cohorts to groups based on specific characteristics
b. by comparing different groups of people of the same age at different points in time
c. by predicting a cohort’s characteristics in the future and then comparing the prediction with the actual outcomes
d. by following a group for a short period of time and collecting as much data as possible

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   35                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the overall purpose of studies that look at different groups of people of the same age at different points in time?
a. to control for historical or cultural changes
b. to measure differences between cohorts
c. to generate hypotheses
d. to resolve the APC paradox

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   35                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The method of analysis that examines different groups of people of the same age at different points in time is known as a time-lag comparison. What is the main problem with this type of research?
a. It confuses environmental effects with cohort effects.
b. It confuses cohort effects with maturational effects.
c. It cannot explain why a particular result has appeared.
d. It confuses maturational effects with environmental effects.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a problem common to both longitudinal and time-lag studies?
a. They take many years to complete.
b. They confound cohort effects with placebo effects.
c. Results are difficult to interpret without advanced statistical knowledge.
d. Drop-outs can be controlled for through survival analysis statistical techniques.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a practical problem related to longitudinal and time-lag studies?
a. results that describe experiences of past cohorts, but do not provide insight into the current experiences of the elderly
b. a need for institutional support to continue studies beyond the career of the individual researchers
c. wasted resources resulting from repeating procedures that had been done in previous phases of the study
d. an inability to control for age effects

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   36                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Some methodological problems have been solved by turning simple cross-sectional and simple longitudinal designs into which of the following?
a. longi-sectional analyses
b. random representative surveys
c. sequential designs
d. time-cohort comparisons

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   36                  BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the term for a series of cross-sectional studies during a longer longitudinal study?
a. multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
b. sequential design
c. time-lag comparison
d. longi-sectional analysis

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   36                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following gerontological research designs allows for quick data collection?
a. cross-sectional design
b. cohort design
c. sequential design
d. trend analysis design

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   36                  BLM: HO

 

  1. The Aging in Manitoba longitudinal study provides data on which type of needs for older people?
a. healthcare
b. educational
c. financial
d. social

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   36                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes the methods used by researchers in aging?
a. Methods depend on what best addresses these questions.
b. Methods generally depend on the subjects’ physical condition.
c. Methods are based on standard psychological tests and surveys.
d. Methods are limited by statistical methods.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   37                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to the text, what is still the dominant approach in most gerontological research?
a. focus groups
b. longitudinal studies
c. quantitative methods
d. observation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   37                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes qualitative methods in research on aging?
a. They have decreased as a result of the increased use of computers to provide accurate statistical analyses.
b. They are able to distinguish between environmental effects and cohort effects.
c. They are less time consuming and expensive than other study methods.
d. They use an interpretive theoretical approach to understand data.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   38                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the biggest limitation of quantitative data methods?
a. Generalizing samples to a larger population is often not appropriate.
b. The structured questions and responses cannot capture complex experiences or perceptions.
c. These methods are significantly more expensive.
d. They are difficult to combine with qualitative methods.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which method allows researchers to capture the complexity of social interactions and behaviours?
a. quantitative
b. longitudinal
c. qualitative
d. triangulation

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   39                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which research method allows a researcher to gather data of a more sensitive nature?
a. triangulation
b. qualitative
c. longitudinal
d. quantitative

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   39                  BLM: HO

 

  1. A gerontologist published data that he received from an elderly Alzheimer’s subject. The legal caregiver was unaware that this data was obtained from the subject, and was very upset upon learning about this issue. What type of ethical breach is this?
a. Potent potential harm
b. right to privacy
c. true voluntary informed consent
d. confidentiality

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   39-40             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which practice breaks ethical research guidelines?
a. causing a subject to feel valued in his/her participation
b. refusing to identify research subjects
c. interviewing subjects with advanced cancer
d. causing injury or harm to a participant

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What must a researcher do if the mental competency of a subject is in question?
a. work to guarantee that the subject’s identity is kept secret
b. abandon the study
c. avoid interviewing such subjects, as the risks are too great
d. ask someone with the legal authority to accede

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   40                  BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the role of ethics review boards in universities and funding agencies?
a. to make sure a study is worthwhile
b. to check the credentials of the researcher
c. to evaluate potential harm to participants
d. to slow down research

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   40                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes applied research in Canada?
a. It has been well funded since the 1970s, resulting in long-term improvements to many policies and social systems.
b. It has received encouragement through government funding agencies.
c. It has become tainted as a result of poor scientific rigor in several large studies.
d. It has had limited impact on the field of gerontology.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   41                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the text, which is a benefit to Canadian researchers when it comes to collaborative studies on aging?
a. no ethical breaches occur in such large studies.
b. collaborative studies obtain larger amounts of government funding
c. time frames for research are shorter for the collection of data
d. these studies pool researchers’ skills and resources

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   42                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following will gerontologists continue to do?
a. use Marxist models of aging
b. link the micro- and macro-levels of theory
c. examine the effect of major societal structures on aging
d. abandon everything but the micro-level of theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   42                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Which type of research prizes the richness of everyday social life over numerical data?
a. quantitative
b. interpersonal
c. qualitative
d. numerative

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   42                  BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following skills or methods will allow gerontology researchers the ability to increase upon their research opportunities about aging?
a. increased education
b. increased use of tablets and laptops
c. increased reading ability
d. increased typing skills

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   42                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following describes video recording technology?
a. It has created unforeseen privacy issues.
b. It allows researchers to observe behaviour without a researcher present.
c. It is dangerous to the elderly.
d. It is not available to most researchers.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   42-43             BLM: HO

 

  1. Which type of research do current studies of aging in Canada show a trend toward?
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. interdisciplinary
d. qualitative

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   43                  BLM: REM

 

 

 

 

SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

 

  1. Define the term “critical gerontology.” Explain the concept, and list the four themes or “conceptual tools” that form the basis of critical gerontology.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Critical gerontology are the theoretical approaches that look within theory and research to critically examine and question the underlying and taken-for-granted assumptions about aging. This means that there is more to aging than we know or assume to know. The four themes involved in critical gerontology are:

  1. ageing and politics of redistribution
  2. gender and ageing
  3. ageing, identity, and postmodernism
  4. ageing and surveillance

 

REF: 32

 

 

  1. What is “age stratification theory?” Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this theory of aging.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Age stratification theory is also called the aging and society paradigm. This theory focuses on the movement of age cohorts over the life course and on “the role of social structures in the process of individual aging and the stratification by age in the society.” According to age stratification theory, people in each cohort move or flow through society’s predetermined age grades as they age. It also maintains that society also changes as people age, so the norms and roles learned by each new cohort changes as society changes.

 

Advantages:

  1. The age stratification theory has helped to separate age differences (between cohorts) from age changes over the life course (aging).
  2. It highlights the impact of historical and societal changes on individuals and cohorts.
  3. It shows the relationship between aging and social structure.

 

Disadvantages:

  1. People of the same age do not all experience the world in the same way.
  2. The age stratification theory overlooks each person’s interpretation of the world.
  3. It makes little reference to individual control or action.
  4. The theory also makes little reference to the tensions and conflicts between social groups in society or to issues of power.
  5. There is little focus on how characteristics such as gender, social class, race and ethnicity create inequalities within age cohorts.

 

REF: 26-28

 

 

  1. Describe what is meant by the term “risk society” as defined by Marshall and Bengton (2011).

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

There are certain inherent risks in life. An example would be the great recession of 2008. The recession demonstrated the uncertainties that can be expected in modern life when there is a crash of economic systems around the world. The risk society is one in which social institutions provide less “insurance” against the vicissitudes of life, such as job loss or loss of one’s health, and individuals are expected to assume responsibility to navigate these risks.”

 

REF: 32-33

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Describe the framework of narrative gerontology, and provide three examples of narrative

gerontology to explain this approach to the study of aging.

 

ANS:

Student answers will vary, but should include the following:

 

Narrative gerontology seeks to understand aging from the “inside” of aging by examining the narratives

or life stories that people tell in order to organize and make sense of their lives, and their experiences of

aging.

 

Individual examples will vary.

 

REF: 31-32

 

  1. List and discuss some of the larger-scale organizations performing gerontological research in

Canada.

 

ANS:

Student answers will vary, but should include the following:

 

Gerontology research in Canada has been undergoing some important shifts. The federal government

is also funding a number of research studies. Some of the sources of information include the

following organizations:

  1. The Institute of Aging (IA) is a community of researchers from universities and hospitals

across Canada. It also includes practitioners, volunteer health organizations, and older adults.

They share a common goal: to increase knowledge about aging, to promote healthy aging, and to

address the challenges of an aging population.

 

  1. The Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP) is a multidisciplinary

research program located at McMaster University. The first phase of the program ran from 1999 to

  1. The second phase ran from 2005 to 2011. Both projects received funding from the Social

Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). These projects produced research on a wide

range of social and economic issues that will help to shape policies and programs to improve the lives

of older Canadians.

 

  1. In 2003, another interdisciplinary project entitled Workforce Aging in the New Economy: A

Comparative Study of Information Technology Employment received funding from the SSHRC, and

studied how growth in information technology, employment, and workforce aging in several countries

has impacted the world. The results will assist with responding to an aging workforce and diversity in the

workplace.

 

REF: 41-42

 

  1. Explain the feminist approach to aging. Then conduct research (on the Internet or in your local

community) to find a woman who believes in the feminist approach. What are her theories about

aging? Do you agree with her perspective? Explain.

 

ANS:

Student answers will vary, but should include the following:

 

The feminist approach views gender as a defining characteristic in social interaction and life

experiences, as well as in the process and experience of aging; gender is seen as socially constructed,

with men being more advantaged than women in society.

 

Some famous Canadian feminists include Therese Casgrain, Judy Rebick, Rita McNeil, Sarah

McLachlan, Nellie McClung, Agnes Macphail, Maureen McTeer, Alanis Morrissette, and Ellen Page.

 

REF: 30-31

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 8: FINANCES AND ECONOMICS

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following has increased faster among older people than among younger people (aged 15–64) from the early 1980s to the present?
a. rate of acute illness
b. rate of chronic illness
c. income
d. socio-economic status

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   191                BLM: REM

 

  1. What has happened to poverty rates for seniors since the early 1980s, according to a number of studies?
a. It has increased.
b. It has decreased.
c. It has remained the same.
d. It has quadrupled.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   191                BLM: REM

 

  1. Which one of the following groups of seniors still continues to show the highest rates of poverty among old people?
  2. senior men who are married
  3. senior men who live alone
  4. senior women who are married
  5. senior women who live alone

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 191                     BLM: HO

 

  1. What is intergenerational family transfer?
a. the quality of interpersonal relationships in a family
b. the amount of money that passes from one generation of family members to another
c. the study of age differences between generations at different time periods
d. the quantity of money required to firmly establish the next generation of family members in a given social class

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   192                BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Marshall (2011), what percentage of Canadian people within an age group do not feel that they are financially secure?
  2. 1/4
  3. 1/3
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 192                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the three groups of individuals who often live below the poverty line in old age?
a. married couples
b. very old people
c. high-school drop-outs
d. men

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   193                BLM: HO

 

  1. In 2008, about 12 percent of elderly unattached men and over what percentage of elderly unattached women lived in poverty?
a.  7%
b. 12%
c. 14%
d. 17%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   193                BLM: REM

 

  1. What will happen to the average income earner after he or she retires?
a. He or she will experience a significant drop in income.
b. He or she will significantly increase his or her income by investing in an RSVP.
c. He or she will maintain a stable standard of living by drawing on fixed pensions.
d. He or she will rely on indirect subsidies to offset the effects of inflation on savings.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   193                BLM: HO

 

  1. Russell has a pension plan that is not indexed to the cost of living. He needs to save some extra money for his retirement so that he will maintain his current standard of living. What type of pension plan does Russell have?
a. floating income
b. locked investment
c. portable pension
d. fixed pension

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   193                BLM: HO

 

  1. Why do people on fixed pensions get poorer every year?
a. because payments remain stable, but inflation reduces their real value
b. because payments are fixed on life expectancy, and the longer the retiree lives, the less the pension pays out
c. because payments depend on the number of wage earners paying in, which is decreasing, and the number drawing pensions, which is increasing, as society ages
d. because payments do not fluctuate with OAS payments

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   193                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an “unattached” individual?
a. Josie, a never-married female
b. Ralph, a transient
c. Frank, a senior who lives in a nursing home
d. Sarah, a recently widowed senior

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   193                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following was a characteristic of the first Canadian pension program in 1927?
a. The provinces had to pay the full cost of the program.
b. Potential pensioners had to pass a residence requirement and a means test.
c. Pensions were available to people 60 years old and over who chose to pay $20 per year into the program.
d. The program acted to replace the income of retirees without an alternate source of income.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   193                BLM: REM

 

 

 

  1. Why did the federal government keep payments of early pension programs low?
a. to provide incentive for people to provide for their own old age
b. to meet the minimum requirements for older people
c. to keep the cost of the program to wage earners low enough to encourage people to join
d. to prevent people from relying excessively on government support

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   194                BLM: REM

 

  1. The Guaranteed Income Supplement program established to supplement Old Age Security was designed to do which of the following?
a. enable older people to live more comfortably
b. discourage retirees from re-entering the work force
c. help the poorest older people
d. remove the burden of caring for older people from the federal government

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   194                BLM: REM

 

  1. What are the two types of pension programs that form the basis of the Canadian pension system today?
a. public and private pensions
b. social assistance and social welfare
c. federal guarantees and provincial supplements
d. income security and income maintenance

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194                BLM: REM

 

  1. The Old Age Security (OAS) and the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) are examples of which of the following?
a. income security programs
b. the Canada Pension Plan
c. income maintenance programs
d. social assistance programs

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   194                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of income maintenance programs?
a. the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (CPP and QPP)
b. the Old Age Security (OAS) and the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS)
c. the Spouse’s Assistance (SA) and the Family Allowance (FA)
d. Private Retirement Savings Plans (PRSP)

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   194                BLM: HO

 

  1. What were income security programs designed to do?
a. allow people to remain above the poverty line
b. allow people to maintain their pre-retirement income and lifestyle
c. allow people to meet their basic needs in retirement
d. allow less money to be spent on private pension programs

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   194                BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for programs designed to help people maintain their pre-retirement income and lifestyle?
a. public pension plans
b. Private Retirement Savings Plans (PRSPs)
c. income security programs
d. income maintenance programs

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194                BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Mo and colleagues (2006), which of the following is the major part of the majority of older Canadians’ pension income?
a. investments and savings
b. private income
c. private pensions
d. government transfers and private pensions

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   194-195         BLM: REM

 

  1. By 1999, income from private pensions accounted for what percentage of older Canadians’ retirement incomes?
a. 6%
b. 12%
c. 27%
d. 29%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   195                BLM: REM

 

  1. Why are sources of government income a benefit to seniors?
  2. Seniors don’t have to live with their children
  3. They have an alternative source of income so that they don’t have to make difficult financial choices
  4. Seniors don’t have to borrow money from their children
  5. In times of economic downturn, seniors can be reassured of money to support themselves

 

ANS: D                                 REF: 195         BLM: HO

 

  1. On Steven’s 2007 income tax form, he noted that 24% of his income came from this source. Which of the following sources of income did seniors most regularly report in 2007?
  2. lottery and bingo winnings
  3. investments
  4. pension income
  5. trust funds

 

ANS: B                                  REF: 196         BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of the first tier of Canada’s pension system?
a. private income/investments/savings
b. government transfers
c. public and private pension plans
d. vested earnings

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   195                BLM: HO

 

  1. Julia is 63 and she receives this payment, which is a component of tier one of Canada’s government transfer program. Which of the following payments does Julia receive?
a. Canada Pension Plan (CPP)
b. HST Rebate
c. Federal Income Tax Rebate
d. the Allowance (ALW)

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   195                BLM: HO

 

  1. Who receives OAS (Old Age Security)?
a. workers who earn over $1,600 per month
b. seniors who fall below the poverty line
c. nearly all Canadians aged 65 or over
d. pensioners who earn less than $1,600 per year

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   195                BLM: HO

 

  1. How does the government ensure that only the poorest older people keep all of their OAS benefits?
a. by taxing the OAS as income
b. by indexing payments to the cost of living
c. by using means-testing to determine need
d. by restricting pre-retirement investments

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   195                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes The Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS)?
a. It is a federal government transfer that goes to nearly all Canadians aged 65 or over.
b. It is a federal government transfer that tries to help people maintain their pre-retirement income level.
c. It is a federal government transfer that maintains widows or widowers of former Family Allowance (FA) recipients.
d. It is a federal government transfer that goes to people with no income other than the Old Age Security (OAS).

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   195                BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the purpose of government transfers?
a. to help people maintain their income in retirement
b. to protect older people’s incomes from falling below a specified level
c. to give older people the incentive to provide for their own well-being in old age
d. to help older people remain in their homes in old age

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   196                BLM: HO

 

  1. According to federal government estimates, approximately how much money was spent in 2011–2012 on government transfers?
a. $26.9 billion
b. $29.4 billion
c. $36.3 billion
d. $39.1 billion

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   196                BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the OAS indexed to?
a. interest rates
b. the inflation rate
c. the cost of living
d. tax revenues

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   196                BLM: REM

 

  1. Georgina is a 63-year-old widower. She was a homemaker all of her life. Which special payment does she receive until she reaches the age of 65?
a. the Allowance
b. the OAS
c. the HST Rebate
d. the Canada Pension Plan Death Benefit

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   196                BLM: HO

 

  1. Without GIS and ALW benefits, what proportion of all older Canadians would live below the poverty line?
a. almost one-quarter
b. almost one-half
c. almost one-third
d. almost three-quarters

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   197                BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is the problem with the OAS/GIS/ALW program (government transfers), according to McDonald and colleagues (2010)?
a. The program does not pay equally for married and single people, or for men and women.
b. The program does not pay enough money to keep all older people out of poverty.
c. The program is a fixed-income system that is not adjusted for inflation.
d. Older people often do not know the program exists and therefore do not apply for it.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   197                BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following makes up Tier Two of Canada’s retirement income system?
a. the public pension plans (CPP/QPP)
b. private income, investments, and savings
c. income security programs
d. government transfers

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. According to the Service Canada 2012 Ratecard, about what percentage of the labour force paid into the CPP/QPP in 2010–2011?
a. 20%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 90%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                BLM: REM

 

  1. Why is the CPP an important financial program for Canadians?
a. It maintains an older person’s income near pre-retirement levels and guarantees pensions for self-employed people.
b. It ensures that workers have some pension beyond OAS/GIS/ALW, and saves the money on transfer payments.
c. It keeps retirees above the poverty line, and ensures that the widows of workers receive benefits.
d. It ensures adequate pensions for the poorest seniors and creates incentives for wage earners to use RRSPs.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. The CPP combines which two types of pension plans?
a. an RRSP and an RISP
b. social assistance and social security
c. an income maintenance plan and an income supplement plan
d. a savings plan and a transfer plan

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                BLM: REM

 

  1. The money paid in today by a worker does not go into a private account, but instead goes to pay the pensions of retired plan members today. Thus, the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) works in part like which of the following?
a. a transfer plan
b. a savings plan
c. an RIP (Retroactive Income Payment)
d. an RRSP (Registered Retirement Savings Plan)

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. What does portability mean as it refers to the CPP?
a. If the pensioner dies, the plan continues to pay to the spouse of the pensioner.
b. The plan moves with workers when they change jobs.
c. The plan moves with recipients if they leave the country.
d. Workers can choose to invest more than the required amount, thereby increasing the benefits they receive at retirement.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. The CPP locks in both workers’ and employers’ contributions. What is this called?
a. portability
b. actualization
c. vesting
d. pension security

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the CPP?
a. The plan pays lower rates to women than to men because women tend to live longer.
b. The CPP is a fixed-income plan.
c. The CPP cannot protect people from inflation and requires personal savings or other supplements to ensure the pensioner’s income remains stable.
d. The CPP guarantees up to 25% of the pensioner’s pre-retirement earnings to a maximum of 25% of the year’s Average Industrial Wage.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. Why is it important that all CPP members get survivor and disability benefits?
a. because the Widowed Spouses Allowance (WSPA) does not cover the loss of the SPA
b. because women receive fewer benefits than men because of differing work patterns and a longer life expectancy
c. because the reduction in OAS payments from the married to the single rate places many older people below the poverty line
d. because women often outlive their husbands, but many do not have pensions of their own

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   199                BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Statistics Canada figures from 2007, what percentage of women received the CPP?
a. 86%
b. 75%
c. 47%
d. 67%

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   200                BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Statistics Canada figures from 2007, what percentage of men received the CPP?
a. 96%
b. 59%
c. 84%
d. 98%

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   200                BLM: REM

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a limitation of the CPP given in the text?
a. The CPP pays benefits to more Canadians than ever before, costing the country more money.
b. The CPP cannot replace a great deal of the average person’s income.
c. People who never worked for a wage do not receive the CPP.
d. People can only keep their CPP benefits if they are eligible for and receive GIS.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   200                BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2012, recipients who received less than the maximum CPP benefits and were living in a large Canadian city experienced which of the following?
a. They made almost 94% of their pre-retirement income.
b. They retained only one-third of their GIS payments after taxes.
c. They fell below the poverty line.
d. They fell within the top 30th percentile in income.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   200                BLM: REM

 

  1. As a result of the low payment rates of the CPP, what do most people need in order to maintain their preretirement life style?
a. a part-time job
b. help from family members
c. private pensions and savings
d. more education

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   200                BLM: HO

 

  1. What percentage of higher CPP payouts for disability and enriched benefits are projected by the year 2030?
a. 15%
b. 25%
c. 35%
d. 45%

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   200                BLM: REM

 

  1. In order to avoid financial problems in the future, the government has adopted several measures. Which of these measures is among them?
a. raising contribution rates
b. investing current surplus funds in the financial markets
c. decreasing foreign aid to save money
d. refusing to allow immigrants to receive the CPP

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   200                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following makes up Tier Three of the pension system?
a. government transfers
b. public pension plans
c. private income
d. provincial assistance

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   201                BLM: REM

 

  1. Milan and Vezina (2011) report that in 2011, which of the following made up almost two-thirds of senior males’ total income?
a. occupational pension benefits
b. interest from savings
c. Canada Pension Plan (CPP) payments
d. investments

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   201                BLM: REM

 

  1. Jeannette lost some money just before she retired from her job as a nurse. Now retired, she must rely on what most older Canadians use to compensate for lost pre-retirement income. Which of the following do most older people rely on to make up for lost pre-retirement income?
a. private pensions
b. the Canada Pension Plan (CPP)
c. part-time work
d. savings

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   201                BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term used to describe how much an employee can expect to earn in retirement, based on a formula that takes into account one’s years of service and highest salary?
  2. employer pension plan
  3. defined benefit pension plan
  4. defined occupational pension
  5. employer contribution pension plan

 

ANS: B                         REF: 201                  BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Statistics Canada (2011), what type of retirement income did 75% of Canadian workers with a registered pension plan have?
a. occupational pensions
b. defined benefit pension plans
c. public pensions
d. registered pension plans

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   202                BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to Brown (2010), what percentage of private sector workers has a defined benefit pension plan?
  2. 20%
  3. 40%
  4. 60%
  5. 80%

 

ANS: D                       REF: 202                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following did poor people rely on for most (77%) of their income?
a. occupational pensions
b. defined pension plans
c. public pensions
d. RRSPs

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   201                BLM: REM

 

  1. Why do experts who have studied the occupational pension system express worry about the solvency of these plans?
a. shortened life expectancy
b. later retirement
c. high interest rates
d. lower stock prices

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   203                BLM: HO

 

  1. The government has encouraged more savings through which of the following?
a. the Canada Pension Plan (CPP)
b. Pre-retirement Bursary Subsidies (PBSs)
c. Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs)
d. the Quantitative Pension Program (QPP)

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   203                BLM: REM

 

  1. Statistics Canada (2011) reports that in 2009, what percentage of all Canadians aged 25 to 64 contributed to an RRSP?
a. 17%
b. 40%
c. 51%
d. 84%

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   204                BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2009, which percentage of women were public pension plan members?
  2. 25%
  3. 47%
  4. 59%
  5. 62%

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 205                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is one reason only a small percentage of people belonging to occupational pension plans ever collect a full pension?
a. Many plans have a variety of conditions that effectively prevent full payment.
b. Most plans use vesting (using pension plan money to reinvest in the company) to keep up with inflation, but the government does not insure against bankruptcy.
c. The majority of plans lack portability, and as workers change jobs much of their pension is lost.
d. Most plans are indexed to private savings and investments, and pay full pensions only to the poorest recipients.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF: 205                  BLM: HO

 

  1. Education and former occupation largely determine income in old age. Which of the following explains this effect?
a. multiple jeopardy theory
b. conflict theory (Marxism)
c. political economy perspective
d. structural-functionalism

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   206                BLM: HO

 

  1. What are the best predictors of income in retirement?
a. health and social supports
b. education and occupational status
c. ethnic group and sex
d. social class and pre-retirement income

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   206                BLM: HO

 

  1. Membership in a non-European ethnic group leads to lower income in retirement. According to the National Seniors Council (2009), this situation occurs as a result of which of the following reasons?
a. Racial discrimination throughout life accounts for higher levels of poverty.
b. Members of ethnic groups tend to retire earlier, and are penalized by occupational pensions.
c. Pre-retirement education often does not consider the special needs of members of ethnic groups.
d. Ethnic groups have an unrealistic reliance on their social support network in old age.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   206                BLM: REM

 

  1. The retirement income system most seriously fails for which of the following?
a. the upper-class, who are disproportionately taxed in retirement
b. the middle-class, who suffer extreme changes in lifestyle because of differences between pre-retirement and retirement incomes
c. women, who have different work patterns than men
d. landed immigrants, who contribute to the public pension system, yet receive only partial pensions

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   207                BLM: HO

 

 

  1. The gap between CPP payments to men and to women is the result of which of the following?
a. discrimination against women in the workplace
b. low incomes and short careers at paid labour
c. overcompensating for Spouses Allowance payments
d. fewer men than women opting for early retirement

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   207-208         BLM: HO

 

  1. The National Seniors Council reports that in 2006, 60% of unattached senior women found themselves in which of the following situations?
a. They were living with their families.
b. They received income from a private pension.
c. They had a low income rate.
d. They worked part-time.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   210                BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to McDonald and Robb (2004), the pension system needs reform to meet the needs of which of the following groups?
a. older men
b. older women
c. younger men
d. younger women

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   211                BLM: REM

 

  1. What question was discussed in “The Great Pension Debate” in the early 1980s?
a. whether public pension plans or private pension plans would best serve Canadians
b. whether women should receive pension credit for years worked as homemakers
c. whether the CPP should be a means-tested pension to ensure that the poorest older people receive the most help
d. whether a “clawback” option on the OAS should be implemented

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   211                BLM: REM

 

  1. Since the late 1980s, new rules have improved the public pension plan system. These include which of the following?
a. Improvements in the OAS have led to decreased poverty rates for single older people.
b. The CPP allowed only women to deduct the years that they spend in child rearing from their pensionable years.
c. All widows and widowers with low incomes will always get the ALW.
d. The federal and provincial governments agreed that all occupational plans remove survivor benefits.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   211                BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following was included in changes made in 1984 to improve the Canada Pension Plan (CPP)?
a. indexing payments to the rate of inflation
b. increasing survivor benefits to spouses
c. locked-in vesting of the employer’s share of the payments
d. allowing women and men to deduct years spent childrearing from pensionable years

 

 

ANS:    D         REF:    211                  BLM: REM

 

  1. Which group will still have to consider some tough issues in the future such as the rising costs of OAS pensions and the indexation of private pension plans?
a. provincial government
b. federal government
c. younger people
d. seniors

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   212                BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following facts will result from changes in private and public pensions?
a. Pensions will cost less money.
b. A strong economy and high inflation will make it easier to pay for pensions.
c. Pensions will cost more money.
d. A strong economy and lower inflation will make it harder to pay pensions.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   212                BLM: HO

 

  1. Adjustments made by the federal government to the income security system over the years include which of the following?
a. indexing the CPP against the Consumer Price Index
b. improving the OAS so that it is more of a means-tested plan
c. reducing clawbacks to ensure that poorer older people retain more of their benefits
d. increasing OAS benefits to older single women

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   213                BLM: HO

 

  1. Mrs. Brown wants to have extra income for her retirement and she decides to invest up to $5,000 in a relatively new government program for which she will not be taxed when she requires the use of her money. What is the name of this program?
a. Registered Income Savings
b. Retirement Investment Fund
c. Tax Free Income Account
d. Tax Free Savings Account

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   213                BLM: HO

 

  1. Ryan is 26 years old and is just starting to work. He has a good pension plan at his new job. Why do young people such as Ryan continue to support a stronger pension system in the future?
a. Payments into the CPP help to reduce the national debt.
b. They can withdraw money saved in their pension plans to pay for post-retirement amenities.
c. It creates social and economic stability.
d. Without it, they would have to care for their parents themselves.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   213                BLM: HO

 

  1. Why do middle-aged people support a strong public pension system?
a. It offers a secure investment with high returns.
b. They will soon be old and have a self-interest in a strong pension and social security system.
c. It guarantees a better old age than private pensions and savings alone could do.
d. Much of the cost will lie with the young.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   213                BLM: HO

 

 

 

 

 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. List and discuss the 10 characteristics of the Canada Pension Plan.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

  1. The CPP protects people from inflation. Personal savings can decrease in value over time, but the

CPP promises that a person will get a pension in the future geared to the cost of living at that time.

  1. The CPP covers almost all workers, so most workers will enter retirement with some CPP benefits.
  2. The plan is portable, which means it moves with workers when they change jobs. In a fluid job

market, where people change jobs often, this can mean the difference between having a pension or

not.

  1. The plan locks in both workers’ and employers’ contributions from the start. This is called

vesting. Workers get credit for their total payments (their own and their employer’s

contributions) even if they move from one employer to another.

  1. The CPP promises to pay workers up to 25% of their preretirement pensionable earnings (to a

maximum of 25% of the year’s average industrial wage) for life.

  1. The plan applies the same rules to men and women. Women pay in at the same rates as men, and

the plan entitles them to the same benefits.

  1. All CPP members get survivor and disability benefits, a vital point because in Canada, women

often outlive their husbands and many women today have no pension of their own.

  1. The CPP calculates a person’s pension by adjusting pensionable earnings from past years to bring

them up to current wage levels. This adjusts for the fact that inflation makes earlier wage levels

a poor basis for calculating a pension today and makes the CPP better than occupational plans

that use lifetime earnings to calculate pension benefits.

  1. The CPP allows contributors to choose early or late retirement. A contributor can receive benefits

as early as age 60 or as late as age 70.

  1. The federal government indexes the CPP to the cost of living. It goes up as the cost of living

increases, so people do not fall behind each year as they do with a fixed-income pension.

 

REF: 199-200

 

  1. What is a registered retirement savings plan (RRSP)?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

The federal government has provided an incentive for retirement savings through registered retirement

savings plans (RRSPs). An RRSP is a government plan that allows people to save money without

paying income tax on it until they withdraw it in retirement. This defers the taxes to a time when they

have a lower income and a lower tax rate.

 

REF: 203-204

 

  1. In 1985, the federal government announced changes to the Canada Pension Benefits Standards Act.

What were the five new standards that were put into place in 1985?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

In 1985, the federal government made changes to the Canada Pension Benefits Standards Act. At that

time, the government asked the provinces and territories to change their rules to meet the new

standards:

 

  1. Locked-in vesting mandatory after two years in an occupational plan
  2. Improved portability by transfer of vested pensions to locked-in RRSPs
  3. The right of all full-time workers to join a private plan after two years of work; all part-time workers

must have the right to join if they have earned at least 35% of the yearly maximum pensionable

earnings

  1. Payment of survivor benefits worth at least 60% of the amount the couple would have received

had the contributor lived; these benefits will continue if the survivor remarries

  1. Division of pension credits and payments 50–50 if a couple divorces, unless the couple or the

courts choose a different option.

 

REF: 211-212

 

 

 

 ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Compare and contrast the defined benefit pension plan and the defined contribution pension plan.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

A defined benefit plan states how much an employee can expect to earn in retirement based on a

formula that takes into account years of service and highest salary. The company guarantees the

benefit based on this formula. A defined contribution plan states how much a person will pay (often

matched to some degree by the company). This plan defines the contribution but does not

guarantee the outcome. The employee must invest the money, and the outcome in retirement will

depend on how well the employee’s investments do over time.

 

REF: 201-203

 

  1. Interview someone who is currently in the workforce and nearing retirement. What kind of

financial planning has he/she done for his/her retirement? Does he/she have a pension plan

through work? What types of investments/retirement plans does he/she have? (Note: you do NOT

need numbers, just the types of investments: e.g., RRSP, TFSA, work pension plan, stocks, bonds,

etc.) How financially prepared does he/she feel that he/she is for his/her impending retirement?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Any and all information covered in Chapter 8 would be of benefit. The goal of this essay is to get the

student to become familiar with the types of investments that he/she should be thinking about in

advance of becoming employed and planning for retirement.

 

REF: Chapter 8

 

  1. Interview someone who has a tax-free savings account. Why did this individual choose this

savings method? What are the benefits of a TFSA?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

A tax-free savings account allows Canadians aged 18 or over to put up to $5,000 a year in after-tax

income into a TFSA account. These dollars will be allowed to grow tax free and will not be taxed

when taken out. The government will index this amount to inflation, and these funds, when taken

out, will not influence eligibility for any other government programs (e.g., OAS/GIS).

 

REF: 213

CHAPTER 14: DEATH, DYING, AND BEREAVEMENT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to the text, how do most seniors view their deaths?
  2. as an impending event
  3. as a distant event
  4. as a tragic event
  5. as a welcome event

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 336                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following individuals exemplifies the concept of social death?
  2. Mary, who is 69 and has dementia
  3. George, who is frail but is still mobile
  4. Phillip, who lives in a nursing home
  5. Gertrude, who is 106 years old and living at home

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 336-337              BLM: HO

 

  1. In the ancient past, how did people perceive death and dying?
  2. as a tragic consequence of a difficult life
  3. as a wonderful journey to peace and tranquility
  4. as a mysterious transition
  5. as a confusing and depressing event

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Death in Canada today most often takes place in which of the following locations?
a. at home
b. at a hospice
c. in a retirement community
d. in a hospital or nursing home

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   338                           BLM: HO

 

  1. In 2008, what percentage of deaths were senior deaths?
  2. 57%
  3. 68%
  4. 72%
  5. 78%

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Life expectancy at birth in 2006–2008 stood at 78.5 years for males and at what age for females?
a. 76.4
b. 79.5
c. 83.1
d. 87.8

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   337                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is considered as a “disease of old age?”
  2. arthritis
  3. osteoporosis
  4. macular degeneration
  5. pneumonia

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 337                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following diseases caused 23% of all Canadian deaths in 2008?
  2. heart disease
  3. cancer
  4. stroke
  5. Alzheimer’s disease

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following diseases caused 3.4% of Canadian men to die in 2008?
  2. influenza and pneumonia
  3. chronic lower respiratory diseases
  4. diabetes
  5. strokes

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Motiwala and colleagues (2006), where did almost half of deaths in Ontario occur in 2001–2002?
  2. at home
  3. at a nursing home
  4. in a hospice
  5. in a hospital

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 337                     BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2008, which of the following diseases caused a higher percentage of death for men than for women?
  2. influenza and pneumonia
  3. stroke
  4. Alzheimer’s disease
  5. malignant neoplasms (cancer)

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Wilkins (2006), which type of stress has an especially strong effect on older women?
  2. emotional stress
  3. psychological stress
  4. physical stress
  5. social stress

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to the National Population Health Survey (NPHS), which of the following items increases the risk of death?
  2. increased alcohol consumption
  3. increased level of education
  4. being overweight
  5. functional limitation

 

ANS: D                                    REF 338                      BLM: REM

 

  1. In 1926, what percentage of deaths occurred in infants and children under the age of five?
  2. 1/3
  3. 1/2
  4. 2/3
  5. 3/4

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Today, most people die of which of the following?
a. acute illness
b. chronic illness
c. poverty
d. accidents

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   338                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Your cousin has cancer, and although she is not in pain, she has only a few months to live. According to Motiwala and colleagues (2006), where will your cousin most likely die?
  2. at hospital
  3. in a nursing home
  4. at home
  5. in hospice

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 338                     BLM: HO

 

  1. According to a study by Menec and colleagues (2007), where did most people aged 85+ have the greatest likelihood of dying?
  2. in a nursing home
  3. at a hospital
  4. in a hospice
  5. at home

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 338                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following is true according to the disengagement theory?
a. Retirement and withdrawal from society lead to low life satisfaction.
b. A smooth transition of power from one generation to the next occurs when the two generations work together.
c. An awareness of death causes people to ease their way out of social life.
d. Fear of death causes many older people to lose their perspective and feel that their lives have no meaning.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following describes a problem with the disengagement theory and its approach to death?
a. It is based on the idea that older people grow to accept death as they age.
b. It does not describe how a person will react to his/her approaching death.
c. It places emphasis on the ego transcendence stage of aging rather than the generativity stage.
d. It focuses on the social effects of dying, and says little about how older people feel about it.

.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Erikson’s (1963) theory of ego development says that, in the last stage of life, a person reviews his/her life, ties up loose ends, and prepares for death. What does Erikson call this process?
a. the pre-generative stage
b. ego integrity
c. euthanasia
d. mortality recognition

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   339                           BLM: REM

 

  1. In the last part of the last stage of Erikson’s theory of ego development, the person experiences which of the following?
a. a deep concern for others and for the culture he/she will be leaving, thereby achieving ego transcendence
b. a need to overcome the Fear of Death vs. Life Transcendence conflict, thereby coming to terms with both life and death
c. a full withdrawal from his/her social roles and acceptance of death as inevitable, passively waiting for it
d. a full acceptance of his/her death, but the desire to keep on living to achieve some final goal he/she has set

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   339                BLM: HO

 

  1. Studies that compare older and younger people find that older people express more concern about which of the following aspects of death?
a. the pain of dying
b. the fear of dying
c. the process of dying
d. the emotional trauma of dying

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   339                           BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Duffy and colleagues (2006), which of the following do dying individuals want?
  2. to feel their life was worth living
  3. to have their responsibilities taken care of
  4. to have a pain-free death
  5. to die with dignity

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 340                     BLM: REM

 

  1. When do people deal with death the best?
a. when they have strong religious beliefs or no belief at all
b. when they have mild religious belief
c. when they have a severe acute or chronic illness
d. when they have seen friends or close family die

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   341                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following buffers people from the fear of death, according to Wink (2006)?
  2. pain medication and competent medical staff
  3. friends and family
  4. a strong religious belief
  5. understanding one’s disease and its progression

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 341                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Your aunt Grace has just learned that she has breast cancer, and she is in a state of denial. Which stage number is denial within Kubler-Ross’s death and dying model?
  2. first
  3. second
  4. third
  5. fourth

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 342                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which stage of Kubler-Ross’s death and dying model involves anger directed at the doctor, a spouse, or even God?
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What are the two aspects of the depression phase of death and dying (Kubler-Ross, 1969)?
a. mourning present losses and mourning future losses
b. fear of death and fear of dying
c. denial and acceptance
d. despair and anger

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the final stage of death and dying, according to Kubler-Ross?
a. bargaining stage
b. acceptance stage
c. optimistic stage
d. depression stage

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which trait is common to all five stages of Kubler-Ross’s stage theory of death and dying?
a. fear
b. despair
c. hope
d. acceptance

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   342                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Why do researchers such as Leming and Dickinson (2011) criticize Kubler-Ross’s stage theory of death and dying?
a. They feel that the theory does not take into account the effects of dying on family or friends of the patient.
b. They feel that it cannot accurately predict how an individual will respond to the dying process.
c. They feel that it accurately describes the dying process for most patients, but it does not provide enough information on how others should respond to the patient during each stage.
d. They feel that not all patients experience the same emotions, needs, and coping methods.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Kubler-Ross, which of the following statements can be made about her stages-of-dying model?
a. All patients follow a similar series of stages in the death and dying process.
b. Most dying patients adopt one of five attitudes: anger, bargaining, denial, acceptance, or depression.
c. Dame Cicely Saunders’ stages-of-death-and-dying model should be rejected, due to its impressionistic methods and unscientific presentation.
d. Patients can skip stages, stages can overlap, or people can go back over the same stage many times.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What does Kubler-Ross (1969) state about different illnesses and their death trajectories?
a. They can create new stages of dying.
b. They create different trajectories of death.
c. They have no significant effect on the pattern of response by patients.
d. They can cause a patient to deviate from the normal pattern of dying.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   343                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following terms defines the typical public social conventions that occur after an individual passes away?
  2. grieving
  3. sorrow
  4. bereavement
  5. mourning

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 343                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Your great Aunt Beverly’s husband lives in a nursing home after he had a stroke. He has dementia and needs continuous care. She is saddened to be alone in her home and she grieves for her husband as he used to be. She is also sorrowful, in expectation of his impending physical death. What type of grief is your great Aunt Beverly experiencing?
  2. anticipatory grief
  3. disenfranchised grief
  4. delayed grief
  5. exaggerated grief

 

ANS: A                                    REF: 343                     BLM: HO

 

  1. What proportion of bereaved people go through morbid grieving?
a. a small percentage
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. a large percentage

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Northcott and Wilson (2008) say that the pattern of grieving depends on all EXCEPT which of the following?
a. the gender of the bereaved person
b. how the patient dies
c. how suddenly the death occurred
d. the age of the bereaved person

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to Kahana (2006), what comes to an end in a woman’s life when she is widowed?
  2. her freedom
  3. her former identity
  4. her financial security
  5. her social life

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 344                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Onrust and Cuijpers (2006) found a high rate of which of the following among widows in the first year of widowhood?
a. smoking
b. alcoholism
c. major depressive disorder
d. illness

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   344                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to a study by Mancini et al. (2006), what percentage of widows/widowers demonstrated chronic grief?
  2. 6.9%
  3. 15.6%
  4. 24.7%
  5. 32.8%

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 344                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Wolff and Wortman (2005), what behaviour did men tend to exhibit more frequently after the loss of a wife?
  2. socializing
  3. remarrying within a year
  4. smoking and drinking
  5. travelling

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 345                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Marital ties persist after the loss of a spouse, exemplifying which of the following?
a. a primary indicator of abnormal grief adjustment.
b. the reason that some widows and widowers decide against remarriage after the death of a spouse
c. behaviour that is acceptable for older people but dysfunctional for younger people
d. a form of morbid grieving that should be treated if it becomes prolonged

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is true in the informed consent context of dying?
a. The staff and the family know that the patient is dying but do not tell the patient.
b. The staff, the patient, and the family all know that the patient is dying, but no one speaks about it.
c. The staff and the patient know that the patient is dying but do not tell the patient’s family.
d. The patient has a right to know about the physicians choice of treatment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an ethical conflict that doctors face when they treat dying patients?
a. defining the exact criteria for death
b. convincing the family to remove a person from life support
c. deciding what to do when treatment that extends a patient’s life also prolongs his/her suffering
d. ongoing court battles over the legal status of euthanasia and the culpability of doctors

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   345                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Which type of document authorizes relatives or doctors to withdraw or withhold artificial methods of life support in the case of a terminal illness?
a. a writ of cessation
b. a living will
c. a medical directive
d. an order in absentee

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Directives most often take the form of which of the following?
a. the flexible power of attorney
b. the estate will
c. passive euthanasia
d. the durable power of attorney and the living will

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

 

  1. A living will sets out which of the following?
a. the attorney’s right to make financial decisions on a person’s behalf
b. the doctor’s right to terminate treatment
c. the ill person’s right to his/her wishes at the end of life
d. the nurse’s right to choose intensive and aggressive treatments

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Jerry was in a car accident and is now in a coma. He has a written order on his medical chart that indicates that he is not to be revived should his heart stop. What is the name for this medical order?
  2. fail-to- revive order
  3. do-not-resuscitate order
  4. advance-directive order
  5. living-will order

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 347                     BLM: HO

 

  1. Which of the following statements can be made regarding doctors and directives?
a. Doctors increasingly welcome having directions on the type of care a patient wants.
b. Doctors resent being forced to make decisions based on laws.
c. Doctors often make no effort to determine if the patient has a living will, and even ignore it if one does exist.
d. Doctors fear prosecution for stopping treatment or not treating secondary illnesses.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   347                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Your mother has asked you and your sibling to sign a document stating that she has chosen the two of you to make decisions on her behalf, should she lose her mental capacity to do so as she ages. What is the name of this type of document?
  2. a living will
  3. an incapacitated wish
  4. a power of attorney
  5. an advanced instruction

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 347                     BLM: HO

 

  1. According to Garrett and colleagues (2008), what percentage of Canadians aged 75+ have an advance directive?
  2. 17%
  3.    28%
  4. 32%
  5. 39%

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 347                     BLM: REM

 

  1. What is one of the main problems with advance directives?
a. They are not enforceable by law in Canada, and therefore doctors and family frequently disregard them.
b. Many people cannot or will not write a living will because their religion condemns it as a form of suicide.
c. In some cases people will change their minds as they near death, but they will not get a chance to change their advance directive.
d. It does not fulfill its main function of relieving doctors of responsibility for stopping treatment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   349                           BLM: HO

 

  1. The modern hospice was the creation of which of the following individuals?
a. Saunders
b. Kubler-Ross
c. Gray
d. Genseric

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   350                           BLM: REM

 

  1. By eliminating a patient’s pain, hospices seek to accomplish which of the following?
a. building up the patient’s hope of recovery and creating a positive attitude
b. giving patients the opportunity to remain active and at work
c. relieving a patient’s fear and anxiety and ensuring that the person dies in comfort
d. decreasing the anxiety of friends and family over the patient’s condition

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. Pain control in hospices such as St. Christopher’s is based on which of the following?
a. meditation and mental techniques that allow the patient to control his/her pain yet remain alert
b. hypnotism
c. adjustment of drug dosage
d. teaching the patient to understand his/her situation and deal with it realistically

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. In hospices, medical staff base pain control on which two techniques?
a. adjusting the dosages until the patient is pain-free, and giving the next dose before the previous dose has worn off
b. giving the patient only enough drugs to reduce the pain, and waiting until the patient shows signs of pain before giving the next dose
c. teaching the patient to overcome chronic pain without the use of drugs, and using drugs only when acute pain becomes severe
d. giving the patient a low dosage to overcome chronic pain, and providing the patient with drugs so that he/she can adjust dosages for his/her comfort

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

 

  1. In a hospice, what do staff members mainly focus on?
a. helping the patient to deal with both the emotional and the spiritual aspects of dying
b. prolonging life
c. helping the family and friends of dying patients
d. the comfort and well-being of the patient

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   350                           BLM: HO

 

  1. When did the first palliative care units open in Canada?
  2. the mid-1960s
  3. the mid-1970s
  4. the mid-1980s
  5. the mid-1990s

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the term for programs that do the same work as hospices, but that exist within an acute care hospital?
a. general care programs
b. ICUs (Intensive Care Units)
c. palliative care units
d. no-code-blue wards

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   350                           BLM: REM

 

 

  1. According to the Quality End-of-Life Coalition of Canada (2008), what percentage of dying Canadians have access to high-quality hospice palliative care at home?
  2. 3/4
  3. 2/3
  4. 1/2
  5. 1/3

 

ANS: D                                    REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. According to Dupere, what percentage of Canadians in 2006 had access to palliative care services?
  2. 3%
  3. 8%
  4. 15%
  5. 19%

 

ANS: C                                    REF: 350                     BLM: REM

 

  1. Julia lives in Toronto, and her mother, who is 74 years old, lives in Winnipeg. Julia is worried about her mother, as she has terminal cancer, and she lives alone in an apartment. Julia refuses to believe that her mother is seriously ill, and so she decides to go to Winnipeg to demand medical treatment for her mother. According to Northcott and Wilson (2008), what is the term used to describe Julia’s behaviour and actions regarding her mother’s situation?
  2. the prodigal daughter syndrome
  3. the California daughter syndrome
  4. the lost child phenomenon
  5. the black sheep phenomenon

 

ANS: B                                    REF: 351                     BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for actively helping someone relieve his/her suffering and achieve a painless death?
a. euthanasia
b. healthcare consent
c. palliative care
d. prognosis

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: REM

 

  1. What is the role of the doctor in physician-assisted suicide?
a. gives an ill patient the means to commit suicide
b. files a motion with the courts to gain permission to assist in ending patients lives
c. requests to be removed from caring for patients with terminal illness if they do not agree with the idea of doctor assisted suicide
d. takes the means of suicide upon him-/herself to actively end patients’ lives

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the term for the process of killing someone because he/she asks for death or to relieve his/her suffering?
a. active euthanasia
b. passive euthanasia
c. palliative care
d. third degree murder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   352                           BLM: REM

 

  1. Uncle Ross is in a coma, and doctors inform you that he will not recover. Your aunt doesn’t want him to suffer. Someone makes the decision to end Uncle Ross’s life. What is the term used to describe this scenario?
  2. active euthanasia
  3. non-voluntary euthanasia
  4. mercy killing
  5. involuntary euthanasia

 

ANS: B                    REF: 352                            BLM: HO

 

  1. Which country passed the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act?
  2. Canada
  3. The United States
  4. France
  5. The Netherlands

 

ANS: D                     REF: 352                            BLM: REM

 

  1. In 2009, the Netherlands reported a number of cases of physician-assisted suicide. Where did 80% of those patients die?
  2. in a hospice
  3. at home
  4. in a hospital
  5. in a nursing home

 

ANS: B                     REF: 352-353           BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following countries now permits physician-assisted suicides in cases of advanced terminal illness?
  2. The United States
  3. Canada
  4. France
  5. Sweden

 

ANS: A                     REF: 353                            BLM: HO

 

  1. What is another name that is commonly used as a substitute for “euthanasia”?
  2. manslaughter
  3. murder
  4. mercy killing
  5. medicine-induced death

 

ANS: C                     REF: 353                            BLM: REM

 

  1. Which of the following can eliminate the question of responding to requests for active euthanasia?
a. the cessation of treatment of dying patients
b. laws that make active euthanasia illegal
c. using the closed awareness context for dying
d. symptom control and good palliative care

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   353                           BLM: HO

 

  1. What is the function of funeral practices and rituals?
a. to help resolve family conflicts
b. to help the bereaved family cope with grief and to re-establish community bonds after the loss of a community member
c. to take the bereaved family’s attention away from the death of the individual, and reaffirm life’s deeper meaning
d. to give family and friends the opportunity to cut ties with the deceased and continue on with their lives

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   355                           BLM: HO

 

 

 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS

 

  1. Compare and contrast what constitutes a “good” death and a “bad” death.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

The good or bad death depends on a number of criteria. Dying from a heart attack that occurs in one’s sleep

at home or dying with loved ones near are versions of what most people consider a good death. Dying in the

hospital in pain, without dignity, and surrounded by strangers following a long agonizing “struggle” with

cancer would be considered a bad death by most people.

 

It should be noted that what constitutes a good or bad death depends upon one’s point of view. From the

point of view of the dying senior, the criteria for a good death include a lack of pain during the dying

process, a quick death, dying at home surrounded by loved ones, maintaining a sense of dignity, having a

sense of control, and being prepared to die. From the point of view of the dying person’s significant

others, death may be viewed as good when it relieves family members of the burden of care or minimizes

financial costs to family members. From the point of view of society as a whole, death may be viewed as

good when it makes minimal demands on social resources and facilitates the transfer of authority, power,

and wealth.

 

In addition, students could mention some or all of the criteria as mentioned in Exhibit 14.3 on page 340

 

REF: 340

 

  1. List and explain the five responses to the loss of a spouse.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

A study done by the Changing Lives of Older Couples in the United States included over 1,500 people

before widowhood. This study detailed the frequency and variety of reactions to a spouse’s death.

Because it looked at pre-loss mental health, the study could assess the effect of loss on psychological

well-being, and it found five responses to the loss of a spouse:

 

  1. chronic grief (defined as pre-loss depression, high post-loss depression at 6 to 18 months);
  2. common grief or recovery (low pre-loss depression and high post-loss depression at 6 months with

improvement at 18 months);

  1. resilience (low pre- and low post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months);
  2. depressed-improved (high pre-loss depression and low post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months); and
  3. chronic depression (high pre-loss depression and high post-loss depression at 6 and 18 months).

 

REF: 344

 

  1. Explain the differences between assisted suicide and euthanasia (active and passive).

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

People often confuse assisted suicide and active euthanasia. If you commit suicide, you kill yourself. If

you ask for euthanasia, you ask someone else to kill you. The confusion arises when you ask someone

to help you commit suicide. For example, you might ask your doctor to prescribe a lethal dose of

medicine. If you take this medicine yourself, then the term “assisted suicide” applies, or more accurately,

“physician-assisted suicide.” Alternatively, if the doctor injects this medicine into your vein, causing your

death, then the term “active euthanasia” applies. If a doctor allows death to happen; for example, by not

putting a person on a respirator, by taking someone off a respirator, or by not resuscitating a person whose

heart has stopped, this care strategy is called “passive euthanasia”: that is, allowing death to occur by

withholding or withdrawing treatment. Medical professionals do not label the practice of allowing a

patient to die as euthanasia.

 

REF: 351-353

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain the five stages of death, as developed by Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross.

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Kubler-Ross developed one of the first descriptions of the dying process from the point of view of the modern

patient. She did so by speaking with patients who faced death from cancer. Kubler-Ross described five

stages that her patients went through before they died.

 

  1. First, people deny that they are dying. They say, “Not me.” They may believe that the doctor has the

wrong X-rays or someone else’s tests. They may go from specialist to specialist looking for a new

diagnosis. They may not even hear the doctor tell them they have a fatal illness.

  1. Second, people feel angry. They begin to believe that they will die. “Why me?” they ask. At this

point, people blame the doctors or their spouse or God for their illness.

  1. Third, they begin to bargain. They say, “Yes, me, but …” and try to make deals with the hospital staff.

They may promise to be a good patient and to follow doctor’s orders, if only they will get better. They may

bargain with God, promising to go to religious services or to live a more pious life. They may bargain with

God for one more summer at the cottage, or for enough time to see a child get married, a grandchild born, or

to have their next birthday.

  1. Fourth, they feel depressed. Their illness gets worse, and they know they will die. They say, “Yes,

me,” and they feel a great sadness. Kubler-Ross says that depression has two stages. In the first stage,

people mourn present losses—the loss of family, career, and the things they love, such as a home, car, or

cottage. In the second stage, they mourn future losses—the loss of good times to come, the chance to see

children or grandchildren grow up, and other future events. People start to say goodbye at this stage.

  1. Fifth, people accept death. They say, “My time is close now … it’s okay.” They say goodbye to

family and friends and die in peace.

 

REF: 342-343

 

  1. Interview someone about euthanasia. How does he/she feel about it? Should Canada legalize euthanasia?

Why or why not?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

Students should provide the person’s definition of euthanasia, and how the person understands the concept of

euthanasia. Also, the goal of the essay is for the student to come to understand the concept of the process of

euthanasia, and to see how other individuals perceive the process of when and why euthanasia should be

legalized or not in Canada.

 

REF: 351-353

 

  1. Interview someone who has a living will. What types of advanced directives are included? Who has the

individual appointed as his/her surrogate or spokesperson? Has the individual discussed the directives with

the surrogate/spokesperson? How did the individual decide what information to include in the living will?

 

ANS:

Student answers should include the following:

 

The goal of this essay is to assist the student to become familiar with the concept of a living will. He/she

will learn about the types of wishes, or advanced directives, that a person includes in his/her living will, and

why he/she chose the directives and person he/she has chosen as his/her spokesperson.

 

REF: 347

 

 

 

 

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