Adult Development And Aging The Canadian Experience by Lori Harper – Test Bank

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Adult Development And Aging The Canadian Experience by Lori Harper – Test Bank

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Sample Questions 

 

CHAPTER 4: Cognitive Changes, Post-Formal Thought, and Wisdom

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of functional neuroimaging?
  2. electroencephalogram
  3. computerized tomography
  4. magnetic resonance imaging
  5. positron emission tomography

 

ANS: D

RAT:  Positron emission tomography (PET) shows the parts of the brain that are active during a given task.

REF:  p. 88 Neuroimaging Techniques

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Maurice is having a test to see if a recent stroke resulted in any structural damage to his brain. Which of the following may be used to conduct this test?
  2. positron emission tomography
  3. magnetic resonance imaging
  4. diffusion tensor imaging
  5. near infrared spectroscopic imaging

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Magnetic resonance imaging maps the structure of the brain at a single point in time.

REF:  p. 88 Neuroimaging Techniques

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Suppose a 20-year-old and a 70-year-old are both performing the same cognitive task. On which side of the prefrontal cortex would the 20-year-old and the 70-year-old show activity, respectively?
  2. the left; the left and right
  3. the left and right; the right
  4. the right; the left and right
  5. the left and right; the left

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Neuroimaging studies show that younger people use the left prefrontal cortex while older people use the left and right prefrontal cortex when completing a cognitive task.

REF:  p. 89 What Do Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which of the following concepts are MOST central to HAROLD?
  2. localization and proliferation
  3. proliferation and bilateralization
  4. bilateralization and compensation
  5. compensation and localization

 

ANS: C

RAT:  HAROLD stands for Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults and suggests that bilateral activation observed when older adults complete cognitive tasks is compensatory.

REF:  p. 89 What Do Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. According to CRUNCH, how will brain activation in younger and older adults compare when the task is very difficult?
  2. there will be no differences in activation levels
  3. older adults will show equal or less activation than younger adults
  4. younger adults will show equal or less activation than older adults
  5. older adults will show equal or more activation than younger adults

 

ANS: B

RAT:  According to CRUNCH, when tasks are difficult compensatory strategies do not work and older adults will show equal or less activation as a result.

REF:  p. 88 What Do Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Dr. Seto believes that as people age the brain develops more efficient neural circuits to help compensate for inefficient cognitive structures. Which of the following theories does Dr. Seto support?
  2. HAROLD
  3. CRUNCH
  4. STAC
  5. levels of processing theory

 

ANS: C

RAT:  Scaffolding theory of cognitive aging proposes that as people age cognitive tasks are maintained through compensatory scaffolding, which involves the recruitment of additional brain circuitry.

REF:  p. 88 What Do Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which of the following brain regions shows little change in volume as people age?
  2. the occipital lobe
  3. the parietal lobe
  4. the prefrontal cortex
  5. the hippocampus

 

ANS: A

RAT:  The occipital lobe shows little shrinkage with age while the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and parietal lobes experience considerable shrinkage with age.

REF:  p. 90 Changes in Brain Structure with Age

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms BEST characterizes the loss of neurons as a result of normal aging?
  2. non-existent
  3. minimal
  4. moderate
  5. extreme

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Research suggests that there is minimal neuronal loss as a result of normal aging.

REF:  p. 90 Changes in Brain Structure with Age

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy:

 

 

  1. The loss of grey-matter volume begins during which part of the lifespan?
  2. adolescence
  3. early adulthood
  4. middle adulthood
  5. late adulthood

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Grey-matter volume begins to decline in early adulthood.

REF:  p. 90 Changes in Brain Structure with Age

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Which neurotransmitter has been associated with declines in short-term memory and working memory?
  2. dopamine
  3. serotonin
  4. acetylcholine
  5. norepinephrine

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Declines in dopamine in the brain have been linked to short-term and working memory declines.

REF:  p. 90 Changes in Brain Structure with Age

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Jerry has a university education, is a physics professor, and reads every day. Mike did not finish high school, is unemployed, and does not read. Both Jerry and Mike have brain damage due to stroke in the same area of the brain, however Jerry functions at a much higher level than Mike. This difference BEST reflects which of the following concepts?
  2. terminal drop
  3. over-accommodation
  4. fluid intelligence
  5. cognitive reserve

 

ANS: D

RAT:  Cognitive reserve is a term used to explain why some people recover from brain damage better than others. Cognitive reserve is linked to higher levels of education, complex work experience, and an active lifestyle.

REF:  p. 92 Cognitive Reserve

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which aspect of cognition does bilingualism seem to benefit MOST?
  2. episodic memory
  3. short-term memory
  4. executive control
  5. cognitive reserve

 

ANS: C

RAT:  It takes considerable executive control to employ grammar and vocabulary from only one of two known languages.

REF:  p. 92 Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Reserve

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Dr. Rashid is conducting a longitudinal study examining changes in different types of memory as people age. Dr. Rashid is MOST likely to observe changes in which types of memory?
  2. sensory memory and working memory
  3. working memory and episodic memory
  4. episodic memory and semantic memory
  5. semantic memory and sensory memory

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Working memory and episodic memory decline with age, while sensory memory and semantic memory appear unaffected by age.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which of the following systems controls and coordinates the operation of working memory?
  2. the central executive
  3. the phonological loop
  4. the episodic buffer
  5. the visuospatial sketchpad

 

ANS: A

RAT:  The central executive controls the phonological loop, episodic buffer, and visuospatial sketchpad.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Maxwell is completing a reading-span task for a researcher. What is the researcher MOST likely to be studying?
  2. episodic memory
  3. semantic memory
  4. the central executive
  5. the episodic buffer

 

ANS: C

RAT:  The central executive is the aspect of working memory that is thought to be used to complete reading-span tasks.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Dr. McKenzie conducted an experiment and found older adults performed much worse than younger adults on a task with high attentional demands, but showed little sign of impairment on tasks that were less demanding. Dr. McKenzie’s finding is MOST consistent with which of the following theories?
  2. reduction of processing resources theory
  3. speed of processing theory
  4. levels of processing theory
  5. inhibition theory

 

ANS: A

RAT:  The reduction of processing resources theory suggests that older adults are less efficient at encoding and retrieving information and that this results in impairments in performance when tasks are demanding.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which theory involves the notion that aging leads to a weakened ability to stop irrelevant information from entering working memory?
  2. reduction of processing resources theory
  3. speed of processing theory
  4. levels of processing theory
  5. inhibition theory

 

ANS: D

RAT:  Inhibition theory posits that as people age they become less able to inhibit irrelevant information in working memory, leading to a decrease in working memory performance.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Veronica is 81 years old. She went to take a medication for her arthritis that was stored in her pill organizer and was surprised to see that she had already taken the pill. Based on research on older adults, what is the MOST likely cause of this memory failure?
  2. a failure to sense
  3. a failure to encode
  4. a failure to store
  5. a failure to retrieve

 

ANS: B

RAT:  A large body of research demonstrates that older adults have more difficulty encoding than younger adults.

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Dr. Ng has both old and young participants complete the Mockworth clock task. Which of the following describes what Dr. Ng finds when replicating the results from published examples of this experiment?
  2. older participants make more omission errors than younger participants
  3. older participants make more commission errors than younger participants
  4. older participants make more omission and commission errors than younger participants
  5. older participants make a similar number of errors as younger participants

 

ANS: D

RAT:  When given simple vigilance tasks, such as the Mockworth clock task, the performance of older participants is no different than the performance of younger participants.

REF:  p. 102 Attentional Changes in Normal Aging

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Which of the following is MOST related to the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state?
  2. divided attention
  3. selective attention
  4. semantic memory
  5. episodic memory

 

ANS: C

RAT:  The TOT state occurs when a person cannot recall a semantic memory that is available at other times.

REF:  p. 105 Word-Finding Difficulties

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Kumar is writing a paper on the transmission deficit hypothesis. Which of the following will be discussed in the paper?
  2. sustained attention
  3. word-finding problems
  4. left-branching clauses
  5. accommodation

 

ANS: B

RAT:  The transmission deficit hypothesis suggests that word-finding problems in older adults result from a disconnect between the phonological properties of a word and the word’s meaning.

REF:  p. 105 Word-Finding Difficulties

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. How is syntactic complexity affected by normal aging?
  2. it increases as people make more left-branching clauses as they age
  3. it decreases as people adopt elderspeak as they age
  4. it increases for mundane topics but decreases for complex topics as people get older
  5. it is stable across the lifespan

 

ANS: D

RAT:  Research involving the retelling of complex stories suggests that syntactic complexity is stable across the lifespan.

REF:  p. 105 Sentence Production

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Arlene is 84 years old. As Arlene has gotten older she has begun to use more of which of the following?
  2. elderspeak
  3. circumlocutions
  4. left-branching clauses
  5. over-accommodations

 

ANS: B

RAT:  As people age they are more likely to use circumlocutions, which is an indirect way of speaking that uses more words than are necessary.

REF:  p. 105 Word-Finding Difficulties

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Elderspeak is an example of which of the following?
  2. over-accommodation
  3. under-accommodation
  4. circumlocution
  5. a right-branching clause

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Over-accommodation occurs when communicators rely on negative stereotypes to guide communication; elderspeak involves talking to older people as though they are incompetent and helpless.

REF:  p. 106 Elderspeak

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Shawna invited her 87-year-old mother Alice out to coffee with her and her daughter Kate. The coffee shop was loud and Shawna and Kate were looking at their phones while they were speaking. Which of the following explains why Alice had a difficult time joining their conversation?
  2. over-accommodation
  3. under-accommodation
  4. circumlocution
  5. right-branching clauses

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Shawna and Kate did not take into account that Alice would be better able to communicate in a quiet setting where eye contact was maintained, which is an example of under-accommodation.

REF:  p. 106 Elderspeak

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Tasha works at a long-term care facility and is overheard saying to a resident “Rise and shine sweetie, it’s time for your bath!” Which of the following is Tasha using?
  2. elderspeak
  3. under-accommodation
  4. circumlocution
  5. right-branching clauses

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Elderspeak involves speaking to older people as if they were incompetent and helpless.

REF:  p. 106 Elderspeak

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Based on research discussed in the text, which of the following results in the GREATEST improvement in memory among older adults?
  2. focusing on one memory skill
  3. focusing on two memory skills
  4. cognitive stimulation programs
  5. training on a wide range of memory skills

 

ANS: D

RAT:  Researchers have found the greatest gains when older adults are trained on a wide variety of memory skills.

REF:  p. 108 Can Training Modify Age-Related Cognitive Changes?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Which study found that improvements in cognitive task performance transferred to improvements in day-to-day functioning?
  2. HAROLD
  3. ACTIVE
  4. STAC
  5. CRUNCH

 

ANS: B

RAT:  The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study found that cognitive training in the laboratory translated to improvements in day-to-day functioning.

REF:  p. 108 Can Training Modify Age-Related Cognitive Changes?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Ginny is an excellent problem solver and does well on problems involving abstract reasoning. What does Ginny demonstrate according to Horn and Cattell?
  2. fluid intelligence
  3. crystallized intelligence
  4. logical-mathematical intelligence
  5. the global component of general intelligence (g)

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Cattell argued that one component of g is fluid intelligence, which involve the abilities needed for problem solving, pattern recognition, and abstract reasoning.

REF:  p. 110 A Few Key Theories of Intelligence

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Jagadesh is 75 years old and an expert mechanical engineer. Although he retired ten years ago other engineers still seek Jagadesh’s advice, which he is happy to share. Jagadesh demonstrates Horn and Cattell’s concept of which type of intelligence?
  2. fluid intelligence
  3. crystallized intelligence
  4. logical-mathematical intelligence
  5. the global component of general intelligence (g)

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Crystallized intelligence is a person’s accumulated skills and knowledge.

REF:  p. 110 A Few Key Theories of Intelligence

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

  1. Which of the following BEST describes the classic aging pattern according to Schaie?
  2. fluid intelligence remains relatively stable while crystalized intelligence decreases
  3. crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence both decrease in a similar way
  4. fluid intelligence decreases while crystallized intelligence increases
  5. crystalized intelligence decreases and fluid intelligence increases

 

ANS: C

RAT:  The classic aging pattern is that fluid intelligence decreases with age while crystallized intelligence increases with age.

REF:  p. 110 A Few Key Theories of Intelligence

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Which of the following was found in the Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS)?
  2. consistent decreases in intelligence with age
  3. that intelligence does not change with age
  4. individual variability in how intelligence changes with age
  5. consistent increases in intelligence with age

 

ANS: C

RAT:  The SLS found that there is no uniform pattern of age-related decline in intelligence.

REF:  p. 114 Does Intelligence Change with Age?

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Clayton has a low IQ, which puts him at increased risk for which of the following?
  2. Type 1 diabetes
  3. cardiovascular disease
  4. osteoarthritis
  5. age-related hearing loss

 

ANS: B

RAT:  People with lower IQs are found to have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease.

REF:  p. 116 Factors That Can Affect Intelligence Scores in Older Adults

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Jean Piaget has been criticized for not including which of the following in his stages of cognitive development?
  2. post-formal thought
  3. personal wisdom
  4. crystallized intelligence
  5. over-accommodation

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Piaget’s stages of cognitive development ended with formal operations; however, there is considerable evidence that post-formal thought emerges in adulthood.

REF:  p. 117 Post-Formal Thought: Moving Beyond Piaget

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

 

 

  1. Hailey is asked whether stealing is wrong and Hailey responds that she is certain stealing is always wrong. What is Hailey demonstrating?
  2. post-formal thought
  3. pre-reflective thought
  4. quasi-reflective thought
  5. reflective thought

 

ANS: B

RAT:  People who assume that an issue has one correct answer are demonstrating pre-reflective thought.

REF:  p. 117 Post-Formal Thought: Moving Beyond Piaget

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. Karishma is a scientist who developed a theory. When new data become available that suggest a modification to the theory, Karishma happily makes the changes that are needed. What is Karishma demonstrating?
  2. pre-reflective thought
  3. quasi-reflective thought
  4. reflective thought
  5. formal operations

 

ANS: C

RAT:  According to King, people who re-evaluate their beliefs based on new evidence are demonstrating reflective thought.

REF:  p. 117 Post-Formal Thought: Moving Beyond Piaget

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. According to Ardelt, which dimension of personal wisdom enables an individual to accept both the positive and negative aspects of human nature?
  2. cognitive
  3. affective
  4. reflective
  5. subjective

 

ANS: A

RAT:  The cognitive dimension of personal wisdom includes an appreciation for life’s uncertainties.

REF:  p. 119 Variations in the Definition of Wisdom

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Reine-Louise has gained the ability to acknowledge, regulate, and dissolve negative emotions. This ability demonstrates Ardelt’s notion of which dimension of personal wisdom?
  2. cognitive
  3. affective
  4. reflective
  5. subjective

 

ANS: C

RAT:  The reflective dimension of wisdom allows people to rise above subjective experience, which helps control negative emotions.

REF:  p. 119 Variations in the Definition of Wisdom

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

  1. Edward is 80 years old and the people in his community consider him to be very wise and often seek his advice when faced with a wide range of problems. Edward is regarded as having which type of wisdom?
  2. general wisdom
  3. personal wisdom
  4. reflective wisdom
  5. cognitive wisdom

 

ANS: A

RAT:  Edward has a great deal of knowledge about life in general and thus can be said to have general wisdom.

REF:  p. 119 Variations in the Definition of Wisdom

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

 

 

  1. The text describes a study in which personal wisdom was found to be correlated with which of the following?
  2. physical health
  3. subjective well-being
  4. amount of daily exercise
  5. medication use

 

ANS: B

RAT:  Ardelt found that personal wisdom is positively correlated with subjective well-being.

REF:  p. 119 Variations in the Definition of Wisdom

BLM: Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Discuss normal age-related changes to the brain and identify a factor that can mitigate the effects of those changes.

 

ANS: Student answers should include the following:

-the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the parietal lobe all shrink with age

-the size of the brain also decreases

-shrinkage is due to the loss of glial cells and myelin

-neurons may also become smaller, although neuronal loss is not part of normal aging

-in addition to the loss of volume, the sulci become larger and the gyri become smaller

-grey matter decreases throughout adulthood

-white matter actually increases up to about age 50 and then declines

-areas in which white matter decreases vary from person to person

-white matter loss is linked to depression and dementia

-cognitive reserve can mitigate the effect of age-related changes to the brain

 

REF:  p. 90 Changes in Brain Structure with Age

 

 

  1. Describe changes in working memory with age and explain three different theoretical accounts of these changes.

 

ANS: Student answers should include the following:

-the central executive becomes less effective with age, but other aspects of working memory including the phonological loop, the episodic buffer, and the visuospatial sketchpad don’t change

-evidence for changes in the central executive come from digit-span, reading-span, and trail-making experiments

-three prominent explanations for the change in working memory with age are a reduction in processing resources, a reduction in the speed of processing, and difficulty inhibiting irrelevant information

-reduction of processes resources account

-older adults have fewer processing resources than younger adults

-supported by finding that older adults show impaired performance only on tasks that demand a lot of attention

-speed of processing account

-older adults have slower cognitive processing than younger adults

-supported by a body of research that shows that older adults complete tasks more slowly than younger adults, particularly when the task is complex

-inhibition theory

-older adults are less able to inhibit irrelevant information in working memory

-working memory becomes bogged down with irrelevant information and reduces the capacity to complete cognitive processes

REF:  p. 93 Memory Changes in Normal Aging

 

 

  1. Discuss how three aspects of attention change with age.

 

ANS: Student answers should include the following:

Selective attention: selective attention seems impaired when visual search paradigms are used. Impaired performance on Stroop paradigm tasks may be the result of changes in colour vision and does not provide a reliable measure of the effect of aging on selective attention.

Divided attention: older adults show greater impairment under conditions of divided attention than younger adults.

Sustained attention: older adults show decreased performance only on complex vigilance tasks where they make more omission errors (misses) and more commission errors (false alarms)

-older adults appear to have some reduction in their attentional capacity, which impacts performance on difficult selective, divided, and sustained attentional tasks

 

REF:  p. 102 Attentional Changes in Normal Aging

 

 

  1. Discuss the results of research examining the effect of age on language use.

 

ANS: Student answers should include the following:

 

-word-finding difficulties are common in older adults

-older adults are twice as likely to experience the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state as younger adults
-the TOT state represents the only change in semantic memory that appears as people age

-the transmission deficit hypothesis suggests that the TOT state occurs because of a disconnect between the concept for a word and the phonological components of the word; disconnects are argued to be more common in older people

-older adults make fewer left-branching clauses and more right-branching clauses when making conversation

-older adults say “He is very good the man who cuts my husband’s hair” (right-branching) instead of “the man who cuts my husband’s hair is very good” (left-branching)

-the decrease in left-branching clauses likely results from a decline in working memory capacity

-however age does not affect syntactic complexity when the topic at hand is complex and requires reflection

 

  1. Discuss incorrect and correct approaches to communicating with older people.

 

-under-accommodation involves not taking into account ways in which communication must change to accommodate the needs of older people. An example of under-accommodation would be talking to an older person in a noisy room while not maintaining eye contact

-over-accommodation involves using negative stereotypes of older people to guide communication. A common over-accommodation is elderspeak

-elderspeak is a pattern of high-pitched condescending infantilizing speech that caregivers often use when interacting with older people; elderspeak is never appropriate

-when speaking with older adults it is important to avoid elderspeak (which infantilizes older people)

-speak directly to the older person

-speak clearly and slightly more slowly

-avoid noisy situations

-if conveying critical information, present it bit by bit so as not to overwhelm memory

 

REF:  p. 104 Language Changes with Age

 

 

  1. Describe how three lifestyle choices can promote healthy physical and psychological aging.

 

ANS: Student answers should include the following:

  • Cognitive training can improve executive functioning, processing speed, memory, and fluid intelligence
  • Physical exercise and resistance training have been found to improve working memory and overall cognitive functioning
  • A Mediterranean diet can also improve cognition and memory

 

REF:  p. 108 Can Training Modify Age-Related Cognitive Changes; p. 109 Effects of Lifestyle Factors on Cognition

 

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