Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition -James N. Butcher -Test Bank

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Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition -James N. Butcher -Test Bank

Chapter 2:
Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

2.1-1. Archaeology and early writing indicate that the first people to think

that the brain was the site of mental functions were the

  1. ancient Egyptians.
  2. ancient Greeks.
  3. Chinese.
  4. Hebrews.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-1

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. ancient Egyptians.

 

2.1-2. Early writings show that the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks often attributed abnormal behavior to

  1. poor parenting.
  2. physical disease.
  3. demonic possession.
  4. chemical imbalance in the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-2

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. demonic possession.

 

2.1-3. In ancient societies, if a person’s abnormal conduct consisted of speech that appeared to have a religious or mystical significance, then the person was

  1. assumed to have willingly entered into a pact with the devil.
  2. thought to be a witch.
  3. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.
  4. assumed to have something physically wrong with the heart.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-3

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. thought to be possessed by a good spirit or god.

 

2.1-4. Prayer, incantations, and noise-making were all techniques for

  1. altering a person’s brain functioning.
  2. improving a person’s dreams.
  3. helping a person become possessed by good spirits.
  4. exorcising demons.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-4

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. exorcising demons.

 

2.1-5. According to Hippocrates, mental disorders were part of which three general categories?

  1. Schizophrenia, mania, and melancholia.
  2. Schizophrenia, mania, and phrenitis.
  3. Melancholia, mania, and phrenitis.
  4. Melancholia, mania, and anxiety.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-5

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Melancholia, mania, and phrenitis.

 

2.1-6. Each of the following is one of the “four humors” EXCEPT

  1. blood.
  2. phlegm.
  3. phrenitis.
  4. bile.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-6

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. phrenitis.

 

2.1-7. The belief in the four humors as a means of explaining temperament

  1. is inconsistent with a biological explanation for mental illness.
  2. has yet to be disproven.
  3. proposed different proportions of each humor in each individual.
  4. provides that first indication that ancient people recognized the significance of the brain in determining behavior.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-7

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. proposed different proportions of each humor in each individual.

 

2.1-8. The doctrine of the four humors

  1. was an attempt to support moral management.
  2. was an explanation for personality traits.
  3. was an early suggested treatment for melancholy.
  4. was the first psychological explanation of mental disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-8

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. was an explanation for personality traits.

 

2.1-9. According to early beliefs, what would characterize an individual with an excess of blood?

  1. Depression
  2. Schizophrenia
  3. Irritability
  4. Cheerfulness

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-9

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Cheerfulness

 

2.1-10. Hippocrates suggested marriage as a cure for

  1. impotence.
  2. hysteria in women.
  3. phrenitis (brain fever) in men.
  4. melancholia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-10

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. hysteria in women.

 

2.1-11. Cicero was feeling depressed. He sought help from Hippocrates. Hippocrates would probably have

  1. prescribed the roots of certain plants and unusual elixirs.
  2. utilized a talking cure.
  3. prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy.
  4. performed an exorcism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-11

Page Ref: 30

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. prescribed exercise, tranquility, and celibacy.

 

2.1-12. According to your textbook, which mental disorder received the most attention from early scholars?

  1. Phobias
  2. Depression
  3. Schizophrenia
  4. Multiple personality disorder

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-12

Page Ref: 31

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Depression

 

2.1-13. Plato was one of the first to argue for

  1. medical treatment of mental illness.
  2. demonic possession in mental illness.
  3. different punishments for mentally disturbed individuals.
  4. the use of bleeding as a treatment for mental illness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-13

Page Ref: 31

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. different punishments for mentally disturbed individuals.

 

2.1-14. Aristotle believed that

  1. mental disorders could be caused by psychological factors.
  2. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors.
  3. bodily fluids had nothing to do with mental illness.
  4. mental illness was due to demonic possession.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-14

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. mental disorders could not be caused by psychological factors.

 

2.1-15. One of Aristotle’s major contributions to psychology was

  1. his belief that dreams explained most mental disorders.
  2. his theory that psychological disorders were due to psychological rather than physical factors.
  3. his description of personality traits.
  4. his description of consciousness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-15

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. his description of consciousness.

 

2.1-16. The physicians of Alexandria, Egypt, in the era after Alexander the Great were most likely to treat mental patients by

  1. putting them in prisons.
  2. using brutal forms of exorcism.
  3. having them make sacrifices to gods.
  4. providing activities, massage, and education.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-16

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. providing activities, massage, and education.

 

2.1-17. What is Galen credited with?

  1. Providing the first biological explanation for mental disorders
  2. Performing the first human autopsies
  3. Demonstrating that the doctrine of the four humors was flawed
  4. Recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-17

Page Ref: 32

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes

 

2.1-18. Chung Ching wrote two well-known medical works around A.D. 200 and has been referred to as the ____________ of China.

  1. Aristotle
  2. Galen
  3. Plato
  4. Hippocrates

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-18

Page Ref: 33

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Hippocrates.

 

2.1-19. Compared to the West, in the Chinese “Dark Ages,” views of mental illness

  1. began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients.
  2. began at a less sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although they regressed earlier and with a more negative reaction to patients.
  3. always believed that mental illness was due to supernatural forces. This belief is still prevalent in China.
  4. were always more sophisticated than the West; the focus was always on medical causes and humane treatment.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-19

Page Ref: 33

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients.

 

2.1-20. Which statement about treatment of abnormal behavior in the Middle Ages is accurate?

  1. Although the Hippocratic tradition was continued in most of Europe, Islamic countries emphasized demonology.
  2. Scientific reasoning and humane treatments were valued in both European and Islamic societies.
  3. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches.
  4. The Chinese emphasized prayer, the Europeans emphasized exercise, and the Islamic peoples emphasized balancing the four bodily humors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-20

Page Ref: 33

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Islamic forms of treatment were more humane than European approaches.

 

2.1-21. The approaches to treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages in Europe are best characterized as

  1. superstitious.
  2. humane.
  3. medical.
  4. scientific.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-21

Page Ref: 33

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. superstitious.

 

2.1-22. What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?

  1. Belief in theology was declining.
  2. Approaches to mental disorders were becoming increasingly scientific.
  3. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.
  4. Humane treatments were developed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-22

Page Ref: 33

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.

 

2.1-23. What is “mass madness”?

  1. An exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to be caused by hysteria
  2. A reaction to the harsh and inhumane treatment of the mentally ill during the Middle Ages
  3. A reference to the increased incidence of schizophrenia seen 16 years after a flu epidemic
  4. A reaction to hallucinogenic compounds taken as part of religious rituals in ancient Egypt

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-23

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. An exhibition of disordered behavior by a group of people that appears to

be caused by hysteria

 

2.1-24. What is lycanthropy?

  1. A form of mass hysteria characterized by wild dance-like movements
  2. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves
  3. A form of mass madness seen only in men
  4. A form of mass hysteria now known to have been drug-induced

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-24

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. A condition in which people believe themselves to be possessed by wolves

 

2.1-25. The fact that episodes of mass madness peaked at the time of the Black Death illustrates that

  1. mass hysteria usually has a biological basis.
  2. mental and physical illnesses commonly occur together.
  3. phenomena that impact the society and its structure may also affect mental health.
  4. mental illnesses really are caused by imbalances in the four bodily humors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-25

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. phenomena that impact the society and its structure may also affect mental health.

 

2.1-26. In 1983, a large group of West Bank Palestinian girls showed signs of illness. Some thought they were poisoned, but later it was discovered that psychological factors played a key role in most cases. This incident best illustrates

  1. St. Vitus’s dance.
  2. exorcism.
  3. lycanthropy.
  4. mass madness.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-26

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. mass madness.

 

2.1-27. The disorder Koro, where males fear that their genitals have retracted into their body, possibly leading to death, is similar to the episodes of mass madness during the Black Death because

  1. both demonstrated that mass madness is primarily a physiological disorder.
  2. both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people.
  3. both demonstrated that the responses of other people to the person with mass madness determines whether the person will recover.
  4. both demonstrated that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to discover the cause of mass madness.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-27

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. both demonstrated the effect that sociocultural stressors can have on mental functioning of large groups of people.

 

2.1-28. A common treatment for mental illness during the Middle Ages in Europe was

  1. exorcism.
  2. fresh air and supportive surroundings.
  3. banishment.
  4. an early form of psychoanalytic dream interpretation.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-28

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. exorcism.

 

2.1-29. Recent historical reviews of the literature indicate that the typical accused witch in the Middle Ages in Europe was

  1. a person we would now consider to have a mental illness.
  2. a priest who was a rival of a more powerful priest.
  3. an ill-tempered, impoverished woman.
  4. a person we would now consider to have mental retardation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-29

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. an ill-tempered, impoverished woman.

 

2.1-30. People in the Middle Ages

  1. believed that mentally ill people were witches.
  2. believed that witches were mentally ill.
  3. believed that mentally ill witches should be treated differently than other types of witches.
  4. believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-30

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. believed that most witches and mentally ill people were possessed by demons, but in different ways.

 

2.1-31. During the Middle Ages in Europe, which of the following was most likely to treat mental illness?

  1. a priest
  2. a physician
  3. a scientist
  4. a surgeon

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-31

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. a priest

 

2.1-32. Exorcism is

  1. still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological problems, sometimes with fatal results.
  2. a religious rite that is no longer used for the treatment of psychological problems.
  3. a symbolic act that can still be useful in changing psychological functioning.
  4. a treatment that, throughout history, was never a very popular method of treating psychological problems.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-32

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. still occasionally practiced today for the treatment of psychological

problems, sometimes with fatal results.

 

2.1-33. The emergence of humanism brought about changes in all of the following

EXCEPT

  1. an increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior.
  2. scientific questioning.
  3. more humane treatment.
  4. fewer superstitious beliefs about demonic possession.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-33

Page Ref: 35

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. an increase in the belief in supernatural causes of behavior.

 

2.1-34. Johann Weyer, in the early 1500s,

  1. was a popularly accepted writer who argued that mental illness was due to demon possession.
  2. was a popularly accepted writer who argued that mental illness was due to imbalances in the four humors.
  3. wrote a book that was condemned by many, arguing that many witches were actually mentally ill.
  4. wrote a book that was scorned by many, arguing that mental illness was due to bodily magnetism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-34

Page Ref: 35

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. wrote a book that was condemned by many, arguing that many witches were actually mentally ill.

 

2.1-35. Who was one of the first physicians in the early 1500s to criticize the idea that mental illness was due to demon possession (although he did believe the moon influenced the brain)?

  1. Paracelsus
  2. Galen
  3. Pinel
  4. Hippocrates

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-35

Page Ref: 35

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Paracelsus

 

2.1-36. What was the purpose of the early asylums?

  1. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society
  2. To provide exorcisms
  3. To offer humanitarian treatment to those afflicted with mental illnesses
  4. To offer biological approaches to the treatment of mental disorders

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-36

Page Ref: 35

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. To remove those who could not care for themselves from society

 

2.1-37. How did early treatment of mental patients in the United States compare to that offered in Europe?

  1. Treatment in the United States was more humanitarian.
  2. It was comparable to that offered in Europe.
  3. The techniques employed were more scientifically based than those used in Europe.
  4. The treatment approaches used in the United States were more effective than those used in Europe.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-37

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. It was comparable to that offered in Europe.

 

2.1-38. If you visited an asylum in the 16th Century in Europe you would likely find

  1. a place which mixed together the mentally ill, the poor, criminals, and the physically ill.
  2. exorcisms being done by priests.
  3. a place where people were given good food, work, and rest so they could recover.
  4. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-38

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. mentally ill people living in conditions of filth and cruelty.

 

2.1-39. The early asylums

  1. were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill.
  2. were designed to be places of refuge for the mentally ill.
  3. were designed to treat the mentally ill with physiological treatments, such as bloodletting.
  4. were similar to the places the early Greeks used for people with mental illness.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-39

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill.

 

2.1-40. Shackling a patient to a wall with little food or heat would be most typical of

  1. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.
  2. the sanatoriums of Alexandria, Egypt.
  3. the early asylums in Europe.
  4. the treatment advocated by Hippocrates.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-40

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the early asylums in Europe.

 

2.1-41. “Bedlam” in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that

  1. treated the mentally ill with physiological treatments.
  2. exhibited their patients for profit.
  3. viewed themselves as religious houses for the demonically possessed.
  4. allowed patients a lot of freedom.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-41

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. exhibited their patients for profit.

 

2.1-42. In the United States, an early treatment involved the belief that

  1. patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly.
  2. patients were demonically possessed and needed to be made uncomfortable to get the demons to leave.
  3. patients were medically ill and needed physiological treatments.
  4. patients were basically animals and were treated as such.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-42

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. patients needed to choose rationality over insanity and treatments were

designed to intimidate patients into choosing correctly.

 

2.1-43. Humanitarian treatment would be most typical of

  1. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.
  2. Bedlam.
  3. the early asylums in Europe.
  4. the early asylums in the United States.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-43

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the hospitals run by Philippe Pinel.

 

2.1-44. There is some debate about whether Philippe Pinel

  1. was the first person to remove chains from mental patients in a French mental hospital.
  2. was the first person to refute the idea of witchcraft as an explanation for abnormal behavior.
  3. supported Mesmer’s ideas of animal magnetism and hypnosis.
  4. approved of the use of bleeding, beatings, and imprisonment for mental patients.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-44

Page Ref: 37

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. was the first person to remove chains from mental patients in a French

mental hospital.

 

2.1-45. Philippe Pinel

  1. believed that mental illness was due to possession by demons and exorcism was the only useful treatment.
  2. believed that mental patients needed to choose rationality over insanity, so treatment was aimed at making their lives as patients uncomfortable.
  3. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such – with kindness and caring.
  4. believed that mental illness was purely a physiological phenomena, and could only be treated by physical means such as bloodletting.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-45

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such –

with kindness and caring.

 

2.1-46. A contemporary of Pinel’s in England who started a Quaker religious retreat for the mentally ill was

  1. John Wesley.
  2. Benjamin Rush.
  3. Dorothea Dix.
  4. William Tuke.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-46

Page Ref: 37

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. William Tuke.

 

2.1-47. Which of the following is credited with continuing the work of Pinel in the United States?

  1. John Wesley
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. John Connolly
  4. Samuel Hitch

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-47

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Benjamin Rush

 

2.1-48. Benjamin Rush is credited with all of the following EXCEPT

  1. signing the Declaration of Independence.
  2. encouraging more humane treatment of the mentally ill.
  3. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders.
  4. being the first American to organize a course in psychiatry.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-48

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. taking a scientific approach to the study and treatment of mental disorders.

 

2.1-49. Benjamin Rush, who encouraged more humane treatment of the mentally ill in the United States, used as his principal remedies

  1. rest and talk.
  2. bloodletting and the tranquilizer chair.
  3. exorcism and purging.
  4. the tranquilizer chair and relaxation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-49

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. bloodletting and the tranquilizer chair.

 

2.1-50. Who is considered the founder of American psychiatry?

  1. William Tuke
  2. Dorothea Dix
  3. Benjamin Rush
  4. Clifford Beers

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-50

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Benjamin Rush

 

2.1-51. The moral management treatment

  1. focused on the physiological problems that mental patients supposedly had rather than their mental state.
  2. focused on the symptoms that mental patients had rather than on their moral character.
  3. focused on warehousing and punishing mental patients, so that they would choose to become well.
  4. focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-51

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather

than their disorder.

 

2.1-52. All of the following were likely to be part of moral treatment in the 1800s

EXCEPT

  1. manual labor.
  2. spiritual discussions.
  3. character development.
  4. antipsychotic medication.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-52

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. antipsychotic medication.

 

2.1-53. The level of success achieved with the use of moral management is surprising

because

  1. most mental illnesses are not treatable.
  2. the drugs used were usually inappropriate.
  3. the majority of those hospitalized for mental illness were schizophrenic.
  4. many patients suffered from syphilis that was, at the time, incurable.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-53

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. many patients suffered from syphilis that was, at the time, incurable.

 

2.1-54. Which of the following was a form of treatment that addressed a patient’s social, individual, and occupational needs?

  1. Moral management
  2. The treatments provided at the Geel Shrine
  3. Anton Mesmer’s approach to treating the mentally ill
  4. The treatment started by the Nancy School

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-54

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Moral management

 

2.1-55. Which of the following contributed to the virtual absence of moral management by the nineteenth century?

  1. The fact that it was rarely effective in treating the mentally ill
  2. The shrinking of the size of most mental hospitals
  3. Society’s displeasure with the idea that mentally ill people were morally inferior
  4. Advances in biomedical science

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-55

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Advances in biomedical science

 

2.1-56. Which of the following approaches to treatment focuses almost exclusively on physical well-being?

  1. Moral management
  2. Mental hygiene
  3. Humanitarian
  4. Deinstitutionalization

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-56

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Mental hygiene

 

2.1-57. Which of the following was a consequence of the rise of the mental hygiene

movement and the occurrence of biomedical advances?

  1. The social and psychological environments of mental patients were ignored.
  2. Biological causes for most mental disorders were identified.
  3. Physical comfort was neglected.
  4. Most humanitarian gains were lost.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-57

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The social and psychological environments of mental patients were ignored.

 

2.1-58. The demise of moral management occurred for all of the following reasons

EXCEPT

  1. research showed that it had never been effective.
  2. the rise of the moral hygiene movement put a focus on patient well-being.
  3. the rise of biological explanations diminished the importance of the social environment.
  4. hospital facilities got so large that it was difficult to maintain the staff-patient relationships necessary for moral management.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-58

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. research showed that it had never been effective.

 

2.1-59. Dorothea Dix

  1. urged that religious conversion was a primary means of treatment for the mentally disturbed.
  2. was a major impediment to the mental hygiene movement in this country.
  3. was a leading force in the emphasis on finding biological cures for mental disorders.
  4. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-59

Page Ref: 39

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.

 

2.1-60. Which one of the following increased the availability of treatment for the mentally ill in the United States?

  1. Dorothea Dix
  2. Benjamin Rush
  3. Emil Kraepelin
  4. Philippe Pinel

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-60

Page Ref: 39

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Dorothea Dix

 

2.1-61. The work of Dorothea Dix has been criticized for

  1. interfering with the provision of moral therapy.
  2. increasing the use of unproven treatment approaches.
  3. popularizing humanitarian approaches.
  4. preventing the development of biomedical approaches to mental illness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-61

Page Ref: 39

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. interfering with the provision of moral therapy.

 

2.1-62. In the early nineteenth century, psychiatrists were referred to as

  1. alienists.
  2. lunatics.
  3. soothsayers.
  4. purgatists.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-62

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. alienists.

 

2.1-63. Imagine that it is 1885. A man complains of “shattered nerves.” He is lacking in energy and shows low mood. Physicians specializing in mental conditions

(alienists) would likely consider this person

  1. a morally deficient individual.
  2. as suffering from neurasthenia.
  3. as suffering from hysteria.
  4. as untreatable because the condition was biological.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-63

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. as suffering from neurasthenia.

 

2.1-64. During the late nineteenth century, alienists

  1. focused on removing evil demons from the psyche.
  2. employed techniques such as drugging, restraint, and bleeding.
  3. did not view mental illnesses as treatable.
  4. incorporated moral management therapy into treatments.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-64

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. incorporated moral management therapy into treatments.

 

2.1-65. The “neurasthenia” recognized in the 1800s resembles today’s diagnosis of

  1. anxiety.
  2. schizophrenia.
  3. bipolar disorder.
  4. depression.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-65

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. depression.

 

2.1-66. By the end of the nineteenth century

  1. effective treatments had been developed for many forms of mental illness.
  2. little was known about most mental illnesses.
  3. asylums were recognized as humanitarian institutions that served an important function.
  4. most mental hospitals effectively addressed the physical needs of patients, but ignored other needs.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-66

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. little was known about most mental illnesses.

 

2.1-67. At the start of the twentieth century in America, public attitudes toward the

mentally ill

  1. had become enlightened and humane.
  2. associated mental disorder with “tainted genes” and divine retribution.
  3. had become a conviction that the mentally ill were incurable and should be

executed or jailed for the rest of their lives.

  1. were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-67

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. were characterized by fear, horror, and ignorance.

 

2.1-68. What is Clifford Beers known for?

  1. He developed the first effective antidepressant.
  2. His efforts lead to the establishment of over thirty mental hospitals.
  3. He vigorously rejected the Victorian idea that sexual fantasies caused mental disorders.
  4. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-68

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received.

 

2.1-69. During the early twentieth century,

  1. more asylums and mental hospitals were established.
  2. most of the institutionalized mentally ill received moral therapy.
  3. hospital stays tended to be brief.
  4. housed very few people.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-69

Page Ref: 41

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. more asylums and mental hospitals were established.

 

2.1-70. During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as

  1. effective.
  2. humane.
  3. moral.
  4. punitive.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-70

Page Ref: 41

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. punitive.

 

2.1-71. Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?

  1. The publication of A Mind That Found Itself
  2. The publication of The Snake Pit
  3. The research funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health
  4. The passage of the Community Health Services act

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-71

Page Ref: 41

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. The publication of The Snake Pit

 

2.1-72. The Hill-Burton Act

  1. ended the moral hygiene movement.
  2. contributed to the practice of warehousing the mentally ill.
  3. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community.
  4. legislated the creation of 50% more inpatient facilities for the mentally ill.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-72

Page Ref: 41

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. provided funding for mental health treatment in the community.

 

2.1-73. Which of the following occurred in the late twentieth century?

  1. The establishment of large inpatient facilities for the mentally ill
  2. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community
  3. Dramatic increases in the cost of caring for the mentally ill
  4. The inpatient mentally ill population doubled

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-73

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. A movement of the mentally ill from institutions to the community

 

2.1-74. Medications for psychological disorders

  1. were first used centuries ago.
  2. were first used only recently.
  3. still currently use some ancient ingredients, such as “mummy powder.”
  4. made the search for the causes of disorders more difficult.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-74

Page Ref: 45

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. were first used centuries ago.

 

2.1-75. The rationale behind deinstitutionalization was

  1. a belief that physicians could better medicate and give physical treatment to patients in their own homes.
  2. a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world.
  3. a belief that most mental patients were faking and would cease to do so if they were not “rewarded” by allowing them to stay in the hospital.
  4. a concern that mental hospitals were such unpleasant places that for mental patients, living on their own could only be better.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-75

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world.

 

2.1-76. Which of the following was a reason for the growth of the deinstitutionalization movement?

  1. A desire to involve the family in the care of the mentally ill.
  2. It was thought to be more humane.
  3. New medications were not successful.
  4. It was less cost effective than institutionalization.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-76

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. it was thought to be more humane.

 

2.1-77. Which of the following was an effect of the deinstitutionalization movement?

  1. A large number of psychiatric hospitals remained open.
  2. Mental hospital populations were re-institutionalized in medical hospitals.
  3. Most of the services once offered on an inpatient basis were available at community health centers.
  4. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-77

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Some of those released would have been better off remaining hospitalized.

 

2.1-78. Which of the following individuals is credited with emphasizing the link between brain pathology and mental illness?

  1. Dix.
  2. Skinner.
  3. Bandura.
  4. Kraepelin.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-78

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Kraepelin.

 

2.1-79. The insanity associated with general paresis

  1. has no known physical cause.
  2. is caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
  3. is seen only in the aging who have compromised health.
  4. results from an infection of the brain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-79

Page Ref: 43

Topic The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. results from an infection of the brain.

 

2.1-80. Why was malarial therapy effective in treating general paresis?

  1. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.
  2. General paresis was caused by malaria, and malarial therapy triggered an immune response that destroyed the existing infection.
  3. Malarial therapy prevented the syphilis spirochetes from entering the brain.
  4. There is no known treatment for general paresis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-80

Page Ref: 43

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. The fever that was induced killed off the cause of the observed symptoms.

 

2.1-81. Which of the following is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in

psychopathology because it established the link between mental and physical illnesses?

  1. the discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)
  2. the discovery of penicillin as a cure for syphilis
  3. the development of electroshock therapy for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)
  4. the discovery that brain injuries could be associated with mental disorders

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-81

Page Ref: 43

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic

insanity)

 

2.1-82. The use of malarial fever to treat paresis

  1. is an example of the barbaric treatment that mental patients received at the beginning of the twentieth century.
  2. proved to be so ineffectual that many professionals abandoned the biological explanation of mental disorders.
  3. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine.
  4. was the first time scientists used knowledge of brain chemistry to develop specific drugs for treating mental disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-82

Page Ref: 43

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. represented the first clear-cut defeat of a mental disorder by medicine.

 

2.1-83. Which one of the following is credited with developing a classification system for mental disorders?

  1. Dix
  2. Pinel
  3. Alzheimer
  4. Kraepelin

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-83

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Kraepelin

 

2.1-84. Kraepelin is credited with

  1. discovering that penicillin was an effective treatment for malaria.
  2. determining the cause of senile dementia.
  3. identifying different types of mental disorders.
  4. writing the first edition of the DSM.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-84

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. identifying different types of mental disorders.

 

2.1-85. The first classification of mental disorders involved

  1. identifying the biological causes of the disorders, so a person could be tested for them.
  2. understanding the theoretical descriptions of different disorders.
  3. recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder.
  4. identifying the types of thoughts that people with different mental illnesses tended to have.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-85

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. recognizing symptoms that occurred together often enough to be regarded as a type of mental disorder.

 

2.1-86. The ancestral roots of what we now know as psychoanalysis can be traced back to

  1. the study of hypnosis.
  2. early beliefs in demonology and possession.
  3. the discovery of the cause of general paresis.
  4. Dorothea Dix.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-86

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the study of hypnosis.

 

2.1-87. Mesmer was a proponent of

  1. humanitarianism.
  2. community mental health clinics.
  3. the mental hygiene movement.
  4. the power of animal magnetism.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-87

Page Ref: 45

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the power of animal magnetism.

 

2.1-88. Freud and Breuer proposed that allowing patients to discuss their problems under hypnosis would provide a therapeutic emotional release. What is this emotional release called?

  1. free association
  2. catharsis
  3. dream analysis
  4. mesmerism

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-88

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. catharsis

 

2.1-89. The study of hypnosis and its relationship to hysteria was the starting point for

  1. the medical model.
  2. the biological classification of mental disorders.
  3. psychoanalysis.
  4. the mental hygiene movement.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-89

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. psychoanalysis.

 

2.1-90. The physicians of the Nancy School

  1. opposed the use of hypnotism.
  2. demonstrated the power of suggestion.
  3. found that hypnotism was not effective in the treatment of any mental illnesses.
  4. believed that hysteria was the result of brain degeneration.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-90

Page Ref: 46

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. demonstrated the power of suggestion.

 

2.1-91. The Nancy School

  1. advanced the recognition that psychological factors were involved in the development of mental disorders.
  2. furthered our understanding of the role of biological factors in the development of mental illness.
  3. fell out of favor when the evidence supporting the views of Charcot accumulated.
  4. failed to recognize that most forms of psychopathology are incurable.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-91

Page Ref: 46

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. advanced the recognition that psychological factors were involved in the

development of mental disorders.

 

2.1-92. The Nancy School/Charcot debate is best described as one that focuses on

  1. biology vs. genes.
  2. learning vs. nurture.
  3. drugs vs. surgery.
  4. psychology vs. biology.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-92

Page Ref: 46

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. psychology vs. biology.

 

2.1-93. In 1893, Breuer and Freud published a paper on hysteria. In it they announced that

  1. unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders.
  2. hysteria was caused by hypnosis.
  3. hysteria and hypnosis were both the result of neurological abnormalities.
  4. many forms of mental disorder are the conscious result of seeking attention from others.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-93

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. unconscious factors can determine behavior and produce mental disorders.

 

2.1-94. Freud is the first to describe the ________: that the mind could contain

information of which it is unaware, but by which it is still affected.

  1. catharsis
  2. unconscious
  3. hysteria
  4. operant conditioning

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-94

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. unconscious

 

2.1-95. A catharsis is

  1. a type of hypnosis.
  2. an emotional release.
  3. the part of the brain where the unconscious exists.
  4. a type of hysteria.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-95

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. an emotional release.

 

2.1-96. Free association and dream analysis

  1. are techniques typically used in hypnotized subjects.
  2. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious.
  3. were developed in the early 1800s.
  4. have been used extensively in behavioral therapy.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-96

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. provide insight into the workings of the unconscious.

 

2.1-97. Who established the first experimental psychology laboratory?

  1. Wundt
  2. Watson
  3. Freud
  4. Kraepelin

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-97

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Wundt

 

2.1-98. Witmer is credited with

  1. establishing psychology as a field in the United States.
  2. bringing psychoanalysis to the United States.
  3. writing the first psychology text.
  4. being the founder of clinical psychology.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-98

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. being the founder of clinical psychology.

 

2.1-99. Behaviorism was

  1. a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis.
  2. a reaction to the lack of moral and spiritual factors in most theories at the time.
  3. an attempt to focus on the thinking styles of people with mental illness.
  4. a spin-off theory that elaborated on the psychoanalytic viewpoint.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-99

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor

in psychoanalysis.

 

2.1-100. A behavioral psychologist would be most likely to use

  1. hypnotism.
  2. observational techniques.
  3. free association.
  4. dream analysis.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-100

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. observational techniques.

 

2.1-101. A psychologist who takes a behavioral perspective would focus on

  1. learning.
  2. early experiences.
  3. unconscious conflicts.
  4. the role of dreams.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-101

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. learning.

 

2.1-102. Who is considered to be the “father” of behaviorism?

  1. Pavlov
  2. Freud
  3. Wundt
  4. Watson

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-102

Page Ref: 50

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Watson

 

2.1-103. The central principle of classical conditioning is that

  1. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.
  2. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.
  3. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
  4. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-103

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. after repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally causes a response, a

neutral stimulus will cause a similar response.

 

2.1-104. The role of learning is the central theme in

  1. Breuer’s approach to treating people with mental disorders.
  2. Wundt’s approach to psychological research.
  3. the psychoanalytic approach.
  4. the behavioral perspective.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.1-104

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. the behavioral perspective.

 

2.1-105. Both ________ and ________ studied the effects of consequences on the

occurrence of behaviors.

  1. Skinner; Pavlov
  2. Pavlov; Thorndike
  3. Thorndike; Skinner
  4. Pavlov; Freud

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.1-105

Page Ref: 49

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Thorndike; Skinner

 

2.1-106. The central principle of operant conditioning is that

  1. certain reflexes cause us to engage in habitual behavior.
  2. we repeat those actions that we see others engage in.
  3. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
  4. the interaction of genetics and social factors best explains human behavior.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.1-106

Page Ref: 49

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

2.21. ____________was the affliction in the Middle Ages in which people believed

themselves to be possessed by wolves.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-1

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: Lycanthropy

 

2.2-2. ______________ was the person who revolutionized moral management in the

treatment of mental patients in the late 1700s.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-2

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Benjamin Rush

 

2.2-3. __________________is the process of moving mental patients from the hospital to the community.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.2-3

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Deinstitutionalization

 

2.2-4. The surgical procedure used by physicians that initially used an ice pick to treat severe mental disorder is a __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.2-4

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: lobotomy

 

Short Answer Questions

 

2.3-1. What was the most common explanation for abnormal behavior among many

ancient peoples including the Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-1

Page Ref: 29

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: The most common explanation was possession by a demon or a god.

 

2.3-2. What is tarantism?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-2

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: Tarantism is a form of “mass madness” characterized by wild dancing. The

behavior came to be viewed as a

consequence of having been bitten by a tarantula.

 

2.3-3. How did people in the Middle Ages view physical and spiritual possession differently?

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 2.3-3

Page Ref: 34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: People who experienced physical possession were mentally ill, those who

experienced spiritual possession were witches.

 

2.3-4. What was Bedlam?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-4

Page Ref: 36

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Bedlam was an asylum in London that became well known for its deplorable

conditions and practices. It was typical of many asylums of the sixteenth century that

served primarily as storage facilities for the mentally ill.

 

2.3-5. Who was Benjamin Rush?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-5

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Benjamin Rush is credited with encouraging the use of more humane treatment

of the mentally ill in the United States. He was the first American to organize a course in

psychiatry, and, although some of his practices may have been less than humane, he is

recognized as a transitional figure between the poor treatment of the old era and the

humane approaches of the new.

 

2.3-6. What was moral management?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-6

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Moral management was an approach to the care of the mentally ill that

emerged in the early part of the period of humanitarian reform. It focused on addressing

the patient’s social, individual, and occupational needs.

 

2.3-7. What contributions did Dorothea Dix make to the treatment of the mentally ill?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-7

Page Ref: 39

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Applied

Answer: Between 1841 and 1881 Dorothea Dix brought to light the inhuman treatment

the mentally ill usually received and persuaded legislatures to fund the building of many

mental hospitals. She is credited with improving conditions in American hospitals,

establishing 32 mental hospitals, and fostering the growth of the mental hygiene

movement in the United States.

 

2.3-8. Who was Clifford Beers?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-8

Page Ref: 40

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: A former mental patient who wrote about his experiences in the institutions of

his time. He helped change the attitude about the mentally ill and their treatment.

 

2.3-9. What was the attitude about hospitalization of the mentally ill during the later decades of the twentieth century?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-9

Page Ref: 42

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: It is preferable to treat people in the community, and treatment should be

deinstitutionalized, although it is not the perfect solution it was once thought to be.

 

2.3-10. Why was the discovery of the malarial treatment for general paresis important?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-10

Page Ref: 43

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: It was the first scientifically demonstrated connection between a mental

illness and brain pathology.

 

2.3-11. Who was Emil Kraepelin?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-11

Page Ref: 44

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: The first to recognize that certain symptoms occurred regularly together and

to begin the classification of mental disorders.

 

2.3-12. What contribution to our thinking about abnormal behavior did Freud and

Breuer make?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-12

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: They made the discovery of the unconscious and argued that processes

outside the person’s awareness could help determine behavior. They showed that

emotional tensions that patients were not aware of could cause hysteria.

 

2.3-13. Who was Wilhelm Wundt?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 2.3-13

Page Ref: 47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: The man who established the first experimental psychology laboratory.

 

2.3-14. What is the central theme of the behavioral perspective?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.3-14

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The role of learning in human behavior.

 

Essay Questions

 

2.4-1. Abnormal behavior often has been attributed to the influence of supernatural

forces. Describe how these forces were used to explain abnormal behavior during

various time periods and the treatments that resulted.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.4-1

Page Ref: 29, 33-34

Topic: Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: Early writings of the Egyptians, Chinese, Hebrews, and Greeks show they

attributed such behavior to possession by a demon or god. This was treated by exorcism.

In the Middle Ages, the clergy were largely responsible for treatment because

possession was considered causal. In fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe, witchcraft

became another related explanation for which torture, burning, and other such methods

were used. Recent historical analyses, however, suggest that the mentally ill may not

have been taken to be witches, as was often once thought. Even in contemporary culture,

one can find those who believe that supernatural forces cause psychological problems.

Exorcisms are still occasionally practiced. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total, 5

points each for a discussion of the use of supernatural explanations during two different

time periods.

 

2.4-2. What was moral management? What caused its near abandonment in the second part of the nineteenth century?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.4-2

Page Ref: 38

Topic: Toward Humanitarian Approaches

Skill: Factual

Answer: Moral management was a broad treatment that included a patient’s social,

individual, and occupational needs. The moral and spiritual development of patients was

a focus. More emphasis was placed on patients’ character than on their disorder. Typical

treatments were spiritual discussion and manual labor. It was surprisingly effective. It

was abandoned because of changing attitudes toward the mentally ill and the increasing

size of hospitals. The mental hygiene movement and advances in biomedical science

also contributed to its decrease in popularity. The focus on physical and biological

explanations and care meant that other factors in a patient’s life were considered

irrelevant. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total, 5 for each part of the question.

 

2.4-3. Explain how the link between the brain and mental disorders was first established.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.4-3

Page Ref: 43

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: While Hippocrates and others had long proposed that mental disorders had

some physical cause, it was not until the 1800s that a clear link between a physical

disease process and mental illness was established. This finding then paved the way for

further exploration of how brain malfunctions could result in mental illness. General

paresis was an illness that produced paralysis, insanity, and, typically, death within two

to five years. This mental illness was recognized as a specific type of mental disorder in

  1. Thus, it was recognized as a unique disorder, and attempts could then be made to

treat it. It was eventually recognized that this illness was caused by syphilis. This is the

first documented link between an identifiable brain infection and mental illness. With

this finding, and the rising influence of modern experimental science, the investigation

of brain pathology as the cause of mental illness began in earnest. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total.

 

2.4-4. What was the dispute between Charcot and the Nancy School? Why is this

significant?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.4-4

Page Ref: 46-47

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The Nancy School, named for the town of Nancy in France, refers to a group

of physicians who believed that hysteria was a form of self-hypnosis. In other words,

they believed that hysteria had a psychological cause. They came to this conclusion as it

was observed that the symptoms of hysteria could be both produced and removed by

means of hypnosis. Charcot, a neurologist, had not been able to replicate the findings of

the Nancy School and argued that degenerative brain changes led to hysteria. The

dispute between Charcot and the Nancy School was a debate about the cause of hysteria (i.e., biological or psychological). In the end, the view of the Nancy

School was accepted. This is said to represent the first recognition of a psychologically

caused mental disorder. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total, 4 points for stating the

dispute, 2 points for explaining why it developed, 4 points for explaining its

significance.

 

2.4-5. Describe classical conditioning.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 2.4-5

Page Ref: 48

Topic: The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is

paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total.

 

Chapter 16: Therapy

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

16.1-1. In what way does therapy differ from simply talking to a friend or family member about a problem?

  1. Therapy takes time, while a friend’s guidance is more likely to lead to a “quick fix” of the problem.
  2. Friends provide empathy, while a professional therapist does not.
  3. A therapist’s interaction with a client is guided by theory.
  4. Therapists will seek to determine the underlying issues that have created the problem.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-1

Page Ref: 549

Topic: Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. A therapist’s interaction with a client is guided by theory.

 

16.1-2. Which of the following is a disadvantage of psychotherapy?

  1. It is ineffective in treating severe mental disorders.
  2. It takes time.
  3. It is significantly more expensive than all other forms of treatment.
  4. It is generally less effective than talking out your problems with a friend or family member.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-2

Page Ref: 549

Topic: An Overview of Treatment

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. It takes time.

 

16.1-3. What recent changes have altered the types of therapy that are available?

  1. There is an increased need to prove that therapy is effective.
  2. Psychiatrists are hesitant to write prescriptions for many drugs.
  3. The increased use of nurses as therapy providers has increased the use of drugs in many community health settings.
  4. Many popular therapies have been found to do more harm than good.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-3

Page Ref: 549

Topic: An Overview of Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. There is an increased need to prove that therapy is effective.

 

16.1-4. Which of the following statements about therapy is TRUE?

  1. Even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy.
  2. Few therapies have been found to be effective.
  3. Therapy is usually the most expensive approach to a problem.
  4. Each therapist has his or her own approach to therapy and does not alter this approach for different clients.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-4

Page Ref: 550

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Why Do People Seek Therapy?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy.

 

16.1-5. Individuals vary tremendously in their degree of motivation for psychological treatment. Which of the following is likely to be the most motivated?

  1. Harvey, who is going through a job layoff and feels overwhelmed by the crisis.
  2. Jennifer, who was referred by the court to undergo therapy because of a drunk driving charge.
  3. Marvin, whose wife has said she will divorce him unless he gets treatment for his compulsive gambling.
  4. Barry, who is sure he has a heart condition but whose cardiologist suggests he needs psychotherapy to cope with stress better.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-5

Page Ref: 549-550

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Why Do People Seek Therapy?

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Harvey, who is going through a job layoff and feels overwhelmed by the crisis.

 

16.1-6. Which person described below is the “typical” client in psychotherapy?

  1. A middle-aged woman with a long history of psychotic behavior
  2. An attractive and verbal college student
  3. A man who has been coerced into treatment by the legal system
  4. There is no “typical” client

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-6

Page Ref: 550

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Why Do People Seek Therapy?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. There is no “typical” client

 

16.1-7. Which of the following is the best example of a “model” therapy session?

  1. A child with ADHD is taught ways to filter out distractions.
  2. A woman with an anxiety disorder is taught relaxation techniques.
  3. An alcoholic sees a therapist, attends AA meetings, and is taking an antidepressant medication.
  4. There is no “model” therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-7

Page Ref: 550

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Why Do People Seek Therapy?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. There is no “model” therapy.

 

16.1-8. What two professional groups deal extensively with emotional problems but typically do not have specific training in counseling?

  1. Physicians and the clergy
  2. Physicians and psychiatrists
  3. The clergy and psychiatric social workers
  4. Psychiatrists and the clergy

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-8

Page Ref: 550

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Who Provides Psychotherapeutic Services?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Physicians and the clergy

 

16.1-9. In general, psychiatrists tend to treat mental disorders by ________ and psychologists by ________.

  1. examining and changing behavior and thought patterns; prescribing medications
  2. prescribing medications; examining and changing behavior and thought patterns
  3. supportive therapy; behavior therapy
  4. hospitalization; supportive therapy

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-9

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Who Provides Psychotherapeutic Services?

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. prescribing medications; examining and changing behavior and thought patterns

 

16.1-10. The current practice of providing treatment stresses

  1. the value of confining a patient to a mental hospital.
  2. the individual’s responsibility for finding a personal solution to his or her problems.
  3. the coordination of services in the community.
  4. turning over to the patient’s family the responsibility for behavior change.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-10

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/Who Provides Psychotherapeutic Services?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. the coordination of services in the community.

 

16.1-11. Which of the following is believed to be essential for effective treatment?

  1. A warm and loving relationship between the therapist and client
  2. Family involvement
  3. Client reliance on the therapist for direction and guidance
  4. Agreement between the client and therapist about the goals of treatment

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-11

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/The Therapeutic Relationship

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Agreement between the client and therapist about the goals of treatment

 

16.1-12. The outcome of psychotherapy is usually dependent on whether the therapist and client achieve

  1. a certain similarity of personal style.
  2. mutual self-disclosure.
  3. an explicit therapeutic contract.
  4. a productive working alliance.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-12

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/The Therapeutic Relationship

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. a productive working alliance.

 

16.1-13. Which of the following is NOT an element of a therapeutic alliance?

  1. A sense of working together to solve a problem
  2. Client acceptance of the therapist’s theoretical orientation
  3. Agreement between client and therapist about the goals of therapy
  4. An affective bond between the client and therapist

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-13

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/The Therapeutic Relationship

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Client acceptance of the therapist’s theoretical orientation

 

16.1-14. Andrea begins therapy and expects that the therapy will help her. This expectancy

  1. is necessary to produce positive change.
  2. may be enough by itself to produce positive change.
  3. is helpful in psychodynamic therapy, but irrelevant to cognitive and behavioral interventions.
  4. is irrelevant to the change process.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-14

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/The Therapeutic Relationship

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. may be enough by itself to produce positive change.

 

16.1-15. Which of the following would be the most objective way of evaluating treatment success?

  1. Gathering information about the therapist’s impression of the changes that have occurred
  2. Looking at the client’s reports of change
  3. Asking the client’s family and friends to report on the progress they have observed
  4. Measuring the change in through personality tests and other instruments

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-15

Page Ref: 552

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Measuring the change in through personality tests and other instruments

 

16.1-16. Therapy outcome studies depend on ratings of the changes seen in clients. One reason that therapists’ ratings may be unreliable is because

  1. they cannot see the client’s behavior in a range of settings.
  2. they have a limited range of clients on whom to compare an individual client’s improvement.
  3. they usually base their judgments on superficial personality tests.
  4. they are not in a good position to compare behavior before and after treatment.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-16

Page Ref: 552

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. they cannot see the client’s behavior in a range of settings.

 

16.1-17. The advantage of using outside independent observers or pre/post test comparisons to evaluate a client’s progress is that

  1. they take less time and are less costly.
  2. they increase the objectivity of ratings over those given by the people involved in treatment.
  3. they ensure that there is no “regression to the mean” phenomenon.
  4. they provide a valid prediction of how the client will behave in real life.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-17

Page Ref: 552

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. they increase the objectivity of ratings over those given by the people involved in treatment.

 

16.1-18. Which of the following is the most significant challenge to establishing that therapy is effective?

  1. Placebo effects commonly occur.
  2. It is impossible to assess anything in therapy..
  3. Many people improve without formal treatment.
  4. Few psychotherapies are more effective than medical treatments.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-18

Page Ref: 553

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy/Would Change Occur Anyway?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Many people improve without formal treatment.

 

16.1-19. To summarize what is known about psychotherapy effectiveness, we can say that

  1. the chances of an average client benefiting significantly are impressive.
  2. for disorders that have a brief duration, treatment provides no obvious benefit.
  3. degree of improvement and number of therapy sessions are unrelated.
  4. all therapy outcomes are positive or neutral, none are negative.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-19

Page Ref: 553

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy/Would Change Occur Anyway?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the chances of an average client benefiting significantly are impressive.

 

16.1-20. Which statement about negative outcomes in psychotherapy is accurate?

  1. Nearly one-half of all therapeutic encounters are rated by clients as “negative” or “harmful.”
  2. The primary reason for negative outcomes is a lack of training and therapeutic skill on the part of the therapist.
  3. When a sexual relationship occurs between therapist and patient, it is harmful to the patient.
  4. The vast majority of negative outcomes turn out to be reported in fraudulent or frivolous lawsuits brought by clients.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-20

Page Ref: 554

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy/Can Therapy Be Harmful?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. When a sexual relationship occurs between therapist and patient, it is harmful to the patient.

 

16.1-21. A randomized clinical trial

  1. is a study where all subjects are treated the same to see what percentage of the total gets better, stays the same, or gets worse.
  2. is a study where people are assigned to different types of treatment by the flip of a coin to see which treatment is best.
  3. is a study where people go through different treatments in random order to see which one works best.
  4. is a study where people are assigned to different groups by a flip of a coin, one-half to a treatment group and one-half to a seemingly identical placebo group.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-21

Page Ref: 554

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based Treatment

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is a study where people are assigned to different groups by a flip of a coin, one-half to a treatment group and one-half to a seemingly identical placebo group.

 

16.1-22. What does it meant to say that a study is “double-blind”?

  1. Each patient receives both the drug being tested and a placebo, so that the effects of the drug can be compared to the effects of the patient’s expectations.
  2. While the patient is aware to what treatment he or she is receiving, his or her family, friends, and therapist are not.
  3. Both the patient being given the drug and whoever will evaluate the drug’s effects do not know whether the patient was given the treatment or the placebo.
  4. Two conditions are used, a treatment and a placebo.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-22

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based Treatment

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Both the patient being given the drug and whoever will evaluate the drug’s effects do not know whether the patient was given the treatment or the placebo.

 

16.1-23. Which of the following is a challenge of conducting randomized clinical trials of the effectiveness of therapy?

  1. The client will never find out whether or not he or she was treated.
  2. Most clients will never improve on their own without treatment.
  3. There is little variation between different types of therapy.
  4. Even therapists who use the same techniques will differ in their delivery.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-23

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Even therapists who use the same techniques will differ in their delivery.

 

16.1-24. What is usually used as a placebo in a study of psychosocial treatments?

  1. A sugar pill
  2. A wait list
  3. Self-help meetings
  4. Group therapy

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-24

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based Treatment

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. A wait list

 

16.1-25. Which of the following is a disadvantage of the use of drugs to treat psychological disorders?

  1. Relapse is likely when drugs use is terminated.
  2. Drugs are rarely effective in controlling psychotic symptoms.
  3. They decrease the need for hospitalization.
  4. They alter brain chemistry.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-25

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Medication or Psychotherapy?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Relapse is likely when drugs use is terminated.

 

16.1-26. Manualized therapies first originated in order to:

  1. treat bipolor disorder
  2. to standardize psychosocial treatments for RCTs
  3. keep therapists acting ethically
  4. aid sleep researchers

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-26

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Combined Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. to standardize psychosocial treatments for RCTs

 

16.1-27. How commonly are medications and therapy combined today?

  1. Combined treatments tend to only be used in an inpatient setting.
  2. Approximately 75 percent of those with a mental illness are treated with therapy alone, 10 percent use medications only, and just 15 percent are treated with both.
  3. While the combined approach is commonly used in the treatment of children, the same is not true in the adult population where the “quick fix” of a medication is the norm.
  4. Research suggests that many of those in treatment receive both psychotherapy and medication.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-27

Page Ref: 556

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Combined Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Research suggests that many of those in treatment receive both psychotherapy and medication.

 

16.1-28. What do the medications used to treat mental illnesses do?

  1. Cure the illness
  2. Restore brain chemistry to normal functioning
  3. Replace depleted neurotransmitters
  4. Treat the symptoms of the illness with biochemical changes

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 16.1-28

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Medication or Psychotherapy?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Treat the symptoms of the illness with biochemical changes

 

16.1-29. Under what circumstances might the use of medications prior to psychotherapy be essential?

  1. When the patient is suicidal
  2. When the patient won’t admit that they have a problem
  3. When the patient’s symptoms are so severe that they make psychotherapy impossible
  4. When a quick cure is needed

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-29

Page Ref: 555

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Medication or Psychotherapy?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. When the patient’s symptoms are so severe that they make psychotherapy impossible

 

16.1-30. What has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated?

  1. Medication alone yields the best results.
  2. Psychotherapy alone yields the best results.
  3. Psychotherapy in combination with a placebo or medication yields the best results.
  4. Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-30

Page Ref: 556

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Combined Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results.

 

16.1-31. Drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to be used to

  1. distort perception.
  2. alleviate depression.
  3. stabilize mood.
  4. treat psychotic disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-31

Page Ref: 569-570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. treat psychotic disorders.

 

16.1-32. Why is a drug that is long-acting desirable?

  1. It will work quickly.
  2. It will need to be taken less frequently.
  3. The likelihood of side effects is decreased.
  4. It will be quickly metabolized or excreted.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-32

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. It will need to be taken less frequently.

 

16.1-33. The conventional antipsychotic drugs have a problematic side effect involving abnormal movement. This side effect is called

  1. agranulocytosis.
  2. monoamine oxidase.
  3. tardive dyskinesia.
  4. atypical neuroleptics.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-33

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. tardive dyskinesia.

 

16.1-34. A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that

  1. they work better than the conventional ones.
  2. they work for more people than the conventional ones.
  3. they have a low risk of movement-related side effects.
  4. they last longer than the conventional ones.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-34

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. they have a low risk of movement-related side effects.

 

16.1-35. An example of an atypical antipsychotic not considered as a first choice treatment is:

  1. haldol
  2. clozapine
  3. risperidone
  4. zyprexa

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-35

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer:  b. clozapine

 

 

16.1-36. Which of the following is a type of “classical antidepressant”?

  1. GABA agonists
  2. monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  3. neuroleptics
  4. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-36

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. monoamine oxidase inhibitors

 

16.1-37. Prozac is a

  1. GABA agonist.
  2. monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
  3. neuroleptic.
  4. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-37

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

 

16.1-38. Why are the SSRIs the most commonly used antidepressants today?

  1. Because they only have minimal effects on dopamine, they are less likely to produce side effects.
  2. They are more effective than the classic tricyclic antidepressants.
  3. Their side effects are more tolerable than those of the first-generation antidepressants.
  4. They are not addictive.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-38

Page Ref: 571

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Their side effects are more tolerable than those of the first-generation antidepressants.

 

16.1-39. Julia has just been prescribed a monoamine oxidase inhibitor to treat her depression. What warning should her doctor give her?

  1. Stay out of the sun.
  2. Be careful what you eat.
  3. Don’t try to drive a car.
  4. You may find that you can’t achieve orgasm.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-39

Page Ref: 572-573

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Be careful what you eat.

 

16.1-40. The mechanisms of antidepressant medications suggests that

  1. low dopamine levels are the underlying problem in depression.
  2. the effectiveness of the TCAs and SSRIs is largely a placebo effect.
  3. altered synaptic activity is not the source of a depressed mood state.
  4. changes in cellular functioning are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-40

Page Ref: 573

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. changes in cellular functioning are necessary to alleviate the symptoms of depression.

 

16.1-41. Because much of Donald’s depression is a result of his lack of a healthy sexual relationship with his wife, Dr. Jones figured that the best drug to treat him with would be

  1. Chlorpromazine.
  2. Prozac.
  3. Wellbutrin.
  4. Zoloft.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-41

Page Ref: 573

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Wellbutrin.

 

16.1-42. Antidepressants are used to treat all of the following EXCEPT

  1. panic disorder.
  2. bulimia.
  3. borderline personality disorder.
  4. schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-42

Page Ref: 573

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antidepressant Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. schizophrenia.

 

16.1-43. Psychological and physiological dependence is a well-documented danger of using

  1. anxiolytics.
  2. neuroleptics.
  3. antipsychotics.
  4. lithium.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-43

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. anxiolytics.

 

16.1-44. ____________________ is not a problem associated with the benzodiazepines.

  1. Risk of withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops them suddenly
  2. High relapse rates when stopped
  3. Tardive dyskinesia
  4. Psychological dependence

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-44

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Tardive dyskinesia

 

16.1-45. Valium exerts its anxiolytic effects by increasing the activity of

  1. acetylcholine.
  2. dopamine.
  3. epinephrine.
  4. GABA.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-45

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. GABA.

 

16.1-46. Oscar has been prescribed the following drugs over the years: Valium, Serax, Xanax, and Ativan. We can guess that Oscar has had problems with

  1. positive symptom schizophrenia.
  2. mood swings.
  3. depression and anger control.
  4. anxiety.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-46

Page Ref: 573-574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. anxiety.

 

16.1-47. Suzanne is taking a benzodiazepine to treat her anxiety. She should be concerned that

  1. mania is a relatively common side effect.
  2. she may become physically dependent on the drug.
  3. while her anxiety is likely to be diminished, her adaptive behaviors also are likely to become increasingly impaired.
  4. when taken in high dosages, the drugs have potentially serious effects on a woman’s reproductive ability.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-47

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. she may become physically dependent on the drug.

 

16.1-48. While most antianxiety drugs act on ________, Buspar acts primarily on

________.

  1. serotonin; GABA
  2. serotonin; epinephrine
  3. GABA; serotonin
  4. GABA; epinephrine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-48

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. GABA; serotonin

 

16.1-49. The newer antianxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that

  1. it has a low potential for abuse.
  2. it works better than other antianxiety drugs.
  3. it works on more anxiety disorders than the other drugs.
  4. it works faster than the other drugs.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-49

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. it has a low potential for abuse.

 

16.1-50. The use of lithium in the United States was delayed due to

  1. the stigma associated with mental illness.
  2. its addiction potential.
  3. a lack of evidence to demonstrate that it was effective.
  4. the fact that it could not be patented.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-50

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the fact that it could not be patented.

 

16.1-51. Lithium was once used

  1. to treat anxiety.
  2. as a salt substitute.
  3. to alleviate constipation.
  4. as an appetite suppressant.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-51

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. as a salt substitute.

 

16.1-52. The main use of lithium is for

  1. anxiety disorders.
  2. personality disorders.
  3. major depressive disorder.
  4. bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-52

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. bipolar disorder.

 

16.1-53. For bipolar patients, the risk of relapse after discontinuing lithium is

  1. roughly 50 percent within six months.
  2. not much higher than when people remain on the medication.
  3. extremely unlikely.
  4. about 15 percent, but only for people who have experienced repeated bouts with mania.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-53

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. roughly 50 percent within six months.

 

16.1-54. The process by which lithium reduces the likelihood of mood swings

  1. involves changes in stress hormones including cortisol.
  2. alters GABA levels, although exactly how it does this is unknown.
  3. is a combination of reuptake inhibition and receptor site blockades among serotonin and dopamine tracts.
  4. is unknown at this time.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-54

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is unknown at this time.

 

16.1-55. A doctor prescribing lithium should NEVER say

  1. “This drug has a narrow range of effectiveness, so you need to have your blood levels monitored often.”
  2. “In order for this drug to work, you need to take quantities that are within the range of potentially dangerous side effects.”
  3. “We are going to ‘target dose’ your lithium: When you feel symptoms coming on, take your medication.”
  4. “Along with the benefits of mood stabilization, you may experience increased thirst and weight gain along with a sense of lethargy.”

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-55

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. “We are going to ‘target dose’ your lithium: When you feel symptoms coming on, take your medication.”

 

16.1-56. What do lithium carbonate, carbamazepine (Tegretol), and valproate (Depakote) have in common?

  1. They are benzodiazepines.
  2. They are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
  3. They are atypical antipsychotic drugs.
  4. They are all mood-stabilizing drugs.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-56

Page Ref: 575

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. They are all mood-stabilizing drugs.

 

16.1-57. The use of electroconvulsive therapy can be traced to

  1. the observation that people were rarely depressed after being struck by lightning.
  2. the belief that schizophrenia and epilepsy are rarely comorbid disorders.
  3. the recognition that electricity could be used to alter brain chemistry.
  4. the use of electrical shock as an instrument of torture.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-57

Page Ref: 576

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Electroconvulsive Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. the belief that schizophrenia and epilepsy are rarely comorbid disorders.

 

16.1-58. ECT has been found to be an effective treatment for

  1. anxiety disorders.
  2. depression.
  3. epilepsy.
  4. schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-58

Page Ref: 576

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Electroconvulsive Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. depression.

 

16.1-59. Sarah has just received her first treatment of electroconvulsive therapy. She is most likely to

  1. experience auditory hallucinations for a brief time afterward.
  2. suffer tonic and clonic seizures over the next week.
  3. feel more clearheaded and less depressed following the first two to three sessions.
  4. experience amnesia and confusion for an hour after the treatment.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-59

Page Ref: 577

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Electroconvulsive Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. experience amnesia and confusion for an hour after the treatment.

 

16.1-60. Which of the following would be the most likely candidate for ECT?

  1. A 22-year-old schizophrenic
  2. A middle-aged depressed woman who has just begun taking antidepressants
  3. A pregnant and depressed 25 year-old
  4. A 30-year-old man who has generalized anxiety disorder

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-60

Page Ref: 576

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Electroconvulsive Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. A pregnant and depressed 25 year-old

 

16.1-61. A Nobel Prize winning treatment for schizophrenia was

  1. the SSRIs.
  2. prefrontal lobotomies.
  3. ECT.
  4. token economies.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-61

Page Ref: 577

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Neurosurgery

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. prefrontal lobotomies.

 

16.1-62. In the mid-1900s, prefrontal lobotomies were popular as a treatment because

  1. there were not many other available treatments.
  2. they worked so well.
  3. they worked faster than any other treatment.
  4. they worked for so many disorders.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 16.1-62

Page Ref: 577

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Neurosurgery

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. there were not many other available treatments.

 

16.1-63. Today, neurosurgery

  1. is still used, including prefrontal lobotomies, on patients who have not responded to any other treatment.
  2. is used as a last resort and involves the destruction of only tiny areas of the brain.
  3. is done frequently for certain types of psychological illnesses, such as obsessive compulsive disorder.
  4. is no longer done for any psychological disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-63

Page Ref: 578

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Neurosurgery

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. is used as a last resort and involves the destruction of only tiny areas of the brain.

 

16.1-64. Behavior therapy is based on the belief that

  1. medications cause more harm than good.
  2. internal states, such as thoughts and feelings, are not as important as overt behavior.
  3. abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.
  4. thoughts influence behavior and thoughts can be changed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-64

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.

 

16.1-65. Dr. Hart says, “For me, the goal of treatment is not to uncover inner conflicts, but to help the client achieve adaptive responses that he or she can control and maintain through self-monitoring.” Dr. Hart probably considers herself a ________ therapist.

  1. behavior
  2. psychodynamically oriented
  3. humanistic
  4. family systems

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-65

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. behavior

 

16.1-66. Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety disorders?

  1. Rational emotive behavior therapy
  2. Stress-inoculation therapy
  3. Gestalt therapy
  4. Systematic desensitization

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-66

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Systematic desensitization

 

16.1-67. Chrissy and her therapist together wrote a list of ten scenes involving Chrissy’s fear of flying. After teaching her a relaxation technique, Chrissy’s therapist told her to imagine herself in the least frightening scene while she made herself feel relaxed. Chrissy was undergoing

  1. exposure in vivo.
  2. systematic desensitization.
  3. modeling therapy.
  4. rational emotive therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-67

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. systematic desensitization.

 

16.1-68. Punishment is a component of

  1. EMDR therapy.
  2. modeling.
  3. aversion therapy.
  4. systematic desensitization.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-68

Page Ref: 557

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. aversion therapy.

 

16.1-69. The use of drugs that have noxious effects and viewing movies that elicit disgust are both techniques associated with

  1. token economies.
  2. aversion therapy.
  3. guided exposure therapy.
  4. EMDR therapy.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-69

Page Ref: 557

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. aversion therapy.

 

16.1-70. Yuko is painfully shy. Her therapist first shows her appropriate social skills so she can interact competently with others. Then Yuko attempts the same behavior while getting feedback. This illustrates the behavior therapy technique called

  1. guided exposure.
  2. covert sensitization.
  3. modeling.
  4. contingency management.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-70

Page Ref: 557-558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. modeling.

 

16.1-71. A token economy is

  1. a form of imaginal exposure therapy.
  2. a type of in vivo exposure therapy.
  3. a type of contingency management.
  4. a form of modeling therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-71

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. a type of contingency management.

 

16.1-72. Dennis has disorganized type of schizophrenia. He has lived in an institution for years. He rarely shows any attempt at socializing. A new program is started – every time Dennis speaks to another person he is given a piece of red paper. At the end of each week, he can use the red papers to get cigarettes or extra privileges. This new program is

  1. an in vivo exposure program.
  2. a token economy.
  3. guided exposure.
  4. modeling.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-72

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. a token economy.

 

16.1-73. While ________ can be used in treatment, it also a means by which problematic behaviors are acquired when others’ behavior is problematic.

  1. imaginal exposure
  2. systematic desensitization
  3. modeling
  4. contingency management

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-73

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. modeling

 

16.1-74. Lawrence, a hypochondriac, gains a great deal of attention from his family when he complains about health problems; they tend to ignore him when he talks about other topics. A behavior therapist has instructed the family to reverse these responses: ignore the complaints and reinforce other topics. What kind of treatment does this best illustrate?

  1. Aversion therapy
  2. Contingency management
  3. Guided exposure
  4. Systematic desensitization

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-74

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Contingency management

 

16.1-75. The text reported the case of a 6-year-old boy who hated school and showed off in class. His parents and teacher were instructed to ignore the showing-off behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior. This is an example of

  1. systematic use of reinforcement.
  2. modeling.
  3. aversion therapy.
  4. systematic desensitization.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-75

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. systematic use of reinforcement.

 

16.1-76. Which of the following is an advantage of behavior therapy?

  1. It targets specific emotions and thoughts.
  2. It works well if a problem is vague and ill-defined.
  3. It works even though there is no scientific support for it.
  4. It usually achieves results in a relatively short period of time.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-76

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It usually achieves results in a relatively short period of time.

 

16.1-77. For which client is behavior therapy most likely to be effective?

  1. Wilson, whose complaint is fear of spiders.
  2. Angela, who has a variety of personality disorders.
  3. Colin, who is struggling with vague concerns about his career and marital prospects.
  4. Tamara, who is trying to understand the origins of her personality.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-77

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Wilson, whose complaint is fear of spiders.

 

16.1-78. Cognitive-behavioral therapy

  1. denies the importance of reinforcement and punishment.
  2. assumes that thinking influences emotion, motivation, and behavior.
  3. assumes that behavior must change before cognitive changes can occur.
  4. suggests that the therapist should take a less active role than is typically the case in behavior therapies.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-78

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. assumes that thinking influences emotion, motivation, and behavior.

 

16.1-79. The basic assumption of cognitive-behavior therapy is

  1. problems develop because people view themselves and their world in biased ways.
  2. abnormal behavior is learned like normal behavior and can be unlearned.
  3. people have the freedom and responsibility to control their own lives.
  4. only observable behaviors can really be changed.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-79

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. problems develop because people view themselves and their world in biased ways.

 

16.1-80. Abby is participating in cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat her depression. Her therapist

  1. will help her conduct “experiments” to test a variety of hypotheses about the accuracy of her cognitions.
  2. will use empathy and accurate reflection so that Abby will come to accept the ways she interprets her experience.
  3. will be nondirective in helping her change.
  4. will demonstrate ways of acting and then ask her to imitate these.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-80

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive & Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. will help her conduct “experiments” to test a variety of hypotheses about the accuracy of her cognitions.

 

16.1-81. Dr. Lucas says to a client with anxiety disorders, “It is your unrealistic beliefs and perfectionistic values that cause you to be so anxious, not the events of your life.” Dr. Lucas probably supports the assumptions of ________ therapy.

  1. humanistic
  2. psychodynamic
  3. rational emotive behavior
  4. systematic desensitization

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-81

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. rational emotive behavior

 

16.1-82. According to rational-emotive behavior therapy, which of the following is one of the irrational beliefs at the core of psychological maladjustment?

  1. Moderation in all activities leads to greater long-term satisfaction.
  2. One should be thoroughly competent and intelligent in all respects.
  3. It is undesirable when things are not the way we would like them to be.
  4. One should do everything possible, within one’s means, to live a fulfilling life.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-82

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. One should be thoroughly competent and intelligent in all respects.

 

16.1-83. In Beck’s cognitive therapy, an early “homework” assignment would be

  1. learning to relax.
  2. listing one’s beliefs about one’s competencies.
  3. recording one’s automatic thoughts and any associated emotional reactions.
  4. intentionally facing situations that one believes are emotionally overwhelming.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-83

Page Ref: 560

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-

Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. recording one’s automatic thoughts and any associated emotional reactions.

 

16.1-84. Which of the following is an advantage of using Beck’s cognitive treatment for depression, as compared to drugs?

  1. The likelihood of relapse is decreased.
  2. It is clearly more effective.
  3. It works quickly.
  4. The changes it produces in the brain are permanent, while the effects of drugs are only temporary.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-84

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-

Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The likelihood of relapse is decreased.

 

16.1-85. ________ therapies developed in reaction to problems of alienation, loneliness, and failure to find meaning in life.

  1. Humanistic-experiential
  2. Cognitive
  3. Object relations
  4. Family

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-85

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Humanistic-experiential

 

16.1-86. Humanistic-experiential therapies are based in the belief that psychopathology is a result of

  1. faulty learning.
  2. self-defeating thinking.
  3. early parental interactions.
  4. lack of fulfillment.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-86

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. lack of fulfillment.

 

16.1-87. Joan was surprised that, when she went to therapy, her therapist didn’t ask her questions, but just listened to her talk. She said she felt very comfortable with the therapist and felt she could say anything at all and be accepted, unlike with her critical parents. She said she could try out new ideas and the therapist was always warm and nonjudgmental. Joan was probably in

  1. rational emotive therapy.
  2. psychodynamic therapy.
  3. systematic desensitization.
  4. client-centered therapy.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-87

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. client-centered therapy.

 

16.1-88. According to the views of Carl Rogers, what is an important component in therapy?

  1. Strict rules and much guidance
  2. Empathy with the patient
  3. Restructuring thought processes
  4. Reinforcing adaptive behaviors with rewards

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-88

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: b.Empathy with the patient.

 

16.1-89. In contrast to most other forms of therapy, the client-centered therapist

  1. focuses on present concerns rather than past problems.
  2. does not give answers or interpretations nor even steer the client onto certain topics.
  3. teaches a new set of beliefs and values so the client can cope more effectively.
  4. helps make the client’s unconscious concerns conscious.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-89

Page Ref: 562

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. does not give answers or interpretations nor even steer the client onto certain topics.

 

16.1-90. Key ideas in Gestalt therapy are

  1. irrational beliefs, interpersonal conflicts, and unconscious impulses.
  2. empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
  3. integration of mind and body, dream interpretation, and emotional impasse.
  4. genetics, early childhood training, and social stressors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-90

Page Ref: 563

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. integration of mind and body, dream interpretation, and emotional impasse.

 

16.1-91. Gestalt therapy is commonly conducted in which of the following forms?

  1. individual therapy
  2. pharmacotherapy
  3. behavior therapy
  4. group therapy

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-91

Page Ref: 563

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. group therapy

 

16.1-92. Which of the following is a criticism of humanistic-experiential therapies?

  1. Too focused on behavior
  2. Impersonal approach
  3. Too much emphasis on early experiences
  4. Goals are not clear

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-92

Page Ref: 563

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Goals are not clear

 

16.1-93. Dr. Patel says this about his goals in therapy: “I want my patients to become aware of their repressed memories from childhood and come to terms with them in the light of adult realities.” Dr. Patel most likely prefers ________ therapy.

  1. flooding
  2. gestalt
  3. psychodynamic
  4. cognitive

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-93

Page Ref: 563

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. psychodynamic

 

16.1-94. A psychotherapist says to her client, “Say whatever comes to your mind, no matter how strange or painful it may seem.” The psychotherapist is encouraging

  1. transference.
  2. resistance.
  3. free association.
  4. counter-transference.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-94

Page Ref: 564

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. free association.

 

16.1-95. The technique of free association is designed to

  1. help the client feel understood and not judged.
  2. help the client fully experience his or her emotions during therapy.
  3. explore unconscious and preconscious material.
  4. keep the client in the present.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-95

Page Ref: 564

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. explore unconscious and preconscious material.

 

16.1-96. Jack tells his therapist about a dream in which he struggles to drive a car that takes him in directions he does not want to go. The therapist interprets the dream to mean that Jack is trying to get control of his career future but feels he is being controlled by others. This suggests that the

  1. manifest content of the dream is the issue of Jack’s career future.
  2. latent content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car.
  3. manifest content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car.
  4. the therapist is trying to get Jack to argue with him or her.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-96

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. manifest content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car.

 

16.1-97. Freud called dreams “the royal road to the unconscious” because

  1. he believed they kept people from uncovering their true feelings.
  2. he believed people intentionally dreamed about material they wanted to discuss in therapy but were afraid to.
  3. he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams.
  4. he believed people would only tell him about unimportant dreams, so he could dismiss the topics they brought up.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-97

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams.

 

16.1-98. According to psychoanalysts, what is the therapist’s task when doing dream analysis?

  1. Overcome the client’s natural tendency to resist change.
  2. Uncover the disguised meanings of the manifest content.
  3. Explain that the latent and manifest content have little to do with one another.
  4. Reduce the client’s tendency to use transference when he/she remembers a dream.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-98

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Uncover the disguised meanings of the manifest content.

 

16.1-99. Which of the following best illustrates the analysis of resistance?

  1. Noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not report anything about his father
  2. Asking the client to say whatever comes into his/her head, regardless of how silly it sounds
  3. Explaining that a dream about riding a wild horse in a tunnel suggests strong sexual urges
  4. Reminding a client who has become insulting toward a female therapist that she is, after all, a helping professional and not the client’s abusive mother

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-99

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not report anything about his father

 

16.1-100. A son of a critical father comes to therapy one day and with no provocation is extremely hostile in his remarks to the therapist. The therapist might consider that ________ is occurring.

  1. free association
  2. countertransference
  3. transference
  4. resistance

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-100

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. transference

 

16.1-101. How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time?

  1. It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences.
  2. Many elements of behavior therapy have been incorporated.
  3. Transference is no longer used.
  4. It differs little from client-centered therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-101

Page Ref: 566

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences.

 

16.1-102. Psychodynamic interpersonally oriented therapies agree with classical psychoanalysis in the importance of

  1. focusing on the transference neurosis.
  2. the transformation of sexual energy into neurotic behaviors.
  3. understanding the present in terms of the past.
  4. the therapist being passive and impersonal.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-102

Page Ref: 566

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. understanding the present in terms of the past.

 

16.1-103. An analysis of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy found that

  1. there is great promise in it for borderline personality disorder.
  2. results of this therapy are largely unsuccessful.
  3. those that stress traditional psychoanalytic principles have the highest degree of success.
  4. the interpersonal forms of treatment are among the least useful.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-103

Page Ref: 566

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. there is great promise in it for borderline personality disorder.

 

16.1-104. Traditional behavioral couples therapy

  1. uses training in communication skills and problems solving to increase caring behaviors in couples.
  2. tries to involve spouses in the treatment of people with severe mental disorders to prevent relapse after they are released from the hospital.
  3. treats the couple together for any problems that only one of them has, because the couple is seen as a “system” that influences each other.
  4. uses training in relaxation skills and imagery to reduce anxiety in couples.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-104

Page Ref: 566

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. uses training in communication skills and problems solving to increase caring behaviors in couples.

 

16.1-105. A clinical psychologist who said that maladaptive behaviors are shared between members of a relationship and not just the responsibility of an individual would be in harmony with therapists who take the ________ approach.

  1. humanistic
  2. classical psychoanalytic
  3. cognitive-behavioral
  4. family therapy

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-105

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. family therapy

 

16.1-106. One criticism of traditional behavioral couple therapy has been

  1. its focus on faulty role expectations.
  2. the assumption that a good marriage requires an underlying friendship.
  3. the belief that keeping channels of communication open will help solve problems.
  4. the emphasis on change.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 16.1-106

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the emphasis on change.

 

16.1-107. What led to the development of family therapy?

  1. The observation that signs of mental illness often were seen in more than one family member
  2. The recognition that most psychological disorders can be attributed to and cause dysfunctional relationships
  3. The realization that the family environment played a role in whether relapse occurred
  4. The established importance of the interaction of nature and nurture in the development if all forms of psychopathology

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-107

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. the realization that the family environment played a role in whether relapse occurred

 

16.1-108. The Brady family is attending family therapy sessions. The therapist has told them, “If the whole family context changes, Marcia’s problem behavior will change as well.” The family therapist probably agrees with the ________ therapy approach.

  1. structural family
  2. behavioral family
  3. cognitive
  4. conjoint family

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-108

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. structural family

 

16.1-109. In structural family therapy,

  1. the therapist is very directive in order to break up the existing power structure in the family.
  2. the focus is on past interactions as they have given rise to present problems.
  3. the therapist initially acts like one of the family and participates in family interactions.
  4. the therapist adopts a Rogerian approach, focusing on good listening skills and clarification.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-109

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Couple and Family Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the therapist initially acts like one of the family and participates in family interactions.

 

16.1-110. When asked what their orientation is, what do most of today’s psychotherapists say?

  1. Behavioral
  2. Cognitive-behavioral
  3. Eclectic
  4. Interpersonal

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-110

Page Ref: 567

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Eclecticism and Integration

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Eclectic

 

16.1-111. A good example of psychotherapy being used as a guardian of the status quo

  1. occurs when psychotherapy is viewed as a set of tools rather than a system of ethics.
  2. is when a Rogerian therapist takes a nondirective approach with a client.
  3. occurred when psychiatry was used as a means of political control in the former Soviet Union.
  4. happens when therapists disregard their therapeutic approach and use whatever technique works for the client.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-111

Page Ref: 568

Topic: Sociocultural Perspectives

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. occurred when psychiatry was used as a means of political control in the former Soviet Union.

 

16.1-112. Psychotherapy is best viewed as

  1. a set of tools.
  2. a system of ethics.
  3. a means of keeping society “sick.”
  4. a form of mind control.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.1-112

Page Ref: 568

Topic: Sociocultural Perspectives/Social Values and Psychotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. a set of tools.

 

16.1-113. Research on the impact of matching the client’s race and ethnicity with the

therapist’s indicates that

  1. racial matching is crucial to success, but ethnic matching is less conclusive.
  2. there is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not matched.
  3. while clients do not care whether there is a match, outcomes are influenced by a lack of matching.
  4. racial matching is crucial to success, but matching on the client’s primary language is not.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.1-113

Page Ref: 569

Topic: Sociocultural Perspectives/Psychotherapy and Cultural Diversity

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. There is no solid evidence that outcomes are diminished when client and therapist are not matched.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

16.2-1. The term used to see if a treatment does what it is supposed to do is called its

__________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.2-1

Page Ref: 554

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based

Treatment

Skill: Factual

Answer: efficacy

 

16.2-2. The type of exposure in exposure therapy that occurs in the actual environment is called __________ exposure.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.2-2

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: in vivo

 

16.2-3. In the psychoanalytic analysis of dreams, the type of content that is disguised in the dream is the __________ content, as the motives are too painful to express directly.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.2-3

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: latent

 

16.2-4. The feelings a therapist may have for a client based upon his or her unconscious motives is known as __________ in psychodynamic terms.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.2-4

Page Ref: 565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Factual

Answer: countertransference

 

16.2-5. Neuroleptics are also called __________ .

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.2-5

Page Ref: 569

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: antipsychotics

 

16.2-6. The major problem with benzodiazepines is that people can become __________ and physiologically dependent upon them.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.2-6

Page Ref: 574

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antianxiety Drugs

Skill: Applied

Answer: psychologically

 

Short Answer Questions

 

16.3-1. What are the key elements of the therapeutic alliance?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-1

Page Ref: 551

Topic: An Overview of Treatment/The Therapeutic Relationship

Skill: Factual

Answer: A sense of working collaboratively on the problem, agreement between client and therapist about goals, affective bond between client and therapist, and clear communication.

 

16.3-2. What is a randomized clinical trial?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-2

Page Ref: 554

Topic: What Therapeutic Approaches Should Be Used?/Evidence-Based

Treatment

Skill: Applied

Answer: Randomized clinical trials are commonly used to determine whether a treatment is effective. One group of subjects is given a treatment, while another is given a placebo. Ideally, the study is double-blind, meaning that neither the subjects nor whoever is assessing whether the treatment has had an effect knows what condition the subject is in. Such procedures are designed to control for potential bias.

 

16.3-3. What is tardive dyskinesia?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-3

Page Ref: 570

Topic: Biological Approaches to Treatment/Antipsychotic Drugs

Skill: Factual

Answer: Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder that can develop with use of conventional antipsychotic medications.

 

16.3-4. What is systematic desensitization and its purpose?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.3-4

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: If anxiety is learned, it can be unlearned. This is guided exposure to anxiety provoking stimuli, either in real life or imagination. The client is confronted with his or her fear in a gradual way. The client and therapist together make a hierarchy of the clients fear. The client is taught a relaxation technique. Then the client imagines him- or herself or actually gets into the lowest fear level situation, while relaxing. Once the client can stay at that level and be relaxed, he or she moves to the next level. This pairs an incompatible behavior with anxiety – counter conditioning.

 

16.3-5. When discussing psychological treatments, what is flooding?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-5

Page Ref: 556

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: Flooding is a type of exposure therapy where the patient directly faces what he or she fears. Unlike systematic desensitization, where the patients works up to facing what they fear gradually, the patient is immediately “flooded” with a direct presentation of the feared stimulus.

 

16.3-6. What is aversion therapy? Explain and provide an example of how it might be used.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-6

Page Ref: 557

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: Aversion therapy is a form of therapy that is used to reduce a behavior through associating it with punishment. In other words, operant conditioning is used to decrease the frequency of an undesirable behavior by following it with unpleasant consequences. Aversion therapy can be used in the treatment of alcoholism. The alcoholic is treated with a drug that causes him or her to get sick if he or she drinks, thus drinking will come to be associated with the nausea and vomiting that occurs.

 

16.3-7. What is token economy?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-7

Page Ref: 558

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Behavior Therapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: Token economies are one of the many applications of behavioral theory to treatment. Token economies employ the principles of operant conditioning and are used to increase the frequency of desirable behaviors. When a desired behavior occurs, some “token” is given that may then be exchanged for something of value to the patient.

 

16.3-8. What is rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)? What kind of therapy is REBT?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 16.3-8

Page Ref: 559

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-

Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: REBT is a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The focus of this therapy is to change an unhealthy thought process. Thus, this form of therapy is behavioral in that learning principles are used to change a behavior and it is cognitive in that the behavior to be changed is thought processes.

 

16.3-9. What are the main objectives of client-centered therapy?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.3-9

Page Ref: 561

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Humanistic-Experiential

Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: To help clients become able to accept and be themselves. Therapy strives to provide a climate where the client feels unconditionally accepted, understood, and valued. The therapist uses only nondirective techniques.

 

16.3-10. Describe the process and purpose of Freudian dream analysis.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.3-10

Page Ref: 564-565

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Applied

Answer: During sleep, defenses are lowered and repressed material begins to come out. However, some material is so threatening it comes out in disguised form. Dreams have a manifest content, the obvious theme of the dream, and a latent content, the actual disguised motives and impulses. Analyzing the dream helps uncover the latent content.

 

Essay Questions

 

16.41. Discuss three different ways that the success of therapy can be assessed. What factors complicate the determination of whether treatment is successful?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.4-1

Page Ref: 552

Topic: Measuring Success in Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: In order to determine whether treatment has been effective, some change needs to have occurred. Thus, some measure to effectiveness is needed, as well as a source of the necessary information. It should be noted, however, that sometimes people get well just with the passage of time. This must be considered when considering the effectiveness of treatment – did the treatment work, or would the person have improved without any care? Establishing whether improvements have occurred can be assessed with information obtained from the therapist, the client, family or friends of the client, test scores, and/or the measurement of overt behavior. Clearly, a number of these information sources are likely to be biased, either for treatment success or against it. Ideally, an independent source would assess treatment success and the measures employed would be objective. Obviously, this may or may not be possible. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total – 2 for each of 3 ways of measuring success, 2 for each of 2 complicating factors (time may fix problem, bias, need for valid measures, etc.)

 

16.4-2. Describe Beck’s cognitive theory and therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.4-2

Page Ref: 559-560

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Cognitive and Cognitive-

Behavioral Therapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: This is an information-processing model of psychopathology. Problems come from the biased processing of external events or internal stimuli. These biases distort the ways people make sense of their world, leading to cognitive errors. Underlying the bias are schemas that contain dysfunctional beliefs. When these schemas become activated, they bias how the person processes information. For example, in depression, people tend to make negative interpretations about themselves, their world, and their future. In therapy, clients are made aware of the connection between thinking and emotional response. They are taught to identify their automatic thoughts, the logical errors in thinking they are making, and how to challenge their validity. Clients are encouraged to gather information on their own and test their beliefs as hypotheses. GRADING RUBRIC: 10 points, 5 for theory, 5 for therapy.

 

16.4-3. Discuss the techniques used in psychodynamic therapy. What is the goal of such therapy and how has it changed over time?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 16.4-3

Page Ref: 563

Topic: Psychosocial Approaches to Treatment/Psychodynamic Therapies

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The goal of psychodynamic therapy is to reveal the unconscious by using numerous techniques designed to reveal that which one may or may not be aware of. Classical psychoanalysis is an intensive and long-term process that is rarely practiced today. Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapies are more common today. These employ many of the same approaches as classical psychoanalysis, but focus more on interpersonal considerations. While the classical psychoanalyst would focus on early relationships, the more modern psychotherapist would look at how those early relationships impact today’s interactions. Some psychodynamic techniques are free association, analysis of dreams, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference. In free association, the client is asked to say whatever comes to mind – to speak without thinking. When dreams are analyzed, the therapist looks past the dream as remember and interprets the hidden meaning of the dream. All of these techniques are designed to aid the client in developing an awareness of that which lurks in his or her unconscious. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total – 2 points each to name and describe 2 techniques – 4 points, explain change in psychoanalysis over time – 2 points, explanation of goal of therapy.

 

 

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