Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka -Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS
Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka -Test Bank

Chapter 5: Stress and Physical and Mental Health

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

5.1-1. According to the text, the term “stress” will be used to refer to

  1. only those external events in our lives that challenge us.
  2. any positive demand made on an organism.
  3. the effects of external stressors within the organism.
  4. anything that makes us unhappy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-1

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the effects of external stressors within the organism.

 

5.1-2. Selye

  1. recognized that both happy and sad life events can be sources of stress.
  2. conducted extensive research on the effects of stress on the immune system.
  3. failed to acknowledge the role of the environment in adapting to stress.
  4. focused on the cognitive component of the stress response.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-2

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. recognized that both happy and sad life events can be sources of stress.

 

5.1-3. Distress is

  1. seen when a situation is ambiguous.
  2. a response to a happy life event.
  3. the same thing as eustress.
  4. a response to a negative event.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-3

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. a response to a negative event.

 

5.1-4. Which of the following terms refers to efforts to deal with stress?

  1. coping strategies
  2. compensatory strategies
  3. sublimation
  4. projection

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-4

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Coping strategies

 

5.1-5. What do positive and negative stressors have in common?

  1. They usually last indefinitely.
  2. Both occur without warning.
  3. They have an equivalent potential for causing lasting damage.
  4. Both tax one’s resources and coping skills.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-5

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Both tax one’s resources and coping skills.

 

5.1-6. In DSM-5, a new category has been added. What is this new category?

  1. stress not specified
  2. positive stressor disorders
  3. stress and psychopathology
  4. trauma- and stressor-related disorders

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-6

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. trauma- and stressor-related disorders

 

5.1-7. Which of the following psychological disturbances does not occur in response to an identifiable experience?

  1. adjustment disorder
  2. acute stress disorder
  3. depression
  4. post-traumatic stress disorder

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-7

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. depression

 

5.1-8. According to your textbook, which of the following is most stressful to people and animals?

  1. constant stressors
  2. predictable stressors
  3. uncontrollable stressors
  4. physical stressors

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-8

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Uncontrollable stressors

 

5.1-9. Coping strategies are

  1. efforts to deal with stress.
  2. efforts to avoid conflict.
  3. the same thing as eustress.
  4. the dynamic interaction between the types of stressors and the person.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-9

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. efforts to deal with stress.

 

5.1-10. Which of the following factors is linked to a person’s ability to cope better?

  1. intelligence
  2. social support
  3. absence of the 5HT-TLPR gene
  4. early life stress

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-10

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. social support

 

5.1-11. Stress tolerance is

  1. a biological attribute
  2. a pressure
  3. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired
  4. a crisis for most people

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-11

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. a person’s ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired

 

5.1-12. Crisis is

  1. a double avoidance conflict.
  2. when the individual cannot make a decision.
  3. an internal pressure.
  4. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-12

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.

 

5.1-13. Which of the following is not considered a life change?

  1. being promoted
  2. being diabetic
  3. getting pregnant
  4. a death in the family

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-13

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. being diabetic

 

5.1-14. What is not a key factor in making a stressor more serious?

  1. how long it lasts
  2. how severe it is
  3. its type or category
  4. how expected it is

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-14

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. its type or category

 

5.1-15. According to the text, a factor that does not make one stressor more serious than another includes:

  1. severity
  2. chronicity
  3. geographic region
  4. how expected it is.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-15

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. geographic region

 

5.1-16. The term “crisis” refers to

  1. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one’s ability to cope.
  2. encountering a number of stressors simultaneously.
  3. a period of especially acute stress.
  4. any encounter that requires a readjustment of self concept.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-16

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one’s ability to cope.

 

5.1-17. Who is likely to have the most severe stress?

  1. Anne, who is planning her wedding
  2. Bill, who has a deadline the next day for an important project
  3. Lauren, who sees the aftermath of an accident
  4. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-17

Page Ref: 131-132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news.

 

5.1-18. What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?

  1. There is no difference, these are just two words for the same thing.
  2. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
  3. There is a biological response to stress, but not to crisis.
  4. A stressor is an unexpected crisis.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-18

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.

 

5.1-19. The development of new methods of coping

  1. may be an outcome of a crisis.
  2. always occurs when adaptive capabilities are exceeded.
  3. increases the expectation of future failures.
  4. is continuously needed as we face new stressors on a daily basis.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-19

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. may be an outcome of a crisis.

 

5.1-20. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale

  1. examines the role that coping plays in dealing with life changes.
  2. did not acknowledge that happy events create life changes and, as a consequence, stress.
  3. is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time.
  4. has been used to demonstrate that life events and health are not related.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-20

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a

period of time.

 

5.1-21.  A client is administered the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Which of the following would be measured?

  1. severe crises
  2. major life transitions
  3. availability of coping resources
  4. common, stressful life experiences

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-21

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. common, stressful life experiences

 

5.1-22. The Life Events and Difficulty Schedule

  1. is another name for the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
  2. allows the rater to consider the person’s unique circumstances.
  3. was developed prior to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
  4. does not provide any more information than the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-22

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. allows the rater to consider the person’s unique circumstances.

 

5.1-23. Which of the following is a criticism of the life event, interview-based  scales?

  1. They do not recognize that joyful events can be stressful.
  2. They limit the kind of events that can be reported.
  3. They do not recognize that multiple life changes will produce greater stress.
  4. They are more expensive to administer.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-23

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. They are more expensive to administer.

 

5.1-24. The Life Event and Difficulty Schedule

  1. provides a quick way to assess stress responses and coping skills.
  2. allows raters to consider different circumstances around the same stressor.
  3. focuses on how difficult life events are handled.
  4. provides a timeline for describing the stress response.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-24

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. allows raters to consider different circumstances around the same stressor.

 

5.1-25. Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?

  1. holding unrealistic expectations about the stressor
  2. minimizing the use of social support
  3. preparing for the stressor
  4. being uncertain as to how long the stressor will persist

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-25

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. preparing for the stressor

 

5.1-26. An individual with a high stress tolerance

  1. can function well in the face of a high level of stress.
  2. is likely to be particularly vulnerable to slight frustration.
  3. may feel threatened more readily than those with low stress tolerance.
  4. is particularly vulnerable to acute stress disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-26

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress.

 

5.1-27. Healthy psychological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic event is called:

  1. coping
  2. resilience
  3. compensation
  4. adaptation

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-27

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. resilience

 

5.1-28. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor that increases resilience?

  1. being female
  2. being older
  3. being African American
  4. being Latino

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-28

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. being older

 

5.1-29. Which of the following parts has not been linked to the stress response?

  1. the hypothalamus
  2. the cerebellum
  3. the adrenal medulla
  4. the pituitary

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-35

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. the cerebellum

 

5.1-30. The stress glucocorticoid that is produced in humans is called

  1. adrenalin
  2. estrogen
  3. cortisol
  4. repression

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-30

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. cortisol

 

5.1-31. Cortisol

  1. is always stable in humans.
  2. does not respond to stress.
  3. prepares the body for fight or flight.
  4. prepares the body for sleep.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-31

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. prepares the body for fight or flight.

 

5.1-32. Which of the following statements about stress is correct?

  1. the response an individual will have to a stressor can be readily predicted.
  2. cognitive factors do not play a role in determining the severity of stress.
  3. some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands.
  4. changes in the level of external supports one has are unrelated to stress reactions.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-32

Page Ref: 130-131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands.

 

5.1-33. What is the name of the system that is designed to mobilize resources and prepare a fight-or-flight response?

  1. the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system
  2. the cortex-thalamus cortisol system
  3. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system
  4. the parasympathetic prefrontal cortex system

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-23

Page Ref: 133

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system

 

5.1-34. What is the term for the biological cost of adapting to stress?

  1. allostatic load
  2. homeostatic load
  3. sympathetic load
  4. parasympathetic load

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-34

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. allostatic load

 

5.1-35. I often find that when I am ill, I am not able to cope effectively with the normal hassles of life. I find myself becoming irritated by things that I would usually be able to ignore. Which of the following would explain this phenomenon?

  1. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised.
  2. Major life changes may impair the ability to cope effectively with daily hassles.
  3. During the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome illness becomes likely.
  4. Allostatic load leads to psychological and biological vulnerability.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-35

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised.

 

5.1-36. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction between the __________________.

  1. nervous system and the immune system
  2. psychological system and the nervous system
  3. psychological system and the immune system
  4. nervous system and the hypothalamic system

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-36

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. nervous system and the immune system

 

 

5.1-37. Which of the following can cause stress-induced immunosuppression?

  1. serotonin
  2. adrenaline
  3. GABA
  4. glucocorticoids

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-37

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. glucocorticoids

 

5.1-38. Which of the following is the biological cascade that is activated with prolonged stress?

  1. the adrenal-hypothalamic-prefrontal axis
  2. the cortical-thalamic-neural axis
  3. the psycho-neuro-biological axis
  4. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-38

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

 

5.1-39. B-cells are

  1. cells that engulf antigens.
  2. cells that produce antibodies.
  3. cells that harm the immune system.
  4. cells that are antigens.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-39

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and The Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. cells that produce antibodies.

 

5.1-40. Which type of cells release interleukin?

  1. B-cells
  2. macrophages
  3. red blood cells
  4. neurons

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-40

Page Ref: 135

Topic: Stress and The Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. macrophages

 

5.1-41. Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text?

  1. vacation
  2. sleep deprivation
  3. spaceflight
  4. death of a spouse

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-41

Page Ref: 136

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. vacation

 

5.1-42. Which cytokine has been associated with depression and caring for family members with Alzheimer’s disease?

  1. HIV
  2. adrenaline
  3. GABA
  4. interleukin-6

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-42

Page Ref: 136

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. interleukin-6

 

5.1-43. What is considered the “front line” of immune system defense?

  1. antigens
  2. cortisol
  3. leukocytes
  4. hypothalamus

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-43

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and The Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. leukocytes

 

5.1-44. The pituitary gland

  1. controls the release of hormones by the hypothalamus.
  2. is part of the immune system.
  3. produces adrenalin.

d.is important to the release of stress hormones.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-44

Page Ref: 133

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is important to the release of stress hormones

 

5.1-45. The field of psychoneuroimmunology

  1. focuses on the relationship between stress and mental illness.
  2. explores the neurological basis of autoimmune conditions.
  3. seeks to establish a link between psychological functioning and vulnerability to illness.
  4. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-45

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and The Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.

 

5.1-46. Prolonged stress leads to suppression of the immune system. What might explain the evolution of such a seemingly flawed reaction?

  1. There is no reasonable explanation for this.
  2. Susceptibility to disease would increase the likelihood of an early death.
  3. Immune suppression has no lasting effects on overall health.
  4. Such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illnesses.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-46

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune

illnesses.

 

5.1-47. Stress slows the healing of wounds by as much as ___ to ___ percent.

  1. 5; 10.
  2. 12; 15.
  3. 24; 40.
  4. 55; 70.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-47

Page Ref: 136

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. 24; 40.

 

5.1-48. Which of the following represents normal-range blood pressure?

  1. 140/100
  2. 140/80
  3. 120/80
  4. 120/100

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-51

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. 120/80

 

5.1-49. What is a symptom of hypertension?

  1. A person is always light-headed.
  2. A person may show no symptoms of it.
  3. A person’s skin feels unusually warm.
  4. A person has persistent indigestion.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-49

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. A person may show no symptoms of it.

 

5.1-50. Work-related stress can elevate risk of coronary heart disease by which key factors?

  1. a highly demanding job and little opportunity for advancement
  2. a highly demanding job and little decision-making control
  3. a highly demanding job and Type B personality
  4. a highly demanding job and introversion

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-50

Page Ref: 140

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. a highly demanding job and little decision-making control

 

5.1-51. What is Type D personality type?

  1. The “depressed” type
  2. The “dysfunctional” type
  3. The “distressed” type
  4. The “detached” type

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-51

Page Ref: 141

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. The “distressed” type

 

5.1-52. What seems to be the most important component for coronary heart disease in the Type A behavior pattern?

  1. hostility
  2. time urgency
  3. competitiveness
  4. work commitment

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-52

Page Ref: 140-141

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. hostility

 

5.1-53. Clyde is unmarried and has few friends. Why is he at greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than the general population?

  1. He is unlikely to seek help if he notices problems.
  2. Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease.
  3. He has no knowledge of his problems.
  4. He is socially awkward and thus has increased risks for disease.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-53

Page Ref: 142

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease.

 

5.1-54. What is risk factor?

  1. a variable that can occur within 6 months of a stressor
  2. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome
  3. a biological factor that increases resistance to disease
  4. a reaction to a normal event

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-54

Page Ref: 140

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. a variable that increases the risk of a specific negative outcome

 

5.1-55. In regards to stress research, a risk factor is

  1. something about the nature of a stressor that makes it worse for most people.
  2. something in a person’s history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.
  3. something in a person’s learning experiences that makes that person a thrill seeker.
  4. something in a person’s genetic makeup that makes that person respond well to stress.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-55

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. something in a person’s history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.

 

5.1-56. People with heart disease are ____ times more likely than healthy people to be depressed.

  1. two
  2. three
  3. four
  4. five

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-56

Page Ref: 141

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. three

 

5.1-57. Sudden cardiac death is ______ times higher in men with high levels of anxiety.

  1. two
  2. four
  3. six
  4. eight

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-57

Page Ref: 142

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. six

 

5.1-58. Which was not an effective treatment for stress-related disorders, according to your text?

  1. psychoanalysis
  2. emotional disclosure
  3. meditation
  4. biofeedback

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-58

Page Ref: 143-144

Topic: Treatment of Stress-Related Physical Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. psychoanalysis

 

5.1-59. What is the term for the procedure that aims to make a patient more aware of such things as their heart rate, level of muscle tension, or blood pressure?

  1. relaxation
  2. meditation
  3. hypnosis
  4. biofeedback

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-59

Page Ref: 144

Topic: Treatment of Stress-Related Physical Disorders

Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. biofeedback

 

5.1-60. For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________

months of the stressor?

  1. two
  2. nine
  3. three
  4. six

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-60

Page Ref: 145

Topic: Stress and Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. three

 

5.1-61. Although divorce is now far more acceptable than it was in previous years, why do those going through a divorce still find it extremely stressful?

  1. Few friends find it easy to accept.
  2. The person is likely to make more money than previously.
  3. Religious leaders support it.
  4. Economic uncertainties are difficult to predict.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-61

Page Ref: 131

Topic: Stress and Mental Health

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Economic uncertainties are difficult to predict.

 

5.1-62. Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD

  1. have not been made.
  2. indicate that most people who experience a traumatic event develop PTSD.
  3. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.
  4. find that it rarely exists as a comorbid condition.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-62

Page Ref: 147

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.

 

5.1-63. According to the text, PTSD:

  1. is a diagnosis that entered the DSM in 1990
  2. has little preexisting vulnerabilities
  3. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people
  4. is viewed as an abnormal response to a normal stressor

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-63

Page Ref: 147

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people

 

5.1-64. A main symptom of PTSD in DSM-5 is

  1. development of stress-related diseases.
  2. reexperiencing of the traumatic event.
  3. panic attacks when remembering the trauma.
  4. depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-64

Page Ref: 148

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. re-experiencing of the traumatic event.

 

5.1-65. In the DSM-5, PTSD will become a part of a new diagnostic category called ________.

  1. Anxiety Disorders
  2. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
  3. Depressive Disorders
  4. Transient- and Chronic Distress Disorders

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-65

Page Ref: 130, 146

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders

 

5.1-66. According to DSM-5, Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when

  1. the trauma is an event out of the realm of normal life experience.
  2. the symptoms last for more than 2 weeks.
  3. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
  4. the symptoms begin within 6 months of the trauma.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-66

Page Ref: 148

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.

 

5.1-67. Approximately ____ percent of women develop PTSD over the course of their lives.

  1. 5
  2. 10
  3. 15
  4. 20

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-67

Page Ref: 148-149

Topic: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder/Prevalence of PTSD in the General Population

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. 10

 

5.1-68. According to your textbook, what percentage of Army soldiers and Marines in Iraq report that they have been attacked or ambushed?

  1. 56%
  2. 63%
  3. 77%
  4. 92%

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-68

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. 92%

 

5.1-69. What was not a result of the psychological stress following being a prisoner of war?

  1. higher death rate
  2. more diabetes
  3. overwhelming anger at minor events
  4. frequent alcohol or drug dependence

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-79

Page Ref: 151

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. frequent alcohol or drug dependence

 

5.1-70. During WWII, the descriptors of the traumatic reactions seen to combat conditions

  1. emphasized that these were a product of organic processes.
  2. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion.
  3. did not differentiate these reactions from other psychological problems, such as drug abuse.
  4. were comparable to what is now called acute stress disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-70

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion.

 

5.1-71. It is believed that the incidence of combat exhaustion during WWII has been

underestimated because

  1. there was a debate as to how to differentiate between combat exhaustion and PTSD.
  2. many men were treated in the field and never formally diagnosed.
  3. those who were discharged for medical reasons were not counted when estimates were made.
  4. many men who were diagnosed with the brain disorder “shell shock” were probably suffering from combat exhaustion.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-71

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. many men were treated in the field and never formally diagnosed.

 

5.1-72. “Combat exhaustion” is known as ________ today.

  1. acute stress disorder
  2. shell shock
  3. PTSD
  4. war neurosis

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-72

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. PTSD

 

5.1-73. Why should we study the causal factors in PTSD, since we already know traumatic events cause it?

  1. Because if we do not study it, we will not diagnose it.
  2. Political lobbying requires the study of it.
  3. Victims often feel guilt about their reaction to the trauma.
  4. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-73

Page Ref: 152

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD.

 

5.1-74. Why is there such a high likelihood of long-lasting psychological problems

resulting from active combat experiences?

  1. Research has revealed that those who enlist are more likely to be emotionally unstable.
  2. When task-oriented coping strategies are ineffective, emotional breakdown is inevitable.
  3. Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may be no truly effective coping mechanisms.
  4. Basic training is ineffective at preparing new recruits for any of the challenges they will likely face.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-74

Page Ref: 149-150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may

be no truly effective coping mechanisms.

 

5.1-75. Feelings of control over stressors

  1. do not make a difference when it comes to extremely severe stressors like torture.
  2. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.
  3. can make people feel worse because they believe they should have been able to change what happened.
  4. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be more affected by the stressor over the long term.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-75

Page Ref: 152

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. can make a difference even for victims of torture – if the person feels he or

she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long

term.

 

5.1-76. When POWs first return,

  1. their PTSD symptoms are at their worst.
  2. their PTSD symptoms are mild and gradually get worse over time.
  3. their relief and joy at being released often masks the trauma’s effects.
  4. they show little symptoms from stress, then or later.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-76

Page Ref: 151

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. their relief and joy at being released often masks the trauma’s effects.

 

5.1-77. Which is an individual risk factor for developing PTSD?

  1. higher levels of social support
  2. having no family history of depression
  3. believing that their symptoms are a sign of personal strength
  4. being neurotic

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1-77

Page Ref: 153

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. being neurotic

 

5.1-78. The impact of torture

  1. is always a severe level of PTSD.
  2. can vary depending on the type of torture used.
  3. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not.
  4. depends on whether the person previously had another psychological disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-78

Page Ref: 152

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not.

 

5.1-79. Having a history of psychological problems before going into combat

  1. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD.
  2. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD only if the combat situation is extreme.
  3. sometimes increases risk of PTSD, but may lower it because the person is used to anxiety and copes automatically with it.
  4. doesn’t have an impact on developing PTSD.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-79

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer:

  1. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD.

 

 

5.1-80. Which of the following will lower a soldier’s risk of developing PTSD?

  1. no prior experience in combat
  2. believing strongly in the goals of the combat
  3. whether he or she is in combat in a familiar country or not
  4. whether he or she talks about experiences

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-80

Page Ref: 154

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. believing strongly in the goals of the combat

 

5.1-81. Stress-inoculation training

  1. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat and then applying these techniques to several different types of threats.
  2. prepares one to deal with a stressor by considering solutions to the problems that are likely to arise.
  3. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of any life challenge.
  4. can be used to prepare for almost any disaster.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-81

Page Ref: 155-156

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat, including what a person says to themselves

 

5.1-82. For which of the following would the use of stress-inoculation training be most effective?

  1. Preparing for chemotherapy
  2. Dealing with the aftermath of a rape
  3. Coping with the loss of a loved one
  4. Minimizing the impact of losing one’s home, after it is lost

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-82

Page Ref: 162

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Preparing for chemotherapy

 

5.1-83. Stress-inoculation training

  1. has been employed in the military and been found to be ineffective.
  2. prepares one to deal with a stressor by considering solutions to the problems that are likely.
  3. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat.
  4. can be used to prepare for most any disaster.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-83

Page Ref: 155-156

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact

of an anticipated threat.

 

5.1-84. Based on occupation, which of the following would have the lowest rates of PTSD following rescue work during a major disaster?

  1. waitresses comforting the injured at the medical tent
  2. construction workers trying to clear rubble
  3. teachers asked to hold bandages in place
  4. police officers removing the seriously injured from the site

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-84

Page Ref: 155

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. police officers removing the seriously injured from the site

 

 

5.1-85. Short-term crisis therapy

  1. typically consists of six to ten sessions.
  2. rarely involves family members or other medical personnel.
  3. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis.
  4. is usually provided by a trained lay person.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-85

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning

well before the current crisis.

 

5.1-86. Arielle was in a terrible car accident in which several people were killed. A few weeks later, she began to talk about what happened. She told the story to anyone who would listen. This seems to be

  1. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience.
  2. a maladaptive coping response that will heighten her distress.
  3. a sign that she is beginning to develop PTSD.
  4. a sign that she is in the shock stage of disaster syndrome.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-86

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience.

 

5.1-87. Following a disaster, debriefing sessions

  1. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns.
  2. are not necessary for experienced disaster workers.
  3. tend to increase the anxiety felt by many victims.
  4. should be conducted by professionals.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1-87

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns.

 

5.1-88. Which of the following would be an example of prolonged exposure?

  1. Mandy visited the accident site.
  2. Carol considered ways in which she could make her apartment safer.
  3. John planned a new route to work.
  4. Chris learned judo.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-88

Page Ref: 158

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Mandy visited the accident site.

 

5.1-89. The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD

  1. are used to alter the stressful situation.
  2. act to minimize the cognitive response to the stressor.
  3. provide the client with a temporary escape from the trauma.
  4. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-89

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.

 

5.1-90. Despite the many barriers to effectively researching the effectiveness of disaster responses, it has been found that

  1. treatment benefits everyone.
  2. a single debriefing session is always an effective “quick fix.”
  3. cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated.
  4. more study in this area is not needed as it is too expensive, too time consuming, and too subjective.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-90

Page Ref: 159

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated.

 

5.1-91. A significant drawback of the use of medication for PTSD is

  1. it can work well during the day; however, the person often continues to have nightmares and sleep disturbances.
  2. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness.
  3. it can make people overly sensitized to the “warning signs” of distress.
  4. there are no significant drawbacks.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1-91

Page Ref: 158

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness.

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

5.21. The biological cost of adapting to stress is called the __________ .

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2-1

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: allostatic load

 

5.2-2. ____________is having a persisting systolic blood pressure of 140 or more and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or more.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2-2

Page Ref: 138

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: Hypertension

 

5.2-3. A recent development in looking at personality in cardiovascular disease is

the __________ personality, which includes insecurity and anxiety.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2-3

Page Ref: 141

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: Type D

 

5.2-4. The DSM-5 disorder that has symptoms of post-traumatic stress but lasts less than 4 weeks is __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2-4

Page Ref: 148

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: acute stress disorder

 

5.2-5. The outdated term “shell shock” is renamed __________ today.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2-5

Page Ref: 150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: post-traumatic stress disorder

 

5.2-6. The treatment that arranges for survivors to discuss their experiences with others is known as __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2-6

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: psychological debriefing

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

5.3-1. What are two factors that predispose a person to have difficulty with stress?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3-1

Page Ref: 130-131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: Factors predisposing a person to have difficulty dealing with stress include coping skills and the possession or lack of particular resources. Also including family members with depression, lower levels of optimism and psychological control, and the 5HT-TLPR gene, as well as early stress in

life.

 

5.3-2. How is the severity of stress measured?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-2

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Factual

Answer: The severity of stress is measured by the degree to which it disrupts

functioning.

 

5.3-3. Discuss two of the aspects of the nature of stressors that can cause them to be highly stressful.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.3-3

Page Ref: 131

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Two of: If they involve important aspect’s of one’s life. The length of time a

stressor exists, the longer, the worse the effects. The cumulative effect of multiple small

stressors. Multiple stressors at one time. How closely involved someone is to a traumatic

situation.

 

5.3-4. What are two factors that can lessen the impact of a stressful situation?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-4

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Applied

Answer: Many possible choices – understanding the nature of the situation, preparing

for the stressful situation, perceiving that there may be some benefit, perceiving that one

has control, feeling able to handle the event, having adequate social support, etc.

 

5.3-5. What is a risk factor?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3-5

Page Ref: 140

Topic: Stress and Physical Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: Anything that increases the likelihood of a specific and usually negative

outcome occurring at a later point in time.

 

5.3-6. What is the allostatic load?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-6

Page Ref: 134

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Factual

Answer: The biological cost of adapting to stress.

 

5.3-7. List four symptoms of PTSD.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-7

Page Ref: 146

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: The symptoms of PTSD are numerous and varied. They include nightmares,

intrusive thoughts, irritability, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

 

5.3-8. What are some of the reasons why political activists who were tortured were less affected by PTSD long term?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3-8

Page Ref: 152

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: Prior knowledge of, and preparedness for, torture, strong commitment to a cause, immunization against traumatic stress as a result of repeated exposure, and strong social supports have protective value against PTSD in survivors of torture.

 

5.3-9. Why are uncontrollable stressors especially difficult to deal with?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-9

Page Ref: 132

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: If a stressor is not controllable, there is no way to minimize its impact.

 

5.3-10. What is stress-inoculation training?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3-10

Page Ref: 155-156

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: This is a means of preparing one to deal with an anticipated event. It involved

learning and practicing new ways of coping with the event. It might be used, for

example, prior to some form of painful medical treatment.

 

5.3-11. What is the goal of post-disaster debriefing?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.3-11

Page Ref: 157

Topic: Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Debriefing provides those who are affected by a traumatic situation with a chance to share their experiences, feelings, and concerns.

 

Essay Questions

 

5.4-1. Define the terms stress and stressor. Discuss three factors that influence stress and complicate its study.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.4-1

Page Ref: 130

Topic: What Is Stress?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Stress is the response to any demand placed on an organism. Those events that create stress are called stressors. An individual’s response to a given stressor is influenced by both internal and external factors, making it such that no two people will respond in the same way to the same event and a given person’s response may not always be the same. The impact of a stressor is largely determined by coping skills, an individual’s perception of the stressor, the number of other stressors the individual is facing, and any existing predisposition to stress vulnerability.

GRADING RUBRIC – Define stress – 2, Define stress – 2, Each factor – 2 (3 @ 2 = 6)

Total: 10

 

5.4-2. Discuss the immune system’s response to an attack.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.4-2

Page Ref: 133-136

Topic: Stress and the Stress Response

Skill: Applied

Answer: The front line of defense is the white blood cells or leukocytes. Two types—B-cells and T-cells. They respond to attack, multiplying rapidly to form a counterattack. B-cells respond to specific antigens, while T-cells (or microphages) engulf the antigens.

This is an intricate process which involves multiple systems. GRADING RUBRIC – 10

points.

 

5.4-3. Describe two personality patterns associated with coronary heart disease.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.4-3

Page Ref: 140-141

Topic: Cardiovascular Disease

Skill: Factual

Answer: Type A behavior pattern, characterized by excessive competitiveness, extreme

commitment to work, impatience or time urgency, and hostility. Appears that hostility is

most critical factor. Type D personality, characterized by distress. People with Type D

experience negative emotions and feel insecure or anxious. GRADING RUBRIC:

Definition of Type A – 5 pts Definition of Type D – 5 pts 10 points total

 

5.4-4. Describe four factors that can worsen a soldier’s response to the trauma of combat.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.4-4

Page Ref: 149-150

Topic: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: Four of: constant fear, unpredictability, many uncontrollable circumstances,

the necessity of killing, and prolonged harsh conditions. GRADING RUBRIC – 8 points,

2 points for each factor.

Chapter 7: Mood Disorders and Suicide

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

7.1-1. What do all mood disorders have in common?

  1. The presence of a negative mood state.
  2. They are at least 6 months in duration.
  3. The presence of irrational thoughts.
  4. They are characterized by emotional extremes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-1

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders and Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. They are characterized by emotional extremes.

 

7.1-2. What are the two key moods involved in mood disorders?

  1. Anger and depression
  2. Sadness and anxiety
  3. Mania and depression
  4. Anger and mania

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-2

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Mania and depression

 

7.1-3. Which of the following is true of major depressive episode?

  1. It does not begin until adolescence.
  2. It is equally common in men and women.
  3. It occurs five times as often in elderly people as in middle-aged adults.
  4. It is the most prevalent mood episode.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-3

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It is the most prevalent mood episode.

 

7.1-4. In order to meet the criteria for a major depressive episode, a person MUST have

  1. a depressed mood or loss of pleasure most of the day for at least 2 weeks.
  2. significant weight loss.
  3. intense irritability.
  4. insomnia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-4

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer:

  1. a depressed mood most of the day for at least 2 weeks.

 

 

7.1-5. “Normal”feelings of depression becomes a mood disorder when

  1. there is no identifiable cause for it.
  2. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.
  3. it lasts for more than a month.
  4. it ceases to be justified and adaptive.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-5

Page Ref: 213-214

Topic: What Are Mood Disorders?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.

 

7.1-6. Two months after her husband’s death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses could apply to Connie according to the DSM-5?

  1. adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  2. dysthymia
  3. postpartum depression
  4. major depressive disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-6

Page Ref: 215

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. major depressive disorder

 

7.1-7. “Postpartum blues” are

  1. a serious disorder.
  2. common, usually brief, and not a disorder.
  3. a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder.
  4. serious, brief, and a type of unipolar depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-7

Page Ref: 216

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. common, usually brief, and not a disorder.

 

7.1-8. In which of the following disorders must symptoms be present for at least 2 years in order for a diagnosis to be made?

  1. Dysthymia
  2. Bipolar I disorder
  3. Major depressive disorder
  4. Bipolar II disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-8

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorder/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Dysthymia

 

7.1-9. How does dysthymia compare to major depressive disorder?

  1. Symptoms are much more severe than in major depressive disorder.
  2. Symptoms change from day to day, with lots of days with normal functioning in between dysthymic episodes.
  3. There are many more symptoms required to meet dysthymia than to meet major depressive disorder.
  4. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-9

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorder/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder.

 

7.1-10. What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?

  1. the length of time the person has had the symptoms
  2. how severe the symptoms are
  3. whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder
  4. the types of symptoms the person has

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-10

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder

 

7.1-11. Sean describes himself as having hardly ever being happy. He occasionally feels okay, but it never lasts more than a day or so. He has trouble sleeping, doesn’t eat much, and feels like nothing will ever change in his life. He says this has been going on for as long as he can remember. The best diagnosis for Sean is

  1. cyclothymia.
  2. dysthymia.
  3. major depressive disorder.
  4. bipolar II.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-11

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. dysthymia.

 

7.1-12. Which of the following is a symptom of major depressive disorder?

  1. Checking and rechecking things
  2. appetite and weight loss
  3. Running thoughts
  4. Impulsive spending

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-12

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. appetite and weight loss

 

7.1-13. George, a 22-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three weeks, he has had problems sleeping and he has little appetite or enjoyment of food. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?

  1. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  2. Chronic adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  3. Bipolar II
  4. Major depressive disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-13

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Major depressive disorder

 

7.1-14. Brittany came to a therapist complaining that she just doesn’t enjoy life lately. She says that for the past couple of months, she finds she just doesn’t feel like doing the things that she used to love to do. She has also lost a lot of weight and sleeps much more than usual but still feels tired all the time. She says she just can’t concentrate on anything. However, she denies feeling sad. Brittany’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. dysthymic disorder.
  2. bipolar II disorder.
  3. major depressive disorder.
  4. no disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-14

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. major depressive disorder.

 

7.1-15. Depression

  1. can occur even in infants and very young children.
  2. is extremely rare in childhood.
  3. cannot occur in childhood.
  4. can occur in childhood in females but not in males.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-15

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. can occur even in infants and very young children.

 

7.1-16. Depression during adolescence

  1. is much rarer than during childhood.
  2. has little effect on adult functioning.
  3. can affect a person into young adulthood.
  4. is decreasing in prevalence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-16

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. can affect a person into young adulthood.

 

7.1-17. Herbert awakens early in the morning and feels more depressed in the morning than the evening. He has lost all interest in activities and derives no pleasure from things that used to please him. If he is suffering from major depression, Herbert’s symptoms suggest the subtype called

  1. mood-congruent.
  2. melancholic.
  3. dysthymic.
  4. postpartum.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-17

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. melancholic.

 

7.1-18. A person who shows psychotic depression that involves mood-congruent thinking

  1. is diagnosed as having “double depression.”
  2. usually responds rapidly to anti-depressant medications.
  3. rarely shows the symptoms of melancholia.
  4. has a poorer prognosis than others with major depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-18

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. has a poorer prognosis than others with major depression.

 

7.1-19. Sam has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. He tells you that he is certain the world will end next Tuesday because everyone in it is so wicked. He refuses to consider that he might be wrong. Sam has

  1. mood congruent delusions.
  2. mood incongruent delusions.
  3. atypical features.
  4. melancholic features.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-19

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. mood congruent delusions.

 

7.1-20. What is meant by the phrase “double depression”?

  1. Symptoms are consistent with two different subtypes of major depression.
  2. The individual has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and a mood disorder.
  3. Symptoms of both typical and atypical depression are exhibited.
  4. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-20

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well.

 

7.1-21. Kerry suffers from depression. He is experiencing delusions that his brain is deteriorating and that he is aging quickly. These delusions

  1. clearly suggest a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
  2. are typical of depressive delusions because they are mood congruent.
  3. suggest that he is suffering from a bipolar rather than a unipolar disorder.
  4. are most likely to persist after the depression remits.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-21

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. are typical of depressive delusions because they are mood congruent.

 

7.1-22. Margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years and has sought treatment on several occasions. About one month ago she developed more severe symptoms of depression, which have been maintained almost daily. The condition she is experiencing is best described as

  1. double depression.
  2. chronic melancholia.
  3. adjustment disorder with bipolar features.
  4. recurring melancholic depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-22

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. double depression.

 

7.1-23. Deena has major depressive disorder. Most days she feels very sad, but when her sister came and told Deena she was going to be an aunt, Deena felt happy for a little while. She has been gaining weight and sleeping much of the day. Deena most likely has

  1. melancholic features.
  2. double depression.
  3. atypical features.
  4. psychotic features.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-23

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. atypical features.

 

7.1-24. A recurrent depressive episode

  1. is preceded by one or more previous episodes.
  2. suggests that chronic major depression has developed.
  3. typically lasts 2-3 weeks.
  4. is characteristic of all forms of bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-24

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. is preceded by one or more previous episodes.

 

7.1-25. The average duration of an untreated episode of depression is

  1. 6-9 months.
  2. 1 year.
  3. 2 years.
  4. unknown as individuals not seeking treatment haven’t been studied.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-25

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. 6-9 months.

 

7.1-26. Which of the following is a true statement about the recurrence of depressive symptoms?

  1. If a recurrence is not experienced within 1 year after an initial depressive episode, recurrence is highly unlikely.
  2. Most individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence.
  3. Those with depression with psychotic features are less likely to experience a recurrence.
  4. Clients are usually asymptomatic between depressive episodes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-26

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Most individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence.

 

7.1-27. A rapid return of symptoms immediately after drug treatment is terminated is a common example of ________; a return to depressive symptoms after a period of spontaneous remission of symptoms is called a ________.

  1. melancholia; recurrence
  2. recurrence; relapse
  3. relapse; recurrence
  4. mood-congruent depression; mood-incongruent depression

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-27

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. relapse; recurrence

 

7.1-28. Seasonal affective disorder is best described as a ________ depressive disorder.

  1. mood-congruent
  2. minor
  3. psychotic
  4. recurrent

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-28

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. recurrent

 

7.1-29. Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurred last fall. It is now winter and Kelly’s depressive symptoms once again are consistent with major depressive disorder. Which of the following diagnoses should she be given?

  1. dysthymic disorder
  2. chronic major depressive disorder
  3. recurrent major depressive disorder
  4. recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-29

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern

 

 

7.1-30. Which of the following statements is supported by research on the role of genetic influences in unipolar disorder?

  1. The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution.
  2. Twin studies do not consistently find evidence of an inherited susceptibility to depression.
  3. Genes play a more significant causal role in bipolar disorders than they do in unipolar disorders.
  4. Bipolar and unipolar disorders are equally heritable.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-30

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution.

 

7.1-31. The finding that people with one type of serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment had higher rates of depression than either those without the gene or those with the gene without the maltreatment suggests that

  1. childhood maltreatment causes depression.
  2. only one type of gene causes depression.
  3. either or a gene or certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.
  4. both a gene and certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-31

Page Ref: 222

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. both a gene and certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.

 

7.1-32. Which of the following is true about the monoamine hypothesis of depression?

  1. Alternative theories have replaced this theory.
  2. It has not been replaced by a compelling alternative.
  3. This theory remains the standard of current and accurate information.
  4. This theory has been continuously updated to meet current research.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-32

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. It has not been replaced by a compelling alternative

 

7.1-33. Drugs that alter the availability of norepinephrine and serotonin are not clinically effective in the treatment of depression for several weeks. Which of the following does this finding suggest?

  1. These neurotransmitters are not involved in depression.
  2. It is overactivity of these neurotransmitters that underlies depression, not underactivity.
  3. That the effectiveness of antidepressants is a placebo effect, as opposed to a result of a biochemical manipulation.
  4. Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-33

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression.

 

7.1-34. Individuals who do not show a decrease in cortisol levels in response to an injection of dexamethasone

  1. have a severe form of depression.
  2. are likely to be suffering from both major depression and a personality disorder.
  3. will not respond well to pharmacological treatment.
  4. have an HPA axis that is not functioning normally.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-34

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. have an HPA axis that is not functioning normally.

 

7.1-35. Which of the following is most likely to be seen in children who are at risk for depression?

  1. decreased left hemisphere activity
  2. decreased right hemisphere activity
  3. increased serotonin levels
  4. increased GABA levels

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-35

Page Ref: 224

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. decreased left hemisphere activity

 

7.1-36. Which of the following is a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?

  1. amygdala
  2. basal ganglia
  3. posterior cingulate cortex
  4. medulla oblangata

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-36

Page Ref: 225

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. amygdala

 

7.1-37. Many people who are depressed

  1. show very little REM sleep, instead they spend large amounts of time in the deeper stages (3 and 4) of sleep.
  2. do not enter REM sleep until much later in the night than normal and have smaller amounts of REM sleep throughout the night than normal.
  3. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.
  4. enter REM sleep at a normal time, but have very slow and mild rapid eye movements and have less overall time in REM sleep than normal.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-37

Page Ref: 225-226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.

 

7.1-38. The fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests that

  1. this is a not a real form of depression as any response to light is merely a placebo effect.
  2. this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting.
  3. changes in circadian rhythms underlie most forms of depression.
  4. seasonal affective disorder is a unique entity that should not be categorized with other forms of unipolar depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-38

Page Ref: 226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting.

 

7.1-39. Independent life events are those that

  1. only affect one area of a client’s functioning.
  2. are out of the client’s control.
  3. are linked causally to the behavior or personality of the client.
  4. affect the client and not those around him or her.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-39

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. are out of the client’s control.

 

7.1-40. John’s erratic behavior finally ruined his marriage. What kind of life event would this be described as?

  1. acute
  2. chronic
  3. dependent
  4. independent

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-40

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. dependent

 

7.1-41. Which of the following is true?

  1. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event.
  2. Both first time and recurrent episodes of depression are usually preceded by a very stressful life event.
  3. Even mildly stressful events are associated with the onset of episodes of depression.
  4. Mildly stressful events are only associated with the onset of first time depression, not with recurrent episodes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-41

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event.

 

7.1-42. A review of several studies found that ________ increased the likelihood of developing a more severe depression.

  1. experiencing a stressful life event
  2. being in an intimate relationship
  3. working outside of the home
  4. having religious faith

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-42

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. experiencing a stressful life event

 

7.1-43. Which of the following is an example of a COGNITIVE diathesis for depression?

  1. neuroticism
  2. optimism
  3. attributing negative events to internal causes
  4. attributing negative events to external causes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-43

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. attributing negative events to internal causes

 

7.1-44. Which of the following reactions to poor test performance suggests a cognitive diathesis for depression?

  1. I’ll do better next time.
  2. I’ll never understand this.
  3. Why didn’t I study more?
  4. That test was way too hard.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-44

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. I’ll never understand this.

 

7.1-45. Joanne tends to blow up at people and then feel guilty. She worries a lot. She complains that she just doesn’t really find anything exciting and life is boring.

Joanne

  1. shows evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression.
  2. shows evidence of neuroticism and has a moderate risk of developing depression.
  3. shows evidence of introversion, and has a mild risk of developing depression.
  4. shows no evidence of any kind that would increase her risk for developing depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-45

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. shows evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression.

 

7.1-46. Parental loss only results in a vulnerability to depression when

  1. the loss is due to death.
  2. poor parental care is a consequence of the loss.
  3. the loss is not explained adequately to the child.
  4. both parents are lost at an early age.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-46

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. poor parental care is a consequence of the loss.

 

7.1-47. According to Freud, depression

  1. and grief are the same thing.
  2. must be treated with introjection.
  3. is a consequence of loss.
  4. reflects fixation in the anal stage.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-47

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. is a consequence of loss.

 

7.1-48. Freud suggested that depression

  1. was actually a healthy adaptation to stress.
  2. was a result of overly high self-esteem.
  3. involved the anal stage of development.
  4. was anger turned inward.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-48

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. was anger turned inward.

 

7.1-49. Which of the following is a behavioral explanation for depression?

  1. lack of environmental reinforcers
  2. insecure attachment
  3. pessimistic tendencies
  4. reliance on depressogenic schemas

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-49

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. lack of environmental reinforcers

 

7.1-50. Depressogenic schemas

  1. are inherited.
  2. predispose a person to develop depression.
  3. serve a protective function and are readily modified by positive life experiences.
  4. ensure that a low rate of reinforcement will be experienced.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-50

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. predispose a person to develop depression.

 

7.1-51. A therapist with a ________ orientation would emphasize the depressed person’s need to improve his or her social skills.

  1. interpersonal
  2. psychodynamic
  3. cognitive
  4. sociocultural

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-51

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. interpersonal

 

7.1-52. Beck’s negative cognitive triad involves feeling negatively about

  1. helplessness, hopelessness, and sorrow.
  2. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.
  3. one’s past, one’s present, and one’s future.
  4. one’s family, one’s self, and one’s friends.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-52

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.

 

7.1-53. Debbie receives her paper back from her instructor. It is marked with an A grade and has several positive comments. The instructor also suggested Debbie reword one small section. Debbie becomes extremely upset and tells her friends her instructor hated the paper and wants her to redo it. This is an example of

  1. selective abstraction.
  2. dichotomous thinking.
  3. arbitrary inference.
  4. learned helplessness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-53

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. selective abstraction.

 

7.1-54. Selective abstraction

  1. is a tendency to think in extremes.
  2. is a tendency to jump to conclusions based on little or no evidence.
  3. is part of Beck’s cognitive triad.
  4. is a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other aspects.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-54

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other aspects.

 

7.1-55. Which of the following is an example of arbitrary inference?

  1. Life is so unfair.
  2. If she won’t go out with me, I’ll die.
  3. She looked at me funny. She hates me.
  4. Why should I even try? She’ll definitely reject me.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-55

Page Ref: 231

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. She looked at me funny. She hates me.

 

7.1-56. While there is much support for some elements of Beck’s cognitive theory,

  1. treatments based on his view of depression are not effective.
  2. findings supporting it as a causal hypothesis are limited.
  3. it does not account for the known biological aspects of depression.
  4. is does not account for sex differences in depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-56

Page Ref: 231-232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. findings supporting it as a causal hypothesis are limited.

 

7.1-57. No matter what prisoners try to do, they cannot escape. Eventually, they become passive and depressed. This illustrates the central idea in the ________ theory of depression.

  1. attribution
  2. depressogenic schema
  3. learned helplessness
  4. behavioral

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-57

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. learned helplessness

 

7.1-58. Jacob and Matt both flunk their math test. Jacob says to his friends that there is no point in his continuing in the course because, although Jacob feels highly about himself, he suspects that the teacher just doesn’t like him. Matt says he is going to drop the course because he is just stupid in math. According to the reformulated learned helplessness theory,

  1. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.
  2. Matt is more likely to feel helpless than Jacob.
  3. Jacob is more likely to become depressed than Matt.
  4. Jacob is more likely to feel helpless than Matt.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-58

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.

 

7.1-59. Which of the following is the type of attribution that is most likely to cause depression?

  1. I am never going to make it through this course because it is too early in the morning and I’m having trouble getting up.
  2. I am never going to make it through this course because I’m stupid and I just can’t learn the material.
  3. I am never going to make it through this course because the professor is unfair.
  4. I am never going to make it through this course because I just don’t feel like studying lately.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-59

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. I am never going to make it through this course because I’m stupid and I just can’t learn the material.

 

7.1-60. Abramson revised the learned helplessness theory to suggest that

  1. the worldview dimension of attributions is the most important to depression.
  2. hopelessness is needed to produce depression, helplessness is not important.
  3. the number of negative life events someone experiences is more important than his or her attributions for those events.
  4. the pessimistic attributional style people have about negative events produces depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-60

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the pessimistic attributional style people have about negative events

produces depression.

 

7.1-61. Which of the following statements about rumination is true, according to the ruminative response styles theory?

  1. Rumination is a protective factor against depression.
  2. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have more lengthy periods of depressive symptoms.
  3. Gender differences in depression are explained by ruminative styles.
  4. Biological factors have been most clearly linked to the development of rumination in those who do not have a family history of mood disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-61

Page Ref: 233-234

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have more lengthy periods of depressive symptoms.

 

7.1-62. When a nondepressed student lives with a depressed roommate, which of the following often results?

  1. frequent verbal fights, which may even become physical
  2. increased depression and hostility in the roommate who was not originally depressed
  3. a decrease in depression in the depressed roommate
  4. increased caretaking by the nondepressed roommate, but only after the nondepressed roommate becomes depressed

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-62

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. increased rejection and hostility in the roommate who was not originally depressed

 

7.1-63. Which of the following is a major risk factor for panic disorder, depression, and other anxiety disorders?

  1. the presence of neuroticism
  2. the presence of positive affect
  3. the presence of helplessness
  4. the presence of rumination

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-63

Page Ref: 234

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the presence of neuroticism

 

7.1-64. A relationship between depression and marital dissatisfaction

  1. has yet to be established.
  2. only exists due to the submissive behavior of depressed wives.
  3. is only seen when depression leads to substance abuse.
  4. is well-established.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-64

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is well-established.

 

7.1-65. Which statement best describes the relationship between mood disorders and domestic distress?

  1. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse.
  2. Women who are depressed avoid their partners.
  3. Whenever there is a problem, it is caused by a man who, in a manic episode, is unaware of the nature of his behavior or even who he is attacking.
  4. Men become violent as a way of protecting themselves when their wives, who suffer from depressive episodes, become impulsively aggressive.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-65

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse.

 

7.1-66. Childhood depression

  1. has been clearly linked to genetic factors.
  2. is more likely in children with a depressed parent.
  3. has not been associated with parental depression.
  4. can usually be causally related to marital discord.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-66

Page Ref: 237

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. is more likely in children with a depressed parent.

 

7.1-67. A hypomanic episode is best described as a

  1. mild manic episode.
  2. short manic episode.
  3. manic episode characterized by inactivity.
  4. manic episode followed by symptoms of a mild depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-67

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. mild manic episode.

 

7.1-68. The main difference between a manic episode and a hypomanic episode is

  1. whether the person also experiences depression.
  2. the number of symptoms the person has.
  3. whether the person has irritable mood.
  4. the amount of social and occupational impairment.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-68

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. the amount of social and occupational impairment.

 

7.1-69. Bipolar disorder is to major depression as ________ is to ________.

  1. dysthymia; cyclothymia
  2. cyclothymia; dysthymia
  3. mania; hypomania
  4. hypomania; mania

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-69

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. cyclothymia; dysthymia

 

7.1-70. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?

  1. The occurrence of two or more episodes of major depression
  2. Unremitting symptoms for a period of at least two years
  3. Clinically significant distress or impairment
  4. The occurrence of at least one episode of anxiety

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-70

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. clinically significant distress or impairment

 

7.1-71. Which of the following would eliminate a potential diagnosis of cyclothymia?

  1. Gil had been showing both hypomanic and depressed symptoms for over three years.
  2. Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this.
  3. Bob’s most recent hypomanic episode lasted 3 days.
  4. Between her more recent episodes, Carla functioned quite well for 3 weeks.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-71

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this.

 

7.1-72. Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is

  1. schizoaffective disorder.
  2. bipolar I disorder.
  3. recurrent dysthymia.
  4. cyclothymia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-72

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. cyclothymia.

 

7.1-73. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder?

  1. the occurrence of two or more episodes of major depression
  2. unremitting symptoms for a period of at least two years
  3. symptoms of psychosis
  4. the occurrence of at least one manic episode

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-73

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the occurrence of at least one manic episode

 

7.1-74. Although bipolar I disorder is described as “bipolar,”

  1. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis.
  2. few patients show both manic and depressed symptoms.
  3. both depressed and manic symptoms typically occur simultaneously.
  4. a year or two commonly passes between manic and depressed episodes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-74

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis.

 

7.1-75.  A diagnosis of bipolar I disorder indicates that the person has met DSM-5 criteria for

  1. an episode of mania.
  2. an episode of mania or major depression.
  3. an episode of hypomania and a major depression.
  4. an episode of mania and psychois.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-75

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. an episode of mania.

 

7.1-76. Angela has had several periods of extremely “up” moods. They last for a couple of weeks and she has gotten into trouble several times. During those times she doesn’t sleep, spends way too much money, gets involved in bad business decisions, talks quickly and thinks even more quickly and believes she can do anything. The best diagnosis for Angela is

  1. manic disorder.
  2. bipolar II disorder.
  3. bipolar I disorder.
  4. cyclothymic disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-76

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. bipolar I disorder.

 

7.1-77. Which statement about bipolar I disorder is accurate?

  1. The depressive phase is more likely to involve psychotic features than in major depressive disorder.
  2. The onset of bipolar symptoms are never associated with seasons of the year as they are in unipolar depression.
  3. Single episodes of the disorder are extremely rare.
  4. Manic and depressive phases are always separated by lengthy intervals of normal mood.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-77

Page Ref: 241-242

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Single episodes of the disorder are extremely rare.

 

7.1-78. A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder indicates that the person has experienced

  1. an episode of mania.
  2. an episode of mania or major depression.
  3. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.
  4. an episode of mania and an episode of major depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-78

Page Ref: 240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.

 

7.1-79. Carleen comes to therapy because she is feeling sad. Carleen says her she has often had periods of extreme sadness in the past and they typically last between 6 and 8 months. During those times she overeats, has trouble sleeping, feels exhausted all the time, and thinks a lot about dying. At other times, however, Carleen says she feels wonderful. During those times, which last about a week, she gets a lot done, feels as if she could do anything, talks a lot and quickly, doesn’t sleep, but doesn’t feel tired. Carleen says her “up” times are great and have never caused her any trouble. Carleen’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. major depressive disorder.
  2. dysthymia.
  3. bipolar I.
  4. bipolar II.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-79

Page Ref: 240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. bipolar II.

 

7.1-80. Which of the following is a true statement about rapid cycling in bipolar disorders?

  1. It is seen in men more than women.
  2. It occurs in only those with Bipolar II disorder.
  3. Lithium may trigger a cycling episode.
  4. It is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-80

Page Ref: 241

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder.

 

7.1-81. Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with a tricyclic antidepressant?

  1. The unpleasant side effects cause many to stop taking them.
  2. Individuals with bipolar disorder may or may not exhibit symptoms of depression.
  3. The drugs used to treat unipolar disorders do not alter the activity of the neurotransmitters that are affected in bipolar disorder.
  4. The combination of antidepressants and lithium is likely to be lethal.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-81

Page Ref: 247

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. The unpleasant side effects cause many to stop taking them.

 

7.1-82. The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication indicated ________percent of people with mood disorders receive no treatment or inadequate care.

  1. 40
  2. 50
  3. 60
  4. 70

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-82

Page Ref: 246

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. 60

 

7.1-83. Which of the following is true?

  1. Neither unipolar nor bipolar disorder have a strong genetic contribution.
  2. Unipolar and bipolar disorders have an equally strong genetic contribution.
  3. Unipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than bipolar disorder.
  4. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-83

Page Ref: 242

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder.

 

7.1-84. Efforts to find the gene or genes that underlie bipolar disorder suggest that

  1. multiple genes are involved.
  2. the underlying gene is on the Y chromosome.
  3. the underlying gene is on the X chromosome.
  4. there is a genetic basis for bipolar disorder, but not for cyclothymia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-84

Page Ref: 242

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. multiple genes are involved.

 

7.1-85. Which of the following neurochemical profiles has been associated with manic episodes?

  1. High serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine
  2. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine
  3. Low serotonin, low norepinephrine, high dopamine
  4. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, low dopamine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-85

Page Ref: 242-243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine

 

7.1-86. Knowing what we know about the neurotransmitter imbalances in bipolar disorder, a physician should give which of the following pieces of advice?

  1. “Eat lots of foods that are rich in norepinephrine.”
  2. “Don’t take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior.”
  3. “Stay away from drugs that include lithium because bipolar is associated with excessive lithium activity.”
  4. “If you can keep your serotonin levels normal, you do not have to worry about having a manic episode.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-86

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. “Don’t take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior.”

 

7.1-87. Reynaldo has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The most effective drug for him is

  1. one that will increase his dopamine levels.
  2. one that will counteract the effect of sodium in his nerve cells.
  3. lithium.
  4. dexamethasone.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-87

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. lithium.

 

7.1-88. The effectiveness of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder

  1. supports the hypothesized role of serotonin in this disorder.
  2. is inconsistent with the established effects of dopamine on mood states.
  3. supports the role of dopamine in mania.
  4. suggests that it is not neurotransmitter function that is disrupted in bipolar disorder, but neurotransmitter levels.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-88

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. supports the role of dopamine in mania.

 

7.1-89. Which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression?

  1. decreased thyroid hormone levels
  2. increased thyroid hormone levels
  3. decreased cortisol levels
  4. increased cortisol levels

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-89

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. increased cortisol levels

 

7.1-90. Stressful life events

  1. do not trigger manic episodes.
  2. appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode.
  3. do not generally precipitate an initial manic episode, but tend to play more of a role over time.
  4. play no role in the development or progression of bipolar II disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-90

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode.

 

7.1-91. A sophisticated prospective study of the role of stressful life events in bipolar disorder by Ellicott, Hammen, and colleagues found that

  1. low levels of stress protected an individual against manic episodes.
  2. stress did not play a lesser role with the occurrence of more episodes.
  3. high levels of stress were not associated with the occurrence of manic or depressive episodes.
  4. low levels of stress protected an individual against depressive episodes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-91

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. stress did not play a lesser role with the occurrence of more episodes.

 

7.1-92. Recent research on relapse among bipolar patients suggests that

  1. stressful life events have very little influence.
  2. personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse.
  3. relapse is most likely among those with unrealistically positive attributional styles.
  4. the more frequently a person has bipolar episodes, the less likely stressful events are able to induce a relapse.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-92

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse.

 

7.1-93. Cross-cultural studies of mood disorders are made difficult due to

  1. the variability in the prevalence of bipolar disorders.
  2. the variability in the prevalence of unipolar disorders.
  3. the lack of clear-cut distinctions between bipolar and unipolar disorders.
  4. differences in diagnostic practices.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-93

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. differences in diagnostic practices.

 

7.1-94. Which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan?

  1. Mental illnesses are not stigmatized, thus those who are depressed receive much social support and do not seek treatment.
  2. The heavy emphasis on the individual decreases the likelihood of blaming the self for failure.
  3. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic.
  4. Blunted emotions characterize Asian peoples, so both positive and negative emotional extremes are rare.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-94

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic.

 

7.1-95. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  1. were the first antidepressants to be developed.
  2. are more effective than the tricyclic antidepressants.
  3. may lead to sexual problems.
  4. act to stabilize the mood swings of those with bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-95

Page Ref: 248

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. may lead to sexual problems.

 

7.1-96. Jill’s marriage has suffered ever since the birth of her second child. Since the birth, she has been depressed and has had little interest in intimacy with her husband. Jill feels unattractive with the additional weight she carries since the birth and has been rejecting her husband’s advances. After discussing her feelings with Dr. Tora, Dr. Tora has decided to prescribe her an antidepressant. Considering the problems she has been having in her marriage, which of the following is Dr. Tora most likely to prescribe?

  1. imipramine
  2. Prozac
  3. bupropion
  4. venlafaxine

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-96

Page Ref: 248-249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. bupropion

 

7.1-97. Lithium

  1. is more effective than antidepressants at treating bipolar depression.
  2. has both antimanic and antidepressant effects.
  3. is an anticonvulsant.
  4. is well-tolerated by most bipolar patients.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-97

Page Ref:  248

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. has both antimanic and antidepressant effects.

 

7.1-98. Quentin is severely depressed and presents an immediate and serious suicidal risk. In the past he has not responded to tricyclics. A wise course of action is to treat him with

  1. Prozac because it can reduce symptoms in 12-24 hours.
  2. electroconvulsive therapy because it can rapidly reduce symptoms.
  3. lithium because suicide is almost always accompanied by manic episodes.
  4. anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine and valproate because they can prevent future depressions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-98

Page Ref: 249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Alternative Biological Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. electroconvulsive therapy because it can rapidly reduce symptoms.

 

7.1-99. Transcranial magnetic stimulation

  1. is a biological test for altered brain waves in bipolar disorder.
  2. is a noninvasive biological test for changes in brain function in depression.
  3. is a noninvasive biological treatment for manic episodes.
  4. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-99

Page Ref: 249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Alternative Biological Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

 

7.1-100. Nadia has been depressed for several months. She is considering cognitive therapy. What advice would you give her?

  1. “Cognitive therapy is much less effective than interpersonal therapy and takes much longer, too.”
  2. “Many studies have shown the usefulness of cognitive therapy and it seems to prevent relapse.”
  3. “Drug treatment is much more effective than cognitive therapy and has less likelihood of relapse.”
  4. “The only way that cognitive therapy is of any value is if it is coupled with family therapy.”

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-100

Page Ref: 250

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. “Many studies have shown the usefulness of cognitive therapy and it seems to prevent relapse.”

 

7.1-101. Behavior activation treatment

  1. focuses on implementing cognitive changes.
  2. combines pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy.
  3. combines interpersonal therapy and behavioral methodology.
  4. emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-101

Page Ref: 251

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.

 

7.1-102. Diane’s treatment for depression included training in meditation techniques that helped her become aware of her unwanted negative thoughts and to accept them as just thoughts. She was undergoing

  1. mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
  2. psychodynamic therapy.
  3. behavioral activation therapy.
  4. transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-102

Page Ref: 251

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

 

7.1-103. One factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is

  1. family members ignoring the depressed behavior expressed by the depressed individual.
  2. excessive attention from family members.
  3. family members discussing the depressed individual’s negative thoughts and feelings with him or her.
  4. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-103

Page Ref: 252

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

 

7.1-104. Which statement about the risk of suicide is true?

  1. Depressed people are no more likely to commit suicide than nondepressed people.
  2. The risk of suicide is greatest at the lowest point in a depression.
  3. About half of people who complete suicide do so in the recovery phase of a depressive episode.
  4. Suicide is most likely when a person in a manic episode is getting “high.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-104

Page Ref: 252

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. About half of people who complete suicide do so in the recovery phase of a depressive episode.

 

7.1-105. Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?

  1. A 25-year-old single man
  2. A 25-year-old single woman
  3. A 25-year-old divorced man
  4. A 25-year-old divorced woman

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-105

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. a 25-year-old divorced woman

 

7.1-106. The majority of individuals who ATTEMPT suicide are ________ and the majority of those who COMPLETE suicide are ________.

  1. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65
  2. men and people over age 65; women and people between age 18 and 24
  3. adolescents; the elderly
  4. the elderly; adolescents

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-106

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65

 

7.1-107. The director of a city health department wants to know who is most likely to complete suicide in her city. The group with the highest risk is

  1. teenagers, especially depressed girls.
  2. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.
  3. young women who were recently separated or divorced.
  4. college-educated people.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-107

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.

 

7.1-108. Childhood suicide

  1. is common.
  2. has been declining since the early 1950s.
  3. is the third most common cause of death in the US for 15 to19 year-olds
  4. most commonly is seen in victims of early onset schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-108

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Suicide in Children

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. is one of the top ten causes of death for children in the United States.

 

7.1-109. Which of the following is most likely to attempt, but not complete, suicide?

  1. 14-year-old Joan who has been depressed since her parent’s divorce
  2. Charlie, a 16-year-old with a history of petty crimes
  3. 12-year-old Paul who receives constant rejection from the girls at school and has an overprotective mother
  4. Crystal, a 14-year-old substance abusing teen who has been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-109

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Suicide in Adolescents and

Young Adults

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. 14-year-old Joan who has been depressed since her parent’s divorce

 

7.1-110. Melissa is severely depressed and wants to commit suicide. If she is typical of most individuals who commit suicide,

  1. she is determined to kill herself and will choose a lethal means such as a gun to ensure that she is successful.
  2. she is ambivalent about committing suicide.
  3. she will change her mind at the last minute and reexamine her problems in a more objective fashion.
  4. she will show no outward signs of her distress.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-110

Page Ref: 257

Topic: Suicidal Ambivalence

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. she is ambivalent about committing suicide.

 

7.1-111. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true about the relationship between religion and rate of suicide?

  1. Suicide rates in Catholic countries are high but are low in Islamic countries.
  2. Suicide rates in Catholic countries are low but are high in Islamic countries.
  3. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are low.
  4. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are high.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-110

Page Ref: 257

Topic: Suicidal Ambivalence

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are low.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

7.2-1. Two types of mood disorders are __________ and bipolar depressive disorders

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-1

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: unipolar

 

7.2-2. The diagnosis of __________ occurs when symptoms are similar to a manic episode but are milder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-2

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: hypomanic episode

 

7.2-3. A major depressive episode is considered to be __________ when the symptoms do not remit for over 2 years.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.2-3

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: chronic

 

7.2-4. The hormone __________ has been found to be elevated in most patients hospitalized with major depressive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.2-4

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: cortisol

 

7.2-5. A different kind of depression related to the total amount of light a person receives is often called __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-5

Page Ref: 226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: seasonal affective disorder

 

Short Answer Questions

 

7.3-1. What are the four phases of the grieving process?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.3-1

Page Ref: 215

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: The normal response to the loss of spouse or close family member begins with a numbing and disbelief. This is followed by a yearning for the person that may possibly last for months. Eventually, despair is seen and then, finally, some adaptation and reorganization such that life can continue without the departed loved one.

 

7.3-2. What is anaclitic depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-2

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: Anaclitic depression or despair is a form of depression seen in infants separated from their attachment figure for a prolonged period of time. There is some debate, however, as to whether the behavior displayed is merely a normal reaction to loss.

 

7.3-3. What type of psychotic symptoms might be seen in someone suffering from major depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-3

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: The presence of psychotic symptoms indicate that a break with reality has occurred and involves the presence of hallucinations and/or delusions. The psychotic symptoms seen in depression are mood-congruent, they are symptoms that are consistent with being depressed. The depressed individual, for example, might believe that their friends and family want them dead.

 

7.3-4. What changes in sleep are seen in depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-4

Page Ref: 225-226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Over half of depressed patients experience some form of insomnia. In addition to having problems getting to sleep or staying asleep, the sleep of the depressed is not normal. More time is spent in REM sleep and REM sleep is entered more quickly, leading to a reduction in the amount of time spent in other forms of deep sleep. The observed alterations in sleep suggest a general disturbance in biological rhythms.

 

7.3-5. What are independent and dependent life events? What is their importance?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-5

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: Independent – stressful events that are not a result of a person’s behavior or

character, dependent – are a result of those things, at least partly. Dependent events are

especially important in the onset of major depression.

 

7.3-6. Describe the hopelessness theory of depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-6

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Having a pessimistic attributional style along with negative life events is not enough to produce depression. A state of hopelessness is needed as well. Hopelessness expectancy is the perception that one has no control over a situation that is about to occur as well as an absolute belief that what is going to happen is going to be bad.

 

7.3-7. What is the difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-7

Page Ref: 239-240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: A diagnosis of bipolar I is made when there has been a manic episode. This diagnosis is made with or without the occurrence of a bout of major depression. In bipolar II, there is at least one episode of major depression and a hypomanic episode. If the individual with bipolar II exhibits a manic episode, a diagnosis of bipolar I is warranted.

 

7.3-8. In what way do the symptoms of depression in Western and non-Western societies differ?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.3-8

Page Ref: 244-245

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar

Disorders/Symptoms

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: While the Western constellation of depressive symptoms is primarily psychological, in many cultures the symptoms tend to be more somatic. In those cultures in which there is great stigma associated with mental illness and/or a lack of emotional expressiveness, depression may manifest itself in symptoms such as weight loss, sleep disturbances, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, the feelings of guilt and worthlessness that characterize depression in individualistic cultures may not be seen in more communal cultures.

 

7.3-9. Discuss the risk factors for adolescent suicide.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-9

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and Causal Pattern/Suicide in Adolescents and

Young Adults

Skill: Applied

Answer: Mood disorders, conduct disorder and substance abuse all increase the risk of both nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts. If the adolescent has 2 or more of these, the risk for completion of suicide is extremely high. Antidepressant medications slightly increase the risk as well.

 

7.3-10. What are the warning signs of student suicide in college or university?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-10

Page Ref: 255

Topic: Suicide/7.3 Warning Signs for Student Suicide

Skill: Factual

Answer: Marked change in mood and behavior, especially withdrawal, decline in self-esteem, not taking care of personal hygiene, uncharacteristically impulsive behaviors, not attending classes. Many students communicate their impulses. Often the behavior is a reaction to the break-up of a romance.

 

 

Essay Questions

 

7.4-1. What are the two main forms of mood disorder? How are these disorders further characterized?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.4-1

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: The two main forms of mood disorder are unipolar, in which a person only experiences depression, and bipolar, in which a person has mood swings that range from hypomania or mania to depression. A person with bipolar disorder, however, may not exhibit any depression. The mood disorders are differentiated in terms of severity — the number of areas of life that are impaired and the degree of impairment, and duration — whether the disorder is acute, chronic, or intermittent. In addition, each type of mood disorder is further divided into multiple subtypes. GRADING RUBRIC – 8 points total – 4 points for correct identification, 2 points each for 2 aspects of how they are classified.

 

7.4-2. Discuss Beck’s cognitive theory of depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.4-3

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Beck’s theory is that thinking preceded and caused depression. First, people hold dysfunctional beliefs that predispose them to depression. These are rigid, extreme, and unhelpful beliefs about the world. They create automatic, negative thoughts that center around the cognitive triad – the self, the world, and the future. Negative beliefs and feelings about the triad are maintained by cognitive errors such as all or none reasoning and arbitrary inference. This theory has been well supported as an explanation for many aspects of depression, but evidence confirming it as a cause of depression is mixed. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points.

 

7.4-3. Distinguish between cyclothymic disorder, bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. How are these disorders alike and how are they different?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.4-3

Page Ref: 237-240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder/Bipolar Disorders (I & II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: Cyclothymia is best described as a less severe, yet chronic, version of bipolar disorder. While the individual with bipolar I disorder exhibits a full manic state, the individual with cyclothymia exhibits hypomania. People with bipolar II have full major depressive episodes, people with cyclothymia have depressive symptoms but not full episodes. In cyclothymia the lows and the highs do not rise to the level that is needed for a diagnosis of major depressive episode or manic episode, respectively. The disorders differ in that there need not be any depressive symptoms in bipolar I disorder, although this is usually the case as pure mania is rare. Only bipolar I involves manic episodes. GRADING RUBRIC: 10 points – Descriptions of each disorder 2 points each, note the difference in severity 2, note the major differences 2.

 

Chapter 17: Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychology

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

17.1-1. The concepts of universal, selective, and indicated interventions were widely used by

  1. psychodynamic therapists to describe ways of reducing neurotic anxiety.
  2. city planners to describe ways of eliminating crime and other social problems.
  3. public health experts to describe ways of preventing disease.
  4. developmental psychologists to describe problems that occur in early, middle, and later childhood.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-1

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. public health experts to describe ways of preventing disease.

 

17.1-2. Efforts at reducing racism as a means of preventing mental illness would be a(n) ________ intervention.

  1. universal
  2. selective
  3. indicated
  4. tertiary

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-2

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. selective

 

17.1-3. “Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population” best describes

  1. crisis interventions.
  2. universal interventions.
  3. selective interventions.
  4. indicated interventions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-3

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. universal interventions.

 

17.1-4. Universal interventions are concerned with two key tasks:

  1. identifying people with a particular disorder and referring them for help.
  2. providing timely therapy and evaluating its usefulness.
  3. strengthening individuals’ psychological coping skills and improving their biological health.
  4. altering conditions that cause disorders and establishing conditions that foster positive mental health.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-4

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. altering conditions that cause disorders and establishing conditions that foster positive mental health.

 

17.1-5. Which of the following might be a component of a biologically based universal strategy for preventing mental illness?

  1. Identifying people with a particular disorder and referring them for help
  2. Determining whether or not there is a family history of mental illness
  3. Encouraging regular physical activity
  4. Offering tuberculosis testing

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-5

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Encouraging regular physical activity

 

17.1-6. Which of the following is a requirement for psychosocial health?

  1. High socioeconomic status
  2. Having sound moral judgment
  3. Having a realistic view of one’s self
  4. Being a member of a religious organization

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-6

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Having a realistic view of one’s self

 

17.1-7. Having skills for effective problem solving, possessing an accurate set of assumptions about oneself, and being prepared for problems one is likely to encounter at various life stages are all requirements for

  1. cultural adjustment.
  2. psychosocial health.
  3. biological health.
  4. being a candidate for deinstitutionalization.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-7

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. psychosocial health.

 

17.1-8. Which of the following is a sociocultural effort toward universal prevention of mental disorders?

  1. Daycare.
  2. Penal systems.
  3. Private schools.
  4. Social security.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-8

Page Ref: 585

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Social security.

 

17.1-9. Which of the following is a sociocultural effort toward universal prevention?

  1. Public education
  2. Teaching adolescents to not use drugs
  3. Hospitalizing the mentally ill
  4. Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-9

Page Ref: 585

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Public education

 

17.1-10. The fact that funding for community mental health centers was cut in the 1980s while money for the “war on drugs” was increased illustrates the

  1. current shift away from attacking personal risk factors and toward attacking social circumstances.
  2. tendency for selective and indicated interventions to use different funding sources.
  3. trend of government to provide fewer selective interventions and more universal ones.
  4. likelihood that political philosophy will influence efforts at social change.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-10

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. likelihood that political philosophy will influence efforts at social change.

 

17.1-11.The school – based intervention program called DARE has been shown to be:

  1. highly effective
  2. largely not effective
  3. effective only in some stated.
  4. effective only with upper middle class students

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-11

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. largely not effective

17.1-12. Efforts to counterbalance the social factors that entice adolescent binge drinking are examples of

  1. selective interventions.
  2. crisis interventions.
  3. indicated interventions.
  4. social-learning programs.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-12

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. selective interventions.

 

17.1-13. Although the rate of adolescent substance use has decreased,

  1. tobacco use has been eliminated.
  2. binge drinking has not.
  3. alcohol and tobacco use remains a persistent problem.
  4. adult use has increased.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-13

Page Ref: 585

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. alcohol and tobacco use remains a persistent problem.

 

17.1-14. Why has the attempt to reduce the drug supply from other countries not reduced the rate of adolescent substance abuse?

  1. Most smugglers are still able to find a way to bring drugs in.
  2. Local residents account for most of the illegal drug traffic.
  3. The drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available.
  4. Drug abusers are traveling to other countries to obtain their supply.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-14

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. The drugs most abused by adolescents are alcohol and tobacco, which are easily available.

 

17.1-15. Why is it important to prevent teen alcohol use?

  1. Teens are more susceptible to alcoholism than adults.
  2. Most teens who drink go on to do “harder drugs.”
  3. Teens are more prone to violence while drinking than adults.
  4. Early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-15

Page Ref: 585

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence.

 

17.1-16. What is the goal of school-based drug and alcohol education programs?

  1. To teach children how to recognize the drugs that they might be exposed to
  2. To ensure that children are educated consumers
  3. To teach children about drugs so that they can make informed choices
  4. To scare children away from using drugs

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-16

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. To teach children about drugs so that they can make informed choices

 

17.1-17. Family-oriented alcohol prevention programs have been developed because

  1. teen views of alcohol typically reflect those of their parents.
  2. most underage alcohol use occurs at home.
  3. parents need to help their children resist peer pressure.
  4. teen drinking frequently starts when problems in the home have become unmanageable.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-17

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. teen views of alcohol typically reflect those of their parents.

 

17.1-18. Mrs. Lloyd was shocked when she learned of Julia’s drinking. While she knew that Julia drank on occasion, she never expected that her 16-year-old daughter was drinking on a daily basis. What is unique about this scenario?

  1. Mrs. Lloyd was aware that her daughter drank.
  2. Most parents overestimate their children’s drug and alcohol use.
  3. While teenaged boys are likely to drink, teenaged girls rarely do.
  4. Nothing.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-18

Page Ref: 586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Nothing.

 

17.1-19. Why are extracurricular strategies so important?

  1. They provide middle-class youth with a place to go.
  2. They provide counseling and medical attention after school.
  3. They provide a means of supervision and opportunity for high-risk teens.
  4. They provide an opportunity to meet with teachers and go over schoolwork.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-19

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. They provide a means of supervision and opportunity for high-risk teens.

 

17.1-20.  A group of professional educators and counselors met to discuss prevention efforts in a neighborhood school district. Which of the following would be the most effective way to prevent adolescent alcohol and other drug use?

  1. classroom education
  2. mass media
  3. Internet approach
  4. multicomponent program

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-20

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. multicomponent program

 

17.1-21. Combined prevention programs that educate about drugs and teach skills needed to refuse alcohol and drug use demands

  1. are more successful than one single approach.
  2. are rarely as successful as family-based programs.
  3. are most effective when targeted at college students.
  4. are not as successful as classroom education.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-21

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. are more successful than one single approach.

 

17.1-22. Dr. Jones says, “These projects have clearly shown a promising path toward reducing the extent of substance abuse in young people.” What projects is Dr. Jones talking about?

  1. Ones that combine different intervention strategies
  2. Ones that involve the interdiction or reduction in supply of drugs
  3. Ones that contradict the movies and TV commercials that glamorize drugs
  4. Ones that use teachers to tell students why drugs are bad for their health

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-22

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Ones that combine different intervention strategies

 

17.1-23. Project Northland demonstrated that

  1. a psychotherapist’s involvement is the key ingredient in most drug prevention efforts.
  2. the development of peer pressure resistance skills can decrease drug use by 44 percent.
  3. there is no way of counteracting the positive representation of drugs in the media.
  4. community-wide “no use” norms for teens can be taught.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-23

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. community-wide “no use” norms for teens can be taught.

 

17.1-24. While there is little research on the different substance abuse prevention programs, what there is on programs such as Project Northland suggests

  1. they are extremely successful.
  2. they are more effective when they utilize a multicomponent approach.
  3. they are effective for children and adolescents who have not already started using.
  4. they are effective for non-minority children and adolescents only.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-24

Page Ref: 587

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. they are more effective when they utilize a multicomponent approach.

 

17.1-25. In order to prevent long-term consequences, ________ interventions are provided immediately after a disaster such as a plane crash.

  1. universal
  2. indicated
  3. education
  4. selective

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-25

Page Ref: 588

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Indicated Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. indicated

 

17.1-26. Indicated prevention emphasizes

  1. education efforts to an entire population regardless of the individual’s social situation.
  2. the early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in a person’s community setting.
  3. teaching social skills and problem solving as a way of improving self-esteem.
  4. genetic screening.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-26

Page Ref: 588

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Indicated Interventions

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. the early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in a person’s community setting.

 

17.1-27. Which of the following is an element of “milieu therapy”?

  1. Systematic desensitization.
  2. Patients are encouraged to participate in making decisions.
  3. Teaching social skills and problem solving.
  4. Challenging irrational thoughts.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-27

Page Ref: 588

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Patients are encouraged to participate in making decisions.

 

17.1-28. Which of the following is a characteristic of a therapeutic community?

  1. Individual responsibility
  2. Minimal interaction amongst the patients
  3. Extensive use of medications
  4. Many restrictions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-28

Page Ref: 588

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Individual responsibility

 

17.1-29. In a study by Paul and Lentz designed to assess the effectiveness of different approaches to the treatment of chronically hospitalized patients, what treatment approach was found to yield the best results?

  1. Milieu therapy
  2. Social learning
  3. Traditional mental hospital treatments
  4. Psychotherapy alone

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-29

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Social learning

 

17.1-30. At Rush General, the inpatient mental ward employs a program that focuses on modifying the behavior of the patients by giving them gold stars for good behavior and ignoring undesirable behavior. What type of treatment program does this appear to be?

  1. Milieu therapy
  2. Social learning
  3. Traditional mental hospital treatments
  4. Psychotherapy alone

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-30

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Social learning

 

17.1-31. Which of the following is a criticism of the use of token economies?

  1. They are ineffective.
  2. They are inconsistent with how the real world works.
  3. The patient is not an active part of the treatment process.
  4. It is inhumane to expect a mental patient to behave in accordance with an established schedule of reinforcements.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-31

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It is inhumane to expect a mental patient to behave in accordance with an established schedule of reinforcements.

 

17.1-32. A major difference between social-learning programs and milieu therapy is that social-learning programs

  1. are never provided in mental hospitals.
  2. require each patient to be involved in groups that “govern” the ward.
  3. expect patients to care for one another.
  4. target specific behaviors for reinforcement.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 17.1-32

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. target specific behaviors for reinforcement.

 

17.1-33. Community-based treatment programs are now referred to as

  1. crisis intervention.
  2. deinstitutionalization.
  3. aftercare programs.
  4. managed care initiatives.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-33

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/Aftercare Programs

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. aftercare programs.

 

17.1-34. Community-based facilities that provide aftercare are typically run by

  1. the residents themselves.
  2. mental health professionals.
  3. trained paraprofessionals.
  4. community activists.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-34

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/Aftercare Programs

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the residents themselves.

 

17.1-35. For which person is aftercare likely to be helpful because the person will fit the services typically offered?

  1. Bart, who has a lengthy criminal record
  2. Helen, who has developed posttraumatic stress disorder after being attacked
  3. Ned, who has had several schizophrenic episodes
  4. Vera, who has few psychological problems but who frequently moves from place to place

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-35

Page Ref: 589-590

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/Aftercare Programs

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Ned, who has had several schizophrenic episodes

 

17.1-36. In order for community-based aftercare for psychiatric patients to be successful

  1. there must be a crisis intervention component.
  2. milieu methods must be used rather than social-learning methods.
  3. the facilities must be run by mental health professionals.
  4. the staff must provide a secure environment.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-36

Page Ref: 590

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/Aftercare Programs Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the staff must provide a secure environment.

Difficulty: 2

 

 

17.1-37. Which of the following is a barrier to effective deinstitutionalization?

  1. Society’s desire to free previously confined persons
  2. The use of antipsychotic medications
  3. The lack of sufficient mental health services in the community
  4. Deinstitutionalized patients do not fair better than those who remain hospitalized

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-37

Page Ref: 590

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. The lack of sufficient mental health services in the community

 

17.1-38. Which of the following was an unforeseen consequence of deinstitutionalization?

  1. An increased demand on the welfare system
  2. Abuses of antipsychotic and anxiolytic medications
  3. The need for mental health services in the community
  4. A rise in homelessness

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-38

Page Ref: 590

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. A rise in homelessness

 

17.1-39. The most recent research on deinstitutionalization has found

  1. inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to the failures to provide adequate care in the community.
  2. inpatient hospitalization has continued to decrease, despite an increase in problems as a result.
  3. inpatient hospitalization has continued to decrease and communities have stepped up their response to improve outpatient care.
  4. inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to increasing numbers of mentally ill.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-39

Page Ref: 591

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to the failures to provide adequate care in the community.

 

17.1-40. Dr. McDougal’s specialty is forensic psychology. We can imagine that she

  1. provides preventive services to prevent criminal behavior.
  2. is concerned with the legal status of the mentally ill.
  3. does research on the impact of deinstitutionalization.
  4. works for a managed care organization.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-40

Page Ref: 591

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. is concerned with the legal status of the mentally ill.

 

17.1-41. One difference between voluntary hospitalization and involuntary commitment is that people who are in the hospital voluntarily

  1. need to be assessed as dangerous to themselves or others.
  2. can, with sufficient notice, leave the hospital when they want to.
  3. are eligible for aftercare services following.
  4. must be treated in the least restrictive environment.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-41

Page Ref: 592

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and The Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. can, with sufficient notice, leave the hospital when they want to.

 

17.1-42. Which of the following can be committed against their will to a psychiatric hospital?

  1. Carole, who has schizophrenia and will not take her medications because they make her feel ill.
  2. Tina, who has schizophrenia and is homeless.
  3. Kathie, who has schizophrenia and has been threatening to hurt people on the street.
  4. Any of these three, schizophrenia is a serious enough disorder for the person to be forced into the hospital.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-42

Page Ref: 592

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and The Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Kathie, who has schizophrenia and has been threatening to hurt people on the street.

 

17.1-43. Once a person is committed to a mental hospital

  1. he or she must establish their sanity before they can be released.
  2. he or she must participate in whatever treatment they are prescribed.
  3. the hospital must report to the court as to whether or not continued confinement is necessary.
  4. the court establishes the minimum treatment necessary as indicated by testimony from two examiners.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-43

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues & The Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the hospital must report to the court as to whether continued confinement is necessary.

 

17.1-44. Emergency hospitalization without a commitment hearing is permitted when

  1. a judge declares that imminent danger exists.
  2. the person to be hospitalized has a criminal history.
  3. the person to be hospitalized is found to be insane.
  4. a physician signs a formal statement saying that imminent danger exists.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-44

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and The Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. a physician signs a formal statement saying that imminent danger exists.

 

17.1-45. Suppose a family is quite alarmed about the threatening behavior of a relative.

They want to petition the court for commitment but there is no time to get a court order. What option does the family have?

  1. None. They must wait until there is a court evaluation of the person’s dangerousness.
  2. They can ask the police to declare the person “insane.”
  3. After getting a physician to state that the person is dangerous, they can have the police pick up and detain the person for up to 72 hours.
  4. After getting a police officer to examine the person, they can require the person’s attendance in a crisis intervention program.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-45

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. After getting a physician to state that the person is dangerous, they can have the police pick up and detain the person for up to 72 hours.

 

17.1-46. Once a person has been involuntarily committed to a mental institution, he or she

  1. may refuse treatment.
  2. may refuse medication but not therapy.
  3. may refuse therapy but not medication.
  4. may not refuse treatment.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-46

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Civil Commitment

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. may refuse treatment.

 

17.1-47. Although the majority of currently disordered persons shows no tendency toward violence, an increased risk of violence is likely among those who

  1. currently experience psychotic symptoms.
  2. have been extremely emotionally rigid in the past.
  3. have just experienced a natural or man-made form of disaster.
  4. are religiously preoccupied.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-47

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. currently experience psychotic symptoms.

 

17.1-48. Homicidal behavior amongst former patients is greatest with a diagnosis of

  1. alcoholism.
  2. bipolar depression.
  3. major depression.
  4. schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-48

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. alcoholism.

 

17.1-49. Which phrase best captures how well mental health professionals do in predicting the occurrence of dangerous acts?

  1. Exceedingly well, especially if the person has a diagnosed mental condition
  2. Rather well, as long as the patient provides honest information
  3. Miserably poorly, especially with people who are actively schizophrenic or delusional
  4. Not as well as we would like

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-49

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Not as well as we would like

 

17.1-50. What kind of mistake do most mental health professionals make when assessing dangerousness?

  1. They overemphasize the importance of situational factors.
  2. They overpredict violence.
  3. They underestimate the likelihood of violence in psychotic patients.
  4. They make many “false negatives.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-50

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. They overpredict violence.

 

17.1-51. One of the main reasons it is so hard to predict future dangerousness is

  1. there are no psychological tests to help measure dangerousness.
  2. most potentially violent people refuse to talk to therapists.
  3. there is very little research into who becomes violent and who doesn’t, and why.
  4. situational circumstances play as large a role as an individual’s personality traits.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-51

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. situational circumstances play as large a role as an individual’s personality traits.

 

17.1-52. What is one of the best predictors of future violence?

  1. Compliance with treatment
  2. Past history of violence
  3. Family support
  4. Employment history

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-52

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Past history of violence

 

17.1-53. Predicting dangerousness is most comparable to

  1. preparing a team for a sports competition.
  2. reviewing for a comprehensive examination.
  3. figuring your taxes at the end of the year.
  4. preparing a weather forecast.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-53

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. preparing a weather forecast.

 

17.1-54. Under what circumstances can a therapist violate a client’s confidence?

  1. When someone is in danger
  2. When a crime has been committed several years ago
  3. Only when the client gives permission
  4. Never

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-54

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. When someone is in danger

 

17.1-55. What doctrine came out of the original Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al. case?

  1. Treatment in the least restrictive environment
  2. The duty to warn
  3. The right-versus-wrong principle in insanity cases
  4. The duty to protect

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-55

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. The duty to warn

 

17.1-56. In most states that have a Tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must

  1. make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims.
  2. continue trying to warn potential victims until he or she reaches them.
  3. not break confidentiality.
  4. warn as many people who know the client as possible.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-56

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims.

 

17.1-57. The Tarasoff rule usually applies

  1. anytime a client threatens to do a violent act.
  2. only to violent acts against people.
  3. only if the target of violence is clearly identifiable.
  4. only if the client has given an informed consent.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-57

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. only if the target of violence is clearly identifiable.

 

17.1-58. Tarasoff-style laws

  1. are in every state.
  2. are in a minority of states.
  3. are in a majority of states but vary quite a bit.
  4. are no longer law in most states.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-58

Page Ref: 596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of “Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. are in a majority of states but vary quite a bit.

 

17.1-59. The underlying basis of the insanity defense is

  1. people who have a mental illness should not be punished.
  2. people who have a mental illness cannot ever form the intent needed to commit a crime, so shouldn’t be punished.
  3. some people who have a mental illness are not able to fully comprehend their behavior, so are not able to form the needed intent for a crime, so should not be punished.
  4. even if they had the required intent for a crime, the mentally ill still shouldn’t be punished.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-59

Page Ref: 596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. some people who have a mental illness are not able to fully comprehend their behavior, so are not able to form the needed intent for a crime, so should not be punished.

 

17.1-60. What was unusual about the Hinckley case?

  1. He used the insanity defense.
  2. The public believed that he did not need to pay for his crime.
  3. He was successful in pleading the insanity defense.
  4. His petitions for release have been consistently denied.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-60

Page Ref: 596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. He was successful in pleading the insanity defense.

 

17.1-61. An attorney says, “My client has a mental disorder that made it impossible, at the time of the crime, to have intended to do harm. Because of this, he is not legally responsible for his actions.” The attorney is arguing for

  1. involuntary commitment.
  2. the Tarasoff principle.
  3. deinstitutionalization of his client.
  4. an insanity defense.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-61

Page Ref: 596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. an insanity defense.

 

17.1-62. Why should defense lawyers be cautious about using the insanity defense?

  1. It rarely works.
  2. Most defendants feign mental illness in order to escape punishment.
  3. Hospitalization is not an appropriate consequence for those who have committed violent crimes.
  4. No reason – it frequently is successful.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-62

Page Ref: 596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. It rarely works.

 

17.1-63. A typical defense strategy, to try to counteract public anger about the insanity defense, is to

  1. portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim.
  2. portray the defendant as suffering terribly from their mental illness.
  3. portray the defendant as tremendously likeable.
  4. portray the victim as negatively as possible.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-63

Page Ref: 597

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. portray the defendant as someone who was him- or herself a victim.

 

17.1-64. The insanity defense is employed in ________ percent of capital cases in the

United States.

  1. less than 2
  2. roughly 10-15
  3. 20
  4. 33

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-64

Page Ref: 598

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. less than 2

 

17.1-65. According to the M’Naghten Rule, insanity is defined as

  1. failing to understand the consequences of one’s actions.
  2. not knowing right from wrong.
  3. acting on an irresistible impulse.
  4. lacking the capacity to understand that an action violates the law.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-65

Page Ref: 598

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. not knowing right from wrong.

 

17.1-66. Darryl has schizophrenia, disorganized type. He has visual hallucinations, and one day he saw a giant bug standing in front of him. He picked up a large knife and stabbed it. In reality, Darryl stabbed his mother who had come to tell him dinner was ready. His lawyer argues that Darryl cannot be found guilty because he had no idea what he was doing or that it was wrong. His lawyer is arguing the

  1. M’Naghten rule.
  2. Durham rule.
  3. irresistible impulse rule.
  4. American Law Institute standard.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 17.1-66

Page Ref: 598

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues & The Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. M’Naghten rule.

 

17.1-67. Knowing right from wrong is to ________ as “unlawful act was the product of mental disease” is to ________.

  1. irresistible impulse; Durham Rule
  2. M’Naghten Rule; Durham Rule
  3. Durham Rule; M’Naghten Rule
  4. M’Naghten Rule; irresistible impulse

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 17.1-67

Page Ref: 598-599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. M’Naghten Rule; Durham Rule

 

17.1-68. The Durham Rule

  1. made the criteria for establishing insanity more objective.
  2. focused on the cause of an unlawful act.
  3. established that one was sane unless they did not know right from wrong.
  4. is often referred to as the “substantial capacity test.”

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-68

Page Ref: 599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. focused on the cause of an unlawful act.

 

17.1-69. The broadest of the insanity rules is the

  1. M’Naughten Rule.
  2. irresistible impulse rule.
  3. Durham Rule.
  4. Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-69

Page Ref: 598-599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Durham Rule.

 

17.1-70. Which of the following changed with the Federal Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984?

  1. It became much easier for defendants to quality for the insanity defense.
  2. It narrowed the definition of insanity to the “product test” (Durham Rule).
  3. It abolished the “knowing right from wrong” principle.
  4. It put the burden of proof on the defense.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-70

Page Ref: 599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It put the burden of proof on the defense.

 

17.1-71. Which of the following has the best chance of successfully pleading not guilty by reason of insanity?

  1. Tim, who is depressed, has never been hospitalized and murdered his wife.
  2. Ernie, who has schizophrenia, was in the hospital once a long time ago and murdered three former co-workers.
  3. Lori, who has bipolar disorder, has never been hospitalized and tried to murder a stranger.
  4. Susie, who has schizophrenia, has been in and out of hospitals all her life, who tried to break the arm of a romantic rival.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-71

Page Ref: 599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Susie, who has schizophrenia, has been in and out of hospitals all her life, who tried to break the arm of a romantic rival.

 

17.1-72. The verdict of Guilty but Mentally Ill

  1. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime are put in jail but in a special section.
  2. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime get shorter sentences.
  3. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime go to jail but get mental health treatment while in jail.
  4. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime go to the hospital until they are better, then return to jail to serve out their sentence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.1-72

Page Ref: 599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity

Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime go to the hospital until they are better, then return to jail to serve out their sentence.

 

17.1-73. Why did World War II lead to a greater recognition of the pervasiveness of mental illness?

  1. Over 70 percent of veterans suffered from either PTSD or substance abuse after the war.
  2. Many women developed psychiatric conditions when left to raise families and make a living on their own.
  3. Two out of seven potential military recruits were rejected for psychiatric reasons.
  4. The military was unable to provide adequate mental health services to men in the field.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-73

Page Ref: 601

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Two out of seven potential military recruits were rejected for psychiatric reasons.

 

17.1-74. Which of the following funds research on mental disorders and assists communities in establishing effective mental health services?

  1. The National Association for Mental Health (NAMH)
  2. The American Psychological Association (APA)
  3. Health maintenance organization (HMO)
  4. The National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH)

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-74

Page Ref: 601

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH)

 

17.1-75. Which of the following activities does NIMH perform?

  1. Provide communities with psychologists and psychiatrists who do individual and group therapy
  2. Do nationwide universal and selective preventive interventions
  3. Pay for the hospital care of the chronically mentally ill
  4. Support professional training and provide the public with information on mental health

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-75

Page Ref: 601

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Support professional training and provide the public with information on mental health

 

17.1-76. Most of NIMH’s programs are

  1. actually planned and run by state and local organizations.
  2. actually focused on the prevention of crime rather than mental disorder.
  3. designed, controlled, and implemented by the federal government.
  4. much larger and better funded than they were in the 1960s and 1970s.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-76

Page Ref: 601

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. actually planned and run by state and local organizations.

 

17.1-77. What is an important function of organizations such as the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the American Medical Association?

  1. They fund most of the treatment and prevention research done in the United States.
  2. They draw up the policies that determine which clients get treatment and of what duration.
  3. They set and maintain professional and ethical standards.
  4. They control forensic issues such as the insanity defense and the policies for committing patients against their will.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-77

Page Ref: 601

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. They set and maintain professional and ethical standards.

 

17.1-78. What do the National Association for Mental Health, the National Association for Retarded Citizens, and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) have in common?

  1. They all provide training for psychologists and psychiatrists.
  2. They are all government-funded organizations that do research on mental disorders and related problems.
  3. They all try to improve services and educate the government and public about various problems.
  4. They are all working to increase the awareness of work-related stress and its impact on mental health.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-78

Page Ref: 602

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. They all try to improve services and educate the government and public about various problems.

 

17.1-79. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of mental health resources in

private industry?

  1. Private industry typically does not acknowledge the importance of mental health-promoting factors in the work place and therefore dramatically underutilizes mental health resources.
  2. Primary prevention programs have been routinely used in private industry for many decades.
  3. Many companies have recently begun providing psychological services through employee assistance programs.
  4. Psychological services are provided on an extremely limited basis, even at the most elite private corporations.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-79

Page Ref: 603

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Many companies have recently begun providing psychological services through employee assistance programs.

 

17.1-80. In understanding and treating mental disorders, the World Health Organization at the present time has

  1. almost completely ignored the impact of physical disease on mental health.
  2. almost completely ignored ethnic and cultural differences.
  3. focused exclusively on physical diseases, not on mental health.
  4. been very much aware of the interrelationship between physical, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-80

Page Ref: 603

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/International Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. been very much aware of the interrelationship between physical, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors.

 

17.1-81. The history of abnormal psychology makes it clear that

  1. the field can be profoundly changed and improved through individual effort.
  2. international efforts in dealing with mental disorders are doomed to failure because there is no agreement on the definition of “disorder.”
  3. more domestic and fewer international efforts are needed.
  4. we are no further today in understanding mental disorders than we were in the time of Pinel, Dix, and Beers.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-81

Page Ref: 604

Topic: Challenges for the Future/The Individual’s Contribution

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. the field can be profoundly changed and improved through individual

effort.

 

17.1-82. What impact have HMOs had on mental health care?

  1. The cost of mental health services has risen.
  2. Greater emphasis has been placed on finding treatment approaches that are time and cost efficient.
  3. The reliance on medical therapies has decreased.
  4. Mental health treatment is more readily available.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-82

Page Ref: 605

Topic: Unresolved Issues/The HMOs and Mental Health Care

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Greater emphasis has been placed on finding treatment approaches that are

time and cost efficient.

 

17.1-83. What treatment approach is most likely to be employed by an HMO to treat an anxiety disorder?

  1. Aversion therapy
  2. Flooding
  3. Pharmacotherapy
  4. Systematic desensitization

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.1-83

Page Ref: 606

Topic: Unresolved Issues/The HMOs and Mental Health Care

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Pharmacotherapy

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

17.2-1. Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population are known as

__________ interventions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.2-1

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: universal

 

17.2-2. Efforts that are aimed at a specific at risk subgroup are known as __________ interventions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.2-2

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: selective

 

17.2-3. Efforts that are directed toward high-risk individuals with detectable symptoms are called __________ interventions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.2-3

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: indicated

 

17.2-4. The movement to close down mental hospitals and treat the mentally ill in the community is __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.2-4

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Factual

Answer: deinstitutionalization

 

17.2-5. The ruling that came to be known as “duty to warn” was also called the __________ decision.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.2-5

Page Ref: 595

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of

“Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: Tarasoff

 

17.2-6. The American Law Institute (ALI) standard is also called the __________ test.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.2-6

Page Ref: 599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity

Defense

Skill: Factual

Answer: substantial capacity

 

Short Answer Questions

 

17.3-1. Name and briefly describe the three subcategories of preventive interventions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-1

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention

Skill: Factual

Answer: Universal: efforts aimed at influencing the general population. Selective: efforts aimed at specific subgroups that are considered to be at risk for developing mental health problems. Indicated: efforts directed at high-risk individuals identified as having minimal symptoms of a mental disorder but who do not meet criteria for clinical diagnosis.

 

17.3-2. Discuss the three requirements for psychosocial health.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-2

Page Ref: 584-585

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: Developing the skills needed for problem solving and relating to others, accurate frame of reference on which to build an identity and preparation for types of problems one is likely to encounter.

 

17.3-3. What are the three strategies that the United States government has used to address the drug abuse problem? How effective have these strategies been?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-3

Page Ref: 585-586

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Selective Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: Reducing the supply of drugs, providing treatment for those with substance abuse or dependence, and encouraging prevention are all approaches taken to combatting the “drug problem”. All have been found to be insufficient.

 

17.3-4. What principles guide the approach called milieu therapy?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-4

Page Ref: 588

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Applied

Answer: Staff in psychiatric hospitals communicate both negative and positive feedback to patients to encourage appropriate actions. Patients are encouraged to participate in decisions concerning them. There is self-government. Group cohesiveness is encouraged so that patients feel supported and so group pressure exerts control over patient behavior.

 

17.3-5. What are aftercare programs? Who is least likely to benefit from such programs?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.3-5

Page Ref: 589-590

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Aftercare programs are programs designed to facilitate adjustment back into the community following hospitalization. These are community-based live-in programs, typically, that help ease the former patient back into society. Those who have a criminal history or who tend to be transient tend to not do well in aftercare programs. Interestingly, those who have less severe symptoms may also not do well as facility staff do not recognize that they need assistance as much as those with more severe symptoms.

 

17.3-6. What have been some of the negative effects of deinstitutionalization?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-6

Page Ref: 589

Topic: Inpatient Mental Health Treatment in Contemporary Society/The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community

Skill: Applied

Answer: Despite the well-meaning intentions of the movement to release the mentally ill from inpatient facilities, this has lead to many negative consequences. Many went from institutions to the streets, with little or no care. The community-based services that were to be available to this population were not there at all, or were insufficient. Many of the mentally ill do not receive that care that they desperately need.

 

17.3-7. What are the conditions, in addition to mental illness, that must be met in most states for someone to be involuntarily committed?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.3-7

Page Ref: 592

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Civil

Commitment

Skill: Factual

Answer: Dangerous to self or others, incapable of providing for basic needs, unable to make responsible treatment decisions about hospitalization, and in need of treatment in a hospital.

 

17.3-8. What factors increase the risk of violence in someone with mental illness?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.3-8

Page Ref: 593

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of

“Dangerousness”

Skill: Factual

Answer: A history of violent behavior, psychotic symptoms, antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and situational factors.

 

17.3-9. What is the importance of the Tarasoff case?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.3-9

Page Ref: 595-596

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/Assessment of

“Dangerousness”

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: This ruling established the legal obligation for a mental health professional to violate confidentiality in order to warn someone that a client has threatened to harm them. In Tarasoff II, the duty to warn was changed to the duty to protect a prospective victim. The duty to protect may be discharged if the therapist makes “reasonable efforts” to inform potential victims and an appropriate law enforcement agency of the pending threat. However, numerous other lawsuits in other jurisdictions have been adjudicated in confusing and inconsistent ways.

 

Essay Questions

 

17.4-1. What are the key tasks involved in universal interventions? Why is epidemiological research particularly important to these efforts?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 17.4-1

Page Ref: 584

Topic: Perspectives on Prevention/Universal Interventions

Skill: Applied

Answer: Universal interventions focus on altering conditions that can cause or contribute to mental disorders (risk factors) and establishing conditions that foster positive mental health (protective factors). Epidemiological research supplies data on the incidence and prevalence of various disorders and the populations that are most affected. Equipped with this information, those who design universal interventions know where to look and what to look for. GRADING RUBRIC – 8 points, 2 for each of two key tasks, 4 for explaining the importance of epidemiological data.

 

17.4-2. Discuss three principles that are commonly used to define insanity. How is insanity most commonly defined today?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.4-2

Page Ref: 598-599

Topic: Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Ill/The Insanity Defense

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The M’Naghten Rule emphasizes not knowing right from wrong at the time of the crime, while the irresistible impulse rule that holds that the person is not responsible if he or she could not avoid doing the act in question. The Durham rule or “product test” says the accused is not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect. Thus, we see a movement from not knowing right from wrong, an emphasis on thought processes, to establishing that some illness was the cause of the behavior. Over time, the insanity defense has become more difficult to use, as a consequence of a number of controversial cases. Today the burden of proof is on the defense; the defense must establish that the defendant is insane, as opposed to the prosecution establishing sanity. Most states today employ the M’Naghten or the American Law Institute (ALI) Standard. The ALI standard requires a combination of M’Naghten and irresistible impulse – the individual must not know right from wrong and be moved by an irresistible impulse. GRADING RUBRIC – 2 points each for each of 3 principles, 4 points for status of insanity today – 10 total.

 

17.4-3. Discuss three of the six specific mental health risk factors in work situations.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 17.4-3

Page Ref: 602

Topic: Organized Efforts for Mental Health/U.S. Efforts for Mental Health

Skill: Factual

Answer: 1. work load and pace – the degree of control the worker has over this is what is important – the less control, the higher the risk. 2. work schedule – rotating shifts have the highest risk. 3. role stressors – role ambiguity and role conflict have the highest risk. 4. career security factors – concerns about job future and job development raise risk. 5. interpersonal relationships – if relationships with co-workers and bosses are bad, risk is higher. 6. job content – if there is little room for creativity or little sense of making a contribution, risk is increased. GRADING RUBRIC: 9 points, 3 for each factor.

 

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka -Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *