Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

 

Sample  Question   

1. A child’s problems must be considered in relation to the influence of the ____.​

  a. ​individual
  b. ​family
  c. ​community/culture
  d. ​all of these

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Introduction
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Victor is fearful of approaching new situations and often appears inhibited. Victor’s mother reports that she struggles with similar difficulties and he may have inherited it from her. This is an example of ____.​

  a. ​emotional influences
  b. ​biological influences
  c. ​cognitive influences
  d. ​behavioral influences

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   What is Causing Jorge’s Problems?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. ​ Etiology refers to the ____ of childhood disorders.

  a. ​causation
  b. ​treatments
  c. ​correlates
  d. ​prevention

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. What is an underlying assumption with regard to abnormal child behavior?​

  a. ​Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s genetic makeup.
  b. ​Abnormal development is solely determined by the child’s environment.
  c. ​Abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities.
  d. ​Abnormal development focuses on extreme or bizarre behavior.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Isabella is 3 years old, and frequently demands attention, overreacts, and refuses to go to bed. These behaviors are considered ____.​

  a. ​common because of her age
  b. ​diagnosable as clinical disorders
  c. ​signs of an overly sensitive child
  d. ​early warning signs of future difficulties

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

6. ​The dynamic interaction of child and environment is referred to as ____.

  a. ​mutuality
  b. ​etiology
  c. ​transaction
  d. ​continuity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​Which theoretical orientation best explains the various behaviors or disorders in childhood?

  a. ​biological
  b. ​psychological
  c. ​family
  d. ​integrative

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. The failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestones is referred to as a(n)____.​

  a. ​adaptational failure
  b. ​developmental disintegration
  c. ​discontinuity
  d. ​dysregulation

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Most often, adaptational failure is due to a(n) ____.​

  a. ​single, definable cause
  b. ​longstanding biological maladaptation
  c. ​ongoing interaction between the individual and environment
  d. ​sudden onset of an environmental challenge

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​An organizational view of development implies a(n) ____ process.

  a. ​static
  b. ​unchanging
  c. ​dynamic
  d. ​fixed

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. The windows of time during which environmental influences on development are enhanced are called ____.​

  a. ​sensitive periods
  b. ​critical periods
  c. ​crucial periods
  d. ​necessary periods

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Because development is ____, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior.​

  a. ​disorganized
  b. ​organized
  c. ​hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. Children’s development occurs in a(n) ____ manner.​

  a. ​mostly random
  b. ​strictly organized
  c. ​strictly hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. ​The developmental psychopathology approach to studying childhood disorders emphasizes the importance of developmental____.

  a. ​disruptions
  b. ​processes and tasks
  c. ​regressions
  d. ​obstacles

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. A central tenet of developmental psychopathology is that to understand maladaptive behavior, we must consider ____.​

  a. ​one’s genetic predisposition
  b. ​how problematic behaviors develop over time
  c. ​the child’s familial history for maladjustment
  d. ​what is normative for a given period of development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Children’s early caretaking experiences play an important role in designing parts of the brain that involve ____.​

  a. ​planning and complex processes
  b. ​problem solving skills
  c. ​emotion, personality, and behavior
  d. ​fine motor skills

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Brain maturity occurs in a(n) ____ fashion.​

  a. ​mostly random
  b. ​strictly organized
  c. ​strictly hierarchical
  d. ​organized and hierarchical

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Which statement about neural development is false?​

  a. ​Most developing axons reach their destination even before a baby is born.
  b. ​Synapses both proliferate and disappear in early childhood.
  c. ​Brain connections are relatively pre-determined and cannot be changed by the environment.
  d. ​Primitive areas of the brain develop first.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. Which statement about neural development is true?​

  a. ​Major restructuring of the brain in relation to puberty occurs between 6 and 9 years of age.
  b. ​The brain stops developing after 3 years of age.
  c. ​Primitive areas of the brain mature last.
  d. ​The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum are not wired until a person is 5 to 7 years old.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. Which statement about our genetic makeup is false?​

  a. ​Genes determine behavior.
  b. ​Genes are composed of DNA.
  c. ​Genes produce proteins.
  d. ​The expression of genes is influenced by the environment.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. The problem with family aggregation studies is that they ____.​

  a. ​are difficult to carry out
  b. ​do not control for environmental variables
  c. ​only tell us about the influence of the environment
  d. ​only tell us about chromosomal abnormalities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. Behavioral geneticists have concluded that ____.​

  a. ​many psychological disorders can be accounted for by an individual gene
  b. ​much of our development and behaviors are influenced by a small number of genes
  c. ​both genetic and environmental influences affect behavior
  d. ​behavior is largely influenced by the environment

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. Which part of the brain is most responsible for regulating our emotional experiences, expressions, and impulses?​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​hindbrain
  c. ​basal ganglia
  d. ​limbic system

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. Epinephrine is also known as ____.​

  a. ​dopamine
  b. ​serotonin
  c. ​cortisol
  d. ​adrenaline

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. Which part of the brain is implicated in disorders affecting motor behavior?​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​hindbrain
  c. ​basal ganglia
  d. ​limbic system

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. The ____ gives us the distinct qualities that make us human and allows us to think about the future, to be playful, and to be creative.​

  a. ​cerebral cortex
  b. ​limbic system
  c. ​brainstem
  d. ​hippocampus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. The _________ lobes contain the functions underlying much of our thinking and reasoning abilities.​

  a. ​temporal
  b. ​frontal
  c. ​parietal
  d. ​occipital

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. The ____ gland produces epinephrine in response to stress.​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​thyroid
  c. ​adrenal
  d. ​pituitary

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. The glands located on top of the kidneys are important because they produce hormones that ____.​

  a. ​orchestrate the body’s regulatory functions
  b. ​control the entire HPA axis
  c. ​energize us and prepare for possible threats in the environment
  d. ​allow our cellular functions to relax and rejuvenate

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. The ____ gland plays a role in energy metabolism and growth, and is implicated in certain eating disorders.​

  a. ​hypothalamus
  b. ​thyroid
  c. ​adrenal
  d. ​pituitary

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. The ____ gland oversees the body’s regulatory functions by producing several hormones, including estrogen and testosterone.​

  a. ​pineal
  b. ​pituitary
  c. ​thyroid
  d. ​adrenal

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ____ has been implicated in several psychological disorders, especially those connected to a person’s response to stress and ability to regulate emotions.​

  a. ​The HPA axis
  b. ​BZ-GABA
  c. ​Norepinephrine
  d. ​Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. What is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces overall arousal and levels of anger, hostility, and aggression?​

  a. ​serotonin
  b. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. ​norepinephrine
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. ____ acts like a “switch” in the brain, turning on various circuits associated with certain types of behavior.​

  a. ​Serotonin
  b. ​Benzodiazepine-GABA
  c. ​Norepinephrine
  d. ​Dopamine

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. The neurotransmitter implicated in regulatory problems, such as eating and sleep disorders, is ____.​

  a. ​norepinephrine
  b. ​serotonin
  c. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Emotions serve ____.​

  a. ​as external monitoring systems
  b. ​to provide motivation for action
  c. ​to promote risk-taking behaviors
  d. ​as a cognitive backbone

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. ACTH causes the adrenal glands to release ____.​

  a. ​benzodiazepine-GABA
  b. ​cortisol
  c. ​serotonin
  d. ​dopamine

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. James often appears to be in a bad mood and he is easily frustrated when given challenging tasks. His temperament would be described as ____.​

  a. ​angry and intense
  b. ​negative affect or irritability
  c. ​fearful or inhibited
  d. ​positive affect and approach

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Applied

 

39. ____ serve(s) as a filter for organizing large amounts of new information and avoiding potential harm.​

  a. ​Cognitions
  b. ​Emotions
  c. ​The HPA axis
  d. ​Benzodiazepine-GABA

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ____.​

  a. ​sensitivity
  b. ​reactivity
  c. ​regulation
  d. ​deregulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. _______ relates to how children think about themselves and others, resulting in mental representations of themselves, relationships, and their social world.​

  a. ​Social cognition
  b. ​Observational learning
  c. ​Cognitive mediation
  d. ​Cognitive development

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Individual differences in emotion ____ account for differing responses to a stressful environment.​

  a. ​affectivity
  b. ​sensitivity
  c. ​reactivity
  d. ​regulation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. ____ problems refer to weak or absent control structures, whereas ____ problems indicate that existing control structures operative in a maladaptive way.​

  a. ​Regulation; dysregulation
  b. ​Dysregulation; regulation
  c. ​Reactivity; regulation
  d. ​Regulation; reactivity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Temperament ____.​

  a. ​refers to a child’s unpredictable behavior
  b. ​shapes a child’s approach to the environment and vice versa
  c. ​is not related to personality
  d. ​forms very late in development

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Which phrase describes the “slow-to-warm-up child”, who is cautious in approaching novel or challenging situations?​

  a. ​positive affect and approach
  b. ​fearful or inhibited
  c. ​negative affect or irritability
  d. ​adaptive with negative mood

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ABA involves the examination of ____.​

  a. ​behavior only
  b. ​antecedents and consequences only
  c. ​behavior and consequences only
  d. ​behavior, antecedents, and consequences

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ____ explain the acquisition of problem behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g., homework), and unconditioned stimuli (e.g., parental anger).​

  a. ​Operant models
  b. ​Classical conditioning models
  c. ​Social learning models
  d. ​Social cognition models

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. ____ theorists emphasize attributional biases, modeling, and cognitions in their explanation of abnormal behavior.​

  a. ​Behavior
  b. ​Psychodynamic
  c. ​Social learning
  d. ​Biological

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. ____ models portray the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures.​

  a. ​Environmental
  b. ​Ecological
  c. ​Societal
  d. ​Macroparadigm

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) model includes a consideration of the ____.​

  a. ​child only
  b. ​child and family members
  c. ​family members and society in which the child lives
  d. ​child, family members, and society in which the child lives

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. Attachment theory considers crying (in an infant) to be a behavior that ____.​

  a. ​serves to keep predators away
  b. ​stimulates the immune system
  c. ​irritates others
  d. ​enhances relationships with the caregiver

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Today’s research and thinking accepts the notion that many childhood disorders:​

  a. ​cannot be overcome
  b. ​are treatable with the use of medications
  c. ​receive too much media attention
  d. ​share many clinical features and causes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. The process of attachment typically begins between ____ of age.​

  a. ​0 to 2 months
  b. ​6 to 12 months
  c. ​12 to 18 months
  d. ​18 to 24 months

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. Infants that explore the environment with little affective interaction with the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Infants that are wary of new situations and strangers and who often cannot be comforted by the caregiver are likely to have a(n) ____ attachment pattern.​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Which attachment pattern has been linked to conduct problems and aggressive behavior?​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Which attachment pattern has been linked to phobias and anxiety problems?​

  a. ​secure
  b. ​anxious-avoidant
  c. ​anxious-resistant
  d. ​disorganized

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which term describes a child’s model of relationships in terms of what the child expects from others and how the child relates to others?​

  a. ​internal working model
  b. ​external working model
  c. ​internal attachment model
  d. ​external attachment model

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. _____ theorists argue that a child’s behavior can only be understood in terms of relationships with others.​

  a. ​Cognitive
  b. ​Behavioral
  c. ​Family systems
  d. ​Genetic

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. The _____ view of child development recognizes the importance of balancing the abilities of individuals with the challenges and risks of their environments.​

  a. ​health promotion
  b. ​family systems
  c. ​attachment
  d. ​psychopathological

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Looking Ahead
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Discuss the three major underlying assumptions regarding abnormal child behavior.​

ANSWER:   Our first underlying assumption is that abnormal child behavior is multiply determined. Thus, we have to look beyond the child’s current symptoms and consider developmental pathways and interacting events that, over time, contribute to the expression of a particular disorder. Our second assumption extends the influence of multiple causes by stressing how the child and environment are interdependent—how they influence each other. This concept departs from the tradition of viewing the environment as acting on the child to cause changes in development, and instead argues that children also influence their own environment. In simple terms, the concept of interdependence appreciates how nature and nurture work together and are, in fact, interconnected. Few psychological disorders or impairments suddenly emerge without at least some warning signs or connections to earlier developmental issues. This connection is apparent, for example, in early-onset and persistent conduct disorders, with which parents and other adults often see troublesome behaviors at a young age that continue in some form into adolescence and adulthood.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. Distinguish between continuous and discontinuous patterns of behavior development.​

ANSWER:   Continuity implies that developmental changes are gradual and quantitative (i.e., expressed as amounts that can be measured numerically, such as weight and height changes) and that future behavior patterns can be predicted from earlier patterns. Discontinuity, in contrast, implies that developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative (i.e., expressed as qualities that cannot be measured numerically, such as changes in mood or expression) and that future behavior is poorly predicted by earlier patterns.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. What is meant by using an integrative approach to understanding factors that influence a child’s behavior?​

ANSWER:   Because no single theoretical orientation can explain various behaviors or disorders, we must be familiar with many theories and conceptual models—each contributes important insights into normal and abnormal development.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Theoretical Foundations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. Describe how sensitive periods can impact children’s development. Can developmental change occur outside of these periods?​

ANSWER:   ​Because development is organized, sensitive periods play a meaningful role in any discussion of normal and abnormal behavior. Sensitive periods are windows of time during which environmental influences on development, both good and bad, are enhanced. Sensitive periods can be enhanced opportunities for learning but are not the only opportunities; change can take place at other times.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Developmental Considerations
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

65. How can a baby with a difficult temperament influence and be influenced by the environment?​

ANSWER:   This dimension describes the “difficult child,” who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable, and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations, and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. Discuss how children learn from their emotions and the emotional expression of others.​

ANSWER:   Children have a natural tendency to attend to emotional cues from others, which helps them learn to interpret and regulate their own emotions. They learn, from a very young age, through the emotional expressions of others.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. How permanent are early neuronal connections?​

ANSWER:   This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their children’s early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freud’s similar contention implied that an individual’s core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary, This question has provoked different theories and agonized many parents who are concerned about their children’s early development. For instance, if early brain functions are unlikely to change, this implies that early experiences set the course for lifetime development. Freud’s similar contention implied that an individual’s core personality is formed from an early age, which sets the pace and boundaries for further personality formation. To the contrary,​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68.  Discuss the major functions of four major neurotransmitters in the brain and their implicated role in psychopathology.​

ANSWER:    Benzodiazepine-GABA reduces arousal and moderates emotional responses, such as anger and hostility; it is implicated in anxiety disorder. Dopamine may act as a switch that turns on various brain circuits, allowing other neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions or behavior and is implicated in schizophrenia, mood disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Norepinephrine facilitates or controls emergency reactions and alarm responses, it plays a role in emotional and behavioral regulation, but is not directly implicated with any specific disorder. Serotonin plays a role in information and motor coordination, and is implicated in regulatory problems, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Biological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Discuss the importance of attachment and how it affects a child’s internal working model of relationships.​

ANSWER:   Accordingly, attachment serves an important stress-reduction function. The infant is motivated to maintain a balance between the desire to preserve the familiar and the desire to seek and explore new information. Self-reliance develops when the attachment figure provides a secure base for exploration (Bretherton & Munholland, 2008). Moreover, a child’s internal working model of relationships—what he or she expects from others and how he or she relates to others—emerges from this first crucial relationship and is carried forward into later relationships.​
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

70. Distinguish between emotion reactivity and emotion regulation.​

ANSWER:   ​Emotion reactivity refers to individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience, which provide clues to an individual’s level of distress and sensitivity to the environment. Emotion regulation, on the other hand, involves enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal, which is usually done for a specific purpose or goal.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. Briefly describe the three primary dimensions of temperament.​

ANSWER:   ​Positive affect and approach. This dimension describes the “easy child,” who is generally approachable and adaptive to his or her environment and possesses the ability to regulate basic functions of eating, sleeping, and elimination relatively smoothly. Fearful or inhibited. This dimension describes the “slow-to-warm-up child,” who is cautious in his or her approach to novel or challenging situations. Such children are more variable in self-regulation and adaptability and may show distress or negativity toward some situations. Negative affect or irritability. This dimension describes the “difficult child,” who is predominantly negative or intense in mood, not very adaptable, and arrhythmic. Some children with this temperament show distress when faced with novel or challenging situations, and others are prone to general distress or irritability, including when limitations are placed on them.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. Provide everyday examples of positive and negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.​

ANSWER:   ​An example of positive reinforcement would be a mother giving a child a special treat if the child behaved in the store. Negative reinforcement would occur when you get in your car and buckle your seatbelt in order to stop the beeping noise. If I got sick on a certain food and was then conditioned to avoid it because it caused nausea, extinction would occur when I no longer pair the sickness with the food and can eat it again. Positive punishment is an active process—doing something to someone like assigning extra chores.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

73. Explain why an integrative approach is important in abnormal psychology.​

ANSWER:   ​Each model is restricted in its ability to explain abnormal behavior to the extent that it fails to incorporate important components of other models. Fortunately, such disciplinary boundaries are gradually diminishing as different perspectives take into account important variables derived from other models. Over time, major theories of abnormal child psychology have become compatible with one another. Rather than offering contradictory views, each theory contributes one or more pieces of the puzzle of atypical development. As all the available pieces are assembled, the picture of a particular child or adolescent disorder becomes more and more distinct.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Psychological Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. Discuss the main principles of a developmental psychopathology perspective.​

ANSWER:   ​Developmental psychopathology is an approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood, adolescence, and beyond in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks. This approach provides a useful framework for organizing the study of abnormal child psychology around milestones and sequences in physical, cognitive, social–emotional, and educational development. It also uses abnormal development to inform normal development, and vice versa (Cicchetti, 2006; Hinshaw, 2013). Simply stated, developmental psychopathology emphasizes the role of developmental processes, the importance of context, and the influence of multiple and interacting events in shaping adaptive and maladaptive development. We adopt this perspective as an organizing framework to describe the dynamic, multidimensional process leading to normal or abnormal outcomes in development.

 

75. ​Why do family systems theorists stress the importance of looking at the whole family as opposed to one individual’s difficulties?

ANSWER:   ​This view is in line with our earlier discussion of underlying assumptions about children’s abnormal development—relationships, not individual children or teens, are often the crucial focus.
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Family, Social, and Cultural Perspectives
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

1. The relationship between assessment and intervention is best viewed as ____.​

  a. ​separate and unrelated
  b. ​related and ongoing
  c. ​related but separate
  d. ​related but time-limited

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. The detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity is referred to as a(n) ____ case formulation.​

  a. ​nomothetic
  b. ​idiographic
  c. ​diagnostic
  d. ​prognostic

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. A(n) ____ case formulation emphasizes general inferences that apply to broad groups of individuals.​

  a. ​nomothetic
  b. ​idiographic
  c. ​diagnostic
  d. ​prognostic

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Which factor has the least bearing on a clinician’s approach to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment?​

  a. ​age
  b. ​gender
  c. ​culture
  d. ​popularity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. A child’s ____ has the most implications for judgments about deviancy and for selecting appropriate assessment and treatment methods.​

  a. ​peer group
  b. ​family history
  c. ​age
  d. ​academic achievement

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. Jessica, age 15, gossips, verbally insults peers, and often ostracizes others. Jessica is displaying ____.​

  a. ​depressive symptoms
  b. ​relational aggression
  c. ​anxiety
  d. ​ADHD symptoms

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

7. Which psychological condition is more common among females than males?​

  a. ​intellectual disability
  b. ​autistic disorder
  c. ​conduct disorder
  d. ​adolescent depression

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. Which condition is equally common among males and females?​

  a. ​childhood depression
  b. ​eating disorders
  c. ​enuresis
  d. ​attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. The over-representation of boys with psychological disorders likely reflects ____.​

  a. ​functional deficits in the male brain
  b. ​media influence
  c. ​referral biases
  d. ​different socialization practices for males and females

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. When working with children and families, cultural information is most needed to ____.​

  a. ​establish a relationship with the child and family
  b. ​keep traditional practice in place
  c. ​report statistics for census
  d. ​determine whether or not to use medication

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. What variables can impact scores on measures of psychopathology?​

  a. ​SES and acculturation
  b. ​educational level
  c. ​previous attendance in therapy
  d. ​ability to remain focused

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Culturally competent mental health services include ____.​

  a. ​matching families with clinicians who have a Master’s degree
  b. ​customizing treatment to the family’s values and customs
  c. ​relying on knowledge gained through personal experience with that particular culture
  d. ​basing treatment on what has been reported about a particular culture

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. What does it mean if a test is normed on a group that is representative of the population?​

  a. ​The majority culture was taken into consideration.
  b. ​The test is as free from cultural bias as possible.
  c. ​Age and ethnicity were considered but not biological sex.
  d. ​The test yields higher rates of psychopathology for minorities.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. Research demonstrates that, with respect to aggression, girls ____.​

  a. ​tend not to engage in aggressive acts
  b. ​are more distressed by aggressive acts
  c. ​engage in more relational forms of aggression
  d. ​are more aggressive than boys

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Generalizations regarding cultural practices frequently fail to capture ____ differences that exist within and across ethnic groups.​

  a. ​universal
  b. ​biological
  c. ​personality
  d. ​SES

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Generally, isolated symptoms of behavioral and emotional problems ____.​

  a. ​are highly predictive of children’s overall adjustment
  b. ​show little relation to children’s overall adjustment
  c. ​are moderately related to children’s overall adjustment
  d. ​are completely useless in predicting children’s overall adjustment

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. A ____ summarizes the child’s unique behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that together make up the features of a given psychological disorder.​

  a. ​nomothetic description
  b. ​symptomatic description
  c. ​diagnostic description
  d. ​clinical description

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Which element(s) are typically included in a clinical description?​

  a. ​taxonomic diagnosis
  b. ​assessment of prior history
  c. ​treatment and referral plan
  d. ​intensity, frequency, and severity of the problem

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. The formal assignment of a clinical case to a DSM-5 classification category is referred to as a(n) ____.​

  a. ​empirical diagnosis
  b. ​taxonomic diagnosis
  c. ​proper diagnosis
  d. ​psychological diagnosis

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. Which pairing is least common to co-morbid disorders?​

  a. ​enuresis and schizophrenia
  b. ​conduct disorder and ADHD
  c. ​ASD and intellectual disability
  d. ​depression and anxiety

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. ____ means generating predictions concerning future behavior under specified conditions.​

  a. ​Assessment
  b. ​Diagnosis
  c. ​Outcome generation
  d. ​Prognosis

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. The primary purpose of assessment is to ____.​

  a. ​find correlating causes for the problem
  b. ​plan and evaluate treatment
  c. ​determine who is responsible for the problem
  d. ​treat individual symptoms

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. The assessment of childhood problems typically makes use of a(n) ____ approach.​

  a. ​multi-method
  b. ​idiographic
  c. ​divergent
  d. ​single theoretical

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. The most universally used assessment procedure with parents and children is ____.​

  a. ​personality testing
  b. ​behavioral observation
  c. ​the clinical interview
  d. ​intelligence testing

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. Which factor would typically be addressed in the developmental/family history component of the initial interview?​

  a. ​child’s birth weight
  b. ​age at which the child began eating solid foods
  c. ​mental history of parents and siblings
  d. ​parent responsibilities at problem onset

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. Unstructured interviews tend to be ____ than semi-structured interviews.​

  a. ​more consistent
  b. ​less reliable and more flexible
  c. ​more reliable and less flexible
  d. ​less biased

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. What are the most commonly used assessment methods?​

  a. ​scales and tests
  b. ​observations
  c. ​gathering of family histories
  d. ​interviews with children

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​Semi-structured interviews tend to be ____ than unstructured interviews.

  a. ​less consistent
  b. ​more spontaneous
  c. ​less reliable
  d. ​more consistent and less spontaneous

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. Which aspect would generally be assessed by behavioral assessment methods?​

  a. ​descriptions of the problem
  b. ​anger in school
  c. ​meaning of pictures drawn by child
  d. ​inkblot interpretations

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. The “C” in the “ABCs of behavioral assessment” stands for ____.​

  a. ​consequences
  b. ​causes
  c. ​child
  d. ​correction

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​Gathering information about a child’s behavior for analysis involves ____.

  a. ​making inferences about the child’s behavior
  b. ​observing the child in real-life settings
  c. ​assessing personality
  d. ​having the child write a story

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. An advantage of behavior checklists over interviews is that checklists allow a clinician to ____ while interviews typically do not.​

  a. ​establish rapport
  b. ​assess mental status
  c. ​compare results to a reference sample
  d. ​obtain a measure of mood

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. A leading checklist for assessing behavioral problems in children and adolescents is the ____.​

  a. ​Wechsler Scales for Children
  b. ​Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
  c. ​Child Behavior Checklist
  d. ​Rorschach Inkblot Test

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. A clearly defined group used to compare an individual child’s test score against is called a:​

  a. ​reference group
  b. ​comparative group
  c. ​standard group
  d. ​norm group

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. The most commonly used intelligence scale today is the ____.​

  a. ​Stanford-Binet 5 (SB5)
  b. ​Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)
  c. ​Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC-II)
  d. ​Rorschach Inkblot Test

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) provides a measure of:​

  a. ​verbal comprehension and working memory
  b. ​personality profile
  c. ​psychological abnormality
  d. ​emotional stability

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. The Rorschach Test is an example of a(n) ____ test.​

  a. ​intelligence
  b. ​achievement
  c. ​projective
  d. ​objective

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. Projective tests ____ with children.​

  a. ​should not be used
  b. ​are one of the most commonly used assessment methods
  c. ​are one of the least commonly used assessment methods
  d. ​have not been designed specifically for use

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. Neuropsychological assessments are primarily used to ____.​

  a. ​identify underlying brain lesions
  b. ​identify genetic abnormalities
  c. ​make inferences about central nervous system dysfunction
  d. ​diagnose mental deficits

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Functions assessed in neuropsychological tests are most likely to include ____.​

  a. ​social
  b. ​perceptual
  c. ​physical
  d. ​personality

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Categorical classification systems are based primarily on ____.​

  a. ​underlying etiologic bases of the disorders classified
  b. ​normative data
  c. ​informed clinical consensus
  d. ​multivariate statistical methods

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. The ____ classification approach assumes that all children possess the same traits to varying degrees.​

  a. ​trait
  b. ​categorical
  c. ​feature
  d. ​dimensional

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. Which symptom would be characteristic of the anxious/depressed dimension of child psychopathology?​

  a. ​feels worthless
  b. ​refuses to talk
  c. ​gets teased
  d. ​strange ideas

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. Which behavior would be characteristic of someone with issues on the internalizing behavior dimension?​

  a. ​hitting another child in anger
  b. ​refusing to sit in a seat at school
  c. ​feeling sad all of the time
  d. ​intentionally hurting another child’s feelings

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

45. How would a clinician diagnosing a child who might have ADHD best approach the diagnosis?​

  a. ​use the categorical model to determine severity of symptoms
  b. ​use the dimensional model to determine context
  c. ​draw from intelligence tests to determine category and dimension
  d. ​combine category with measure of severity through dimension

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

46. Which activity is particularly compatible with the dimensional approach?​

  a. ​communicating with other clinicians
  b. ​researching the degree of association between two variables
  c. ​creating a treatment plan based on all of the child behaviors
  d. ​taking the entire package of child behaviors into account when diagnosing

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. Interventions are ____.​

  a. ​unique to the field of psychology
  b. ​designed to maintain the status quo
  c. ​problem-solving strategies
  d. ​typically rejected by children and families

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. Which of the following is a criticism of the DSM-5?​

  a. ​It fails to capture the simplicity of influences on child psychopathology.
  b. ​It gives relatively less attention to disorders of infancy and childhood than to those of adulthood.
  c. ​It lacks sufficient emphasis on situational and contextual factors.
  d. ​It emphasizes underlying causes rather than symptoms.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Best practice guidelines take into consideration ____.​

  a. ​what the clinician feels is in the best interest of the child and family
  b. ​expert and evidence-based approaches
  c. ​what the family feels is in the best interest of the child
  d. ​the family’s history of mental illness

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Intervention focuses on ____.​

  a. ​noncompliance
  b. ​assimilation
  c. ​motivation
  d. ​treatment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. ____ refers to efforts to increase adherence with treatment over time to prevent reoccurrence.​

  a. ​Maintenance
  b. ​Prevention
  c. ​Treatment
  d. ​Intervention

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. What is a common goal of treatment?​

  a. ​improved outcomes in intelligence
  b. ​measurable outcomes in family functioning
  c. ​reduced impact of prior undesirable outcomes
  d. ​increased adherence to treatment over time

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   D
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Easy

 

53. Minimum ethical standards for practice include:​

  a. ​selecting procedures that are in the best interest of the parent
  b. ​making sure involuntary client participation occurs
  c. ​protecting the confidentiality of the therapeutic relationship
  d. ​ensuring parent participation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. More than 70% of practicing clinicians identify their therapeutic approach as ____.​

  a. ​behavioral
  b. ​cognitive
  c. ​humanistic
  d. ​eclectic

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. ____ approaches to treatment view child psychopathology as the result of faulty thought patterns and faulty learning and environmental  experiences.​

  a. ​Behavioral
  b. ​Cognitive
  c. ​Cognitive-behavioral
  d. ​Client-centered

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. ____ approaches to treatment view child psychopathology as the result of social or environmental circumstances that are imposed on the child and interfere with his or her capacity for personal growth and adaptive functioning.​

  a. ​Psychodynamic
  b. ​Client-centered
  c. ​Cognitive-behavioral
  d. ​Family

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Which statement is true of the meta-analytic findings of research therapy with children?​

  a. ​Changes achieved by children receiving treatment are the same as those for children not receiving treatment.
  b. ​Treatment effects are smaller for problems that are specifically targeted than they are for nonspecific areas of functioning.
  c. ​Treatments have been shown to be more effective for internalizing that for externalizing disorders.
  d. ​Treatments have been shown to be effective for children with a wide range of problems.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which medication would best be used for a child suffering from a severe anxiety disorder?​

  a. ​Concerta
  b. ​Elavil
  c. ​Xanax
  d. ​Zyprexa

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Which medication would best be used for a child diagnosed with bipolar disorder?​

  a. ​Depakote
  b. ​Elavil
  c. ​Ritalin
  d. ​Zyprexa

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. Which medication would best be used for a child suffering from ADHD?​

  a. ​Concerta
  b. ​Elavil
  c. ​Xanax
  d. ​Zyprexa

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Distinguish between idiographic and nomothetic case formulations, and indicate when each of these formulations is useful.​

ANSWER:   The focus of clinical assessment is to obtain a detailed understanding of the individual child or family as a unique entity (e.g., Felicia and her family), referred to as “idiographic case formulation.” This is in contrast to a nomothetic formulation, which emphasizes broad general inferences that apply to large groups of individuals (e.g., children with a depressive disorder).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. What is relational aggression? Are males or females more likely to exhibit this behavior? Provide two examples of relational aggression.​

ANSWER:   Studies into social aggression in girls have found that when angry, girls show aggression indirectly through verbal insults, gossip, ostracism, getting even, or third party retaliation—referred to as “relational aggression.”​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

63. What are cultural syndromes? Why are they important for clinicians to be aware of in relation to understanding symptoms in children? Provide one example of a cultural syndrome and the symptoms that the clinician may see exhibited by the child.​

ANSWER:   Cultural syndromes refer to a pattern of co-occurring, relatively invariant symptoms associated with a particular cultural group, community, or context (APA, 2013). For example, mal de ojo or the “evil eye” is a concept that is widespread throughout Mediterranean cultures and Latino communities throughout the world. A malady to which children are especially vulnerable and believed to be caused by a hateful look or glance from a malicious person, the evil eye can cause fitful sleep, crying without apparent cause, diarrhea, vomiting, and fever in children. Cultural syndromes rarely fit neatly into one Western diagnostic category (Alarcón, 2009). In addition, although the cross-cultural validity of Western diagnostic criteria varies widely depending on the disorder, data regarding their validity across cultures for many childhood disorders is lacking (Canino & Alegria, 2008). Therefore, it is important that clinicians assess the extent to which a child’s cultural background and context affect the expression of both individual symptoms and clinical disorders.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

64. Describe three ways that a therapist can strive to provide culturally competent mental health services.​

ANSWER:   Culturally competent children’s mental health services may be provided in a number of ways. For example, in therapy for Hispanic children and adolescents, cultural competence may be achieved by matching children and families with clinicians of the same ethnicity; by customizing the treatment to Hispanic culturalvalues, beliefs, and customs (e.g., familism, spiritualism, and respeto); or by incorporating ethnic and cultural narratives and role play into therapy.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. What considerations must be taken into account when making judgments about abnormality?​

ANSWER:   Usually, the age inappropriateness, severity, and pattern of symptoms, rather than individual symptoms, define childhood disorders. Also, the extent to which symptoms result in impairment in the child’s functioning is a key consideration.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Clinical Issues
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. Under what circumstances would a clinician choose to administer a semi-structured versus an unstructured interview? What are the benefits and/or drawbacks of each?​

ANSWER:   ​Most interviews with children and parents are unstructured. Clinicians use their preferred interview style and format, as well as their knowledge of the disorder, to pursue various questions in an informal and flexible manner. Unstructured clinical interviews provide a rich source of clinical hypotheses. However, their lack of standardization may result in low reliability and selective or biased gathering of information. To address this problem, clinicians sometimes use semi-structured interviews that include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is conducting the interview. The format of the interview usually ensures that the most important aspects of a particular disorder are covered. An appealing feature of semi-structured interviews, especially for older children and youths, is that they can be administered by computer, something many children find entertaining and often less threatening at first than a face-to-face interview. The semi-structured format also permits the clinician to follow up on issues of importance that may emerge during the interview. For younger children, a semi-structured interactive interview using hand puppets may provide useful information about the child’s emotional, behavioral, and peer problems (Ringoot et al., 2013). The consistency and coverage of semi-structured interviews may be offset by a loss of spontaneity between the child and the clinician, especially if the interview is conducted too rigidly.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. What are some of the areas that are typically covered by developmental and family history questionnaire/interview?​

ANSWER:   The child’s birth and related events, such as pregnancy and birth complications or the mother’s use of drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes during pregnancy The child’s developmental milestones, such as age at which walking, use of language, bladder and bowel control, and self-help skills started The child’s medical history, including injuries, accidents, operations, illnesses, and prescribed medications Family characteristics and family history, including the age, occupation, cultural background, and marital status of family members and the medical, educational, and mental health history of parents and siblings The child’s interpersonal skills, including relations with adults and other children, and play and social activities The child’s educational history, including schools attended, academic performance, attitudes toward school, relations with teachers and peers, and special services The adolescent’s work history and relationships, including relationships with others of the same sex and the opposite sex A description of the presenting problem, including a detailed description of the problem and surrounding events, and how parents have attempted to deal with the problem in the past The parents’ expectations for assessment and treatment of their child and themselves​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. Explain the “ABCs of assessment” and give examples of each.​

ANSWER:   Examples will vary.

A: Antecedents, or the events that immediately precede a behavior

B: Behavior(s) of interest

C: Consequences, or the events that follow a behavior​

DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

69. What steps have researchers taken to ensure that psychological tests are free from bias?​

ANSWER:   For example, test developers now select normative groups that are representative of the population, and test items that are as free of cultural bias as possible. In addition, several professional organizations have joined together to develop a Code of Fair Testing Practices.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

70. Why is it important to use tests?​

ANSWER:   A test is a task or set of tasks given under standard conditions with the purpose of assessing some aspect of the child’s knowledge, skill, or personality. Most tests are standardized on a clearly defined reference group—for example, children of a certain age, sex, or SES, referred to as a “norm group.” An individual child’s scores can then be compared with the scores of a comparable group of children to determine the extent to which that child’s scores deviate from the norm.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. Name and describe four psychological tests commonly used when assessing children.​

ANSWER:   Developmental tests are used to assess infants and young children, and are generally carried out for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early development. Evaluating a child’s intellectual and educational functioning is a key ingredient in clinical assessments for a wide range of childhood disorders. Projective tests present the child with ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or pictures of people, and the child is asked to describe what she or he sees. Personality is usually considered an enduring trait or pattern of traits that characterize the individual and determine how he or she interacts with the environment (Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000). In the clinical context, neuropsychological assessment attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior known to depend on an intact central nervous system.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Assessing Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. Distinguish between categorical and dimensional classification approaches.​

ANSWER:   Categorical classification systems such as DSM-5 are based primarily on informed professional consensus, an approach that has dominated and continues to dominate the field of child (and adult) psychopathology. Dimensional classification approaches assume that many independent dimensions or traits of behavior exist, and that all children possess them to varying degrees.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

73. What conclusions have been made regarding the effectiveness of treatments with children?​

ANSWER:   First, although research generally shows that most treatments are effective in reducing symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and oppositional behavior, fewer than 20% of treatments demonstrate evidence that they reduce impairment in life functioning.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment and Prevention
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. What are some criticisms of the DSM-5?​

ANSWER:   The DSM-5 has been criticized for failing to capture the complexity of child psychopathology, for giving less attention to disorders of infancy and childhood than to those of adulthood, for its relative lack of emphasis on situational and contextual factors, and for its emphasis on symptoms rather than on underlying etiology.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. What are the pros and cons of diagnostic labels?​

ANSWER:   Although diagnostic labels can facilitate communication among professionals, concerns have been raised about the negative effects and stigmatization associated with the assignment of labels to children.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Classification and Diagnosis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

 

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